A BEAUTIFUL MIND It is a biopic of the famed mathematician John Nash and his lifelong struggles with his mental

health. Nash enrolled as a graduate student at Princeton in 1948 and almost immediately stood out as an odd duck. He devoted himself to finding something unique, a mathematical theorem that would be completely original. He kept to himself for the most part and while he went out for drinks with other students, he spends a lot of time with his roommate, Charles, who eventually becomes his best friend. John is soon a professor at MIT where he meets and eventually married a graduate student, Alicia.When confronted with

evidence, Nash is finally convinced that he has been hallucinating. The Department of Defense agent William Parcher and Nash's secret assignment to decode Soviet messages was in fact all a delusion. Even more surprisingly, Nash's "prodigal roommate" Charles and his niece Marcee are also products of his mind. Over time however John begins to lose his grip on reality, eventually being institutionalized diagnosed with schizophrenia.After a series of insulin shock therapy sessions, Nash is released on the condition that he agrees to take antipsychotic medication; however, the drugs create negative side-effects that affect his intellectual capacity.
As the depths of his imaginary world are revealed, Nash withdraws from society and it's not until the 1970s that he makes his first foray back into the world of academics, gradually returning to research and teaching. In 1994, John Nash was awarded the Nobel prize in Economics.

SCHIZOPHRENIA

Schizophre is a mental disorder characterized by a disintegration of the process of thinking and of emotional responsiveness. It most commonly manifests as auditory hallucinations, paranoid or bizarre delusions, or disorganized speech and thinking, and it is accompanied by significant social or occupational dysfunction. The onset of symptoms typically occurs in young adulthood. Diagnosis is based on the patient's self-reported experiences and observed behavior. Genetics, early environment, neurobiology, psychological and social processes appear to be important contributory factors; some recreational and prescription drugs appear to cause or worsen symptoms. Current psychiatric research is focused on the role of neurobiology, but this inquiry has not isolated a single organic cause. As a result of the many possible combinations of symptoms, there is debate about whether the diagnosis represents a single disorder or a number of discrete syndromes.
Complications

Individuals with this disorder may develop significant loss of interest or pleasure. Likewise, some may develop mood abnormalities (e.g., inappropriate smiling, laughing, or silly facial expressions; depression, anxiety or anger). Often there is day-night reversal (i.e., staying up late at night and then sleeping late into the day). The individual may show a lack of interest in eating or may refuse food as a consequence of delusional beliefs. Often movement is abnormal (e.g., pacing, rocking, or apathetic immobility). Frequently there are significant cognitive impairments (e.g., poor concentratiion, poor memory, and impaired problem-solving ability). The majority of individuals with Schizophrenia are unaware that they have a psychotic illness.

are not prominent. purposeless movement.2) Undifferentiated type: Psychotic symptoms are present but the criteria for paranoid. and catatonic symptoms.2/ICD code F20. There is an increased risk of assaultive and violent behavior. delusions. Symptoms can include catatonic stupor and waxy flexibility. volition. younger age. past history of violence. and speech. or catatonic types have not been met. and perceptual disturbances. poorer functioning. DSM-IV code 295. and excessive substance use. Motor abnormalities (e.3) Residual type: Where positive symptoms are present at a low intensity only. noncompliance with antipsychotic medication. The major predictors of violent behavior are male gender. This is comparable to the lack of awareness of neurological deficits seen in stroke. derealization. (ICD code F20.30 It is the most common type of schizophrenia.6/ICD code F20. ritualistic or stereotyped behavior) are sometimes present.6) Paranoid schizophrenia is a sub-type of schizophrenia as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.1) Catatonic type: The subject may be almost immobile or exhibit agitated. (DSM code 295. Subtypes The DSM-IV-TR contains five sub-classifications of schizophrenia. rather than simply being a coping behavior. The life expectancy of individual with Schizophrenia is shorter than that of the general population for a variety of reasons. Suicide is an important factor. grimacing.4) Simple schizophrenia: Insidious and progressive development of prominent negative symptoms with no history of psychotic episodes.5) Post-schizophrenic depression: A depressive episode arising in the aftermath of a schizophrenic illness where some low-level schizophrenic symptoms may still be present. disorganized. . it should be noted that most individuals with Schizophrenia are not more dangerous to others than those in the general population.0) Disorganized type: Named hebephrenic schizophrenia in the ICD. Disturbances of affect. However.This poor insight is neurologically caused by illness.1/ICD code F20. This poor insight predisposes the individual to noncompliance with treatment and has been found to be predictive of higher relapse rates. posturing.3/ICD code F20. because approximately 10% of individuals with Schizophrenia commit suicide . Where thought disorder and flat affect are present together. Depersonalization. often paranoid. and a poorer course of illness. (ICD code F20. and affective flattening are absent. particularly of the auditory variety (hearing voices).9/ICD code F20.g. (DSM code 295.. odd mannerisms. The clinical picture is dominated by relatively stable. usually accompanied by hallucinations. (DSM code 295. disorganized behavior. increased number of involuntary hospitalizations. and somatic concerns may occur and sometimes reach delusional proportions. (DSM code 295. (DSM code 295. although the developers of DSM-5 are recommending they be dropped from the new classification:[23] y y y y y y y Paranoid type: Where delusions and hallucinations are present but thought disorder.and between 20% and 40% make at least one suicide attempt.

