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EXAM IN: MOM 140 MECHANICAL VIBRATION
DATE: 14.05.2009
DURATION: 4 HOURS
USE OF STANDARD CALCULATOR IS PERMISSABLE
DURING EXAM
THE EXAM CONSISTS OF 4 PAGES PROBLEM TEXT
AND 6 PAGES OF FORMULAS
SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEMS MAY BE PRESENTED IN
ENGLISH OR NORWEGIAN
_______________________________________________________
Problem 1
M
k
1 k
1
M
k
2
k
2
M
k
1
k
1
b/2
b/2
EI
(a) (b) (c)
Fig. 1
a) Fig 1a and b show two proposed layout for a massspring system moving without friction
in vertical guides. Two different layouts are proposed. Find the equivalent stiffness for the
two systems. Determine the natural frequency of the system in Fig. 1a in terms of M and
k
1
.
b) A slightly modified system is shown in Fig. 1 c. The upper spring is anchored in a beam
of length b and with stiffness property EI. Determine the equivalent stiffness of this
system.
2
Problem 2
m
h
x(t)
Tether
Tension leg platform
Sea surface
(a) (b)
Fig 2
a) Fig. 2a shows a simple pendulum of length, h, and with a concentrated mass, m. The mass
of the pendulum arm is negligible. Assume that the motions are small and show that the
equation of motion for free vibration in terms of the rotation of the pendulum, u, or the
the horizontal displacement of the concentrated mass, x (see Fig. 2a), is given by:
0 = + u u
h
g
or 0 = + x
h
g
x
On a day with no wind an experiment with a pendulum with h = 20m and m = 10 kg is
made from a fjord crossing bridge. After giving the mass an initial disturbance, the
pendulum moves with a steady period of 8.9732s. Estimate the acceleration of gravity, g,
for this site.
b) Fig 2b shows a tension leg platform in neutral position. The platform has in total 16
tethers, i.e. each tether line in the figure represents 8 tethers. For a tension leg platform,
the buoyancy is much larger than the weight of the platform. The difference between
buoyancy and weight defines the pretension in the tethers. The total pretension (sum of
pretension of all 16 tethers) is 160 MN. The axial stiffness of each tether is
m
N
7
10 25 . 1 · .
In a model test experiment it is found that the natural period (full scale) in heave (vertical
vibration) of the platform is 3s. The length of the tethers is 350m.
Determine the total mass (platform mass plus added mass) involved in the vibration from
the model test result. Neglect the stiffness effect of the waterline area.
Assume that the mass involved in horizontal motion is the same as for the vertical motion
and calculate the natural period for the surge motion (horizontal motion). Assume small
motions.
3
Problem 3
a) In a model test with a floating platform, the damping of the horizontal motion is estimated
by a decay test. The platform is pushed to an initial position x
0
. The force is removed and
the model starts a vibrating motion from an initial speed equal to zero. Denote the next
positive amplitude, x
1
, and estimate the critical damping ratio in terms of x
0
and x
1
.
b) Can you briefly explain what we mean by Coulomb damping? Illustrate by a simple
sketch how a system with Coulomb damping will move after being given an initial
displacement. Use the sketch for pointing out some typical features of Coulomb damping.
c) A mass  spring system is defined by the mass equal to 10 kg and the spring stiffness
equal to 628N/m. The mass is hit by an impulse like load. The time history of the load is
shown in Fig. 3. The maximum load F
0
is 12.56N and the duration of the impulse is 1s.
Determine the maximum displacement.
t (s)
F(t)
F
0
0.5 1
Fig. 3
4
Problem 4
ì
Y
x
v
A car is driving with speed v on a rough road. The shape of the road, y(x), is modelled as a
harmonic function of x, i.e.

.

