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Prepare and deliver training sessions

D1.HRD.CL9.04
D1.HHR.CL8.04
Trainee Manual
Prepare and deliver
training sessions

D1.HRD.CL9.04
D1.HHR.CL8.04

Trainee Manual
Project Base

William Angliss Institute of TAFE


555 La Trobe Street
Melbourne 3000 Victoria
Telephone: (03) 9606 2111
Facsimile: (03) 9670 1330

Acknowledgements

Project Director: Wayne Crosbie


Chief Writer: Alan Hickman
Subject Writer: Nick Hyland
Project Manager: Alan Maguire
Editor: Jim Irwin
DTP/Production: Daniel Chee, Mai Vu, Jirayu Thangcharoensamut

The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was established on 8 August 1967. The Member
States of the Association are Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia,
Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam.
The ASEAN Secretariat is based in Jakarta, Indonesia.
General Information on ASEAN appears online at the ASEAN Website: www.asean.org.
All text is produced by William Angliss Institute of TAFE for the ASEAN Project on “Toolbox
Development for Priority Tourism Labour Division”.
This publication is supported by Australian Aid through the ASEAN-Australia Development
Cooperation Program Phase II (AADCP II).
Copyright: Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) 2012.
All rights reserved.
Disclaimer
Every effort has been made to ensure that this publication is free from errors or omissions. However,
you should conduct your own enquiries and seek professional advice before relying on any fact,
statement or matter contained in this book. ASEAN Secretariat and William Angliss Institute of TAFE
are not responsible for any injury, loss or damage as a result of material included or omitted from this
course. Information in this module is current at the time of publication. Time of publication is indicated
in the date stamp at the bottom of each page.
Some images appearing in this resource have been purchased from various stock photography
suppliers and other third party copyright owners and as such are non-transferable and non-exclusive.
Additional images have been sourced from Flickr and are used under:
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en
http://www.sxc.hu/
File name: TM_Prepare_&_deliver_training_sessions_310812.docx
Table of contents

Introduction to trainee manual........................................................................................... 1

Unit descriptor................................................................................................................... 3

Assessment matrix ........................................................................................................... 5

Glossary ........................................................................................................................... 7

Element 1: Determine training requirements ..................................................................... 9

Element 2: Prepare training plan ..................................................................................... 39

Element 3: Deliver training sessions ............................................................................... 81

Presentation of written work .......................................................................................... 119

Recommended reading................................................................................................. 121

Trainee evaluation sheet............................................................................................... 123

© ASEAN 2012
Trainee Manual
Prepare and deliver training sessions
© ASEAN 2012
Trainee Manual
Prepare and deliver training sessions
Introduction to trainee manual

Introduction to trainee manual


To the Trainee
Congratulations on joining this course. This Trainee Manual is one part of a „toolbox‟
which is a resource provided to trainees, trainers and assessors to help you become
competent in various areas of your work.
The „toolbox‟ consists of three elements:
A Trainee Manual for you to read and study at home or in class
A Trainer Guide with Power Point slides to help your Trainer explain the content of the
training material and provide class activities to help with practice
An Assessment Manual which provides your Assessor with oral and written questions
and other assessment tasks to establish whether or not you have achieved
competency.
The first thing you may notice is that this training program and the information you find in
the Trainee Manual seems different to the textbooks you have used previously. This is
because the method of instruction and examination is different. The method used is called
Competency based training (CBT) and Competency based assessment (CBA). CBT and
CBA is the training and assessment system chosen by ASEAN (Association of South-
East Asian Nations) to train people to work in the tourism and hospitality industry
throughout all the ASEAN member states.
What is the CBT and CBA system and why has it been adopted by ASEAN?
CBT is a way of training that concentrates on what a worker can do or is required to do at
work. The aim is of the training is to enable trainees to perform tasks and duties at a
standard expected by employers. CBT seeks to develop the skills, knowledge and
attitudes (or recognise the ones the trainee already possesses) to achieve the required
competency standard. ASEAN has adopted the CBT/CBA training system as it is able to
produce the type of worker that industry is looking for and this therefore increases
trainees chances of obtaining employment.
CBA involves collecting evidence and making a judgement of the extent to which a worker
can perform his/her duties at the required competency standard. Where a trainee can
already demonstrate a degree of competency, either due to prior training or work
experience, a process of „Recognition of Prior Learning‟ (RPL) is available to trainees to
recognise this. Please speak to your trainer about RPL if you think this applies to you.
What is a competency standard?
Competency standards are descriptions of the skills and knowledge required to perform a
task or activity at the level of a required standard.
242 competency standards for the tourism and hospitality industries throughout the
ASEAN region have been developed to cover all the knowledge, skills and attitudes
required to work in the following occupational areas:
Housekeeping
Food Production
Food and Beverage Service

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Introduction to trainee manual

Front Office
Travel Agencies
Tour Operations.
All of these competency standards are available for you to look at. In fact you will find a
summary of each one at the beginning of each Trainee Manual under the heading „Unit
Descriptor‟. The unit descriptor describes the content of the unit you will be studying in the
Trainee Manual and provides a table of contents which are divided up into „Elements‟ and
„Performance Criteria”. An element is a description of one aspect of what has to be
achieved in the workplace. The „Performance Criteria‟ below each element details the
level of performance that needs to be demonstrated to be declared competent.
There are other components of the competency standard:
Unit Title: statement about what is to be done in the workplace
Unit Number: unique number identifying the particular competency
Nominal hours: number of classroom or practical hours usually needed to complete
the competency. We call them „nominal‟ hours because they can vary e.g. sometimes
it will take an individual less time to complete a unit of competency because he/she
has prior knowledge or work experience in that area.
The final heading you will see before you start reading the Trainee Manual is the
„Assessment Matrix‟. Competency based assessment requires trainees to be assessed in
at least 2 – 3 different ways, one of which must be practical. This section outlines three
ways assessment can be carried out and includes work projects, written questions and
oral questions. The matrix is designed to show you which performance criteria will be
assessed and how they will be assessed. Your trainer and/or assessor may also use
other assessment methods including „Observation Checklist‟ and „Third Party Statement‟.
An observation checklist is a way of recording how you perform at work and a third party
statement is a statement by a supervisor or employer about the degree of competence
they believe you have achieved. This can be based on observing your workplace
performance, inspecting your work or gaining feedback from fellow workers.
Your trainer and/or assessor may use other methods to assess you such as:
Journals
Oral presentations
Role plays
Log books
Group projects
Practical demonstrations.
Remember your trainer is there to help you succeed and become competent. Please feel
free to ask him or her for more explanation of what you have just read and of what is
expected from you and best wishes for your future studies and future career in tourism
and hospitality.

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Unit descriptor

Unit descriptor
Prepare and deliver training sessions
This unit deals with the skills and knowledge required to Prepare and deliver training
sessions in a range of settings within the hotel and travel industries workplace context.
Unit Code:
D1.HRD.CL9.04
D1.HHR.CL8.04
Nominal Hours:
40 hours

Element 1: Determine training requirements


Performance Criteria
1.1 Identify current competencies of learners
1.2 Identify required competencies for learners
1.3 Describe the training gap for learners
1.4 Confirm the identified training gap with relevant personnel
1.5 Determine support available for training provision
1.6 Present recommendations for training

Element 2: Prepare training plan


Performance Criteria
2.1 Develop session outlines for approved training
2.2 Develop training content
2.3 Develop training resources and materials
2.4 Develop individual training sessions
2.5 Organize training requirements

Element 3: Deliver training sessions


Performance Criteria
3.1 Confirm attendance of learners at the training session
3.2 Prepare the training venue for the training session
3.3 Introduce training topic to learners

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Unit descriptor

3.4 Explain the training and assessment activities involved in the training session
3.5 Present training session
3.6 Provide opportunities for learners to practice skills
3.7 Provide feedback to learners
3.8 Ensure on-going safety of learners during training delivery and practice

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Assessment matrix

Assessment matrix
Showing mapping of Performance Criteria against Work Projects, Written
Questions and Oral Questions

Work Written Oral


Projects Questions Questions

Element 1: Determine training requirements

1.1 Identify current competencies of learners 1.1 1 1

1.2 Identify required competencies for learners 1.2 2,3 2

1.3 Describe the training gap for learners 1.3 4,5 3

1.4 Confirm the identified training gap with 1.4 6 4


relevant personnel

1.5 Determine support available for training 1.5 7 5


provision

1.6 Present recommendations for training 1.6 8 6

Element 2: Prepare training plan

2.1 Develop session outlines for approved training 2.1 9,10 7

2.2 Develop training content 2.2 11 8

2.3 Develop training resources and materials 2.3 12,13 9

2.4 Develop individual training sessions 2.4 14 10

2.5 Organize training requirements 2.5 15,16 11

Element 3: Deliver training sessions

3.1 Confirm attendance of learners at the training 3.1 17,18 12


session

3.2 Prepare the training venue for the training 3.2 19,20 13
session

3.3 Introduce training topic to learners 3.3 21,22 14

3.4 Explain the training and assessment activities 3.4 23 15


involved in the training session

3.5 Present training session 3.5 24,25,26 16

3.6 Provide opportunities for learners to practice 3.6 27 17


skills

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Assessment matrix

Work Written Oral


Projects Questions Questions

3.7 Provide feedback to learners 3.7 28,29 18

3.8 Ensure on-going safety of learners during 3.8 30 19


training delivery and practice

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Glossary

Glossary
Term Explanation

Anxiety Distress or uneasiness of mind caused by fear of failure

Assessment The act of assessing; appraisal; evaluation

Attendance The persons or number of persons present

Manner, feeling, position, with regard to a person or thing;


Attitude
tendency or orientation, especially of the mind

Autonomous Independent, no control from others

Behaviour Manner of acting in response to internal and external stimuli

A list of items, as names or tasks, for comparison,


Checklist
verification, or other checking purposes

Clarify To make clear, understood

To examine (two or more objects, ideas, people, etc.) in order


Comparing
to note similarities and differences:

The demonstrated ability to consistently perform discrete


Competency
tasks under specified conditions to an agreed standard.

Advice; opinion or instruction given in directing the judgment


Counselling
or conduct of another

Data Pieces of information

Documents A written or printed paper furnishing information or evidence

Enhancement To rise to a higher level or understanding

That which tends to prove or disprove something; ground for


Evidence
belief; proof

Information, reaction or response to a particular process or


Feedback
activity

Format The organization, plan or style

Generic General

Immediacy Urgency, need to be done immediately

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Glossary

Term Explanation

Understanding of facts, truths, or principles, as from study or


Knowledge
investigation

Liaise To talk and discuss

Literacy Ability to read and write

Numeracy Ability to calculate

Objective Aim, end result

Performance The execution or accomplishment of work, acts, feats, etc

Performance assessment The activity of evaluating a person‟s performance

Performance appraisal The act of estimating or judging a person‟s performance

Performance indicator The expected level of desired performance

Policy A rule or guideline of expected performance

Principles An accepted or professed rule of action or conduct

A specified step by step guide how an activity is to be


Procedure
conducted

Sequencing The logical order in which something is done

Skill The ability to do something well

Standard The desired level of performance

Task An activity required to be completed

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Element 1: Determine training requirements

Element 1:
Determine training requirements
1.1 Identify current competencies of learners
Introduction
The purpose of any organisation is to provide an expected level of
service to its customers. Every business will have their own type
and style of service that it provides to ensure it is unique and
different to other offerings in the marketplace. Regardless of the
style of service, who provides service will remain the same
amongst all businesses, regardless of size, location or industry. It
is staff – the most important aspect of any business.
In order for staff to be able to deliver the expected service they
must:
Know what the service standards are
Have the competencies to be able to deliver the service standards.

Competency
Competence is the demonstrated ability to consistently perform discrete tasks under
specified conditions to an agreed standard.
Competency comprises knowledge and skills and the consistent application of that
knowledge and skills to the standard of performance required in employment.
Competency can be defined as the ability to do something. In order to do something a
person will require a combination of three things:
Knowledge – called the cognitive domain. These are the „head‟
skills such as what people think and their level of knowledge
Skill – called the psychomotor domain. These are the „hand‟
skills such as what people can do
Attitude – called the affective domain. These are the „heart‟
skills such as what people feel.
Training is a key to being able to develop the competencies of staff.
Every organisation will have dedicated training programs aimed at
ensuring all staff are able to develop their competency levels to meet the desired
standards.
Lots of on-the-job training will be skill-related, but nearly every training event has a need
to include coverage of the attitude and knowledge areas, too.
In the hospitality industry where customer interaction and service is vital, it is not enough
to be able to perform a practical task. It is equally important to be able to accompany the
skill with the right interpersonal skills that are all attitude-based.

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Element 1: Determine training requirements

As the current competency levels of staff are as varied and different as the staff
themselves, the level of participation in different training initiatives will also vary.
Training is only valuable if it enables the participant to learn. If a staff member already is
competent in a certain area of knowledge, skill or attitude, any training in this area will not
be beneficial.

Identifying current competencies of learners


Before staff will be called upon to undertake training, a manager must
identify if a learning need exists.
This involves understanding:
Current competencies of learners (explained in this section)
Comparing them against expected competency standards (explained
in the next section).
The ways in which you can capture the necessary information about competencies of
learners include:
Review their personnel file
One way of identifying competencies of learners is to review background information
about each learner. Information contained in their personnel file will provide sound
background information including:
Resume – their resume will give a „snapshot‟ of what they
have achieved in their professional life to date and is a
great starting point in understanding a learner
Current qualifications - check to see the qualifications they
hold, how long ago they were obtained and where they
were obtained
Training programs completed - check their attendance at current training and look at
the progress they have made with other in-house training situations
Length of employment – the longer the person has been employed, normally will lead
to the assumption that they have higher competency levels
Structure of employment – what is their job role, have they changed jobs, have they
had exposure to multi-skilling
Awards and comments – the file may contain guest comment cards either positive or
negative, managers may have constructed comments or awards may have been
issued
Performance appraisal information – this document provides extensive and detailed
information relating to the current competency levels of a learner in all aspects of their
job.

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Talk to people:
Talking to people is a great way to get current information regarding
the competency levels of a learner. Some documents located in the
learner file may be outdated or not descriptive enough to identify true
competency, therefore speaking with others will also help answer any
remaining questions. People to talk to include:
Talk to the learner – ask them about their training history, their
preferences and their attitude to learning in the workplace: find out
what, if any, obstacles stand in the way of their workplace learning (factors such as
family commitments, sport and other learning activities)
Speak to other trainers – What can they tell you about the learners? Based on their
experiences, where are possible strengths and weaknesses?
Speak to other supervisors who have delivered training – what information can they
give you about what seems to work and not work with certain staff, in their experience.
Observation
One of the most effective ways to determine and understand a learner‟s
competency level is to observe what the learner is able to do.
This may be done by the trainer or another suitable person.
Trainer collecting competency evidence
This is most common form of conducting the observation and collection
of evidence.
The trainer may wish to notify the learner or may wish to do it without their knowledge to
gather a true understanding of competency.
The trainer may use a checklist or other documents to help identify current competency
levels.
Two examples of checklists to record competency have been
included on the next pages as examples. These checklists are
based on the role of a waiter and are designed to record
competency in two aspects:
a) Example A – identifies all competencies required by a waiter
b) Example B – identifies specific competencies relating to the
service cycle
As you can see, these checklists are prepared in a format that is easy to use, whilst still
providing an area for specific comment.
The marking is aimed at what percentage of specific criteria they are competent in. As
different staff within a department will have different skill levels, it focuses on what staff
can successfully do and what still needs to be achieved for full competency.

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Waiter Competency Checklist – All Competencies

% of competency in task
Competency Task Comment
25% 50% 75% 100%

Restaurant layout

Hours of operation

Company knowledge

General knowledge

Food and beverage knowledge

Restaurant knowledge

Waiters priorities

Section awareness

Restaurant awareness

Phone answering

Opening and closing procedures

Docket writing

Service cycle

Station Set-up

Problem resolution

Cashiering

Waiters tools

General service

Bussing

Resetting

Reading guests

Co-ordination of large groups

Work Management

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Waiter Competency Checklist - Specific Competency

Service cycle

% of competency in task
Competency Task Comment
25% 50% 75% 100%

Check dining and restaurant area

Restaurant area

Waiter station

Reception area

Bathrooms

Prepare and adjust the dining area (ambience and comfort)

Temperature

Lighting

Smell

Music

Table decorations

Set up furniture

Positioning

Number on each table

Table numbers

Allocation of waiters

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Element 1: Determine training requirements

% of competency in task
Competency Task Comment
25% 50% 75% 100%

Check and prepare equipment

Coffee area

Tea area

Cutlery

Crockery

Glassware

Condiments

Napkins

Waiter Station

Verify menu

Type of menu

Daily specials

Buffet menu items

Prepare and set tables

Types of covers

Place table linen

Dress tables

Check cleanliness prior to service

Remove, clean or replace items

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Element 1: Determine training requirements

% of competency in task
Competency Task Comment
25% 50% 75% 100%

Welcome customers

Greet customer

Observe special needs

Take coats and jackets

Check reservation

Offer pre-meal services

Escort and seat customers

Present menus and drinks lists

Provide food information

Take and process orders

Making recommendations

Answer customer questions

Take orders

Record orders

Relay information to kitchen or bar

Operate ordering systems

Provide and adjust glassware and cutlery

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Element 1: Determine training requirements

% of competency in task
Competency Task Comment
25% 50% 75% 100%

Serve & clear food and drinks

Collect food and beverage selections

Monitor flow of service

Recognise and follow up delays

Advise and reassure customers

Serve food and beverage

Check customer satisfaction

Offer additional food and beverage

Clear tables

Organise and present accounts

Process accounts

Farewell guests

Close down restaurant / dining area

Store and/or prepare equipment

Clean, clear or dismantle area

Set up area for next shift

Review and evaluate services

Provide handover to new shift

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Others collecting competency evidence


If the observation was conducted by another person, the
trainer will need to collect any documents, checklists and
any other supporting evidence that comprises the
observation.
They may wish to let the person know in advance of when
the documentation will be required.
This information collection process may also include a brief meeting to verbally exchange
information or comments not suitable for inclusion in written documentation.
Assessments
A trainer may wish to give a learner a range of assessment tasks to identify their current
competency levels. These assessments may include:
Written or verbal questions
Demonstration
Project or assignment
Portfolio of work.
Once the true competency of learners has been identified, trainers must now identify the
required competencies required by learners.

1.2 Identify required competencies for learners


Introduction
Workplace training and assessment is competency-based.
This means successful completion of training requires the
learners to be able to demonstrate competency in the
areas in which they are being trained.
As a trainer, you need to know what these competencies
are. The competencies to be achieved must be driven by
the workplace process and context. This means that you
train learners to be able to do the job as required in your
workplace.
These competencies may be available in written form within your business but, in many
cases, there are no written competencies. These workplace competencies simply exist in
practice only and it will be part of your job to produce them in hard copy form.

