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Practice Paper for JC2

1(a) Suggest reasons for the following observations. Include relevant chemical
equations.

(i) [Chemical bonding and Periodicity] Lead(II) nitrate is insoluble in liquid


ethane but dissolves readily in water.

(ii) If aqueous lead(II) nitrate is added to aqueous sodium hydroxide, a white


precipitate forms which dissolves in an excess of the alkali to form a
colourless solution. [4]

(iii) [Periodicity] Beryllium and aluminium exhibit a pair of diagonal


relationship.

Suggest why beryllium nitrate in water is acidic. [3]

(iv) [Atomic structure] NCl5 has not been made in laboratories. [2]

(b) [Alcohols, halogenoalkanes] Suggest the identities of M, N and O. [3]


(c) [Carbonyl compounds] Ethenone is a reactive ketene. It bears some
resemblance to carbonyl compounds. Based on its IUPAC name, deduce the
displayed formula of ethenone, which has molecular formula C2H2O. [2]

(d)(i) [Carboxylic acids] Ethenone reacts with water to form ethanoic acid. Ethanoic
acid is found in vinegar.

C2H2O + H2O  CH3COOH

Ethanoic acid reacts with thionyl chloride, SOCl2, to form F. F reacts with phenol
to form G. Draw the structural formula of organic molecules F and G.

CH3COOH + SOCl2  F

F + C6H5OH  G [3]

(ii) [Alcohols, carbonyl compounds and carboxylic acids] Ethanoic acid can
be converted to ethanol and ethanol can be converted to ethanal.
Reaction I Reaction II
CH3COOH CH3CH2OH CH3CHO

State the reagents and conditions for reactions I and II. [3]

[Total : 20 marks]

2. [Ionic equilibria] Buffer solutions are used in agriculture and medicine. An


example of an acidic buffer solution is sodium ethanoate and ethanoic acid.

(a) Explain how an acidic buffer works. Explain what happens when small amounts
of acid or alkali are added to the buffer. [4]

(b) Calculate the pH of an acidic buffer consisting of 0.1 dm3 of 0.2005 mol dm-3

CH3COOH and 0.5965 mol dm-3 CH3COONa? (Ka (CH3COOH) = 1.8 x 10 -5).
[2]
(c) Calculate the resultant pH when 0.0074 mol HCl is added to the above buffer
solution. [3]

(d) Sodium ethanoate can be produced when ethanoic acid is titrated with sodium
hydroxide. Sketch the titration graph when 25 cm3 of 0.100 mol dm-3 ethanoic
acid is titrated with 50 cm3 of 0.100 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide. Label the initial
pH of ethanoic acid and the buffer region. [4]

(e) [Chemical equilibria] Ethanoic acid reacts with ethanol to form an ester with the
aid of concentrated sulfuric acid acting as a catalyst.

Calculate the Kc of the reaction when initially 1.00 mol of ethanoic acid and
ethanol and the catalyst are used and the equilibrium mixture contains 0.0203
mol of ester in a 1 dm3 vessel at equilibrium at 298K. [4]

(f) Calculate the relative amounts of reactants and products in the above reaction
when an additional 1.00 mol of ethanoic acid is added to the mixture. [3]

[Total : 20 marks]

3. The use of internal combustion engines in cars has drastically increased the
presence of nitrogen monoxide in the environment. Nitrogen monoxide reacts with
oxygen to form nitrogen dioxide.

(a) [Chemical equilibria] Kp at 1000K is 6.329 x 10-3. Calculate the partial pressure
ratio of NO : NO2 if the equilibrium partial pressure of oxygen gas is 0.100 atm.
[2]

(b) [Stoichiometry] Nitrogen dioxide can react with water in excess to produce nitric
acid and nitrogen monoxide.

3 NO2 + H2O → 2 HNO3 + NO

Calculate the concentration of nitric acid produced when 2.0 dm3 of gaseous
nitrogen dioxide at room conditions react with 10 dm3 of water. Assume that
volume change of the solution is negligible. [2]

(c) Another nitrogen containing ion is nitrite, NO2-. Nitrite can be reduced to nitrogen
monoxide or ammonia by many species of bacteria. This is known as
denitrification.
[Chemical Bonding] Draw the Lewis structure of nitrite ion. State the shape of the
molecular ion. [3]

(d) A more common nitrogen containing ion is nitrate(V) ion, NO3-.