\

= x Y x y
ì
t 2
sin ) ( . The distance between the front and aft wheels is
small compared to ì and we will here consider the motion to be a pure vertical translation which
can be denoted by z(t). We will therefore model the car as a single degree of freedom system.
The speed of the car is 80km/h, the mass of the car of is 1000kg, ì = 40m, the damping system is
partly defect and the damping ratio is merely 0.25, Y is 0.25m. The stiffness of the system is
50kN/m.
a) The equivalent effect of the sinusoidal rough road is that the vertical motion of the car is
driven by base motion. The base motion is on the form: ( ) t y t y e sin ) (
0
= .
Determine
0
y and e .
b) Draw a figure where the car – road system is modelled as singledegreeoffreedom
system with mass m, stiffness coefficient, k, damping coefficient, c, and forced by the
base motion, y(t). Show that the equation of motion is given on the form:
( ) u e + = + + t F kz z c z m sin
0
, where ( )
2 2
0
c k F e + = and 
.

\

=
k
c e
u arctan
c) Calculate the steady state amplitude of the vertical motion.
d) Determine the speed that will correspond to maximum dynamic amplification for the case
with 25 . 0 = c .
5
FORMULAS
 Complex numbers:

.

\

= + = ÷ = = + =
x
y
y x R i y i x z
i
arctan , , 1 ; Re
2 2
u
u
Eulers formula: u u
u
sin cos i e
i
+ =
 Roots of a second order equation, ax
2
+ bx + c = 0:
a
ac b b
x
2
4
2
2 , 1
÷ ± ÷
=
 Trigonometric formulas:
sin(xy) = sin x cos y  cos x sin y
cos(xy) = cos x cos y + sin x sin y
sin
2
x = 0.5(1 – cos 2x)
cos
2
x = 0.5(1 + cos 2x)
( ) o
o o
+ + = +

.

\

= ÷ + = +
x B A x B x A
A
B
x B A x B x A
sin sin cos
arctan ); cos( sin cos
2 2
2 2
 Hyperbolic functions
cosh x = 0.5(e
x
+ e
x
)
sinh x = 0.5(e
x
– e
x
)
 Energy expressions:
Mass – spring system:
1DOF:
2
2
1
x m T = and
2
2
1
x k U =
nDOF:  x m x T
T
2
1
= and  x k x U
T
2
1
= ; where  
n
T
x x x x , ..... , ,
2 1
=
6
Beams:
í

.

\

c
c
=
l
dx
t
t x w
x A T
0
2
) , (
) (
2
1
p and
í 

.

\

c
c
=
l
dx
x
t x w
x EI V
0
2
2
2
) , (
) (
2
1
Lagranges equations: n j
q
V
q
T
q
T
dt
d
j j j
, ..... , 2 , 1 ; 0 = =
c
c
+
c
c
÷


.

\

c
c
Conservative system: T + U = constant
Rayleighs principle: T
max
= U
max
 Newton’s 2. law:
Translation:
¯
=
i
F x m , F
i
= external force no. i.
Rotation:
¯
=
i
M t J ) ( u
, M
i
= external moment no. i., J=Mass moment of inertia.
J = mr
2
, for a concentrated mass, m, moving in a circle with radius, r.
 Free vibration with viscous damping:
Eq. of motion: 0 ) ( ) ( ) ( = + + t kx t x c t x m
Critical damping: m c
n c
e 2 =
Damping ratio:
c
c
c
= c
Solution for 1 < c :
2
2 1
1 ); ( ) ( c e e
e e ce
÷ = + =
÷ ÷
n d
t i t i t
d d n
e A e A e t x
or
); cos sin ( ) (
2 1
t B t B e t x
d d
t
n
e e
ce
+ =
÷
or


.