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Benefits of identifying desired competency standards


The benefits of identifying very clearly what the required competencies are include:
Knowing the standards or levels to which work has to be completed – in practice,
many workplace tasks can be efficiently and effectively
undertaken without a need for, for example, 100% accuracy
at all times. The key being that you only need train staff to the
standard required by your workplace
Knowing the competencies required provides the basis for
planning the training content
Knowing the competencies required automatically starts to
indicate the time that will be needed for training and the
physical resources that will be needed
Understand the training requirements of the business – as a
workplace trainer, you only need train staff to the standard
required by the organisation
Understand the roles and responsibilities of each staff member – so you can
determine what they need to know in order to do their job.

Methods to identify desired competency


Where you need to determine exactly what competencies apply to your business, the
recommended procedure is to develop your own based on a combination of the following:
Observing workplace practice – to identify what takes place, to
determine what learners need to know, to understand the
context and the workplace pressures that apply
Reading various workplace documents – such as standard
operating procedures, Job Analysis Sheets, job descriptions, job
roles and responsibilities, company policies, product
specifications and existing training materials
Talking to management – to identify their needs, wants and
preferences in relation to how staff need to perform certain
tasks and to identify their expectations of the training
Talking to staff – to identify what they believe are important
parts of the job, to identify the acceptable and safe industry practices including in-
house short cuts and techniques that are practised in the workplace
Talking to subject experts – within most businesses there will be certain staff who are
seen as experts in certain areas. These can be senior staff, experienced workers or
people with special expertise and training. You should talk to these people and use
them as reference points for preparing and delivering training.

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Performance standards
As well as understanding the required competencies staff
members must have, it is essential that trainers understand what
the acceptable performance standards are for each of these
competencies.
Each competency will have a standard of performance that is
required to be met by the employee undertaking that job.
These standards should be linked to the organisation‟s
competitive strategies which, once achieved, would allow for the
organisation to achieve its objectives and goals.
Performance standards are targets and as such, where possible, should be expressed
objectively. That means expressing the standard in quantifiable terms such as:
The waiting time before presentation of the menu
The number of tables to be covered
How a room should be cleaned
Time taken to set up
Deadlines for reports
Turnover targets.

Where do performance standards come from?


Performance standard represent the level of performance and behaviour necessary for
the job to be done successfully.
Performance standards can be determined by taking into account a variety of things such
as:
Personal observation of actual practice – either in the venue or at some other venue
Past performance records
Time-work studies
Production and technical information
Industry standards
Consultation with employees
Benchmarking (best practice).

Job behaviour standards


As well as having performance standards for the various jobs, an organisation will also
have job behaviour standards for employees. These behaviour standards, when met,
ensure the individual behaves in a manner that also allows others to achieve their job
standards. This allows the organisation to retain consistency throughout its operations.
Behavioural standards are most often found in an organisation‟s policies and should
outline those behaviours that are expected and those that are unsuitable.

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However, some behavioural standards are implicit. That is, they might not necessarily be
told to the employee, but any reasonable person would expect the employee to behave in
certain ways.
Implicit behavioural objectives might only be discovered when they are broken and may
need a resulting policy to ensure others do not repeat the undesirable behaviour. For
example, staff smoking at the side door in view of guests.
It is worth noting that job behaviour standards must be work related. That is, you must be
able to prove that the behaviour is a necessary part of success in the job or organi-sation.
A behaviour standard must not reflect an irrelevant personal characteristic; otherwise your
organisation would be guilty of discrimination. This might particularly be relevant in the
area of personal grooming, where standards concerning weight and height would be
discriminatory unless you could prove they are a bona fide job requirement.
Similarly, managers need to be careful that while their organisation might not accept
certain behaviours, local governments and regulatory boards may take a different view.
For example, while your organisation might say it requires females to wear light make-up,
this may not be considered fair in terms of local regulations or laws that may state an
employee should wear no make-up.
In the same way, organisations may need to be careful in dictating that males should not
wear earrings. Males wearing ear-rings would now be considered acceptable by society in
general and in no way suggests a person is of ill repute or cannot deliver a service to a
public standard.

Examples of standards of performance


Standards of performance may be developed in relation to:
Productivity
Food waiters may be expected to serve X number of
people per service session
Room attendants may be expected to service X check-out or stay rooms per hour or
per shift.
Punctuality
Employees may be expected to attend ready for work 100% of the time according to
their rostered hours.
Personal presentation
Staff may be required to meet the stated dress standards for their gender 100% of the
time.
Level of accuracy in work performed
Employees engaged in processing transactions may be required to do so with total
accuracy
Some staff may be given a set percentage/dollar value of deviation in their
calculations which is deemed acceptable.

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Adherence to procedures
The venue may expect staff to adhere to written
policies and procedures 100% of the time.
Customer service standards
Service staff may be required to use standard
phrases, greetings and farewells at all times
Employees answering the telephone may be
required to answer the phone within 3 rings every time.
Team interaction
Team members may be required to „actively participate‟ in team meetings.
Response times/waiting times
Waiting staff may be required to greet and seat guests
within 1 minute of their arrival
Drink staff may be required to take a drink order from
a table within 3 minutes of guests being seated
Room service staff may be required to deliver room
service meals within a nominated timeframe.
Waste minimisation
Kitchen staff may be required to return X% of useable product from every kilogram of
raw material.
Cost minimisation
Bar staff may be required to always use a nominated „pour‟ brand for all spirits where
a specific brand name is not called for.
Now that we have identified the current competencies of staff and those required by the
organisation, it is now time to compare them and identify where a training gap exists.

1.3 Describe the training gap for learners


Training Gap
The difference between actual and required performance is known as
„the training gap‟, and this gap forms the basis for training aimed at
raising performance to the required standard.
In order to see what training gap exists, it is important to compare the
current competency level against the desired competency standards
and then see where a training gap exists.

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Element 1: Determine training requirements

Identify the standard


The previous section has identified a range of competency and performance standards
that may exist in a hospitality business. As a reminder, these standards may come from:
Job descriptions
Job Specifications
Key Performance Indicators
Policies and Procedures
Performance Indicators.
Comparing actual competency against desired competency
standard
Comparing actual learner competency against the desired
competency standards requires the trainer to use the facts
and to be specific.
When comparing, ensure the standards are up-to-date, or if
it is a behaviour problem, trainers should check the actual
wording of the policy or procedure which defines desirable
and undesirable behaviour.
This comparison may require trainers to compare all the documents, checklist notes and
meeting comments compiled in the research stage against a range of organisational
documents.
Finally, managers need to be confident about using their judgement. The manager is paid
by the organisation to do so and therefore required to do so. The organisation has
confidence in their judgement.

Identify and understand differences between actual competency


and the desired competency standard
Actual competency above the desired standard
In this case, no training will be required as the person understands
and has proven to be of an acceptable standard.
Actual competency below the desired standard
This is the most important aspect of the comparison as it will not
only identify in which competencies a person requires improvement,
but in which specific areas.
When starting to identify a training gap it is vital to understand the
cause of the gap as training alone may not be enough to solve the
problem.
Employee deficiencies in the workplace can be attributed to either poor work performance
or poor work behaviour.

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Both need to be identified and corrected if the organisation is to achieve its goals. It is the
frontline or immediate supervisor who carries this responsibility.
In essence it may not be the staff member‟s fault for the poor performance.
Regardless of what has caused the poor performance the reason must be identified so
management can make necessary changes.

Sources of substandard competency levels


Before training an employee it is worth considering the likely
causes of work problems.
These sources may come from:
Employee qualities
These sources stem from the employee themselves and can
include:
Problems of capacity, where the employee does not have the
required aptitude or orientation for the tasks involved in the
job, defects of judgement or memory
Family related problems, such as marital problems, children,
elderly dependant relatives, money problems, isolation from
family
Psychological problems, such as drug abuse (including alcohol), gambling, irrational
fears, depression, aggressive behaviour stemming from self image problems
Physical problems, such as lack of energy, restricted movement, pain or illness.
Organisational sources
The origin of poor performance in the employee can sometimes be attributed to the
organisation. These could include:
Problems with higher decisions and policies, such as a person placed in the wrong
position, insufficient organisational action over a grievance, organisational over-
permissiveness (that is, everyone else does it so why shouldn‟t I?)
Impact of supervisors, such as leadership style, bad communication or instruction,
inappropriate managerial standards or criteria, discrimination and a lack of managing
diversity
Problems with peers, such as harassment, bullying, problems with team cohesion and
acceptance, discrimination and hazing (peers not telling the employee everything they
need to know to do their job)
Problems from the work context, such as geographic location, bad physical work
environment, unsafe conditions and work processes, problems with the way the job is
performed.

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External sources
These are problems an employee can have that stem from society and its values. These
include situations where society‟s values clash with the job (for example, working in the
gaming industry in a community that dislikes gambling, even selling tobacco):
Clashes with moral or religious issues: working on certain days, assisting guests with
certain unsavoury requests
Changing economic conditions: economic uncertainty of rising interest rates or
impending legislation that appears to create job insecurity.
Considerations
Before starting to prepare training programs the trainer needs to
consider:
What are the symptoms and what are the likely causes?
If the causes are internal to the organisation, and are not
addressed, the organisation may become responsible for further
future problems which develop
Identify whether you are dealing with a work performance
problem, such as not achieving targets or objectives, or a work
behaviour problem, such as their work might be fine, but their
behaviour in the workplace is inappropriate.

Identifying training gap


In essence, a training gap is where training is required to bring a person‟s current
competence level to the desired standard.
Whilst the actual activities in the previous sections have helped to identify training gaps,
there are other ways to identify specific training gaps for each staff member, resulting
from one or more of the following:
New employees joining the business – requiring basic
induction and orientation training to show them the ropes
and teach them the basics before they begin dealing with
the public
A request from a staff member – stating that they are
uncertain about what to do, have been having difficulties
with certain procedures or are facing a new task for the
first time and want some help about what to do
Personal observation of staff practice – you may have
seen staff attempting a task and realised they need help.
This was explained in the previous section
Customer complaint – you may have received a complaint from a customer that a staff
member was incompetent in some way (either in their attitude, their practical skills or a
lack of knowledge) and that complaint can be the basis of training (coupled with your
own observations and knowledge of the staff member concerned)

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Workplace errors – this may be identified by checking the finished product a worker
produces, checking the documentation they complete to identify errors or omission in
calculations or billing. noting when the wrong service or product is delivered in
response to customer requests
Changes in workplace equipment – when upgraded equipment is
introduced into the workplace there is usually a need for training
Changes in procedures – where the business introduces a new
procedure or wants to vary an existing procedure, there is again
a potential need for training
Changes in legal requirements – whenever a law changes that
impacts on workplace performance there is commonly also a
need for training to inform staff about the changed legal
obligations that apply to them. This training may simply be
updating their knowledge about a certain area, or it can be a
need to obtain or renew a mandatory certificate, licence, etc. to
comply with legislated requirements
Training Needs Analysis Form – this is a form that can be given to staff members for
them to identify what training may be beneficial to them. Please see the following
pages for an example of this form.

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Training Needs Analysis Form


The organisation now has a new training department and we want your input. We want to listen to
what you have to say so we can develop a staff training program based on your needs. With our
training we are looking to making our organisation an extremely professional, efficient and enjoyable
place to work. This will reflect on our customers through satisfaction, happiness and positive
feedback. Continual training, updating your industry knowledge and practicing new skills, or refining
old ones, will ensure that we will achieve our goal. We would appreciate if you could answer the
following questions honestly.
Please return this survey to your manager by the end of the week.

Name (optional): ___________________________ Date: _____/_____/_____

Position: _____________________________ Department: __________________

How long have you worked for the organisation? _______________________________

Please indicate your level of Strongly Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly


agreement with each of the following Agree Disagree
statements.

1. The company values you

2. I am proud to work for this


organisation

3. There are clear goals for career


progression at this company

4. My job requirements are clean

5. I am interested in my job

6. I am motivated to see the company


succeed

7. Overall how satisfied are you with


your current position at this
company

Answer yes or no to the following questions: Yes No

8. Have you attended a staff induction?

9. Did you receive and read a staff handbook?

10 Would you like to see a staff rewards program?

Yes How would you like to be rewarded? ____________________________________

No Why not? ________________________________________________________

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11. Would you like to progress within the company?

12. Would you like to cross train by working in another department?

13. Are you interested in completing a training qualification where you


receive a nationally recognised certificate at no cost to you?

14. Would training help you do your job better?

Please give us your opinion:

15. What training will help you with your current job?

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

16. What do you like best about your job?

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

17. What do you like least about your job?

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

18. What can we do to make your job better?

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

Is there anything else you would like to tell us?

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

Thank you for taking the time to complete this survey.

Once we have collected this survey we will be talking to staff to get further information. In the near
future we will be letting you know more about what is on offer. We look forward to training and
working with you.

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Clarifying training gap


As mentioned, the purpose of training is to bring a competency up to the desired
standard. In essence each competency has what is known as four dimensions.
These are broken up into:
Task Skills – What is the acceptable level at which an individual carries out a task; for
example, can they operate a fax machine?
Task Management Skills - Being able to do a number of tasks simultaneously such
as serving people in a shop and answering the phone
Contingency Management Skills – An ability to respond and react when things go
wrong, for example when there is a computer malfunction on a busy day
Job or Role and Environment skills – Understanding and fulfilling the
responsibilities of the workplace.
Based on all the information collected, analysed and compared in the sections to date, a
range of training gaps may be identified.

1.4 Confirm the identified training gap with


relevant personnel
Introduction
Once the training gaps have been identified it is important that they are approved with the
relevant personnel. Development of training programs take time and it is important that
the necessary approval is given, or suggestions for improvement made, before too much
time is spent developing a program that is not relevant, inappropriate or simply not
required.

Relevant personnel
The role of training normally falls under a specific training department or within the
domain of Human Resources. This department is designed to support operational
departments (Food & Beverage, Front Office and Housekeeping etc) achieve their goals
in providing quality customer service, operational efficiency and financial success.
Human Resources
The Human Resources department themselves will have a
limited amount of resources in which to conduct training for
the entire organisation and therefore training programs must
be prioritised in terms of:
Training budget
Priority of training programs
Training staff
Availability of training rooms and resources.

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Operational Managers
Whilst training may be the responsibility of the training
department to organise, prepare or conduct, the objectives
of the programs and training delivered must reflect the
expectations of the operational departments.
Therefore it is vital that once the training gaps have been
identified, that they are confirmed with managers of specific
departments to ensure they agree with the findings and are happy for the training
department to proceed with developing training programs based on these.

1.5 Determine support available for training


provision
Introduction
When planning a training program for a hotel, it is important to remember that there will be
a complex mix of training to be conducted comprising different:
Competencies
Dimensions of competencies
Training styles
Equipment and resources
Locations.
One training person cannot and is not expected to undertake all training by themself. At
some stage support will be needed, across resources within and external to the
organisation.
It is important for a trainer to determine early in the planning process at what levels and to
what degree they need the support and assistance of others.

Check own level of competency


If a trainer is considering delivering instruction and demonstrations to staff, they have to
be able to do it competently.
They have to be absolutely sure that training to be done reflects workplace needs and
practice. Their techniques and knowledge have to be absolutely spot on.
Their inability to deliver training comprehensively and
correctly at all times, will negatively impact on the
effectiveness of the training and destroy their workplace
reputation amongst staff.
Most training professionals may have the necessary
training skills to deliver a program, but may be weak in
the operational and technical content within the training
programs themselves.

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Therefore, if they believe their competencies are not what they should be, they really only
have two options:
Arrange for some training for themselves so that you can get up-to-speed with what is
required
Get someone else to provide the training for staff.

Seeking support
In reality there will be a distinct possibility that any trainer will need assistance to deliver
some workplace training.
When this occurs, it is important they understand this does not negatively reflect on their
competence or ability. As stated, no-one can ever know everything and no-one is capable
of training all staff in everything they need to know.
When they identify a situation where assistance is required – they need to get it!
If a trainer identifies a situation where they need help and fail to obtain it, then that
indicates their incompetence!
Assistance can come in many forms, so trainers must be alert to what best suits each set
of circumstances as they arise.

Location of support
Support may come from other people:
Inside the organisation including Human Resources and training
personnel, managers, supervisors or senior staff
Outside the organisation including professional trainers, equipment
suppliers or specialist personnel such as medical practitioners.

Types of support
A trainer may wish to seek support in a variety of ways including:
Contacting an expert to obtain their verbal input to the upcoming training. They might
ask them to identify what needs to be delivered, get them to clarify recent legal
changes that apply to their area, ask them to provide you with workplace illustrations
of various aspects of the training. This expert can be a worker from within the
organisation, an outside consultant, a government official or someone from head
office, an industry body or a support industry
Arranging for someone else to deliver the training – this can be
another in-house staff member (the „subject expert‟, a previous
learner who has proved themselves to be extremely competent,
or a supervisor), or it can be a professional trainer from an
external training provider. It may also be someone from a
supplier organisation. For example, if you have had new
equipment installed in the store, the best person to provide the
training might be a trainer from the business who supplied the
equipment

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Arranging for guest speakers – to come in and supplement the basic training you
deliver
Arranging external events – such as taking learners on a field trip to another business,
a supplier, or an industry conference or seminar
Obtaining training materials that someone else has prepared.

1.6 Present recommendations for training


Introduction
Now that the trainer has a fair idea as to what future training needs are they need to be
confirmed and then approved by all involved parties.
Two important things to remember about any training are:
Preparation is the key
Effective training takes time.

Importance of preparation
No effective training can ever occur without adequate preparation. The Five Ps rule of
training is: Proper Preparation Prevents Poor Performance‟.
In the majority of cases, the success or failure of any training session is determined well
before the training actually begins.
Effective training can never be achieved without an appropriate amount of time being
made available for it. Professional trainers in institutes are allocated up to three hours of
time for every one hour of training delivery, because the out-of-training tasks demand
more than twice the time taken in conducting the training sessions.
Preparation includes:
Identifying individual and group training objectives
Deciding generic and technical skills, knowledge and attitudes
for inclusion in training
Developing a training program learning plan - determining
exactly what needs to be covered in the training program and
in what sequence the training content will be covered
Creating training session plans that sets out how the individual
training sessions will unfold. This identifies how you will
introduce the session, make explanations, illustrate points, the time that each portion
of the session will take, scripted questions you will ask, demonstrations and other
activities you will engage in, how you will finish the session, and how you will
determine whether or not learners have achieved the stated outcomes or objectives
for the training
Preparing training resources and materials
Preparing training venue
Delivering program.

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The importance of proper preparation in the successful conduct of any training cannot be
overemphasised. ‘If you fail to plan, you plan to fail’.
Proper planning before the training session commences means that you can focus 100%
on training the learners – during the session your mind is not distracted by worrying
whether or not everything will go as you want it to go, because you know it will – because
you have planned it that way.
Training takes time
Not only does the physical training session take time, but there is a substantial time
commitment required prior to the training taking place. This is, of course, the planning and
preparation that have already been mentioned.
The lesson here is that if you are expected to do your normal workplace duties plus do
training on top of those, there must be a realistic allocation of time for the training duties.
You can never succeed in long-term effective workplace training if there is no realistic
time release to do the necessary preparation and actual training.