[Group II] Explain which compound would decompose at a higher temperature,


magnesium nitrate or strontium nitrate. [3]

(e) Suggest the decomposition reaction of strontium nitrate. [2]

(f) Another nitrogen containing compound is hydrazine, N2H4. Hydrazine has a


boiling point of 114oC.

[Chemical Bonding] Describe the bonding in liquid hydrazine. [2]

(g) Hydrazine has basic (alkali) chemical properties comparable to those of


ammonia:

N2H4 + H2O → [N2H5]+ + OH−

Kb = 1.3 x 10−6

[Ionic equilibria] Calculate the pH of 0.100 mol dm-3 hydrazine solution. [2]

(h) Hydrazine solution can be titrated with aqueous hydrochloric acid. State and
explain the choice of the indicator. [2]

(i) [Carbonyl compounds] A related hydrazine derivative is 2,4-


dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH) used in organic chemistry.

Draw the organic product formed when propanone reacts with 2,4-DNPH. [2]

[Total : 20 marks]

4(a) [Electrochemistry] The use of the Data Booklet is useful for this question.

In trying to produce CeI4, a scientist found that it is not formed at all. Suggest why CeI4
is not formed. [3]

Given:

Ce4+(aq) / Ce3+ (aq) E = +1.72V

(b) [Redox chemistry] An impure sample of 1.72 g of copper(II) nitrate was reacted
with excess potassium iodide solution. Copper(I) iodide, iodine and potassium nitrate
are produced.
(i) Write a balanced chemical equation of the above reaction.

(ii) The iodine that is produced is titrated with sodium thiosulfate solution.
25.6 cm3 of 0.100 mol dm-3 of sodium thiosulfate solution was required for
titration.

(iii) Write a chemical equation of iodine reacting with sodium thiosulfate.

(iv) Hence, calculate the percentage purity of copper(II) nitrate. [5]

(c) [Group VII] Another iodine containing molecule is hydrogen iodide. Hydriodic
acid, HI (aq) can be used to synthesize sodium iodide or potassium iodide.

Compare the

(i) Thermal stability, and

(ii) Boiling points

of hydrogen iodide and hydrogen chloride. [4]

(d) [Group VII] Explain what happens when concentrated sulfuric acid is added to
hydrogen iodide. Include relevant equation(s). [3]

(e) [Alcohols and halogenoalkanes] Hydrogen iodide is also commonly used in


organic synthesis. Draw the displayed formula of A and B for the following
conversions:

+ HI Ammonia in sealed
CH3CH2CH2OH A tube, heat B

[3]

(b) [Alkenes] Draw the major product when (CH3)2C=CH2 is reacted with hydrogen
iodide. [2]

[Total : 20 marks]

5(a)
Taxol

[Organic chemistry] Taxol is a drug used in cancer chemotherapy. State


the observations (if any) when

(i) Aqueous bromine

(ii) Phosphorus pentachloride, PCl5

are separately added to Taxol. [2]

(iii) Suggest how many different organic products are obtained when
Taxol is treated with hot hydrochloric acid. [2] Answer : 4

Ellagic acid

(b) [Phenols] Ellagic acid is an antioxidant found in numerous fruits


such as strawberries.

(i) Compare the acidity of phenol and ellagic acid. [4]


(ii) Suggest what would be observed if aqueous bromine is added to
ellagic acid. [1]

(iii) Draw the product obtained if ellagic acid is refluxed with aqueous
sodium hydroxide. [2] Brief Answer : phenoxide ions are formed.

warfarin

(c) [Carbonyl compounds] Warfarin is used as an insecticide. Ellagic acid


and warfarin contain different functional groups.

Describe how ellagic acid and warfarin would react differently if

(i) 2,4-DNPH , and

(ii) Alkaline aqueous iodine are added to separate portions of ellagic acid
and warfarin.

State the observations (if any) in each case. [4]

(d) [Alcohols, amides and carboxylic acids] Suggest one simple chemical test
for distinguishing between the members of each of the following pairs,
stating clearly all the observations you would expect to make.

(i) CH3CH(OH)CH3 CH3CH2CH2OH

(ii) CH3CONH2 CH3COOH [5]

[Total : 20 marks]