\

= + = ÷ =
÷
2
1 2
2
2
1
arctan , ); ( cos ) (
B
B
B B C t Ce t x
d
t
n
u u e
ce
Solution for 1 = c :
( )
t
n
e t C C t x
e ÷
+ =
2 1
) (
7
 Undamped free vibration 2DOF system
Eq. of motion:
=
+
0
0
2
1
22 21
12 11
2
1
22 21
12 11
x
x
k k
k k
x
x
m m
m m
Harmonic solution assumed (
) (
) (
o e +
=
t i
j j
e X t x ):
{ } { }
{ } { }
( )
=
+ ÷ + ÷
+ ÷ + ÷
+
0
0
2
1
22 22
2
21 21
2
12 12
2
11 11
2
o e
e e
e e
t i
e
X
X
k m k m
k m k m
Nontrivial solution requires that the determinant of the coefficient matrix must be 0.
 Logarithmic decrement:
2
1 1
2
ln
c
c t
o
÷
=


.

\

=
+ i
i
x
x
 Free vibration with Coulomb damping:
Eq. of motion: 0 ) ( 1 , 0 ) ( 1 ; ) ( ) ( s ÷ = > = ÷ = + t x if t x if N t kx t x m ; ; u ;
Solution:
k
N
t A t A t x
n n
u
; e e ÷ + = sin cos ) (
2 1
Number of half cycles until rest:
k
N
k
N
x
r
u
u
2
0
÷
> ;
 Forced vibration, harmonic load:
Eq. of motion: t F t kx t x c t x m e cos ) ( ) ( ) (
0
= + +
Solution: ) ( ) ( ) ( t x t x t x
p h
+ = ;
), ( cos ) ( o e ÷ = t X t x
p
n
st
st
r
k
F
r r c m k
F
X
e
e
o
c
o
e e
= =
+ ÷
=
+ ÷
= , ;
) 2 ( ) 1 ( ) ( ) (
0
2 2 2 2 2 2
0
8


.

\

÷
=


.

\

÷
= = =
2 2
1
2
arctan arctan , 2 ,
r
r
m k
c
m c
c
c
n crit
crit
c
e
e
o e c
Dynamic amplification:
2 2 2
) 2 ( ) 1 (
1
r r
DAF
c + ÷
=
Harmonic forcing on complex form:
t i
e F t F
e
0
) ( =
Particular solution:
t i
p
e X t x
e
= ) (
o
e e
e e
i 
2 2 2
0
2
0
e
) ( ) (
) (
c m k
F
c i m k
F
X
+ ÷
=
+ ÷
= ;


.