Training objectives
The objectives for the training can be seen as what you achieve as a result of the training.
Care needs to be taken to ensure that the issue will be addressed by training.
Training delivery commonly has to have a focus on individual training objectives and
group training objectives.
Individual objectives
The focus here is on providing training as required by individual
staff members. This takes into account that potentially every
worker has individual workplace learning needs.
For example, you may have a very technically competent
employee who is brilliant at operational matters, but lacking in
customer relations skills; or you may have a worker who needs
attention in terms of one aspect of one task in order to bring their competency level up to
what is required by the business.
When addressing individual objectives, the reality is that every training session of this
type is unique in nature. Not only must the training address the identified individual need,
but as we have seen, it must also factor in the individual learning style preferences of the
learner.
Group objectives
These are training objectives established by the business as being
necessary for all staff in a certain work role to attain competency
in.
Commonly, training is required to deliver this training early in the
career of the worker. These objectives, while generic in nature,
may have to be delivered on an individual basis or they may be
able to be delivered in a group setting.

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For example, a new intake of multiple staff may receive generic training as a group,
whereas when a single staff member joins the organisation the generic training will be
provided one-on-one.
Examples of group objectives can include:
Functioning as part of a workplace team performing the workplace duties as required
in a particular department of the business
Liaising and cooperating with other departments or individuals within the organisation
so that proper integration of activities occurs
Recognising what the goals of the business are for individual departments and
understanding the strategies that are in place to enable attainment of those goals.
Gathering and checking the training objectives
Every workplace is subject to change – procedures change, equipment changes over time
and legal requirements change.
When gathering together the objectives for your training it is vital you check the objectives
to ensure they are:
Current – to guard against providing training on something
that is now out-of-date
Reflective of workplace practice – your training is intended
to make staff competent in your workplace so it needs to
focus on what actually happens in the workplace
Complete – ensuring that no important steps, processes,
pieces of information, checks, etc. are missing
Correctly sequenced – so as to follow the sequence of activities in the workplace
Legal – that is, they are compliant with any legislated obligations that apply. This
includes the need to ensure they comply with relevant OHS requirements
Pitched at the correct level – meaning there is a need to ensure that staff are trained
only to the degree required by the workplace standards and levels of quality, service,
etc. that apply. Note that in some businesses these standards may vary between
departments or sites and may even fluctuate depending on seasonal influences.
The intention of these checks is to ensure that you, as the trainer, are
quite clear about what the learners are expected to achieve so that
you can adequately plan the training delivery to achieve those end
results.
How do you check the training objectives?
Whilst you will have a good understanding of what the required
competency standards would be through the activities described in
section 1.2, the training objectives may differ to these. For example a
training objective may focus on one or two specific dimensions of a
job, not an entire competency itself.
There may be a nominated process for this in your workplace, but the following is a
recommended procedure where no formal checking procedure is in place:
Observe the work that is being done – take notes to record what is being done, how it
is being done, what equipment is being used, what workplace pressures apply, and
what workplace limitations apply

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Speak to the people doing the work – get their input


on what the task requires, what the common
problems are and what issues impact the workplace
performance of these tasks
Use your own experience – often the trainer is
regarded as having appropriate workplace
experience
Have the knowledge to perform the tasks that staff
are being trained in, so don‟t be afraid to refer to your personal knowledge and
expertise to provide a foundation
Check with relevant authorities – where appropriate,
contact the relevant government office and speak to
personnel there about what is currently required in
terms of compliance issues
Speak to supervisors – get their input about the job and
find out what their expectations are about what workers
must be able to do
Speak to management – find out what they believe should be included in the training.
Often they will have valuable input to make regarding future directions of the business
and how those new directions might impact on training content.
When you have finished gathering information about the
training objectives, you should:
Prepare written training objectives – if they have not
already been prepared
Present your newly written (or revised) training
objectives to staff and management – to get feedback
about whether or not those objectives will achieve what
everyone wants.

Decide generic and technical skills, knowledge and attitudes for


inclusion in training
Generic skills
Generic skills are skills that most staff are required to have in accordance with their
nominated workplace roles and responsibilities.
Generic skills can be used anywhere throughout the organisation and are seen as the
basis for operations and the foundation for training in technical skills.
Examples of generic skills are:
Showing knowledge of company policies and
procedures through workplace behaviour
Completing internal documentation
Answering the phone
Responding to an emergency.

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Technical skills
Technical skills are the hands-on operational skills required by workers to perform their
allocated workplace duties. These skills are not necessarily technical in nature – that is,
they often do not involve the use of „technology‟ as such.
These technical skills relate to the individual workplace functions such as:
Cleaning a room
Making a coffee
Preparing a dessert
Checking in a guest.
Generic and technical skills may be delivered one-on-one or in a
group setting. Factors that will all combine to determine whether the
training is group-based or individual include the size of the business,
the numbers of staff involved, their availability, the urgency of the
need for training and the existing levels of knowledge possessed by
individuals .
Dimensions of competency
Although mentioned in Section 1.3 it is important to remember each competency has four
dimensions which must be considered in deciding what is to be included in a training
session.
These are broken up into:
Task Skills
Task Management Skills
Contingency Management Skills
Job/Role/Environment skills.
The next section will look at the development of specific training and learning plans.

Presenting recommendations
Now that the training objectives and competencies for development have been
determined, like in Section 1.4 this information must be presented to the relevant people
for any suggestions or approval to continue.

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Work Projects
It is a requirement of this Unit you complete Work Projects as advised by your Trainer.
You must submit documentation, suitable evidence or other relevant proof of completion
of the project to your Trainer by the agreed date.

1.1 To fulfil the requirements of this Work Project you are asked to research how to
identify current competencies of learners

1.2 To fulfil the requirements of this Work Project you are asked to research how to
identify required competencies of learners including:

Methods to identify desired competency


Performance standards
Where performance standards come from
Job behaviour standards.

1.3 To fulfil the requirements of this Work Project you are asked to research how to
describe the training gap for learners including:

How to identify the standard


Comparing actual competency against desired competency standard
Identify and understand differences between actual competency and the desired
competency standard
Sources of substandard competency levels
Identifying training gap
Clarifying training gap.

1.4 To fulfil the requirements of this Work Project you are asked to research how to
confirm the identified training gap with relevant personnel

1.5 To fulfil the requirements of this Work Project you are asked to research how to
determine support available for training provision including:

Check own level of competency


Seeking support
Location of support
Types of support.

1.6 To fulfil the requirements of this Work Project you are asked to research how present
recommendations for training

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Summary
Determine training requirements

Identify current competencies of learners:


Competency
Identifying current competencies of learners.
Identify required competencies for learners:
Benefits of identifying desired competency standards
Methods to identify desired competency
Performance standards
Where do performance standards come from?
Job behaviour standards
Examples of standards of performance.
Describe the training gap for learners:
Training Gap
Identify the standard
Comparing actual competency against desired competency standard
Identify and understand differences between actual competency and the desired competency
standard
Sources of substandard competency levels
Considerations
Identifying training gap
Clarifying training gap.
Confirm the identified training gap with relevant personnel:
Relevant personnel.
Determine support available for training provision:
Check own level of competency
Seeking support
Location of support
Types of support.
Present recommendations for training:
Importance of preparation
Training objectives
Decide generic and technical skills, knowledge and attitudes for inclusion in training
Presenting recommendations.

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Element 2: Prepare training plan

Element 2:
Prepare training plan
2.1 Develop session outlines for approved
training
Introduction
Now that you, as the trainer, may have received the approval to develop and prepare
the training program, there are many considerations that need to be addressed to
ensure that the training programs are suitable to the audience.
As mentioned, success of the training program is greatly influenced by the
effectiveness of the preparation. As a trainer you must ensure all necessary factors are
taken into account.

What is to be achieved through training?


Training is about developing a knowledge, skill or attitude.
These have been discussed previously. The dimensions of
these include:
Task Skills
Task Management Skills
Contingency Management Skills
Job or Role and Environment skills.
Stating outcomes
In the previous section we explored the concept of setting training objectives. When
preparing programs it is important that each learning program and each individual
session has an outcome in which you would like participants to achieve.
At this point you also need to carefully consider the outcomes you require from your
training. It is important that these are clearly stated upfront and can be observed and
measured when the time comes so that you are confident that the skill, knowledge and
attitude gap has been adequately addressed.
This process can be remembered through the points of:

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Imagine that you were training someone in how to make a cup of tea. Your outcome
statement or range statement might sound something like this:

“At the end of this training session you should be


able to make a cup of tea to enterprise standards
for a range of people within an acceptable time
frame for your organisation”

Sequencing and immediacy


As a trainer, you need to be aware of the sequencing requirements for training delivery.
There needs to be a logical sequencing of activities and topics within a learning plan
and individual training sessions.
For example, you need to ensure learners understand all the OHS issues before
starting to work with potentially dangerous equipment and procedures. This is one
example of the need for proper sequencing of training.
Knowledge that is required before moving to another topic is
called prerequisite knowledge. Where there is a need for
prerequisite knowledge, it is compulsory, not optional.
Another example is the workplace need for sequential
knowledge. For instance, in order for a customer service operator
to become proficient in their job, they will have to have product
knowledge, selling skills and the ability to use the cash register.
All these skills cannot be obtained at the one time, so there is a
need to sequence them by placing them in priority order
according to workplace need, or to accommodate management
direction.
In many cases, skills can be seen as „ancillary‟ skills (sometimes referred to as
underpinning skills and knowledge). For example, it may be necessary for certain staff
to have competencies in the areas of cleaning, legislated responsibilities, stock control
and security to supplement their normal day-to-day duties.
While all of these things are important, it may be up to you to determine their priority in
terms of when they are delivered within the overall training context for the business.
Different businesses will have different priorities. This could be based on their location,
number of staff, previous experiences and customer profiles.
Immediacy is a constant given in most workplace training. The need for training is
rarely something that can be deferred to a later date: it needs to be done now, in most
cases.

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Element 2: Prepare training plan

This said there will always be some training requirements that are more urgent than
others. The need to meet externally imposed compliance training requirements such as
health issues, food safety, OHS, restrictions on sales, obtaining proof of age from
purchasers, fair trading provisions, etc are always top of the list, but other immediate
training needs include:
Training someone immediately to replace a staff
member who has left, failed to arrive for work, or gone
home sick
Training someone to replace someone who has been
promoted or fired
Training extra staff to meet identified instances of
above average trade – which may be related to sales or promotions, or may be
related to holiday periods and seasonal influences
Training staff to operate new equipment – which may have been installed overnight
and needs to be operational as soon as possible to support the operation of the
business
Training staff in order to respond to operational issues that arise – this might
include immediate short-term training to allow staff to cope with equipment
malfunction or breakdown, or training staff to respond to some emergency that has
impacted the store such as fire, or the theft of operational equipment.
Limits of training
Training is useful in most workplace situations, but it is important that you understand
that training can never fix all workplace problems, and you have to be prepared to
notify management when you believe you are being asked to address a situation that
training alone cannot successfully fix.
For example, you may be asked by management to deliver training to staff in order to
increase profit in the business. Management may see this as a legitimate request
(despite its being extremely vague in nature), but it is possible that no amount of
brilliant training can ever achieve because:
The staff who are working in the store may have the wrong
attitude – and it is nearly impossible to change a person‟s
attitude
Products offered are not of appropriate quality and customers
won‟t buy them
Venues are closed at times when customers say they want to
buy
Departments are so busy that customers have to wait too long to
be served
The layout of the outlets are such that items have to move about
all over the place for anything to get done
The equipment being used is old and not operating efficiently.

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The point is that training is not always the answer to a workplace problem.
Sometimes you may have to advise management that other actions are needed
including changing suppliers, opening longer hours, getting rid of certain staff
members, hiring extra staff, changing the layout of the premises or buying extra or
different equipment.

Understanding the learner


One of the key considerations is understanding the learners that will be part of the
training experience. This is the most important consideration. If they are unable to learn
what is required in a training program, the whole process will be unsuccessful and a
waste of time.
Learner needs are all likely to be different
Because staff come from a wide variety of backgrounds and experiences, their
individual abilities and hence their learning needs, must also be expected to be
different.
This means that as a person providing workplace training you
must:
Get to know all your staff – where they have worked before,
what their strengths and weaknesses are, what training they
have had, what qualifications they hold, how current their
training is, and so on
Gather information about individual learner characteristics –
so you can better develop and tailor your training delivery to
suit the individual needs of the learner: see immediately
below.
A lot of this information would have been collected in Section 1.1 when current
competencies of learners would have been identified.
Not is the time to refer back to any notes so that you have a clear idea as to the
learners who will be in a training program.
Learner characteristics
Presenting the training in such a way that optimises the chance that the learner will
succeed means there is a need to know something about the people to whom you are
delivering training.
Not all learners have the same backgrounds and different people prefer to learn in
different ways. The key is to get to know each individual and cater for personal
orientations and individual differences so that you can capitalise on things rather than
try to approach all training situations and all trainees as being identical.

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Individual differences in training


Every group is made up of individuals, and trainers need to be aware that there is a
need to cater for these individual differences. This applies if you are delivering training
to a group of staff, or if you are delivering one-on-one training to individuals over a
period of time.
Trainers often wrongly assume:
Every learner at any one time is at the same stage of understanding or skill as
everyone else

If one staff member is ready to learn the next step, many trainers believe all
learners are ready for the next step. This is not necessarily true
One single method of training will be equally effective for all

Individuals have preferred learning styles. For example,


some will learn better by watching, some by doing, and
some by teaming up with someone else, some by
reading all about the task before trying it in practice.
Some will learn better if trained by another staff member
and not by the „trainer‟. Some people hate having to
perform/demonstrate in front of others and others love
doing the same thing
Every trainee will understand with equal ease

Because people are all at different levels due to their previous training, experience
and background, it is a reality that some staff will find learning more difficult, and
some will find certain training topics relatively easy
The same amount of time needs to be spent with each learner to achieve the same
result

While we don‟t want staff to think we are playing favourites with them, it is usual for
some staff to pick things up quicker than others, so it is important to spend only the
time that is necessary with each learner to achieve your training goal
New learning can be mastered by each trainee with the same amount of practice.
Experience shows no two learners are the same in their readiness for learning, their
initial understanding of the work to be learned, their rate of progress through the
training and their individual response to different training methods.
In most groups, you are likely to find some learners who are easily motivated, learn
readily and progress rapidly, while others will require a great deal of help, but still
progress at a reasonable pace. Yet again, some others will progress slowly, find
learning difficult and apparently develop little interest.
„Difficult‟ learners may be casual staff who simply see their work as a „second job‟,
treating it merely as a means to obtaining some extra money. They may see training as
a waste of time and something that unnecessarily interferes with other things they have
to do – family, sport, relationships, etc.
All of this underlines why it is important to get to know your learners before you start
training them.

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Things about the learner‟s profile that you should try to determine before the training
commences include:
Physical differences:
 Are there hearing, sight or speech problems?
 What is their level of dexterity and manipulative skills?
 Are they too short or too tall for the training arrangements?
Literacy and numeracy.

Not all adults can read or read ‟well‟ and nor can all adults handle figures with ease.

In lots of work situations, there is no requirement for the staff to be able to read in
order to get their job in the first place. But some may have literacy difficulties and
their lack of reading skills may mean we can‟t rely on the printed word as a training
source. You need to answer these questions about your trainees:
 Can they read your forms?
 Can they read internal paperwork?
 Can they price a bill?
 Can they work out the price for a list of items you
have on sale?
 Can they calculate a simple discount?
What is their socio-economic status?
 What are their aspirations?
 What support or lack of support do they get from their family?
 What other commitments (sport, family, or study) do they
have outside work?
 Does their background indicate that they value training
and see it as worthwhile?
Previous learning:
 What is their level of education and qualifications?
 What experiences have they had with in-house training?
 Will they be used to undertaking training or is this going to
be a new experience for them?
Present status:
 How long have they been employed with us?
 Is there a long history of non-promotion?
All these questions are not judgemental in nature, but simply provide background
information you can use in order to gain fuller understanding about the focus of the
training, the trainee and their motivation:
Is the training regarded as solely related to work or can it be seen also as part of a
bigger, personal development project, outside of work? The more you can relate a
workplace training topic to a staff member‟s wider life (including their life outside of
work), the better
Is the training necessary for promotion?

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Is the training required in order to keep the job?


Will the training be regarded as impinging on leisure time?
Is previous training highlighted by success or failure?
The above all indicate that trainers cannot afford simply to see learners as some group
of people who are all the same, called „trainees‟. They are all individuals, with individual
personal baggage, individual histories and individual needs.
In addition, not everyone will learn in the same way. Some will learn quicker, better or
more effectively if they read it from a book; some if they watch it on a video; some if
they practise the job alone; some if they do it in a group; some if they watch a
demonstration; some when they are trained by their peers and not by a ‟trainer‟.
This means you have to be alert to the „little things‟ about the individual and cater for
them wherever possible: not everyone will learn at the same pace, so be patient and
don‟t mentally categorise slow learners as not as competent as others.
It should always be remembered the failure of the learner to learn is as much a
comment on the trainer as it is on the learner. Perhaps more so!
Adult learners and learning
Part of being an effective instructor involves understanding
how adults learn best. Compared to children and teens,
adults have special needs and requirements as learners.
Despite the apparent truth, adult learning is a relatively
new area of study. The field of adult learning was
pioneered by Malcolm Knowles.
He identified the following characteristics of adult learners:
Adults are autonomous and self-directed.

They need to be free to direct themselves. Their teachers must actively involve
adult participants in the learning process and serve as facilitators for them.
Specifically, they must get participants' perspectives about what topics to cover and
let them work on projects that reflect their interests. They should allow the
participants to assume responsibility for presentations and group leadership. They
have to be sure to act as facilitators, guiding participants to their own knowledge
rather than supplying them with facts. Finally, they must show participants how the
class will help them reach their goals (e.g., via a personal goals sheet)
Adults have accumulated a foundation of life experiences and knowledge that may
include work-related activities, family responsibilities, and previous education.

They need to connect learning to this knowledge/experience base. To help them do


so, they should draw out participants' experience and knowledge which is relevant
to the topic. They must relate theories and concepts to the participants and
recognize the value of experience in learning
Adults are goal-oriented. Upon enrolling in a course,
they usually know what goal they want to attain. They,
therefore, appreciate an educational program that is
organized and has clearly defined elements.
Instructors must show participants how this class will
help them attain their goals. This classification of goals
and course objectives must be done early in the course

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Adults are relevancy-oriented. They must see a reason for learning something.
Learning has to be applicable to their work or other responsibilities to be of value to
them. Therefore, instructors must identify objectives for adult participants before the
course begins. This means, also, that theories and concepts must be related to a
setting familiar to participants. This need can be fulfilled by letting participants
choose projects that reflect their own interests
Adults are practical, focusing on the aspects of a lesson most useful to them in their
work. They may not be interested in knowledge for its own sake. Instructors must
tell participants explicitly how the lesson will be useful to them on the job
As do all learners, adults need to be shown respect. Instructors must acknowledge
the wealth of experiences that adult participants bring to the classroom. These
adults should be treated as equals in experience and knowledge and allowed to
voice their opinions freely in class.
How to motivate adult learners will be discussed in a later section.

