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CONCRETE

CONCRETE COMPONENTS
CONCRETE BASICS
• 6% Air
MATERIALS FOR CONCRETE • 11% Cement
• 41% Gravel or Crushed Stone
1. Water • 26% Sand
2. Cement • 16% Water
3. Aggregates
4. Admixtures TYPES OF PROPORTIONING

ADVANTAGES OF USING CONCRETE 1. Traditional Mix


2. Modern Mix
1. Abundant supply
2. When properly prepared, it acquires the AGGREGATES
properties of stone
3. Can be molded into any shape
CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO SOURCE
4. High resistance to fire and penetration to water
5. Little maintenance
1. Natural – from rivers or mountains
2. Artificial – from factories or oven-dried
DISADVANTAGES
RECYCLED AGGREGATES
1. Very brittle
2. Continued loading develops creeps
Eliminates the need for disposal by using readily available
concrete as an aggregate source for new concrete.
FORMS OF CONCRETE

1. Ready-mixed concrete RECYCLED AGGREGATES PROCESSING


2. Precast concrete
3. Concrete masonry 1. Breaking
2. Removing
CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO 3. Crushing
4. Removing embedded steel and other items
REINFORCEMENT

1. Plain Concrete
CLASSIFICATION BASED ON DENSITY
2. Ordinary Reinforced Concrete
1. Lightweight (880-1120 kg/m3)
3. Pre-Stressed
Usually used as an additive
2. Normal Weight (1520-1680 kg/m3)
CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO BEHAVIOUR OF
Used for normal buildings or
APPLIED LOAD
establishments
3. Heavy Weight (2400-6400 kg/m3)
1. Flexible Concrete
Used for building nuclear facilities
2. Rigid Concrete
CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO SIZE
ESSENTIAL PROPERTIES
1. Boulders – for barriers and protection
1. Strength
2. Cobbles – for housing
2. Economy
3. Coarse Aggregates – for construction
3. Workability
4. Fine Aggregates – gravel and sand
4. Durability
5. Mineral Filler
CLASSIFICATION BY ASTM C33 hydraulic cement—one that hardens with the
addition of water
1. Fine Aggregates • He named it “Portland Cement” because it
2. Coarse Aggregates resembled a stone quarried on the Isle of Portland
off the British coast.
CHARACTERS CONSIDERED WHEN SELECTING
AGGREGATE FOR CONCRETE MANUFACTURING PROCESS

1. Clean – pure aggregates or no other materials 1. Obtaining raw materials. It consists of


found combinations of limestone, shells or chalk, and
2. Hard, tough, and durable shale, clay, sand, or iron ore; mined from a quarry
3. Strong particles near the plant.
4. Of proper gradation – about the same sizes 2. At the quarry, the raw materials are reduced by
5. Free of absorbed chemicals primary and secondary crushers, Stone is first
6. Nonreactive with cement reduced to 5-inch size then to ¾”.
3. Once the raw materials arrive at the cement plant,
the materials are proportioned to create a cement
REACTIVE AGGREGATES
with a specific chemical composition.
Those which contain certain forms of silica which combine 4. Two different methods, dry and wet are used to
manufacture Portland cement.
with alkali in the cement to cause differential expansions
in concrete. a. Dry Process – dry raw materials are
proportioned, ground to a powder,
blended together, and fed to a kiln in a dry
GRADING
state.
b. Wet Process – a slurry is formed by adding
Determination of particle size distribution of aggregates.
water to the properly proportioned
1. Normally Graded – for construction materials.
2. Dense Graded – little voids 5. The grinding and blending operations are then
3. Open Graded – many voids completed with the materials in slurry form.
4. Gap Graded – drastic voids 6. After blending, the mixture of raw materials is fed
into the upper end of a tilted rotating, cylindrical
CEMENT kiln.
7. The mixture passes through the kiln at a rate
Cement is a binder, a substance used in construction that controlled by the slope and rotational speed of the
sets and hardens and can bind other materials together. kiln.
8. Burning fuel consisting of powdered coal or natural
Purchasing Cement: gas is forced into the lower end of the kiln.
• Cement in bag 9. Clinker is discharged red-hot from the lower end
• Cement in bulk of the kiln and transferred to various types of
coolers to lower the clinker to handling
PORTLAND CEMENT temperatures.
10. Cooled clinker is combined with gypsum and
Most common type of cement in general used around the ground into a fine gray powder.
world, used as a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar, 11. The clinker is ground so fine that nearly all of it
stucco, and most non-special grout. passes through a no. 200 mesh. This fine gray
powder is Portland Cement.
JOSEPH ASPDIN
A kiln is also an oven.
• A British stone mason, obtained a patent for
cement he produced from his kitchen
• The inventor heated a mixture of finely ground
limestone and clay in his kitchen stove and ground
the mixture into a powder which created a
• Checking
• Adjustments
TESTING OF CEMENT
Mix design should ensure that concrete:

PHYSICAL TESTS • Complies with the specifications of structural


strength laid down, which is usually stated in
1. Fineness Test – the degree of fineness of cement terms of compressive strength of standard test
is the measure of the mean size of the grains in it. specimens
a. Sieve Method – 100g of cement sample is • Complies with the durability requirements to
taken and air-set slumps. The sample is resist the environment in which the structure will
placed on a 90-micron sieve and serve its functional life
continuously sieved for 15 minutes. • Be capable of being mixed, transported,
Residue should not exceed the limit of 10%. compacted as efficiently as possible without
b. Air Permeability Method – the fineness of undue labor
cement is represented by specific surface, • As economical as possible
i.e. total surface area in cm2 per gram or
m2 per kilogram of cement and is Concrete mix design is the art of obtaining a concrete of
measured by Lea and Nurse apparatus or the required properties, at the lowest cost, by a suitable
by Wagner turbidimeter. choice and proportions of available materials.
c. Wagner Tubidimeter – developed by L.A.
Wagner to estimate the surface area of PRINCIPLES OF MIX DESIGN
one gram of cement.
2. Consistency Test – test to estimate the quantity of 1. The mix must be workable so that it can be placed
mixing water to form a paste of normal and finished without undue labor
consistency defined as that percentage water 2. Since the cement is the costliest ingredient in the
requirement of the cement paste, the viscosity of mix, the proportion used should be as small as is
which will be such that the Vicat’s plunger consistent with the attainment of desired
penetrates up to a point of 5 to 7mm from the properties
bottom of the Vicat Mould.
3. Soundness Test – it is essential that the cement FACTORS IN THE SELECTION OF MIX
concrete does not undergo large change in volume PROPORTION
after setting. This is ensured by limiting the
quantities of free lime and magnets which slake 1. Strength Requirement – based on the assumption
slowly causing change in volume of cement. of a certain minimum strength of concrete
4. Determination of Strength selection of concrete mix proportion is highly
a. Compressive Strength Test – basic data governed by this minimum strength requirement
required for mix design. The quality and 2. Choice of Workability – fresh concrete when being
quantity of concrete can be controlled and handled and placed depends on the following: size
the degree of adulteration can be checked. of section, amount and spacing of reinforcement
b. Briquette Method – test for tensile and method of compaction
strength. The tensile strength of cement 3. Maximum size of aggregates/grading and type of
affords quicker indications of defects in aggregates
the cement than any other test. ü Governed by the width of reinforced
5. Specific Gravity Test concrete section, spacing of rebars, and
6. Chemical Tests availability of cost of materials
ü Grading (particle size distribution),
CONCRETE MIX DESIGN influences workability, cement and water-
cement ration
Intelligent guess of optimum combination on previous ü Surface texture, shape, and strength of
experience or relationships previously derived. aggregates affect the desired workability
and strength of concrete
• Preliminary computation
• Trial mix
ü Aggregate cement ratio affects the
cohesiveness, workability and strength of
concrete
4. Properties of constituent materials
a. Specific gravity of cement
b. Properties of aggregate – sieve analysis,
specific gravity, absorption, moisture
content of both fine and coarse aggregates
c. Trial Batch Series – successive batch trials
done with appropriate adjustments to
meet the desired specifications.