\

÷
=
m k
c
2
arctan
e
e
o
 Complex transfer function:
Load:
t i
e F t F
e
0
) ( =
Transfer function:
r i r c i m k
k
k F
X
i H
c e e
e
2 ) 1 (
1
) ( /
) (
2 2
0
+ ÷
=
+ ÷
= =
Particular solution: ( )
o o e
e e e
i t i
p
e i H i H e i H
k
F
t x
÷ ÷
= =  ) (  ) ( ;   ) (
) ( 0
 Transmissibility
Displacement transmissibility for base motion induced vibration:
DAF r
Y
X
T
d
2
) 2 ( 1 c + = =
Force transmissibility:
d
T
F
T r
kY
F
T
2
= =
9
 Centrifugal force for rotating unbalanced mass, m, with radius of unbalance, e,
rotating with frequency e:
2
e e m F =
 Forced vibration, nonperiodic loading:
Unit impulse response function: ) ( sin ) (
) (
t e
e
t
t ce
÷ = ÷
÷ ÷
t
m
e
t h
d
d
t
n
Convolution integral:
í
÷ =
t
d t h F t x
0
) ( ) ( ) ( t t t
Impulse (defined as change of momentum):
) ( ) ( ) (
÷ +
= ÷ = = A = t t t t t x m t x m F I
 Dynamic amplification to standard types of nonperiodic loads:
t
1
/t
0
D
A
F
=
x
m
a
x
/
x
s
t
a
t
i
c
10
 Equivalent spring stiffness
EI
3
192
l
EI
k
eq
=
l
l
3
3
l
EI
k
eq
=
l
3
48
l
EI
k
eq
=
l
l
EA
k
eq
=
, A = cross sectional area
1
Solution: Exam in MOM 140, May 20090514
Problem 1
a) For the system in Fig. 1a, the springs acts in parallel, i.e. they are exposed to the same
displacement, z. The resulting restoring force becomes:
R = k
1
z + k
1
z = 2k
1
z = k
eq1
z k
eq1
= 2k
1
For the system in Fig 1b, the springs acts in series, i.e. the force through the springs
are the same.
The displacement of the mass, z, is equal to the displacement of each spring:
z = z
1
+ z
2
Since the force, F, is the same we have:
2 eq
k
F
z = ,
2
2
1
z
k
F
z = =
2 2 2 2
2
k
F
k
F
k
F
k
F
eq
= + =
2
2
2
k
k
eq
=
b) In Fig. 1 c, the upper spring and the beam is in series. The stiffness coefficient of the
beam is:
3
3
48
b
EI
k =
The equivalent stiffness of the upper spring and the beam, k
eq3
, is given by (ref. point
a)):
3 1 3
1 1 1
k k k
eq
+ =
1 3
3 1
3
k k
k k
k
eq
+
=
The equivalent stiffness k
eq3
and the lower spring k
1
is in parallel, i.e.:
1 3
2
1 3 1
1
1 3
3 1
1 3 4
2
k k
k k k
k
k k
k k
k k k
eq eq
+
+
= +
+
= + =
2
Problem 2
mg
u
h
a) The pendulum is shown in a displaced position in figure above. The restoring moment
is seen to be:
u u mgh h mg M
r
~ = sin
Using Newton 2. law we have: u u mgh J ÷ =
0
,
2
0
h m J =
0
2
= + u u mgh mh
0 = + u u
h
g
For small motions we have u h x ~ 0 = + x
h
g
x
“Stiffness” is g/h and “mass” is h, i.e.:
g
h
T
n
t 2 =
Case: T
n
= 8.9732s and h = 20m.
Solving expression for Tn with respect to g:
2 2
2
806 . 9 4
s
m
T
h
g
n
= = t
b) Natural period:
k
m
T
n
t 2 =
2
2
4
n
T
k
m
t
=
The total vertical stiffness coefficient is:
m
N
k
8 7
10 2 10 25 . 1 16 · = · · =
With T
n
= 3s, we have: kg m
8
10 456 . 0 · =
3
The total restoring force for a horizontal displacement, x, is: x
l
F
F F
p
p R
= = u sin ,
where F
p
is the total pretension, N F
p
8
10 6 . 1 · =
Newton 2. law: x
l
F
x m
p
÷ = 0 = + x
l
F
x m
p
s
l F
m
T
p
surge n
75 . 62
/
2
,
= = t
Problem 3
a) The logarithmic decrement is given by: ) ln(
1
0
x
x
= o , the damping ratio can then be
found by solving:
c
tc
o
÷
=
1
2
2 2
4t o
o
c
+
=
b) Coulomb damping force is damping from the effect of the friction force. It is
proportional to the friction coefficient and the weight of the moving body. It is
furthermore independent of speed of motion and is always acting against the motion.
T
n
T
n
T
n
Mean leven 1. half cycle
Mean leven 1. half cycle
Mean leven 2. half cycle
Mean level corresponding
to restoring force equal to friction
force, i.e.: uN/k.
Figure shows an example of a Coulomb free vibration. Motion is sinusoidal, but the
mean of each half cycle changes sign. This means that motion amplitude is reduced
with 2*mean level per half cycle. Mean level is the level where the restoring force in
the spring is equal to the friction force. If body stops within the mean value band, the
motion stops.
c) The natural frequency is: s rad
n
/ 925 . 7
10
628
= = e 79 . 0
2
= =
n
n
T
e
t
4
Static displacement: m
k
F
x
st
02 . 0
628
56 . 12
0
= = =
The period ratio is: 27 . 1
79 . 0
1
= =
n
t
t
From curve (a) at page 9 in Exam text, we then find 4 . 1 ~ DAF
Maximum displacement is: 0.028m
Problem 4
a) The base motion is sinusoidal since road is sinusoidal. The amplitude of base motion
must be the same as the amplitude of the road, i.e y
0
= Y = 0.25m.
The speed of the car is: v = 80km/h = 22.2m/s
The period of the base motion will be the time it takes for the car to drive from one
peak of the road to the next, i.e.:
s
v
T vT 8 . 1
2 . 22
40
= = = ¬ =
ì
ì
s
rad
T
49 . 3
2
= =
t
e
b)
m
c k
z(t)
y(t)
Base
Isolating the mass and using Newton 2. law gives:
) ( ) ( y z c y z k z m ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = ) (t F ky y c kz z c z m = + = + +
Introducing ) sin( ) ( t Y t y e = yields:
5
) sin( ) sin( ) cos( ) (
0
u e e e e + = + = t F t kY t cY t F
Where: ( ) Y k c F
2 2
0
+ = e and 
.