The ‘self-fulfilling prophecy’ in training


As a person, the trainer will perceive trainees in the light of their own and society‟s
values, standards and beliefs. As a result, trainers develop certain expectations about
their trainees.
The „self-fulfilling prophecy‟ states that a trainer‟s expectations about a learner will
unconsciously, yet greatly, influence their approach towards that person, and their
actions towards that person, including their speech, the words used, their body
positioning or stance and non-verbal communication.
These unconscious actions and messages will greatly affect learner performance.
This occurs because a trainer‟s expectations about how a learner will perform
(essentially, whether they will succeed or fail) are highly explicit – especially in terms of
body language, praise, encouragement, time spent together, and access granted to
resources.
Trainers develop the impressions they hold about learners or staff on the basis of their
personal experience, as well as on the basis of the information they have about
individual learners.
Once these impressions are formed, trainers may be incapable or unwilling to change
them and this has possible effects for certain learners. This impact can be either
positive or negative.
Factors likely to affect trainer expectations are not always logical, important or relevant
to anything. They include, but are in no way limited to:
Learner gender
Learner race
Learner socio-economic status
Learner previous achievements
Learner personality
Learner dress
Learner tattoos
Learner beards

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Learner dress/skirt length


Learner hair colour and style
Earrings in male learners
Learner males with ponytails.
A problem arises when the trainer categorises a learner on the basis of the above
factors and then, unknowingly, is influenced by that decision.
The trainer can limit learner performance by controlling the degree of their participation,
their opportunities for learning, attention given to them, challenges offered, access to
information and resources, and the amount of praise of learning behaviours.
Thus, a trainer can increase learner performance by providing conditions to certain
staff that encourage them and hence optimise their progress.
If a trainer believes a certain learner is bright then they may be given special attention,
exposed to more challenging situations, praised more frequently, have their progress
used as an example to others, and receive extremely positive feedback.
On the other hand, a learner categorised as not quite as competent as others may not
be set certain (challenging) tasks and may have limited opportunities given to them for
practice and participation. In other words, they may not be given sufficient extra help
when it is needed, be ignored when certain explanations are given, be ignored when
questions are asked, not receive access to certain resources, and generally be given
the impression they can expect to have difficulties achieving the level of competency
required.
The training, then, has been consciously or unconsciously conducted in ways designed
to confirm trainer expectations and generally those classified as ‟bright‟ will do well (in
tests, practical performance of tasks, etc.), and those seen as ‟dumb‟ will do poorly.
This, then, reinforces the original prejudice that the trainer had, and so the cycle begins
again reinforced by this most recent proof‟.
The trainer, it must be remembered, is in a position to set standards, to influence
learner performance and to evaluate results: you must be very aware of this ‟power‟
and strive not to abuse it.
Consider the following as a brief example of the self-fulfilling prophecy …
Often trainers will ask questions to learners identified as ‟bright‟ so as to keep the
training session moving (because they expect them to know the answer), and also to
feel good about themselves as trainers (it tells them they have been effective). They
may have also chosen not to ask a certain learner a question for good motives (such
as not wanting to embarrass someone they know dislikes
speaking in front of others).
Nonetheless, this is picked up by those not asked, and it
reinforces in them they are ‟dull‟ and so serves to adversely
affect their attitude and hence their performance, and raise
barriers to future training, too.
Trainers must be aware of the self-fulfilling prophecy in training
and strive to ensure they do not let it negatively affect their
approach to learners, or the way they interact with them.

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Learning and session plans


A key to the success of training is the development of sufficient and clear
documentation which can be used by any persons required to
conduct training as the framework for delivery.
There are a number of plans that can be developed to outline
and guide training programs.
These include:
Learning plan – give an overview of the learning for a
group or individual and involves on the job learning as the
main approach but may also involve other types of learning
e.g. off the job self paced or one to one coaching
Learning plan evaluation form – this is a form used to help determine in the
learning plan is appropriate for the audience. It is reviewed by an appropriate peer
and helps to reinforce the relevance, effectiveness and accuracy of the learning
plan. This is a helpful tool to use before commencing on developing individual
session plans.

Examples of a learning plan and a learning plan evaluation form have been
identified on the following pages
Session plan – goes into the actual make up of a training session and acts as a
guide to the trainer on timings, activities to cover and theory to teach.

An example of a session plan will be identified in Section 2.4.


Information to include in learning and session plans
Whether the learning or session plans are prepared by the
trainer who will deliver the session, or whether they are generic
plans prepared by some who won‟t be delivering the training, it
should contain the following elements:
Individual or group learning objectives for the session,
including identification of learning outcomes for smaller
segments of the training
Identification of the maximum number of learners who
should participate in each session – together with
identification of specific support requirements for the session such as subject
experts, prerequisite subject knowledge and technical competencies
Content to be covered in each individual training session – together with
identification of the required sequencing for each segment so that there is a logical
flow to the training that is delivered. This sequencing should also reflect the
workplace priority order for training content
Timelines for each training session – this indicates how many hours or minutes
every training session has been allocated. You are under an obligation to ensure
that all training takes place within these designated timelines as there are usually
labour cost and rostering implications where training exceeds these guidelines

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Learning resources, materials and activities that can be, or


must be, available to support training delivery in individual
training sessions. These may be items developed by other
training staff over time, or they can be purchased professionally
produced training materials from another training organisation.
Any trainer who has training resources provided for them is
extremely lucky, providing the materials are truly reflective of
workplace practice and they truly match the requirements of the
learning program, then these can save a trainer lots of valuable
time
Identification of other resource requirements – the delivery plan
should identify by name and number any other resources that
are deemed necessary to support the delivery of individual training topics. For
example, you may be training staff in how to handle a refund for a customer and
need training resources such as a cash register, refund form, etc. but you may find
that the delivery plan also lists that a copy of the organisational policies on Refunds
and Replacements are also listed as a supporting resource requirement that should
be included as part of the session so that they can be referred to throughout the
session
OHS considerations – this can cover OHS concerns about the training delivery itself
as well as listing the OHS points that need to be addressed in terms of the specific
training content being delivered. Considerations in this regard may relate to incident
and hazard reporting during the training, and implementation of emergency
procedures where required during training sessions.

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Learning Plan
RTO William Angliss Institute

Client ABC Hotels

Program name The Art of Espresso Coffee

Number of learners 8

Purpose/focus To train food and beverage staff in the art of extracting and
serving espresso coffee.

Qualification SIT30707 Certificate III in Hospitality

Competency standards SITHFAB012A Prepare and serve espresso coffee


See attached unit of competency

Profile of learner group See attached learner profile

Program duration (total) 8 hours – 1 day

Assessment Practical observation in the classroom and in the workplace


Oral questions
Written assessment

Prerequisites Nil

Resources William Angliss Institute resource


William Angliss Institute DVD Art of Espresso Coffee
Book: Barista A Guide to Espresso Coffee Jill Adams
Espresso Coffee machines and Grinders x 4
Cups, saucers, glasses, spoons, jugs, milk, sugar, coffee,
napkins, chocolate dusting powder

Venue information Access and break times


Catering
Laptop, data pro, screen, whiteboard

Pre-program information or Nil


pre-work

Administration Trainer/Assessor to mark the written work and sign off the unit
Given to WAI admin for processing of Statement of Results

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People to be informed Food and Beverage Manager


ABC Hotels Training Manager

Safety Incident or hazard All staff have attended induction which covers incident and
issues reporting hazard reporting.
Incident report forms and a hazard management process are
available if needed.
Inspection checklist completed by trainer prior to session.

Emergency All staff have attended induction which covers emergency


procedures procedures.
These would be reviewed at the beginning of the session and
a copy in the room.

OHS info for Correct clothing and footwear to be worn by participants or


participants they will not be allowed to participate in the training.
Housekeeping info given at beginning of session: mobile
phones, toilets, using machinery safely.

Specific support Support by direct supervisor of each participant is required to


requirements of learners ensure they have enough time to practice in the workplace

Other organisational Nil


requirements

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Learning Plan Outline


Session Number Time Learning outcomes: Training Content (topics) Delivery Application/ Resources
& Title Learners will be able to… Assessment

1 Introduction 15 minutes Introduction Welcome Verbal LLN Learner resource


Mobile phones classroom assessment and handouts
8.30 am Toilets ABC Hotels SOP‟s

Class participation Coffee DVD
8.45 am
LLN Whiteboard
Program timeframes for the day
Program learning outcomes and
how they will be assessed
Coffee is classified as a food so
hygiene and OHS standards
must be maintained
Work area familiarisation and
OHS inspection.

2 Preparation 30 minutes Organise and prepare work Organise coffee workstation – Verbal Workplace Espresso machine
and areas hazards, visual appeal classroom observation
Grinder
organisation 8.45 am ABC Hotels work routines SOP‟s Practical Oral Questions
Crockery and
– Mise-en-place – items e.g. demonstration
Written glassware
9.15 am Crockery, glassware, cutlery, assessment
serviettes, milk jugs, tea pots Condiments
and condiments e.g. Milk, sugar,
Other items
coffee, chocolate,
marshmallows, syrups, tea and Whiteboard
cleaning materials e.g. Tea
towels, sanitiser, cleaning cloths
and sponges

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Learning Plan Outline


Session Number Time Learning outcomes: Training Content (topics) Delivery Application/ Resources
& Title Learners will be able to… Assessment
Preparation of espresso
machine and grinder to ensure
correct pressure, pump and
grind – turn on both, run water
through group head and
handles, release steam, grind
coffee to check, and check
extraction rate
Storage and freshness of coffee
and commodities.

3 Customer 30 minutes Provide customer service Giving advice to customers Verbal Oral questions ABC Hotels
service and 9.15 am and advise customers on History of coffee classroom espresso menu and
3rd party
product – espresso coffee SOP‟s
9.45 am Botanical notes – coffee species Practical report
knowledge
– coffee growing countries – demonstration
Written
Whiteboard
terminology Learner practice assessment
Customer preferences and
product knowledge – espresso
or short black, ristretto, doppio,
long black, macchiato,
cappuccino, latte, piccolo, flat
white, mocha, Vienna, Coretto,
Affogato and decaf
Roasting.

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Learning Plan Outline


Session Number Time Learning outcomes: Training Content (topics) Delivery Application/ Resources
& Title Learners will be able to… Assessment

4 Coffee 30 minutes Select and grind coffee Grinding – selection and check Verbal Workplace Grinder and coffee
grinding 10.00 am correct grind classroom observation
Learner resource
– What affects the grind – Practical Oral Questions
10.30 am environmental and equipment demonstration
considerations Written
Learner practice assessment
Adjusting the dose
Dosing by sight.

5 Coffee 20 minutes Extract coffee Selection of cups or glassware – Verbal Workplace Espresso machine
extraction 1030am various of sizes ceramic cups, classroom observation
glasses and paper cups Grinder

Practical Oral Questions
1050am Measure or dispense required Crockery and
demonstration
dosage Written glassware
Dosing the coffee Learner practice assessment
Condiments
Adjust, tune and moderate Other items
temperature and pressure –
brewing temp 88 - 92◦C, pump Whiteboard
pressure 8 to 9 bars, machine or Learner resource
boiler pressure 1 – 1.5 bars,
temp of water in boiler should be
just under boiling, water level in
the boiler should be 70% full
Pouring rate – espresso rate 30
– 35 mls, volume in no more
than 30 seconds
Extraction quality –good body,
thick rich caramel coloured
crema, good aroma, strong
balanced taste

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Learning Plan Outline


Session Number Time Learning outcomes: Training Content (topics) Delivery Application/ Resources
& Title Learners will be able to… Assessment
Check spent grounds – cake
must hold together and resemble
a chocolate biscuit
Flush group head either just
after or before making coffee.

6 Milk 40 minutes Texture milk Milk selection – skim, low fat, full Verbal Workplace Espresso machine
texturing cream, UHT, soy or enhanced classroom observation
1050am – Other items
1130am Milk jug – stainless steel and Practical Oral Questions
different sizes Whiteboard
demonstration
Written
Steam wand – clean, before Learner practice assessment
Learner resource
using expend steam and cloths
exclusively for cleaning
Steam milk – always use fresh,
cold milk, right size jug and fill to
½ to 1/3 full, use thermometer,
expel steam from wand, keep tip
of wand just under milk surface,
milk should whirlpool, when tem
reaches 65
Turn steam off, pour milk
immediately
Pour milk as per espresso menu.

7 Coffee 15 minutes Serve and present Present and serve coffee – as Verbal Workplace Crockery and
presentation 1130am espresso coffee per ABC Hotels SOP‟s classroom observation glassware
and service – Ensure crockery and glassware Condiments/Other
Practical 3rd party report
1145am is free of chips and cracks, are items
demonstration
clean, no spills in saucer, don‟t Written Learner resource
Learner practice assessment
overfill and serve immediately. ABC Hotels SOP‟s

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Learning Plan Outline


Session Number Time Learning outcomes: Training Content (topics) Delivery Application/ Resources
& Title Learners will be able to… Assessment

8 Cleaning 15 minutes Clean and maintain Follow OHS requirements as per Verbal Workplace Cleaning materials
and 1145am espresso machine session 1 & 2 classroom observation
Learner resource
maintenance – Clean machine – have a Practical 3rd party report
1200pm cleaning schedule for steam ABC Hotels SOP‟s
demonstration
wands, drip tray, panels and the Written
grinder assessment
Back flushing using blind filter
depending on the amount of
coffee you make in a day
Check grinder and espresso
machine parts for remedial
action to ensure machinery
operates at optimum levels
Troubleshooting – problems and
solutions.

9 Conclusion 1 hour Revision Revise keys points – learning Verbal Workplace Coffee equipment
1200pm outcomes. classroom observation Learner resource
– Give opportunity for questions Practical Oral questions
100pm and feedback. demonstration
Learner practice
and feedback

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Learning Plan Outline


Session Number Time Learning outcomes: Training Content (topics) Delivery Application/ Resources
& Title Learners will be able to… Assessment

10 Final 3 hours Learner demonstration and Organise and prepare work Learner Oral questions Coffee equipment
session 130pm assessment areas demonstration rd and condiments
3 party report
– Customer service and advise and feedback
430pm Written
Select and grind and extract assessment
coffee
Workplace
Texture milk
observation
Serve and present coffee
Clean and maintain espresso
machine.

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Learning Plan Evaluation Form


Instructions
Obtain feedback from your peers about your plan. Get them to complete the Learning Plan
Evaluation Form below.

Learning Plan Evaluation Form


Instructions:
You are asked to evaluate the proposed Learning Plan against which a training program may later
be developed and delivered. Please complete the following form, ticking the relevant boxes and
entering comments as required. Your recommendations will be considered towards the review of
the Learning Plan prior to implementation.

Name of Training Designer: ______________________________________________________

Learning Plan Title: __________________________________ Version no: ___________

Reviewer‟s name: ___________________________________________

Learners Yes No N/A

Are the learners clearly identified?

Are all learners‟ needs included?

If not, what other needs should be included?

Planning Yes No N/A

Are the chosen units of competency appropriate for the learners


and their needs?

Does the content and structure address all aspects of the units?

Does the learning sequence provide effective and manageable


blocks of learning?

Does the plan cater for diversity of gender, ethnicity and disability?

Are the activities interesting and relevant?

Will the activities motivate the learners?

Can the activities be contextualized to suit learner needs?

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Assessment Tasks Yes No N/A

Will the suggested assessment tasks adequately assess the


requirements of the units of competency?

Are the assessment tasks:


Too detailed? Just right? Not detailed enough?

The suggested assessment tasks may be contextualised to suit


learner needs?

General Yes No N/A

Does the program plan identify risks and contingencies?

Is the timeframe suitable for the content?

Does the costing represent an achievable/viable program?

What are the strengths of the learning plan?

_______________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________

What are the weaknesses of the learning plan?

_______________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________

Do you have any other comments?

_______________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________

Reviewer’s Name: _______________________________ Signature: _________________

Position: _______________________________ Date _____/_____/_____

Thank you

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2.2 Develop training content


Items for inclusion in training
Once the learning plan has been identified and the evaluation approached, it is now time
to develop the training content.
As you can see in the Learning Plan, there is a very detailed plan of the entire training
plan that has been identified.
One element of the Learning plan is the identification of what will be covered in each
training session.
This is the summary of the training content.
For example in the “Introduction‟ session of the „The Art of Espresso Coffee‟ Learning
Plan identified in the example provided the training content for this 15 minute session
includes:
Welcome
Mobile phones
Toilets
Class participation
LLN
Program timeframes for the day
Program learning outcomes and how they will be assessed
Coffee is classified as a food so hygiene and OHS standards must be maintained
Work area familiarisation and OHS inspection.
The key now is to determine what needs to be covered in each of these points, to ensure
the content can be completed within the assigned time frame.
By deciding the content required within each point, the trainer can then start to prepare
training resources and materials to support this delivery.

2.3 Develop training resources and materials


Introduction
Once the training content has been determined, the next step is to
prepare or acquire appropriate learning resources to use in training
delivery.

What are learning resources and materials?


To be clear, learning resources and learning materials are the
same thing: essentially, we are talking here about anything you
need to use to provide or support training delivery.

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Examples of learning resources include:


Notes, manuals, handouts, PowerPoint presentations, posters,
copies of price lists, supplier catalogues, forms used within the
business, organisational policy and procedure manuals,
reference material and texts, record/log books, tapes and
disks
Items required to support training practice – these may be
case studies, activities, exercises, written tests, worksheets
and workbooks, task sheets and practical exercises that you require learners to
perform
Samples of items or finished products – used to illustrate what is required, to
demonstrate a point or to show learners what options are available
Equipment used for demonstrations – including all associated items, utensils and
ancillary material (for example, if you were training staff on how to use a cash register
the audit roll for the register would be ancillary material. If you were training someone
on how to use a computer ,then a portable data stick/disk would probably be needed
for them to save their material)
Consumables – anything that is used during the training process is a consumable: for
example, if you were training staff in how to make a cappuccino, then the coffee,
sugar, milk, etc. would be consumables. Even the whiteboard markers, paper for
printing and toner for the photocopy machine and printer are regarded as
consumables
Multimedia tools.

Effective use of multimedia tools


All trainers can benefit from the use of multimedia tools.
Types of multimedia tools
There are many multimedia tools that can be used effectively to help
facilitate learning including:
DVDs – there are endless subject topics
TV shows – including documentaries and specialist subject
programs which are great visual and informative tools
Video conference calls – this enables specialists and senior management to be an
active part of the training session, regardless of geographical location
Internet – there are various websites including You Tube that can provide information
or be used as an effective research tool.
Benefits of using multimedia
There are many benefits of using multimedia including:
Adds a different form of training which can bring variety to the overall program
Helps reinforce points presented by trainer
Can be used as a primary source of information by a respected source or person
Can be used as a secondary source of information, in which case studies can be
based around it

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Provides real life examples and stories in a visually stimulating format


Eases pressure on trainers having to „talk‟ all the time
Serves as a backup training aid to fill times where scheduled training runs ahead of
schedule.

Sources of learning resources and materials


While this manual suggests that your role will simply be to use existing learning resources
and materials, the reality is often much different, requiring you to:
Use existing resources
Generate them yourself
Purchasing them from professional training organisations
Obtain them from other sources.