SOURCES OF MIXING WATER

1. Batch Water – discharged into the mixer from


municipal water supply
2. Ice
3. Water added by truck operator
4. Free moisture on aggregates
5. Water Contained in admixtures
6. Recycled water – water resulting from concrete
production

CONCRETE MIX DESIGN

1. Choose Slump

Slump, mm
Type of structure
MAX MIN
Foundations, footings, & other
75 25
underground structures
Beams, RC walls, Columns 100 25
Pavement & Slabs 75 25

2. Choose the maximum aggregate size

< 1/5 narrower dimension between forms


Max < 1/3 depth of slab
< ¾ clear spacing between reinforcements

3. Determine the amount of water and air (table 3)


4. Determine the water-cement ratio (table 4)
5. Calculate the cement content
𝑊𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟
𝑊𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝐶𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 =
𝑊/𝐶 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜
6. Choose the amount of aggregates
7. Adjust the moisture content in the coarse and fine
aggregates
8. Trial mix
Table 3. Approximate Mixing Water and Air Content Requirements for Different Slumps and Maximum Aggregate Sizes
(adapted from ACI, 2000[1])

Mixing Water Quantity in kg/m3 (lb/yd3) for the listed Nominal Maximum Aggregate Size
Slump 9.5 mm 12.5 mm 19 mm 25 mm 37.5 mm 50 mm 75 mm 100 mm
(0.375 in) (0.5 in) (0.75 in) (1 in) (1.5 in) (2 in) (3 in) (4 in)
Non-Air Entrained PCC
25-50 207 199 190 179 166 154 130 113
(1-2) (350) (335) (315) (300) (275) (260) (220) (190)
75-100 228 216 205 193 181 169 145 124
(3-4) (385) (365) (340) (325) (300) (285) (245) (210)
150-175 243 228 216 202 190 178 160

(6-7) (410) (385) (360) (340) (315) (300) (270)
Typical entrapped
3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0.3 0.2
air (Percent)
Air-Entrained PCC
25-50 181 175 168 160 148 142 122 107
(1-2) (305) (295) (280) (270) (250) (240) (205) (180)
75-100 202 193 184 175 165 157 133 119
(3-4) (340) (325) (305) (295) (275) (265) (225) (200)
150-175 216 205 197 184 174 166 154

(6-7) (365) (345) (325) (310) (290) (280) (260)
Recommended Air Content (Percent)
Mild Exposure 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0
Moderate Exposure 6.0 5.5 5.0 4.5 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0
Severe Exposure 7.5 7.0 6.0 6.0 5.5 5.0 4.5 4.0

Table 4. Water-Cement Ratio and Compressive Strength Relationship (after ACI, 2000[1])

Water-Cement ratio by
28-Day Compressive Strength in MPa (Psi) weight
Non-Air-Entrained Air-Entrained
41.4 (6000) 0.41 –
34.5 (5000) 0.48 0.40
27.6 (4000) 0.57 0.48
20.7 (3000) 0.68 0.59
13.8 (2000) 0.82 0.74

Table 5. Volume of Coarse Aggregate per Unit Volume of PCC for Different Fine Aggregate Fineness Moduli for Pavement
PCC (after ACI, 2000[1])

Fine Aggregate Fineness Modulus


Nominal Maximum Aggregate Size
2.40 2.60 2.80 3.00
9.5 mm (0.375 inches) 0.50 0.48 0.46 0.44
12.5 mm (0.500 inches) 0.59 0.57 0.55 0.53
19.0 mm (0.750 inches) 0.66 0.64 0.62 0.60
25.0 mm (1.000 inches) 0.71 0.69 0.67 0.65
37.5 mm (1.500 inches) 0.75 0.73 0.71 0.69
50.0 mm (2.000 inches) 0.78 0.76 0.74 0.72
Notes:
1) These values can be increased by up to about 10 percent for pavement applications.
2) Coarse aggregate volumes are based on oven-dry-rodded weights obtained in accordance with ASTM C29.