\

=
k
c e
u arctan
c) The force amplitude can be written:
( )
2
2
0
2 1 1 r kY
k
c
kY F c
e
+ = 
.

\

+ =
We know k, Y and c , but we need the frequency ratio: 494 . 0
07 . 7
49 . 3
= = = =
m
k
r
n
e
e
e
N F 12876 ) 494 . 0 25 . 0 2 ( 1 25 . 0 50000
2
0
= · · + · =
The static amplitude is: 256 . 0
50000
12876
= =
st
z
The dynamic amplitude becomes:
m
r r
z
Z
st
322 . 0
795 . 0
256 . 0
) 2 ( ) 1 (
2 2 2
= =
+ ÷
=
c
This means we experience a dynamic amplification of 1.26.
d) We have:
 
2
1
2 2 2
) 2 ( ) 1 (
÷
+ ÷ = r r DAF c
    0 ) 2 ( ) 2 ( 2 ) 2 ( ) 1 ( 2 ) 2 ( ) 1 (
2
1 ) (
2
2
3
2 2 2
= · · + ÷ ÷ · + ÷ ÷ =
÷
c c c r r r r r
dr
DAF d
0 8 ) 1 ( 4
2 2
= + ÷ ÷ r r r c
The solution r=0 is not interesting here, i.e.:
2 2 2 2 2
2 1 2 1 0 2 ) 1 ( c c c ÷ = ¬ ÷ = ¬ = + ÷ ÷ r r r
Here we have 25 . 0 = c r = 0.935
That means that the frequency maximizing the dynamic amplification is:
s Rad r
n
/ 61 . 6 = · = e e
6
From point a) we see that this mean that T is: 95 . 0
2
= =
e
t
T
h
km
s
m
T
v 6 . 151 1 . 42
95 . 0
40
= = = =
ì
b) Fig 2b shows a tension leg platform in neutral position. the pendulum moves with a steady period of 8. After giving the mass an initial disturbance. Determine the total mass (platform mass plus added mass) involved in the vibration from the model test result. the buoyancy is much larger than the weight of the platform.25 10 7 . The difference between buoyancy and weight defines the pretension in the tethers. Assume small motions.e. h. is given by: g g 0 or x 0 x h h On a day with no wind an experiment with a pendulum with h = 20m and m = 10 kg is made from a fjord crossing bridge. Assume that the motions are small and show that the equation of motion for free vibration in terms of the rotation of the pendulum.Problem 2 Tension leg platform h Sea surface Tether m x(t) (a) Fig 2 (b) a) Fig. each tether line in the figure represents 8 tethers. for this site. Estimate the acceleration of gravity. The length of the tethers is 350m. Assume that the mass involved in horizontal motion is the same as for the vertical motion and calculate the natural period for the surge motion (horizontal motion). Neglect the stiffness effect of the waterline area. The platform has in total 16 tethers. and with a concentrated mass.9732s. g. 2 . For a tension leg platform. 2a). The axial stiffness of each tether is 1. 2a shows a simple pendulum of length. m In a model test experiment it is found that the natural period (full scale) in heave (vertical vibration) of the platform is 3s. i. m. The total pretension (sum of N pretension of all 16 tethers) is 160 MN. . x (see Fig. The mass of the pendulum arm is negligible. or the the horizontal displacement of the concentrated mass.