Using existing resources and materials


Using existing resources, where available, is the most effective way of preparing
resources as a lot of the hard work has already been done.
In most cases, they will need to be altered to meet the
exact needs of the training programs in mind.
It is vital that all existing resources are checked before
they are used to make sure they reflect the training
objectives that they will used to support.
In addition, by reviewing the information, it ensures that all
relevant material is included and also serves as a
refresher on the information provided within.
The biggest problem with learning resources is that they get out-of-date very quickly.
Remember that your training must reflect actual workplace practice, and by the same
token, the learning materials must support that specific training delivery. For example, you
may have a whole range of excellent learning resources to use when training new staff in
the operation of the cash register, but if the type of cash register used today is different
from what was used last year, all those magnificent learning resources will be useless.
You simply can‟t use anything that is out-of-date or which
fails to support the identified training objectives.
You also need to check there are no errors in the
material. This includes not only procedural mistakes such
as printed notes that actually present the wrong way to do
something, but also checks for spelling errors and typos.
It should be standard practice for trainers to review their
notes after every use in order to rectify these types of
mistakes. A trainer who continues to use materials that
contain mistakes is just lazy.
If the check on the existing learning materials reveals they are deficient in any way, you
must take appropriate action to address that situation. This can mean a simple rewrite of
notes through to buying in externally prepared materials.

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It is also important to check any copyright or use restrictions on materials or resources to


be used.
As a trainer, you may also wish to supplement these existing notes, with your own
additional materials as required.
Use workplace materials and resources wherever possible
Using materials available from within the workplace is the best training option because:
It reflects and accommodates current workplace practice
It is often more readily available
It can be much cheaper than other bought-in alternatives.
For example, if you were conducting a training session that focussed on arithmetical skills,
it would be very appropriate to use a workplace price list and order form, as well as
perhaps a workplace invoice, statement, or credit note for the examples and exercises.
The use of workplace documentation (in this example) lends a workplace context to what
is otherwise a very generic skill – and this workplace orientation should motivate learners
and add depth and application to their learning.
If you are using workplace documents, you must ensure you know all about any forms,
that you are going to use.
For example, make sure you know:
When it has to be completed
Who has to complete it
What details are required in the form
Where the form is available
Where it goes once it is completed
What all the sections of the form are used for
Whether or not authorisation for the document is required – and if so, from whom and
how that authorisation is recorded.

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Purchasing learning resources and materials


When purchasing externally produced training resources, it is usually
the case that these are generic in nature. This means they may have
been prepared for an industry sector, but will not have been prepared
especially to address the workplace needs of your individual
business.
This, in turn, may mean that in many cases they are less than 100%
useful or applicable so there can still be a need for you to generate
some of your own material so that the training reflects the demands
of your individual workplace.

Cost considerations
There will be lots of occasions where you need a learning resource, but there is simply not
the money to produce or obtain it.
In these cases, you have to find another way to achieve your objective. There is no magic
bottomless bucket of money available to support training. Many training practices have no
budget at all, and if you are lucky enough to have a budget, you will be expected to work
within the limits placed on expenses.
For example, if you were training staff in cash register operation, it is pointless using for
training purposes a cash register that has been removed from operational use last year.
You need to use a cash register the same as the one currently in use.
But cash registers cost money and management will be reluctant to buy a new cash
register just for training purposes. So what can you do? You can‟t elect not to conduct the
training!
You might consider:
Running training sessions before an outlet opens or
after it closes – when the cash registers are
available
Arranging for the supplier of your cash registers to
lend you a cash register for a period for training
purposes
Asking the supplier to attend with their own cash register and conduct the training
themselves
Joining with another outlet or hospitality business in the area on within your group to
contribute to the shared cost of buying a training cash register that can be used
between the different businesses
Hiring a cash register for the training session.

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Choosing resources and materials to reflect learning styles and


individual differences
When choosing learning materials, this should be done bearing in mind the individual
learning styles and preferred learning preferences of the staff.
In theory, this means that if a staff member learns better by reading the printed word, you
should obtain hard copy materials for them to read. If the learner prefers to hear their
information as opposed to reading it, the theory says you should deliver a lecture-type
training session and perhaps provide this person with an audiotape.
As you can see, there are huge implications in catering for individual differences in terms
of expense (that is, money to buy all different types of materials to accommodate all
differences in learning styles and preferences), and in terms of time.
In practice, it is impossible for you to cater for all individual needs, so the general rule is to
develop or obtain materials that will provide the most benefit to the greatest number.
In the real world, this means that some preferred learning styles and preferences go
uncatered for.
Obviously, however, there are some individual differences that cannot be ignored, for
example:
It would be useless to provide all printed material for a staff member who is severely
vision impaired
There is no point providing English language notes to a worker who doesn‟t read or
understand English.

Interpret the context


Lots of excellent training materials and resources are available. There are thousands of
videos/DVDs that can support many different training topics, but it is important to use only
materials and resources that are appropriate to the specific workplace content.
For example:
An otherwise excellent video/DVD on handling customer complaints may be useless if
it relates to the transport industry
A brilliant manual on customer relations may become
totally inappropriate if it fails to align with the
organisation‟s policies and procedures in this area
A great set of diagrams and instructions becomes useless
if it doesn‟t relate to the specific item (brand, model, etc.)
of equipment used by the store.
Support and advice in determining the context for materials and resources can be gained
for the „usual sources‟. These include supervisors, subject experts, experienced staff,
government officials, suppliers, support industries and management.

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2.4 Develop individual training sessions


Introduction
Once all necessary training materials have been collected or prepared, it is important to
prepare individual training session plans. These will be the framework of each training
session.
A session plan is a hard copy document used by the trainer to guide and manage the
delivery of individual training sessions.
Each training session should have its own training/delivery plan.
This plan provides a detailed plan which can be followed by all trainers and learners.

Benefits of session plans


Having a session plan has many benefits including:
Ensuring all necessary learning topics are covered
Ensures adequate timing for each activity
Allows both trainers and learners to see
exactly what will be covered
Allows for adequate timekeeping
Provides consistency of training , regardless of
trainer
Ensures all necessary resources and
materials are arranged
Provides a template for further training.
On the following pages is an example of a session plan for „Designing a Training
Program‟. As you can see the attention to detail is greater than that included in the
Learning Plan previously explained.

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Session Plan
Session Title Designing a training program

Session Number 1 of 4

Session Time 9am to 5pm

Aim/objective To develop the ability to design and deliver workplace training sessions to groups and individuals against
organisational guidelines.

Assessments Activity Guide x 19 activities (to be completed in class)


Assessment Guide x 6 Assessment tasks

Organisational Guidelines Guideline 1 – Design and develop learning programs


Guideline 2 – Use SOP‟s to meet learner needs
Guideline 3 – Plan, organise and deliver group based learning
Guideline 4 – Plan, organise and facilitate learning in the workplace
Guideline 5 – Provide work skill instruction
Guideline 6 – Make a presentation

Resources Whiteboard and Flipchart and markers


Trainee folder (includes Learner Guides x 2 clusters, Learner Activity Guides x 2 clusters, Learner Assessment
Guides x 2 clusters including templates)
Trainer Class Activities and Handouts.

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Topic Content Method/Resources Time Clock

Slide 1: Training program Whiteboard


Welcome and introduce
Ice-Breaker: Get to know you – Participants are asked to stand and speak for one minute Handout 10 min 09:10
about themselves.
What‟s in the bag? Folder, diary, bottle, pen, disc.
Explain program – 10 days and hand out Quick course guide.
Learner Guide 20 min 09:30
Days, times, optional workshops and purpose.
Housekeeping.
Why are we here?
How to direct themselves through the information.
Relating to topics and learner‟s experiences.
Ready and motivated.
Welcome and
introduction Breaking down barriers.
Slide 2: Assessment Activity and 30 min 10:00
Assessment Guides
Go through assessment tasks in details and explain you can review it again at the end of
the day.
Explain ALL activities will be completed in class.
Present all assessments typed and in order and partial assessments will not be accepted,
as activities are completed in class they can be handed in hand written.
Explain at the end of each day if there is time candidates will be given time to complete
assessment tasks.
Slides 3 & 4: Competency standards Learner Guide 5 min 10:05
Go through these competency standards with the group explaining this is slide 2 in more
detail.
Refer them to the assessment matrix in the front of each learner guide in their folders which
has more detail.

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Topic Content Method/Resources Time Clock

Slide 5: reflection: Trainer to lead visualisation exercise. Participants to think of the last Handout 10 min 10:15
training session they attended and write notes about details they can remembered as
prompted. Trainer to read out the following points:

1. Presenter 15 min 10.30


2. Environment
What is 3. Topic
training?
4. Delivery
5. Content
6. Activities and tasks
7. What was useful, what not?
8. What they liked most and disliked most?

Break 20 min 10.50

Slide 6: Mind map Whiteboard 10 min 11:15


Trainer writes the word “TRAINING” on the board and asks participants what they
believe/know or assume training is about.

Review: Follow on from Mind map results and trainer to circle the words/phrases that they Whiteboard 10 min 11:15
believe training is about. In another colour the trainer circles those thoughts that WILL be
Why train? covered in this course.

Slide 7: What is organisational guidelines? Handout 15 min 11:30

Slide 8: Key features of organisational guidelines Handout 5 min 11:35

Slide 9: What is competency? Explain this will discussed in detail in the assessment Discussion 5 min 11:40
cluster

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Topic Content Method/Resources Time Clock

Slide 10: Competency based learning Handout 20 min 12:00

Slide11: Structure of competency standards Discussion 10 min 12:10


Refer to Communicate on the Telephone SOP.

Activity 1: In 2 or 3 groups participants to access different SOP‟s in the organisation to Guidelines and 35 min 12:45
understand competencies required. SOPS

LUNCH 45 min 13:30

Slide 12: What do these words mean?

Discussion: Break group into 2 or 3 groups and they are to write down their definitions of Whiteboard 10 min 13:40
the words Trainer/Coach/Mentor/Facilitator/Instructor/Teacher. Review response and clarify
Discussion 5 min 13:45
answers.

Slide 13: Defining the learning program Discussion 5 min 13:50


Planning
training
Slide 14: Training options Whiteboard 10 min 14:00
Discuss each and who might undertake this training classroom, on job, off job, integrated
into day to day work, e-learning, self paced or combination

Slide 15: Training methods Discussion 15 min 14:15


What are they? Discuss how training may differ.

BREAK 15 min 14:30

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Topic Content Method/Resources Time Clock

Slide 16: Benefits of learning plans Whiteboard 10 min 14:40


Discuss benefits

Slide 17: Work based learning plans Learner Guide 20 min 15:00
Refer to page 97 Appendix 3 of the LG.
They give an overview of the learning for a group or individual and involves on the job
learning as the main approach but may also involve other types of learning e.g. off the job
self paced or one to one coaching. Usually incorporates work based learning pathway plus
organisational arrangements.

Slide 18: Individual learning plans Learner Guide 10 min 15:10


Learning plans
Individual learning plans are developed for an individual and feature a variety of learning
approaches including work base learning, self paced (distance), face to face coaching or
mentoring
See Appendix 4 in Learner Guide for a copy of an Individual Learning Plan.

Activity 2: In 2 or 3 groups complete this activity and then get each group to present their Learner Activity 25 min 15:35
answers for discussion. Guide

Slide 19: Activity: work based/individual learning scenario Discussion 25 min 16:00
In 2 or 3 groups complete this activity and get then get each group to present their answers
for discussion.

Review outcomes of the day 60 min 17:00


Conclusion Reflect and Q/A
Future: The next session.

End day 1

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2.5 Organize training requirements


Introduction
Once the individual session plans have been developed, it is important that all the
necessary arrangements for any upcoming training sessions are followed up.
It is vital that all preparations are conducted before the actual training session, so that the
actual training session is not interrupted or time is wasted chasing up resources,
equipment or materials.

Organise equipment and physical resources


As the trainer, it will be up to you to make sure that all required learning resources are
available where needed, when needed and in sufficient quantities to accommodate the
group of learners expected. Very rarely will a trainer have much in the way of assistance
from dedicated support staff. In some cases, the manager‟s secretary may help by doing
some photocopying, distributing material, etc. but this is usually fairly limited, and their
other responsibilities will take priority over your training
needs, too.
This will include:
Ensuring access to any training rooms, venues, etc. that
are needed – many areas are kept locked, so you may
need to organise keys, or for doors, cupboards (that
contain required materials) to be unlocked
Ensuring the safety of all the resources to be used
Ensuring the equipment to be used is fully operational and functional in accordance
with your training needs. This needs to be verified prior to the training. It is time-
wasting and embarrassing to find out that equipment does not work when you have a
group of learners eager to learn
Ensuring you have access to all relevant policies,
procedures and manufacturer‟s instructions that relate
to the training topic
Ensuring the security of the training site – so that staff
or customers are unable to interfere with, or steal,
items
Guaranteeing you have sufficient materials – this can
include making sure there are sufficient consumables, an appropriate number of
pieces of equipment (for staff to practise on), and sufficient copies of notes, handouts
and other print-based materials
Ensuring the training delivery resources are available – these are the items you need
to provide the training. Examples include overhead projector, PowerPoint projector
and computer, video machine and DVD player
Arranging the training venue to suit the specific needs of the upcoming training
session – which may include moving tables, chairs and items of equipment
Arranging for phone calls to the training area to be diverted

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Organising refreshments for learners, where appropriate –


this may simply be tea and coffee, but may also include
snacks or meals for longer training sessions
Checking and establishing an environment conducive to
learning in the training area – this may involve turning off
(or on) music, radio and televisions, setting the air-
conditioning and checking that all lights are working
correctly (no blown globes and certainly no flickering
fluorescents).
Liaising with others
Part of your preparation activities will also include liaising with other staff or management
in relation to the upcoming training.
This could include:
Reminding learners about the upcoming session‟s time, date,
venue and objectives and what to bring
Reminding supervisors that some of their staff will be attending
training – and this can include helping them to back-fill positions
with other workers. It is to be hoped that you have, wherever
possible, chosen a training time that best fits with the workplace
demand for staff to be „at work‟ rather than „at training‟
Contacting guest speakers, trainers and others whom you have
arranged to attend the session – just to confirm their attendance and availability.
Sometimes things crop up and they can‟t attend as arranged, so the earlier you know
about this, the more time you have to arrange something else
Contacting caterers – to confirm numbers, times and what is to be served.
Ensuring a safe environment
Safety must be an ongoing concern for trainers. Training must never take place where
safety is compromised.
It is not acceptable to train in an unsafe environment and say „It‟s okay to do this because
this is what may happen in the workplace‟.
There are two aspects to consider.
Operational safety of the learner
Occupational health and safety (OHS) legislation places a non-
negotiable obligation on all employers, including management, to be
fully responsible for the safety of all employees while they are at
work. This obligation, naturally, extends into any training in which
the staff member is participating.
Learners have to be as safe during training as they are during any
other aspect of their work.
This means the trainer has to be aware of all the dangers and hazards associated with
the task being trained so that they can pass appropriate safety information on to the
learner.

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In many ways, there is a need for you to be more aware of safety when training, simply
because the inexperienced learner may not be familiar with the safety requirements,
dangers and hazards associated with certain tasks.
In many training situations, there is an absolute need to cover the safety aspects of the
task before any practical training commences: in most cases, you should also conduct
some sort of assessment to confirm that staff are aware of the safety elements. If nothing
else, this assessment can be used as evidence that you have discharged your legal duty
of care in relation to safety before hands-on training begins.
If the training situation requires that safety be addressed and you don‟t know all there is to
know about the topic, a subject expert must be used for this aspect of the training.
What exactly constitutes „safety‟ will depend on the task, location and procedure and can
include consideration of:
Workplace safety equipment – such as fire hoses, fire extinguishers,
fire blankets and cut-off switches
Personal protective equipment and clothing – such as aprons,
protective gloves, steel- capped boots, hard hats, respirators and
thermal wear
Material Safety Data Sheets – that detail emergency first aid and
clean-up procedures where there is an accident/incident
Safety guards – especially on equipment with moving parts, sharp
components/blades or hot surfaces
Manual handling and lifting skills – as well as devices used to assist in manual
handling activities (fork lifts, trolleys and lifters)
Operational skills that contain an element of risk or danger – which can include
activities where there are awkward or repetitive movements, where heavy loads or
cramped conditions are involved, where extremes of temperature are involved, or
where dangerous items of equipment are being used
Safe access and exit requirements – making sure that learners can safely (including in
the event of an emergency) get in to and get out of the training area. This should also
include ensuring that learners become familiar with the emergency procedures for the
business as laid out in the Emergency Management Plan or similar for the
organisation.
It is important that trainers liaise with the designated workplace OHS officer to assist with
identifying hazards and implementing appropriate hazard management for all tasks where
workplace training is involved.
Equipment safety
It is your responsibility – no-one else‟s – to ensure that all equipment
being used for training is safe. This can mean, depending on the
situation, that it:
Has been inspected and approved for use
Is working correctly, as intended, according to manufacturer‟s
instructions
Is stable
Has no missing parts.

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This can often be an issue where management expect trainers to use „just anything – it‟s
only for training‟. Remember, if you believe you couldn‟t use it yourself safely, don‟t use it
for training.
Be quite sure that if something goes wrong during the training and a learner gets hurt (or
worse still, dies) it will be you who will be legally responsible – extremely large apply, as
well as the potential for jail time.
In addition, the training must cover the safety checks that need to be done on equipment
prior to using it in the actual workplace. The training must duplicate what is expected in
the real workplace.
Training must stop when safety is compromised – no exceptions. This means you have to
monitor actively learner safety and the safe operating condition of the equipment and the
environment in which it is operating.
Learners are notified of training details
As the trainer, it will be your responsibility to organise the training
and then to let staff/learners know what is happening.
The information that needs to be passed on to learners regarding
the training arrangements includes the following.
Timing
It is important to make sure that all the learners who need to attend
training are informed about the timing and location of the training.
Ways to achieve this include:
Verbally letting them know
Putting a message on the staff noticeboard
Using the e-mail.
When doing this make sure you:
Give the instructions in a clear manner – for example, does
„Training starts at 8 o‟clock‟ mean 8:00 am or 8:00 pm?
Let the learners know when the training will finish – so they can
plan the rest of their day
Start the training at the advertised time – it is a good habit to start on time, every time.
This sends a message to learners, for their future reference, that they need to turn up
on time, or a little before time.
Location
Give clear directions about where the training is to occur – this can be easy to do in
smaller establishments, but difficult in larger premises, especially where there are multiple
sites. You might need to consider giving:
Street address
Building name
Floor
Room number and/or name
Details of any transport provided – where the training is
held off-site.