This six-month period must include at least one month of symptoms (or less. one or more major areas of functioning such as work. to be diagnosed with schizophrenia. or hallucinations consist of hearing one voice participating in a running commentary of the patient's actions or of hearing two or more voices conversing with each other. alogia (lack or decline in speech). which is a manifestation of formal thought disorder o Grossly disorganized behavior (e. Social/occupational dysfunction: For a significant portion of the time since the onset of the disturbance. Schizophrenia cannot be diagnosed if symptoms of mood disorder are substantially present (although schizoaffective disorder could be diagnosed). If signs of disturbance are present for more than a month but less than six months. o Delusions o Hallucinations o Disorganized speech. . as well as prevailing in research studies. in practice. or self-care. version DSM-IV-TR. and the World Health Organization's International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. Duration: Continuous signs of the disturbance persist for at least six months. The ICD-10 criteria put more emphasis on Schneiderianfirst-rank symptoms. or if symptoms of pervasive developmental disorder are present unless prominent delusions or hallucinations are also present. agreement between the two systems is high. are markedly below the level achieved prior to the onset. crying frequently) or catatonic behavior o Negative symptoms: Blunted affect (lack or decline in emotional response). and various conditions may be classed as psychotic disorder not otherwise specified. the ICD-10. if symptoms remitted with treatment). such as abuse of a drug or medication. Psychotic symptoms lasting less than a month may be diagnosed as brief psychotic disorder. Characteristic symptoms: Two or more of the following. dressing inappropriately. According to the revised fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR). each present for much of the time during a one-month period (or less. interpersonal relations. The speech disorganization criterion is only met if it is severe enough to substantially impair communication. or avolition (lack or decline in motivation) If the delusions are judged to be bizarre. three diagnostic criteria must be met: 1. 3.DIAGNOSIS The most widely used standardized criteria for diagnosing schizophrenia come from the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The latter criteria are typically used in European countries. 2. if symptoms remitted with treatment). although. while the DSM criteria are used in the United States and the rest of the world. the diagnosis of schizophreniform disorder is applied. only that symptom is required above.g. or if the symptoms are the direct physiological result of a general medical condition or a substance.

..a condition from which most afflicted people never recover. I began to hear something like telephone calls in my head.wikipedia.I started to see cryptocommunists everywhere. and later all of Boston were behaving strangely towards me.medicinenet.the staff at my university.html http://www.. from people opposed to my ideas.. from which I seemed never to awake.I started to think I was a man of great religious importance. After being chased by Soviet agents and an exchange of gunfire.The words of Nash himself best describe the unraveling of his brilliant mind: .com/schizophrenia/article.com/dis/p20-ps01..mentalhealth..The delirium was like a dream. John Nash had schizophrenia .html http://en. At 30 years of age. and to hear voices all the time..org/wiki/Schizophrenia . http://www. Nash becomes increasingly paranoid and begins to behave erratically.. the Massachusetts Institute of Technology[where he was teaching].

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