The maximum load F0 is 12. Denote the next positive amplitude. and estimate the critical damping ratio in terms of x0 and x1.5 Fig. Determine the maximum displacement.spring system is defined by the mass equal to 10 kg and the spring stiffness equal to 628N/m. the damping of the horizontal motion is estimated by a decay test. c) A mass .56N and the duration of the impulse is 1s. Use the sketch for pointing out some typical features of Coulomb damping. The mass is hit by an impulse like load. x1. The force is removed and the model starts a vibrating motion from an initial speed equal to zero. F(t) F0 0. b) Can you briefly explain what we mean by Coulomb damping? Illustrate by a simple sketch how a system with Coulomb damping will move after being given an initial displacement.Problem 3 a) In a model test with a floating platform. 3. The time history of the load is shown in Fig. The platform is pushed to an initial position x0. 3 1 t (s) 3 .
25m. stiffness coefficient. Y is 0. is modelled as a 2 x . k. The distance between the front and aft wheels is harmonic function of x. damping coefficient.25 . = 40m. 4 . a) The equivalent effect of the sinusoidal rough road is that the vertical motion of the car is driven by base motion. The base motion is on the form: y (t ) y 0 sin t .25. where F0 k 2 c and arctan z k c) Calculate the steady state amplitude of the vertical motion. y ( x) Y sin small compared to and we will here consider the motion to be a pure vertical translation which can be denoted by z(t). Show that the equation of motion is given on the form: c 2 m cz kz F0 sin t . i. b) Draw a figure where the car – road system is modelled as singledegreeoffreedom system with mass m. y(x). d) Determine the speed that will correspond to maximum dynamic amplification for the case with 0. Determine y 0 and . the damping system is partly defect and the damping ratio is merely 0. The stiffness of the system is 50kN/m. The shape of the road. y(t). We will therefore model the car as a single degree of freedom system. c. and forced by the base motion. The speed of the car is 80km/h.Problem 4 v Y x A car is driving with speed v on a rough road.e. the mass of the car of is 1000kg.
. ..cos x sin y cos(xy) = cos x cos y + sin x sin y sin2x = 0. 2 b b 2 4ac 2a Trigonometric formulas: sin(xy) = sin x cos y .5(1 – cos 2x) cos2x = 0. arctan x i e cos i sin Roots of a second order equation.5(ex + ex) sinh x = 0. R Eulers formula: y x 2 y 2 ..FORMULAS Complex numbers: z x i y Re i . i 1 . where x T x1 . x n 2 2 5 . arctan A A 2 B 2 sin x Hyperbolic functions cosh x = 0. . x 2 . ax2 + bx + c = 0: x1..5(1 + cos 2x) A cos x B sin x A cos x B sin x B A 2 B 2 cos( x ).5(ex – ex) Energy expressions: Mass – spring system: 1 1DOF: T m x 2 and 2 nDOF: T U 1 2 kx 2 1 T 1 x m x and U x T k x .
Beams: l l 2 w( x. J=Mass moment of inertia. m. i.. for a concentrated mass. 2.. C B 2 B12 B2 . or x(t ) Ce nt cos ( d t ).. law: Translation: m Fi . t ) T A( x) dx and V EI ( x) x 2 dx 20 20 t 2 2 Lagranges equations: d T dt q j T V 0. i. x M . arctan 1 B 2 Solution for 1 : x(t ) C1 C2t e n t 6 . 2 Free vibration with viscous damping: x Eq. Mi = external moment no.. Rotation: J(t ) i J = mr . Fi = external force no. . r. . d n 1 2 or x(t ) e nt ( B1 sin d t B2 cos d t ). of motion: m(t ) cx(t ) kx(t ) 0 Critical damping: cc 2 n m c Damping ratio: cc Solution for 1 : x(t ) e nt ( A1e id t A2 e id t ). t ) 1 1 w( x.. q q j j j 1. moving in a circle with radius. n Conservative system: T + U = constant Rayleighs principle: Tmax = Umax Newton’s 2.