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Contact details
Include your contact details – so people can follow-up with
you if required.
What to bring
Let them know if they need to bring anything with them. This
can include:
Paper and pen
Training materials (if already distributed)
Portfolio of work they are preparing
Samples of work already prepared
Personal protective equipment and clothing
If food is being provided, let them know this, too.
People attending
Notify them about anyone who will be attending the training session and give an indication
as to why that person will be there. This can include:
List of other participants
A guest speaker – perhaps you have arranged for an official from
some government authority to come and speak to staff, or
perhaps it might be a previous employee, or someone from your
network of contacts
A representative from a supplier/provider company – who is going
to talk about a new product, give out samples, or provide their
own company-based training for frontline staff
A management representative – who might be going to talk about
the performance of the business, a new direction the store is
seeking to take, financial matters, or promotional opportunities for
staff.
Tracking costs
Training costs money – even the most basic and shortest training sessions involve at
least time: your time as the trainer and staff time for those who attend as learners.
The bigger the training commitment, the larger the training cost and there can be a need
for you to be accountable for costs associated with training.
Depending on the scope and nature of the training, these costs can
require you to monitor and be responsible for the spending of money
relating to training delivery. Responsibility means that you should be
able to prove expenses and provide documentary evidence of
expenditure in areas such as:
Staff wages in relation to those who attended training and
assessment sessions – whether as learners, trainers, assessors,
internal guest speakers, internal subject experts, staff who back-
filled other staff while they attended training, or support staff who
may have written notes, photocopied notes, etc.

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Consumables – allocating materials and costs to individual training sessions such as


notes, catering, and the raw materials and products used as part of the training and
practice sessions
Purchases and hiring charges – where materials and resources were bought or hired
for training purposes
Accommodation, travel and meals – where staff had to travel to an external site for
training, or where you paid for someone to attend your workplace and provide training
on-site.
Facilitator
Many trainers believe that they have to know all there is to know about topics in order to
be an effective trainer.
This is not true. However a facilitator must be prepared before delivering any training
session.
No-one can know everything about everything and a successful trainer is more a
facilitator than anything else. This means they facilitate the learning process.
This facilitating can take various forms, such as:
Arranging for someone else to deliver the training
Involving others (subject experts, officials from government authorities,
representatives from suppliers, other experienced staff members) to deliver, or
participate.
Other people can provide supplementary support to the learners by way of:
Arranging for time and opportunity to practise new skills
Providing the means to obtain extra information – by providing
manuals, website addresses, or enrolling learners in external
formal courses
Assisting in organising time release and other support to
underpin learning efforts
Supporting learners in their efforts – this can simply involve
listening to their frustrations, acting as a sounding board,
providing advice or performing the role of a „critical friend‟. That
is, someone who will constructively criticise their efforts, but
remain supportive.
Once you feel that everything has been adequately prepared for the training session, it is
now time to but all this preparation into reality!

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Work Projects
It is a requirement of this Unit you complete Work Projects as advised by your Trainer.
You must submit documentation, suitable evidence or other relevant proof of completion
of the project to your Trainer by the agreed date.

2.1 To fulfil the requirements of this Work Project you are asked to research how to
develop session outlines for approved training including:

What is to be achieved through training?


Stating outcomes
Sequencing and immediacy
Limits of training
Understanding the learner
Adult learners and learning
Information to include in learning and session plans.

2.2 To fulfil the requirements of this Work Project you are asked to research how to
develop training content including:

Items for inclusion in training.

2.3 To fulfil the requirements of this Work Project you are asked to research how to
develop training resources and materials including:

What are learning resources and materials?


Sources of learning resources and materials
Using existing resources and materials
Choosing resources and materials to reflect learning styles and individual
differences
Interpret the context.

2.4 To fulfil the requirements of this Work Project you are asked to develop individual
training sessions

2.5 To fulfil the requirements of this Work Project you are asked to organise training
requirements including:

Organise equipment and physical resources


Liaising with others
Ensuring a safe environment
Learners are notified of training details.

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Summary
Prepare training plan

Develop session outlines for approved training:


What is to be achieved through training?
Stating outcomes
Sequencing and immediacy
Limits of training
Understanding the learner
Adult learners and learning
The „self-fulfilling prophecy‟ in training
Learning and session plans
Information to include in learning and session plans.
Develop training content:
Items for inclusion in training.
Develop training resources and materials:
What are learning resources and materials?
Sources of learning resources and materials
Using existing resources and materials
Purchasing learning resources and materials
Cost considerations
Choosing resources and materials to reflect learning styles and individual differences
Interpret the context.
Develop individual training sessions:
Benefits of session plans
Session plan.
Organise training requirements:
Organise equipment and physical resources
Liaising with others
Ensuring a safe environment
Learners are notified of training details
Tracking costs
Facilitator.

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Element 3:
Deliver training sessions
3.1 Confirm attendance of learners at the training
session
Introduction
Without learners, no training session will be successful. In many cases potential learners
may have been told well in advance about upcoming training and may have forgotten
about the training or need a reminder. It is a good idea to follow up with learners to ensure
they are able to attend.
This may be done a couple of weeks to a month before the training session to ensure that
the learner does not make any other arrangements at that time.

Reasons for confirming attendance


Confirming of attendance is both beneficial to both learners and trainers. This activity is
useful as it may be the last contact before the actual training session and it is vital that
both parties are clear about the mechanics of the upcoming training session.
For the Learner
One of the key requirements of any training session is to ensure that learners:
Are aware of training session
Confirm that they are able to attend
Can notify their supervisors if time off work if required, to
enable them to allocate replacement staff
Know all the details of the training session
Understand all the session details
Have received all the information they need before the session
If there is any preparatory activities to be done by the learner, such as reading,
research of preparing written documents, that they are aware of expectations
Have any questions regarding the training answered where possible.
It is important that the learner is comfortable with what is going to happen in upcoming
training sessions. The less surprises that arise, the more receptive the learner will be.
Given that training is normally an area which is new to a learner, you don‟t want to have
instances which may impact their confidence.

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For the trainer


It is important that trainers confirm attendance as this helps confirm:
Training room size
Number of tables and chairs
Suitable configuration of training area
Amount of training equipment needed (e.g. kitchen stoves if
cooking training)
Number of training materials to prepare
Number for catering purposes
Any dietary requirements.
Methods to follow up
There are a number of ways in which to follow up attendance with learners. The method
used will be dependent on the location of learners and the type of message to be
delivered.
Methods include:
Phone call – to get verbal confirmation and to enquire if the
learner has any questions
Email – if just a confirmation is required
In person – whether individually or in a group situation (a
specific meeting relating to the training session or as part of a
shift briefing). This method is useful if materials need to be
distributed and explained
SMS – A simple text may be used to remind learners and to
get confirmation of attendance in a simple and timely manner.

3.2 Prepare the training venue for the training


session
Introduction
After all the preparation leading up to the training session,
it is now time to actually deliver the training to learners.
It is important that the trainer prepares the training venue
before the learners arrive to ensure all arrangements have
been made and to ensure the training can start on time.
This can be done the day before or a few hours before the start of the training session,
depending on venue availability and preference of the trainer.
Most trainers will have some element of nervousness before any new training session,
regardless of how many times they may have conducted training sessions in the past.
This is more so, if the venue, group or content is new to them.
By ensuring the training environment is ready, removes any unnecessary stress for the
trainer.

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Preparation activities
Key personnel
When you first arrive at the venue it is important to contact
any key people including:
Venue management
Caterers
Facilitators
Guest speakers
Suppliers of equipment or resources.
You will need to confirm arrangements with these key personnel to ensure everyone is
clear as to the training requirements.
Venue
You will need to check the venue to ensure it is prepared as required. This includes:
Adequate tables and chairs
Specified configuration of training environment
Suitable air-conditioning or heating including location of
switches
Suitable lighting and how to work the lights. This is
important if you want to turn lights on/off to conduct
presentations etc.
Break out areas if required
Sign to notify learners of venue location. This may be in front of the room or in the
building entrance
Speaking with staff who may need to direct learners to the training venue
Location of toilets, catering venue such as a restaurant
Location of support services including printing and photocopying.
Equipment
This relates to equipment that is used to present information to learners. Trainer will need
to check:
Screens, DVD players, microphones, stands, audio players
Whiteboards with appropriate pens and cleaners
Laser pointers
Flipcharts, paper and pens
Overhead projectors – how to connect to computer and to
ensure trainer is comfortable how to operate
Power boards, leads and adaptors that may be required
Internet access and passwords.

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Training equipment
This relates to any equipment that will be used as part of the delivery. Some examples
include:
coffee machines to teach learners how to make
coffee
glasses and blenders in cocktail making
sessions
wine bottles, openers, buckets and glasses in
wine sessions
bakery equipment if teaching how to make bread or pastry items
Access to guest rooms, linen, towels, buckets, detergents and vacuum cleaners when
teaching learners how to clean guest rooms.
When checking equipment, ensure:
Right numbers
They are in working order
You are familiar how to use it them
Any accompaniments that are requires including food, ingredients, beverages,
napkins etc.
Utensils and other supporting operational equipment.
Training materials
Follow up location of materials that have been
transported to the venue before the training session
Lay out teaching resources in a logical manner to enable
easy access
Lay out resources for learners in the specific locations.
Catering
Right number
Timing of catering.
Review documents
It is a good idea for the trainer to review all necessary
documentation so that they are familiar with the scheduling, order,
timing and content of the training session.
This may include a review of:
Learning plan
Session plan
Training manual or notes.

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Check your personal presentation


High levels of personal presentation and grooming are an important aspect of making any
presentation, especially where you are representing the business.
You should always take a minute in the bathroom to check your appearance before the
first attendees arrive. Check your teeth, hair, shoes, clothes and general personal
presentation.
Good personal presentation is important because:
It signals respect for those who have come to listen to
the presentation
Looking good helps give you a feeling of confidence
It sends a message to the audience that you are
competent. They will equate high levels of personal
presentation with high levels of knowledge, expertise and competency. In the same
way they will make an initial negative judgement about you if your appearance is less
that professional
It indicates that you value the session and have taken the time and trouble to prepare
not only the room and materials, but also yourself, for it.
Your mobile is turned off – it is acceptable to ask the audience (in most settings) to
also turn theirs off too.
Overcoming anxiety
We have said that some people – even people who are extremely competent in their job –
can get very anxious about making any sort of public presentation. It has been said that to
some, public speaking is a fear as great as death itself!
Some basic techniques that may help in coping with these understandable fears are:
Arrive early and look around the venue/room to familiarise
yourself with the environment and get accustomed to the
setting. Try to „own‟ the space, it‟s „yours‟
Make sure your presentation has been thoroughly planned.
Take time to get confidence from the fact you have taken the
time and trouble to do a good planning job. You have left
nothing to chance, everything has been covered. You‟ve
checked the equipment, you have all the materials, you‟ve
done the practice – so enjoy the feeling that this gives you. You
are ready!
Remember this is „just‟ a presentation. This is not a life or death ordeal/trial. Accept
that if you get it wrong you will learn from your mistake and move on – making a
mistake won‟t kill you. It might embarrass you but it won‟t kill you
Use breathing techniques to relax yourself prior to the presentation. Breathe deeply
from the stomach and get plenty of oxygen into the system, calm yourself by using
meditation techniques if that works for you. Visualise a successful and effective
presentation
Concentrate on your presentation rather than the audience. Some people find they
can overcome anxiety by almost forgetting about the audience (as far as possible) and
focussing on their plan for delivery, focussing on the content. No doubt at all that
passion for the subject matter is a key in this regard. You can truly get lost in the
content if it‟s a passion and almost forget there is an audience.

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3.3 Introduce training topic to learners


Introduction
You never get a second chance to make a first impression. This
is certainly true when commencing a training session. This is the
moment when you have the greatest attention of the audience
and if you are able to convey confidence, competency and
professionalism yourself, it helps the audience to generate
confidence in you, as a trainer.
So what should you do at the start of a training session?

Welcome
It is important that the trainer and the audience are familiar with
important aspects of the training session, before the actual content of the training program
is introduced.
Some important „housekeeping‟ topics to introduce to the audience include, but are not
limited to:
A brief welcome to the training session
Thanking learners for attending
Introduction of trainer
Introduction of learners – this is a good „icebreaker‟ which enables both trainer and
learners to become comfortable with each other, but it also enables the trainer to
identify strengths, weaknesses and experiences of learners. This comes in handy later
when the trainer needs to call on specific people for input
Rules and expectations of training sessions including mobile phones, confidentiality,
acceptable and unacceptable conduct, dress and respect for each other
Scheduling of activities – brief introduction to timing of topics, breaks, finishing times
etc.
Introduction of training resources to enable learners to become
familiar with the materials they will be using
Location of toilets, smoking areas and catering.
Generate interest
Once the initial introductions have been done, it now time to get
the audience focused on the subject content.
How will you generate interest to get audience attention?
Options could include:
Anecdotes – telling a short story that is of interest and relates to the subject of the
presentation. This can be based on personal observation, something you have read,
something you have overheard, a story based on your personal industry/store
experience

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Use of actual examples – to stimulate interest: where presenting


to the public about your establishment/product never under-
estimate the positive role that can play. Remember too that
those in the audience are probably expecting some of your
product too
A brief but arresting statement of facts – to indicate at the outset
of the presentation what the challenges are that (for example)
are being faced by the company, or to describe the
opportunity/potential that exists or the trends that are emerging
Use of a video/DVD, PowerPoint or other recorded visual
medium – these can assist in highlighting the introduction or
creating a context for the session
Reading from, or showing, current media articles.
In many situations there is a need or a preference to do something eye-catching, different
with this part of the presentation.
It pays to think about this rather than just go with the first thing that comes to mind.
Remember, not all people at a presentation may want to be there so the obligation lies
firmly with you to give them a reason to be there and to enjoy the experience, to learn
something from it. The more motivated people are, the more receptive they are to what
you have to present and the less of a distraction they are going to be to you as the
presenter and to others in the audience.
Consider the following:
A topical question – “Do you want to know why so many XYZ stores have just
closed?” – for a group interested in increasing sales or maintaining store viability
Distributing a really bad cup of coffee and asking people to try it and tell you what is
was like and then saying “Well, I‟m going to show you how you‟ll never serve a coffee
like that to your customers!”
Showing a series of trading figures that prove a constant decline in revenue over the
past several weeks/months and asking “Can anyone tell me what they think these
figures indicate and what might be the topic for my presentation this evening?”
An opening demonstration (or role play) of how to do something the wrong way – and
then explaining this presentation will teach the right way.
Reason for the training
Now that the audience is thinking about the training topic,
the reason for the training should be explained to
learners. This would be just a brief outline to „set the
scene‟.
At the beginning of the actual training session itself, this
reason should be restated and expanded on.
A trainer should let learners know what they are going to learn.
Telling adult learners what the reasons are for the training is vital as they really do need to
know why they are doing the training. To adults, doing any training that has no reason,
purpose or that doesn‟t make any sense is simply seen as a waste of time and an insult to
their intelligence.

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Successful training can never be simply imposed on learners without adequate


explanation. Learners must be made aware of the need for the training and be shown how
the training will benefit them, the business or the customers. Once the learners
understand why they need to do the training, this will help to act as motivation for them to
undertake the work and focus more effectively.
Possible reasons for the training can include:
Enabling learners to do a job better, safer, quicker and with less waste
Providing new or upgraded skills, knowledge or attitudes – which can lead to extra
hours, more pay/overtime, specialist premium payments/allowances, increased
chance of promotion or extra responsibilities
Compliance with externally imposed requirements – such as meeting the needs for
OHS and licensing and certification requirements
Compliance with internal requirements – such as requests from management that
staff, generically or specific individuals, undertakes nominated training for various
reasons. This might include multi-skilling of staff to allow for flexibility in rostering,
succession planning for cases where staff are leaving the business, going on
extended leave or being promoted to another area.
There is absolutely nothing wrong with using money as a motivator or reason for the
training. If the training will lead to more pay, extra hours, a higher hourly rate, a premium
payment, or higher duties allowances, then it is perfectly acceptable to let staff know this.

Outcomes for the training


This asks you to let staff know what they will be able to do at
the conclusion of the training.
It means you have to highlight the difference for the learners
between what they can‟t do before the training and what
they will be able to do at the end of the training.
In lots of ways, this is similar to explaining the reasons for
the training.
Points you might look at can include:
Detailing tasks that trained staff will be able to do once they have been trained
Explaining the level of legal liability that attaches to staff once they have been trained
– for example, once employees have received a certain qualification, they may be at a
higher level of exposure in terms of their legal
responsibility
Quantifying the number of staff who will be trained –
including identifying the specific skills they will be trained
in
Explaining how the content of the training matches the
business plans and objectives that the organisation has
set for the performance of the business.

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3.4 Explain the training and assessment activities


involved in the training session
Introduction
Whilst the learners may be aware of the topics included in the training program, it is a
good idea to explain the program in a summary format so they have an overall picture of
what will be delivered in the program.
This is where a copy of a learning or session plan will come in handy. It can be used as a
guide to explaining training and assessment activities to learners.
In addition the trainer may run through the Training Manuals or other resources with
learners so they can visually locate and understand topics in the training program.

Summary of training activities


In the last section, the reasons for training and the outcomes were identified.
In this section, the trainer will go into more detail regarding the actual training topics and
activities that the learners will be required to undertake.
Items that may be discussed include:
Trainers and facilitators of selected topics
Summary of topics
Areas within these topics
Method of delivery for topics
Location for training (if different from main training venue)
Activities to be completed as part of the class
Requirements of learners in activities.

Summary of assessment activities


It is important to let learners know at the beginning of the training session, what
assessments they will be required to undertake to be deemed successful in the program.
Information learners will need to know include:
Number of assessments
Types of assessments to be used
Dates of assessment
Clear explanation of the assessments so learners
understand what is expected
Marking criteria and weighting of each assessment
activity towards final mark
Pass mark for assessments
What happens if they are below the pass mark.

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3.5 Present training session


Introduction
This section explores the different roles and responsibilities a trainer will need to manage
during the training session.
There are many points to consider when conducting a training session, however at the
end of the day, the aim is to enable learners to be able to learn and undertake specific
skills, as specified in the training outcomes and objectives.

Leadership
During the training, you must manage the twin functions of „group task‟ and „group
maintenance‟.
Task functions
„Task‟ functions of leadership involve leading the group successfully completing their
training. Factors included here are:
Offering ideas and information to the learners
Seeking opinions from learners
Passing on facts and skills to learners
Giving directions to learners
Setting plans for learners to help them achieve the set
training goals
Getting the individuals within a group to function as a
cohesive unit
Coordinating activities of learners
Clarifying learner goals as they progress through a session or topic.
Maintenance functions
„Maintenance‟ functions centre on ensuring the learners continue to work harmoniously
and that there are good working relationships among all participants. This includes your
being involved in:
Provision of positive feedback to learners – to help keep them interested, engaged
and motivated
Giving encouragement – either verbally or non-verbally
Raising enthusiasm amongst learners – to make them
aware that they can achieve what is required, and to
provide motivation during the tough times when they might
be tired or disinterested
Maintaining a safe, secure and supportive physical and
emotional environment – physical safety is, of course, important, but so, too, is the
need to provide emotional support when learners find the going tough, or when they
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Acknowledging contributions and efforts made by trainees – the


important thing is to provide acknowledgement for effort and not
just for success
Using humour as a motivator and means of reducing tension –
this can assist in maintaining momentum and getting learners to
have another go at something they may have previously not
succeeded in
Sensitive and non-judgemental communication – it is very
important that whatever is said to learners cannot be
misconstrued in any way. Your role is to support, encourage,
nurture – not to criticise or put people down
Frequent, accurate and encouraging feedback – which means finding something to
provide a positive comment about even when learners are unable to achieve the set
objective.

Training styles
It is important to select a training style that best suits the topics for learning and the
characteristics of the individual learners and the group as a whole.
There are three basic training styles:
Authoritarian
Laissez-faire
Democratic.
Each is fundamentally different and each has different
implications for training delivery. You must assess each group on
its merits and apply the style that appears the most appropriate in
each instance.
While you may prefer one alternative, it is often impossible to use
that preference in every situation with every learner, safety or
discipline factors may dictate otherwise.
Authoritarian style
In this style, the trainer is very authoritarian, autocratic and even tyrannical.
There is no dispute as to who the boss is, or who is in-charge of the training session.
The trainer dictates what will happen and allows no departure from preset plans, or from
pre-prepared exercises, questions and timeframes.
The effect of this style is that learners often feel the training is taking place for the benefit
of the trainer rather than for their benefit – they feel afraid, disillusioned and irrelevant.
Some will see this style as a challenge and proceed to do whatever they can to annoy,
upset or jack up the trainer.
The authoritarian style is rarely effective with adults because it puts most people very
quickly off-side and raises all sorts of barriers to learning. This approach may be
appropriate or preferable in the army, but it has little to recommend it in the business
world of adult training.
Nonetheless, it does have a limited use.

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Where the training involves something very dangerous and the trainer
wants to ensure no-one gets injured, this style allows the trainer to
quite literally tell the learners what to do and doesn‟t allow any
discussion on the tropic. There is no room for the learner to make
suggestions as to how the procedure may be modified or to apply their
own personality to the topic.
Regular use of this style as the norm, though, is usually an indication
of trainer insecurity and anxiety. The trainer is very closed with the
learners, is afraid of making a mistake, feels learners are out to make
a fool of him/her, and tends to dominate activities and discussions.
Laissez-faire style
This style is the complete opposite of the authoritarian style.
In this style, little or no direction is given by the trainer in terms of what will take place
during the session.
Much of the time is spent taking care of people‟s feelings,
discussing anything and everything except the topic of
training, and generally just passing the time of day.
While this may be an appropriate approach for some
learning situations where emotions are involved, it tends not
to be very applicable to task-related workplace training
where trainees are usually job-focussed and intent on
achieving something.
To most learners in a work environment, time is valuable and any training session that
fails to quickly „get to the point‟ and stick to it, is seen as frustrating and a waste of time.
This leads to severe problems with learners‟ motivation, attendance and achievement –
and your credibility.
Learners expect the trainer to take control over the training and not let it turn into a waste
of time.
Democratic style
Adult learners prefer this approach in which they are treated
like adults and feel they are not simply being lectured to.
This style sees them as individuals with individual skills,
abilities, experiences and needs, rather than as a generic
mass that has no feelings or opinions. In this approach adults
are valued for who they are and regarded as distinct
individuals, equal to the trainer in all but (perhaps) subject
knowledge and workplace skills.
The trainer presents to the group the task to be learned and obtains agreement that the
task is indeed a reasonable aim, explaining why there is a need for this skill or knowledge
in the workplace. The trainer also, from the outset, creates a safe, secure and equitable
(democratic) environment by encouraging learners to contribute, participate and offer
alternatives.
While this situation provides learners with a warmer environment in which to function,
there must also be a realisation the trainer overall is still in-charge and shoulders
responsibility for the training: the trainer has final control of what happens and has the
right to take decisive action, but what is decided may be modified by learner input.

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For example, less time may be spent on a topic the learners believe they already know. A
particular type of training delivery, such as reading from a manual, might be changed to
something else because the learners have indicated they don‟t like that approach. The
background music that is playing while they work on self-paced individual exercises might
be turned up or down as requested by the group.
The difference in this training style is that the trainer using a
democratic style is assertive, whereas in an authoritarian style they
are aggressive or dominant.

Structure of training program


The structure of the learning session will be prescribed in the session
plan, which will set out the sequence in which the training should
occur.
For example, coverage of theory will precede practical application of the theory.
If you need to determine exactly what has to be included in the information delivered, it
can sometimes help to consider the possible content available to be delivered along the
lines of:
Must know – it is essential to deliver this
Should know – this is less critical information but still important for the learners to
know
Could know – this information is not essential/necessary but still useful, and more
„nice to know‟ than anything else.
The structure of the session also refers to the nature of the activities that are involved in
the delivery. Your delivery plan should identify which of the available techniques are to be
used, indicating where they are to be applied and what content each of them covers.
It is a common aim for training situations to:
Use delivery techniques that best suit the nature of the
information being taught – for example, a demonstration is
the best way of teaching a practical cooking skill
Use delivery techniques that meet the preferred learning
styles of participants
Use techniques that are cost-effective
Use a variety of appropriate techniques in order to make the delivery more interesting
– reliance on just one or two options can make an otherwise interesting session quite
boring for the learners.

Training techniques
Training techniques commonly used in workplace situations
include:
Demonstrations
Explanations
Question and answer sessions

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Group work – including getting learners to work in pairs


Case studies
Discovery activities
Problem-solving
Practice opportunities for learners to hone their newly acquired s.

Communicating with learners


Your interaction with learners must continue throughout any
learning session – that is to say, your role doesn‟t end once
you‟ve provided an explanation or a demonstration.
Your interaction, and hence the need for communication, is
expected until the training session finishes and many will
need to have communication with you after the session has
ended, for extra tuition, clarification of points, or to raise
training-related issues.
Commonly, learners are anxious about their progress and they are seeking an answer to
the questions „How am I going?‟, „Am I on the right track?‟, “‟s what I am doing OK?‟
Many learners will not actually state these concerns out loud, but it is usual that they are
thinking them.
Again, the effective trainer will set their mind at ease by supplying appropriate answers.
This type of support and feedback can be communicated either by verbal or non-verbal
communication.
Verbal communication
This is communication you speak, such as „You‟re doing a great job,
Tony. Now would you like to try creating a separate invoice for an
overseas customer who is paying by credit card using foreign
currency?‟
Non-verbal communication
This is communication via body language, for example, in a training
session where you have given learners an opportunity to practise
you might simply watch what someone is doing, look at them, catch
their eye and smile or nod your head in approval.
Factoring in the environment
All training communication must take into account the learning environment. Sometimes
you know what the actual training environment will be like so you can determine in
advance how you will communicate with the group/individuals involved.
At other times, you have to tailor-make your communication to suit the conditions that
apply.
For example, if you were conducting a training session and there were customers able to
hear what was being said, you would avoid talking about commercial-in-confidence
information, sharing certain anecdotes that you might otherwise tell the group, or using
colourful language.

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If the environment was noisy due to machinery, passing


traffic or other sources of uncontrollable noise you would
need to plan not to have to talk to learners in this
situation. Perhaps you would brief them in advance of the
noisy conditions, set guidelines for their behaviour and
make sure that all necessary information about that
environment (safety issues, things to watch) had been
covered prior to entering that location.
Communication can also be influenced by light – in some cases you may need to turn
lights on or off, turn them up or down, draw shades, blinds or curtains.
A room that is uncomfortable in terms of temperature also has the potential to impact on
communication. This means you may have to adjust the air-conditioning, open or close a
door or window to help stop people falling asleep.
Communication skills are used to provide information, instruct learners and demonstrate
relevant work skills
Communication skills comprise verbal and non-verbal components.
As a trainer, it is important you use both components properly to increase the chance of
effective learning occurring. The required communication skills include a range of points
from the following.
Providing explanations
Verbal explanations
Explanations need to be presented before and during demonstrations. They are an
ongoing necessity in all training situations.
Along with being able to conduct competent demonstrations, the ability to provide
explanations that your learners can easily follow is a training skill that you need to hone.
When providing explanations:
Use language and terms that learners can understand
– explain any new terms or phrases
Illustrate explanations wherever possible by reference
to actual items, samples or examples
Use lots of anecdotal explanations drawn from your
own experience – the use of second-hand anecdotal
experiences is also valid providing they are relevant
Structure the explanation correctly – the explanation must have a logical flow to it, and
you should be able to divide it up into short chunks so you can stop throughout the
explanation and ask questions to test learner understanding
Prepare for all explanations you have to give – very few excellent explanations are
given „off the cuff‟. Preparing for explanations means:
 writing a script to ensure you cover all that needs to be said
 trialling the script to see if it works properly

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 referring to notes during the actual explanation to make sure you cover topics in
the right sequence, and you don‟t miss anything out
 consider taping/filming your explanation – either during the trial process or in-class
– and play it back to see if you can identify any points you need to change.
It is wise to seek feedback from participants to determine what they thought about your
explanation skills.
In brief, all information must be presented coherently and clearly, whether provided
verbally or in writing.
Written explanation
Trainers will communicate with learners mainly via the spoken word and the printed word
(that is, notes, manuals, texts and overheads), but they will also communicate to a lesser
extent in writing.
The two main occasions where this is required is when:
Writing on a board
Providing handwritten notes/explanations to individuals in a
one-on-one situation.
When providing handwritten notes on paper, it is necessary to
take a bit of extra time to make sure that they can actually read
what you have written. The writing doesn‟t need to be
copperplate but it needs to be legible.
If the leaner can‟t read your writing they will commonly not ask you to decipher the
scribble for fear of giving offence and perhaps risking getting off-side with you.
When writing on a white board of flip chart it is essential to practice first. Writing on boards
is a skill in itself and one you should perfect before subjecting your learners to your
practice sessions!
Some tips include:
Make sure the board is clean before the session
begins
Check to make sure you have chalk and/or white
board markers plus cleaners– when using a white
board double-check to make sure the markers are
whiteboard markers and not permanent markers!
Write bigger than normal – do a few test runs first. Write a couple of sentences and
then step back to where the learners will be to see if they can read it
Keep the lines straight – a common problem with most people who write on boards is
that the sentence starts at the „right‟ level and slips lower down on the board as they
write. To help overcome this, you must move along the board as you write the
sentence: if you stay in the one spot, the sentence will nearly always drop
When writing on the board, don‟t speak – the learners can‟t see your face/lips, your
voice may be muffled and they can‟t read your body language
Tell learners if you expect them to copy down what you have written – don‟t assume
they will. If you expect them to copy down what is on the board, be quiet and let them
do it in peace. Don‟t talk while they are trying to write – they can‟t listen to you and
write down notes effectively at the same time.

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If you need to write loads of information on the board, consider:


Writing it up before the learners arrive – as opposed to writing up while they are
watching/waiting
Divide the board into two or three sections using vertical lines down the board to
create the physical sections. Fill up one section before moving on to the next section.
This can help you get out of the way so learners can see the board to copy down their
notes
Be careful when using colour – colour is seen as a good thing to use when using a
board as it gives variety, life, can assist when drawing wiring and similar other
diagrams, but certain colours are very hard to read from a distance.
Language
When you conduct training a few points about language that you need to take into
account are:
Remember the KISS („Keep It Short and Simple!‟)
approach. Don‟t use long and complicated words.
You aren‟t there to impress the learners with how
smart you are, you‟re there to train them
Make sure all jargon used in the training (new jargon
and commonly used jargon) is well understood –
don‟t just assume learners will understand all the
jargon that you use
Explain all relevant technical, establishment and other specialist terminology with
special attention to „buzz words‟, manufacturer/supplier names and legal phraseology
Be sure that whatever you say cannot be misinterpreted as a put down. This may
require you to rethink much of your existing natural speech pattern. In practice, this
means you must avoid saying things such as „Look, this is really easy to learn – it‟s
child‟s play‟, „No-one has a problem with this‟, or „You‟ll get the hang of this
straightaway‟. Obviously, for example, if the learner doesn‟t get the hang of it
straightaway, then you have just said they are more stupid than a child!
Speak to the learners when conducting a demonstration, and don‟t talk to the
equipment. Making eye contact with the learners is a way of maintaining engagement
with them throughout the session
Stop talking to the group/individual when you turn to face the whiteboard and resume
talking when you turn back to face them. It can be hard for learners to understand
what you say when they can‟t see your face/read your lips.
Demonstrating work skills
Demonstration is a very common and popular training technique.
When demonstration is required, consider the following:
Go through the tasks slowly and accurately – there is an old
saying I do it normal, I do it slow, you do it with me, then off you
go‟. This means a demonstration should be conducted as
follows:
 perform the task at normal speed, without explanation, to
show what is required, to set the scene – I do it normal

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 perform the task step-by-step, explaining each one


as you go, and asking trainees what they think the
next step might be – I do it slow
 get the trainees to have a go themselves, while
you do it at the same time, correcting them as
required – you do it with me
 allow the trainees time for practice – then off you
go
Get it right first time – it is important that you, as the trainer, get the training task right
the first time. Any mistakes will have an enormous negative impact on the training,
and adversely affect your personal credibility in the eyes of learners. This highlights
the need for the trainer to be competent, and also underlines the need for the trainer
to practise before delivering training
Provide verbal explanation when and where necessary – trainers must be able to
simply and accurately explain what they are doing, and why. This includes being able
to correctly name pieces of equipment and procedures being used. Industry
terminology should be used as appropriate, but don‟t try to dazzle the learner with
your own brilliance on the subject. Training is not intended to show the learner how
smart you are!
Ensure all procedures used in training sessions comply with the organisation‟s policies
and procedures. Internal policies, practices and procedures must be incorporated into
the training so they become part of the operation, and are not seen as an optional
extra
Ensure all demonstration of equipment complies with the manufacturer‟s instructions –
the way learners are trained must conform to prescribed instructions, especially where
safety is concerned.
Ask questions
Effective communication in training demands you ask clear and probing questions of your
learners.
The questions must be clear so there is no confusion about the focus of the question.
They must be probing in order to provide you with information to factor in to your session
delivery – has everyone understood? Can I keep going? Do I need to change anything
about my delivery style, the training environment, etc?
These questions may be scripted questions written into your session plan, or they can be
questions that arise during the session that you believe you need to ask.
The aim of questions can be:
To monitor how well learners are keeping up with the materials
that are being presented – Are they on track? Are some falling
behind? Do you need to go over a certain point again because
quite a few seemed to have missed the point?
To identify whether or not you can move on to the next point/topic
– in many cases there is a need for learners to fully comprehend
certain information before they can progress to the next stage of
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To check with the learners on the how the physical training


environment is meeting their needs
To check on the emotional needs of the group
To maintain interest in the session, and to keep learners on
their toes
To encourage learners to be reflective and to reason problems
out for themselves – encouraging initiative, self-belief and self-
reliance
To assist learners to recall and remember facts, procedures, etc.
To assist in the formal assessment process.
Too many trainers think it is up to the learners to ask the questions, and feel that their job
is to answer them, but a truly effective trainer will ask as many, or more, questions:
Use questions to determine the level of existing skills, knowledge and experience
called „entry level‟ knowledge
Use questions to prompt responses to problems, to help learners think a problem
through, to arrive at a solution by themselves. If a learner asks a question, don‟t just
automatically respond with an answer
Use questions to check the level of understanding in relation to new information and
training. This helps you monitor the extent to which learners are following what is
being presented, and helps identify where you need to retrace your steps and re-
present certain aspects of the training
Use „closed‟ questions to determine the specific knowledge of learners – closed
questions are ones that can only be answered with a „yes‟ or a „No‟
Use „open‟ questions, too – to elicit the extent to which learners have a deeper
understanding of the topic. Open questions start with:
 Who
 Why
 How
 When
 Where
 What
Use questions that are fair and relevant – again,
don‟t try to impress the learners with your personal extra knowledge on the subject,
and don‟t ask questions that they cannot realistically be expected to know the answers
to
Don‟t ask questions about things you haven‟t taught unless it is for the purposes of
establishing their starting level
Spread your questions around – don‟t just ask the „smart‟ ones!
Don‟t be sexist – ask questions of both sexes
Give learners time to answer questions that you ask.

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Pace
Pacing of the session refers to how fast or how slowly you
move through the session.
Keys in pacing a session include:
Start on time – don‟t wait for stragglers. Five minutes
lost at the start of a session may be impossible to make
up during the training
Know at the start how long you have to do the training, know exactly what you intend
to cover and know how you are going to do the training
Monitor time throughout the progress of the session – so you know where you are in
real time terms in comparison to where the delivery plan says you should be
Refrain from covering „could know‟ information where time is running short
Make sure that learners don‟t lead the session off course
through interruptions, comments, red herrings or other
activities that slow down the delivery
Stick to the session plan to the greatest extent possible – this
asks you to refrain from adding bits and pieces to the training
that you feel should be included
Identify as quickly as possible the point at which it becomes
obvious that the planned session cannot be completed as
intended, on time – so that you have the maximum amount of
time available to determine how, and where, to conclude the
session
Move the session along so that it remains interesting – the difficulty here is that while
you want to keep moving forward, you cannot afford to do so at the expense of letting
certain learners fall behind. Recognise that different learners learn at different rates,
but you also have to be sensitive to drawing attention to those who may be struggling
to keep up.
A good way of addressing this is to have a set of activities ready to give out to learners
who are up to speed. The idea is to stop the delivery process when you believe some
learners are falling behind and give out these activities such as case studies, exercises,
self-paced learning materials, extra reading, „could know‟ information to the ones who are
up to speed.
While the faster learners are engaged with these activities, this
gives you a chance to spend some extra time with the slower
learners to bring them on track with the others.
Note, too, that in some situations it may be best to finish the
session as planned and then make separate arrangements at the
end of the session with the slower learners to provide some extra
(perhaps one-on-one) training, assistance, advice or practice
opportunities.
You can never just finish a session and ignore the fact that the required content was not
completed. It is your responsibility to work out how the required content can be achieved
using some alternative techniques or extra sessions.

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Making quick decisions


As a trainer, time does not allow you to ponder over situations or to delay activities due to
indecision. It is important that the trainer is confident in making quick decisions.
During the session, your decisions may focus on:
Questions – who to ask, when to ask, what to ask,
how to phrase it, when to re-ask the question putting
it a different way and the tone of voice to use
Equipment – who should use it, how long they should
be allowed to use it for, if it is safe, if the trainees are
using it safely and how it should be arranged
Relationships – how X and Y are getting on, how things are going between two people
from different nationalities, if there is any gender rivalry, if there is an age difference
problem, if a trainee is feeling left out, how I can stop that one reading the newspaper
Environment – if it is too hot, if I should turn the lights off, if it is too noisy, if I should
turn some music on, or if it is too crowded
Pacing – Am I going too slowly? How can I adapt my session plan to get through the
task but still finish on time? Am I leaving anyone behind or are they all keeping up?
„Doing nothing‟ about a situation is a viable option in some circumstances, providing it is a
reasoned response to the situation and not simply an easy option because you couldn‟t
be bothered taking any other action.