1 if x(t ) 0 Solution: x(t ) A1 cos n t A2 sin n t x0 N k N Number of half cycles until rest: r k . xi xi 1 2 1 2 Logarithmic decrement: ln Free vibration with Coulomb damping: x Eq. st F0 .r n k 7 . of motion: 11 12 1 x 0 m21 m22 2 k 21 k 22 x 2 Harmonic solution assumed ( x j (t ) X j e i (t ) ): 2 m11 k11 2 m21 k 21 m m 2 2 12 k12 22 k 22 X 1 i t X e 2 0 0 Nontrivial solution requires that the determinant of the coefficient matrix must be 0. 2 N k Forced vibration. Undamped free vibration 2DOF system x k11 k12 x1 m m 0 Eq. x p (t ) X cos (t ). of motion: m(t ) kx(t ) N . of motion: m(t ) cx(t ) kx(t ) F0 cos t x Solution: x(t ) x h (t ) x p (t ) . 1 if x(t ) 0. X F0 (k 2 m) 2 (c) 2 st (1 r 2 ) 2 (2r ) 2 . harmonic load: Eq.
H (i )  H (i )  e i k Particular solution: x p (t ) Transmissibility Displacement transmissibility for base motion induced vibration: Td X 1 (2r ) 2 DAF Y Force transmissibility: TF FT r 2 Td kY 8 . c ccrit c 2r . arctan k 2 m arctan 1 r 2 Dynamic amplification: DAF 1 (1 r 2 ) 2 (2r ) 2 Harmonic forcing on complex form: F (t ) F0 e it Particular solution: X x p (t ) X e it c F0 F0 e i . ccrit 2 n m. arctan k 2m ( k m ) i c (k 2 m) 2 (c ) 2 2 Complex transfer function: Load: F (t ) F0 e it Transfer function: H (i ) X k 1 2 2 F0 / k (k m) i c (1 r ) i 2r F0  H i  e i (t ) .
rotating with frequency : F me 2 Forced vibration. nonperiodic loading: Unit impulse response function: h(t ) t e n ( t ) sin d (t ) m d Convolution integral: x(t ) F ( ) h(t ) d 0 Impulse (defined as change of momentum): I F ( ) mx(t ) mx(t ) Dynamic amplification to standard types of nonperiodic loads: DAF = xmax/xstatic t1/t0 9 . e. Centrifugal force for rotating unbalanced mass. m. with radius of unbalance.
A = cross sectional area l 10 . Equivalent spring stiffness EI l keq 192EI l3 l k eq 3EI l3 k eq l 48 EI l3 k eq EA l .
i.e. the force through the springs are the same. May 20090514 Problem 1 a) For the system in Fig. 1 c. is the same we have: z F k eq 2 . i.: k eq 4 k eq 3 k1 k1 k 3 2k k k 2 k1 1 3 1 k 3 k1 k 3 k1 1 .e. The displacement of the mass.e. the springs acts in parallel. is equal to the displacement of each spring: z = z1 + z2 Since the force. z. the springs acts in series.Solution: Exam in MOM 140. The resulting restoring force becomes: R = k1z + k1z = 2k1z = keq1z keq1 = 2k1 For the system in Fig 1b. the upper spring and the beam is in series. keq3. they are exposed to the same displacement. z. 1a. is given by (ref. point a)): 1 k eq 3 1 1 k1 k 3 k eq 3 k1 k 3 k 3 k1 The equivalent stiffness keq3 and the lower spring k1 is in parallel. i. F. z1 F z2 k2 F F F 2F k eq 2 k2 k2 k2 k eq 2 k2 2 b) In Fig. The stiffness coefficient of the beam is: k3 48 EI b3 The equivalent stiffness of the upper spring and the beam.
456 10 8 kg N m 2 .: Tn 2 Case: Tn = 8.806 2 2 Tn s b) Natural period: Tn 2 m k m Tn2 k 4 2 The total vertical stiffness coefficient is: k 16 1.25 10 7 2 10 8 With Tn = 3s.Problem 2 h mg a) The pendulum is shown in a displaced position in figure above.e. law we have: J 0 mgh .9732s and h = 20m. i. Solving expression for Tn with respect to g: g 4 2 h m 9. J 0 m h 2 g mh 2 mgh 0 0 h For small motions we have x h x g x 0 h h g “Stiffness” is g/h and “mass” is h. The restoring moment is seen to be: M r mg sin h mgh Using Newton 2. we have: m 0.
is: FR F p sin where Fp is the total pretension.79 7. 2 628 0. Mean level is the level where the restoring force in the spring is equal to the friction force. i. the motion stops. If body stops within the mean value band. but the mean of each half cycle changes sign. m x Fp l x m x Fp l x0 Tn .925rad / s Tn 10 n c) The natural frequency is: n 3 . It is proportional to the friction coefficient and the weight of the moving body.The total restoring force for a horizontal displacement.6 10 8 N Newton 2.e. half cycle Mean leven 1. Tn Tn Tn Mean leven 2. It is furthermore independent of speed of motion and is always acting against the motion. half cycle Mean level corresponding to restoring force equal to friction force. This means that motion amplitude is reduced with 2*mean level per half cycle. Motion is sinusoidal. F p 1.: N/k. half cycle Figure shows an example of a Coulomb free vibration. law: Fp l x. surge 2 m 62.75s Fp / l Problem 3 a) The logarithmic decrement is given by: ln( found by solving: 2 1 x0 ) . x. Mean leven 1. the damping ratio can then be x1 2 4 2 b) Coulomb damping force is damping from the effect of the friction force.
The speed of the car is: v = 80km/h = 22.27 t n 0.e.56 0.2m/s The period of the base motion will be the time it takes for the car to drive from one peak of the road to the next. i. i. we then find DAF 1.8s 22.4 Maximum displacement is: 0.Static displacement: x st F0 12. The amplitude of base motion must be the same as the amplitude of the road.25m.02m 628 k The period ratio is: t 1 1.79 From curve (a) at page 9 in Exam text.2 rad 2 3.028m Problem 4 a) The base motion is sinusoidal since road is sinusoidal.e y0 = Y = 0.: vT T v 40 1. law gives: m k ( z y ) c( z y ) m cz kz cy ky F (t ) z z Introducing y (t ) Y sin(t ) yields: 4 .49 T s b) z(t) m k c y(t) Base Isolating the mass and using Newton 2.
Y and .: (1 r 2 ) 2 2 0 r 2 1 2 2 r 1 2 2 Here we have 0. i. but we need the frequency ratio: r 3.07 n k m F0 50000 0.256 50000 The dynamic amplitude becomes: Z z st (1 r ) (2r ) 2 2 2 0.935 That means that the frequency maximizing the dynamic amplification is: r n 6.25 0.256 0.49 0.494) 2 12876 N The static amplitude is: z st 12876 0.795 This means we experience a dynamic amplification of 1.25 1 (2 0.61Rad / s 5 .322m 0.F (t ) cY cos(t ) kY sin(t ) F0 sin(t ) Where: F0 c 2 k 2 Y c and arctan k c) The force amplitude can be written: c 2 F0 kY 1 kY 1 2r k 2 We know k.e. d) We have: DAF (1 r 2 ) 2 (2r ) 2 1 2 d ( DAF ) 1 (1 r 2 ) 2 (2r ) 2 dr 2 2(1 r 3 2 2 ) (2r ) 2 (2r ) (2 ) 0 4r (1 r 2 ) 8 2 r 0 The solution r=0 is not interesting here.494 7.25 r = 0.26.
95 s h 6 .From point a) we see that this mean that T is: T v 2 T 0.6 0.95 40 m km 42.1 151.
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