Providing support
Here are some suggestions for developing a supportive learning environment:
Consider warm-ups – where time allows, it can be beneficial to start off each session
with a „fun‟ warm-up activity such as a quiz or a light-hearted challenge not associated
with the content of the training
Provide positive feedback – use various feedback techniques. This will be discussed
in Section 3.7
Be open yourself to feedback –although this can be very hard to do, you might:
 Accept openly what is said – don‟t get defensive
 Modify what you do or say on the basis of the feedback given ––to you – for
example, this might mean you speak slower, repeat a step, make the training room
warmer, stop walking around the room and stand still when talking and don‟t use a
training delivery technique they tell you they don‟t like
 Where a request to change is unreasonable, talk
it through and reach a compromise
Aim to generate autonomy where learners do their
own thinking, self-reliance and initiative by using the
following strategies:
 Give learners time to think when you ask them a
question – don‟t rush in and provide answers

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 Allow learners to make mistakes and create an environment where it‟s okay to do
so. It‟s best if mistakes occur during training rather than in real-life customer
contact situations
 Challenge trainees to extend themselves and to think more deeply, rather than just
achieve what has been set
Vary how you respond to learners‟ questions by employing these techniques:
 Put the question back to them – „Good question! What do you think? Any ideas?‟
 Give it to someone else – „Fair question, Dave. Chris, what do you think?‟
 Give it to the group – „Okay, anyone want to have a go at that?‟
 Refer them somewhere for an answer – „The policy manual has a bit to say on
that. Read the section on Claims and Expenses, and then get back to me if you‟re
still unsure.‟
 Give hints, but not the answer – „If I said „think about what we said during the legal
section‟, would that help?‟
 Finally, you can always give the answer! But don‟t make a habit of giving the
answer straightaway
Know when to be quiet– it is very distracting for learners when you keep talking (also
known as „prattling on‟)
Know when to leave them alone to get on with it – don‟t spend excessive time on the
demonstrations. Do them and allow learners to have a go
Realise there are likely to be heaps of emotions bubbling away, so be sensitive to
them and alert for signs of their presence – learners may be worried about:
 Looking foolish in a role-play
 Failing in front of others when they do their demonstration
 Making a mistake – and feeling angry about that mistake because it was done in
front of someone senior or you as the trainer
 Embarrassment at not being able to read – perhaps other staff don‟t know they
can‟t read, but this can come to light during a training session where they are
required to read something, especially where the training requires them to read out
loud in front of the group
 Having to give feedback, demonstrate something in front of others, or talk in
public. Lots of learners are scared of doing anything in front of others even though
their work role requires them to work with members of the public
Obtain equity in the session, by ensuring:
 Equal use of resources among learners
 Equal opportunities for learners to make contributions
to the session
 A special effort is made to encourage reluctant
learners to participate
 Dominant participants are not allowed to take over the
session
 Equal amounts of your time are spent with each
trainee

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Manage conflict within the learner group by observing these principles:


 Don‟t ignore conflict
 Plan before the session to cope with possible conflict – don‟t rely on being able to
deal with the situation on the spot
 Get to the cause and apply conflict resolution techniques – make sure you don‟t
just deal with the symptoms of the conflict
 Remember that in most conflict situations, compromise is the key – rarely will a
win-lose outcome be satisfactory. Always look for a win-win situation or a position
where both parties feel they have won and lost something in order to resolve the
conflict.

Enhancement of learning
Enhancement of learning refers to many aspects of training.
In all cases, you are expected to make sure you cover the
basics as set out in the established learning program and
delivery plans, but there can be plenty of opportunities to go
beyond these minimum requirements and add depth, breadth
and additional context to the material. This is enhancing the
learning.
It is often said that the difference between a good trainer and a bad trainer is the extent to
which they can do this. In most cases, enhancing learning requires you to make an extra
effort, spend extra time on the training and nearly always, there will be no extra
recognition or remuneration for doing so.
Ways in which you can enhance the learning experience for individual learners
sometimes means doing that „little bit extra‟ and sometimes it can mean doing what you
know you should do.
Examples of what can constitute enhancement of learning include:
Genuinely catering for individual differences between learners – instead of delivering
the same training to all learners regardless of who they are, or what their experience
is
Spending time getting to know the individual learners – their background, their work
roles, their aspirations about the job, their fears and their out-of-work lives
Encouraging the learners to ask questions and providing information and answers to
those questions – as opposed to giving the impression that questions are not
welcomed, and those who ask questions are regarded as unwanted interruptions
Recognising what the learners achieve – this can be one-on-one (or group-based)
recognition of effort, achievement, contribution, attendance and attitude
Providing a physically comfortable and emotionally supportive learning environment
Providing extensions to the minimum required competencies for learners who
demonstrate a desire to go further than just what the scheduled learning program
dictates. This can include providing extra training to them yourself, or making
arrangements or recommendations to management for them to attend external
training

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Mentioning learners who stand out during training to supervisors and management
who are often eager to identify people who can be ear-marked for extra
responsibilities, cross-training or promotion
Being prepared to meet with learners out-of-training – to provide extra tuition, to listen
to their problems, and to encourage them when they feel anxious
Sharing your personal work-related experiences that demonstrate that you, too, have
made mistakes in the past. No trainer should ever put themselves on a pedestal in
terms of their work abilities. Telling anecdotes about the mistakes you have made is
one good way of building rapport with learners and letting them know that everyone
makes errors from time-to-time. As they say „The person who never made a mistake,
never made anything‟.

Always finish on time


It is nearly always necessary to finish every training session on time, at the time you
stated the training would finish. This is because staff may have to return to work at a
given time to start serving customers, to relieve other staff, or simply to go home and live
their private lives.
Your learners are expecting you to end the session when you told them it would finish.
They may have made arrangements relying on your promise. If you regularly finish a
session late this has the potential to negatively influence the learners who participate and
de-motivate them.
Regardless of the responsibility or activity you need to perform as a trainer, always
imagine yourself as the learner and always try to remember that they are not as
competent as you, and try to help them to learn in a professional manner like you would
like to follow yourself as a learner.

3.6 Provide opportunities for learners to practice


skills
Introduction
During all training and instruction sessions, staff must be
given the opportunity to practise their new skills, and be
encouraged to ask questions.
While the learner practises, you must watch to ensure they
are doing it correctly.
Do not get lulled into thinking that once you have shown
the learner what to do, the job is finished – far from it!
You should also provide further information. This information can be the „nice to know‟
information, or the „could know‟ information.
You should also be ready to demonstrate again a step where and when necessary.
The intention is that at the end of the training, the learner should have achieved the
competency level required or, at least, be well on the way. They may then be given the
opportunity to gain valuable hands-on experience by practising their skills during normal
day-to-day operations, under supervision, where appropriate.

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While they are practising, you must continue to monitor, encourage and praise.
Open questions should also be asked where and when appropriate.
Remember that some employees become embarrassed easily, so all feedback should be
done in an appropriate location away from other staff members and members of the
public.

Observing learner’s practise


When observing a learner attempting or practising
their newly acquired skills, the following apply:
Effectively correct the learner whenever they take
an incorrect step – corrective action needs to be
immediate so that incorrect practices are not
allowed to become habits
Ask questions to confirm the learner‟s knowledge – effective training will ensure staff
not only know what to do, but why they are doing it
Ensure the learner is always in comfortable surroundings – this may mean adjusting
lighting and/or air-conditioning, and taking action to eliminate distractions
Praise the learner when and where appropriate – be lavish in your praise, but ensure
it is genuine and deserved
Encourage the learner as much as possible – learners
may be anxious about the training, so create an
environment of success
Listen to the learner‟s feedback and act on it – if the
learner is unhappy or uncomfortable with some aspect
of the training, do whatever you can to remedy the
situation while still achieving the training objective
Ensure the learner‟s safety – be ready to intervene the
moment safety is compromised.
In some situations, you may be required to liaise with other staff. This could be senior
staff, staff you know are fully competent themselves or supervisors to set up extra
workplace opportunities for learners to gain additional on-the-job practice.

3.7 Provide feedback to learners


Introduction
Feedback is very important when training. One of the aims of learning is to build
confidence in learners as they attempt to understand new concepts, techniques and skills.
It is expected that learners will make mistakes as they learn and it is the role of the trainer
to provide feedback which helps them to improve.
An important part of the facilitator‟s role is to provide feedback to candidates on various
activities they perform during training. Most people are very keen to hear how they are
“going” and the assessor needs to be able to do this in a truthful and professional manner.
It is critical from a learning perspective as well that candidates receive this feedback in
order to benefit from the trainer‟s input and be able to build on this in the future.

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When providing feedback you should be clear about the areas to be covered (such as
relevant performance criteria). The feedback should always be constructive but this
doesn‟t mean shying away from the truth or explaining shortcomings.

What learners want to know


Learners often require feedback as a source of
guidance as they try to grasp new activities. There are
many pieces of information they will seek.
Learners will want to know:
How they are performing
What areas they are doing well
Which areas could be improved
Suggestions for improvement
How is their progress towards the training outcome.
As a trainer, you must provide feedback that will be helpful in learners achieving the
training aims.

Providing constructive feedback


Keys to providing constructive feedback include:
Use active listening techniques – pay attention to what
the learner is saying when they talk. Don‟t assume you
know what they are going to say or how they are going
to finish a sentence
Use positive body language when giving feedback – make sure the non-verbal
communication mirrors the verbal feedback. You can‟t say nice things while the body
language is sending negative signals. Where the messages from verbal and body
language is contradictory, the person receiving the communication will always believe
the body language
Paraphrase what learners say – to show you have listened and understood repeat
back what they have said to you using different words
Acknowledge how learners feel as well as what they can or cannot demonstrate –
share their joy when they succeed and share the disappointment when they don‟t
Give positive and constructive feedback as often as possible – it is your job to
encourage the learner, not to destroy their belief that they can succeed
A good technique to use when giving feedback is the Kiss-Kick-Kiss approach. If for
example you have to explain that a candidate is doing something incorrectly, rather
than just focusing on that you would first comment on something they are doing well,
then describe in specific terms what they are doing incorrectly, then finish up with a
positive statement about how they can repeat the task and confirm your expectations
for success. make sure you respect learner self-esteem – encourage them, don‟t put
them down
Be honest, but be sensitive and tactful
Focus on the actions of the learner, not the person or their personality
Make feedback brief – if you take too long it may begin to sound false and contrived.

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Out of session feedback


So far this section has focused on the need for trainers to provide ongoing feedback to
learners throughout training sessions, and given some tips on how this might be
successfully achieved.
Trainers may also be required to provide out-of-class feedback that to learners regarding
their overall training progress, as opposed to their progress in relation to an individual
training topic.
The basics of providing this type of feedback include:
Ensuring all learners are given this feedback – this is
not something that should be reserved just for
„special‟ learners
Scheduling the feedback and discussion sessions –
so that you and each of the learners know well in
advance when they are going to occur
Informing learners at the outset that these sessions will take place – and that they are
seen as part of the total training process
Ensuring a quiet and private location is available for the session – the room should be
set up in a manner that facilitates conversation and interaction. A couple of lounge-
type chairs set up at an angle to each other is better than a confrontational style of two
chairs facing each other at a table
Making sure that you, as the trainer, know what you want to share with the learner –
you have to plan for these feedback sessions as much as you do for training sessions.
What can be covered at these sessions?
These sessions are an opportunity for both trainer and learner to share their thoughts –
this means there should be a two-way flow of information.
The trainer might want to address issues such as:
Overall progress of the learner in attaining the
requirements of a long-term learning program –
such as:
 sighting and providing comment on work that
has to be completed as part of assessment
 clarifying training objectives and assessment
requirements
 providing general and specific direction for
work that has to be finalised
 evaluating the progress of the individual learner against expected progress
including developing strategies to make up lost time, if possible
Barriers to learning that are impacting on the individual – these may include:
 interpersonal conflict between learners in the learning environment and the wider
workplace
 issues that the learner is having with you as a trainer – perhaps they are unhappy
with your approach, training style, manner, attitude, or language used

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Training-specific details such as when training


sessions are conducted, the duration of sessions and
the training venue
Any issues previously identified as being worthy of
discussion at these sessions – these will be very
individual in nature and commonly focus on the
challenges faced by learners in completing or
participating in training, difficulties faced in being able
to achieve competency in prescribed tasks, issues
that are occurring in their personal life that are negatively affecting their training
Opportunities for further engagement with training – this can include advising the
learner about prospects for further courses either internally or externally. This may
result from the aptitude shown by the learner, or their eagerness to continue learning
Counselling of the learner – in situations where a person‟s ongoing employment
depends on their gaining certain skills, knowledge, or qualifications by a set time and
they are failing to achieve this, your role may be to inform them of the position they
are in. You must make them aware of the reality of their situation while at the same
time remaining encouraging and supportive. The key is to offer practical assistance
while at the same time leaving them under no illusion as to what will happen if they fail
to achieve the outcomes that have been listed as mandatory for them
Behaviour in training sessions – where you find a learner is misbehaving during
training sessions, it is important to approach this issue as soon as possible, but to do
so tactfully without embarrassing them in front of others. You may elect to do this one-
on-one with the learner immediately after the training session concerned, but you may
want to think about the situation a bit more, plan what to say and use this feedback
session as a chance to explain why their behaviour is unacceptable, how it must
change and what will happen if it doesn‟t change. Again, there is a need to be
supportive during this type of session.
Seek feedback from learners
The trainer should also ask for the learner‟s feedback on the training, and this feedback
should be taken seriously and constructively.
Remember, everyone learns at a training session: just because you are the trainer
doesn‟t mean that you can‟t learn, too. Especially about the way you deliver your training.
Where problems with the training are identified, every effort must be made to remove
them from future training.
As a trainer, you must be alert to signs your training has not been effective. Performance
problems or difficulties may be due to:
Shyness or lack of confidence
A breakdown in communication
Language or cultural barriers
Insufficient opportunity to practise
An inappropriate training and practice environment.

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The above problems can traditionally be traced to one or more of the following causes:
Poor, insufficient or rushed preparation – remember that good training takes time and
that the preparation prior to the training session is a major indicator of the success of
the training
Time restraints – it is common for workplaces to place unrealistic expectations on
trainers, asking them to do too much in too short a time: where you genuinely believe
you are being allocated insufficient time, you must raise
this with management, explain your concerns and negotiate
extra hours
Communication barriers – including interruptions from
outside sources
Uncomfortable surroundings
Inappropriate learning tools
Broken, dangerous or faulty equipment
Unmotivated learners – you will recall that a fundamental responsibility of trainers is to
provide sufficient motivation for their learners: lots of learners attend training with no
real motivation so it is up to you to generate it
Insufficient stock, or consumables, to allow the training session to be completed as
intended – this is commonly a budgetary constraint and where it is a genuine issue
you must once again negotiate extra funding from management
Poor levels of attendance – this may be due to poor motivation, or it can be due to the
fact that supervisors will not release staff to attend training.
Following is a simple way to collect feedback from learners.

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Training Feedback Form

Session: _____________________________________ Date: _______/_______/_______

Please tell us how you rate your training experience ranking in order 1 (below expectations) to 6
(exceeded expectations). Please feel free to add comments or suggestions. Thank you for your
feedback.

Area Comments or suggestions

Relevance of the training to the company

1 2 3 4 5 6

Relevance of the training to your position

1 2 3 4 5 6

Relevance of the training to your career

1 2 3 4 5 6

Quality of the material presented

1 2 3 4 5 6

Trainer demonstrated good knowledge

1 2 3 4 5 6

Trainer developed good rapport with you

1 2 3 4 5 6

Were training objectives achieved?

1 2 3 4 5 6

Will the learning be of benefit to you In what ways?

1 2 3 4 5 6

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Overall satisfaction with the training

1 2 3 4 5 6

Most useful part of the training:

_______________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________

Least useful part of the training:

_______________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________

Other comments or suggestions:

_______________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________

By enabling learners to also provide feedback it enables learners to improve either their own
training skills or to make the program content or delivery method more suitable and effective for
other sessions.

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Feedback with people other than learners


It is common for trainers to be required to give feedback to managers, owners,
supervisors, other trainers/assessors and/or the Human Resources (HR) department.
The feedback with these people may cover:
Identification of learners who are showing themselves to be very committed, very
competent, willing to learn and to have „the right attitude‟
Identification of learners who are not displaying the right
attitude – these may be those who don‟t show up on time,
who skip scheduled sessions, who don‟t get their work
completed on time or who muck around during training
Explanation of where the money and resources allocated to
training have gone
Identification of problems that have emerged as part of the
training process – such as lack of resources, timing
problems, difficulty in getting learners released from their
normal duties to attend training
Identification of future training needs – perhaps based on
requests from staff, changes to legislation, variations to workplace procedures, as a
result of personal observation or on the basis of new business plans and directions
that have been developed
Explanation of the results of training that has been undertaken to-date – this might
include:
 Quantifying the number of people who have been trained
 Identifying and quantifying the competencies that staff can now demonstrate
Highlighting the benefits that the training has brought to the organisation, examples
being:
 Savings due to less waste and better use of resources
 The flexibility to those drawing up rosters due to multi-skilling that is available
 The extent to which staff training now meets imposed compliance requirements.

3.8 Ensure on-going safety of learners during


training delivery and practice
Introduction
You must ensure safety for learners during actual training, and you must stress it in all
things you teach.
A lot of this has been mentioned in Section 2.5 when we discussed what training
requirements need to be organised.
As mentioned, before the training, all equipment must be checked, repaired or replaced
where necessary as learners should not be expected to learn or practise on potentially
dangerous equipment.

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Equipment safety
Equipment must:
Be stable
Be working properly
Have no loose connections
Have proper safety guards fitted
Have no frayed cords or faulty
switches
Be regularly serviced
Be appropriate for the training task at hand
Be representative of what the learner will be expected to use in the workplace once
they have successfully completed their training.

Learner safety
Be on the lookout for learners who arrive at a training session in no fit condition to operate
equipment. Because learners are attending a training class, as opposed to performing
work, there is always a possibility they may turn up hung-over, drunk, affected by drugs,
extremely tired, or emotional.
Where trainees are so affected, they must be excluded from the training. Rules should be
laid down at the first session and strictly adhered to. Once you ban a learner from a
session because they are drunk, for example, it sends a very clear message to the rest of
the group that you will not tolerate people attending in such a state.
Ensure the trainees‟ physical stature enables them to perform the task safely. Are they
too short, too tall, or excessively overweight? If this is the case, some adaptation to
existing practice, equipment, or layout may be required.
The environment must also be conducive to safety. Floors should not be wet or slippery,
the lighting must be sufficient but not blinding, and the temperature should be
comfortable.

Safety equipment
You also have a responsibility for ensuring all necessary safety and first aid equipment is
on hand. It is preferable for trainers to have basic first aid training as well as phone
access for further medical assistance.
You may require the following:
Fire extinguishers or fire blankets
Knowledge about location and operation of shut off switches – power, water, gas,
steam, LPG
Gloves, aprons, facemasks and protective goggles
Appropriate small equipment, thermometers
First aid kit
Knowledge of store emergency procedures.

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Learners are briefed on any occupational health and safety (OHS) procedures and
requirements prior to and during training
OHS is a big issue in all workplaces today and the structure of
these notes and the regular reference to OHS should help
underscore its importance.
As we have said, in a training situation, you must address OHS
from two distinct viewpoints:
You must guarantee the safety of all learners involved in training
You must make sure your training content delivery covers all the
relevant OHS issues for the topic concerned.

Involvement of OHS experts


If you are not 100% sure of all the OHS issues that apply to establishing a safe training
environment, or which apply to the knowledge and technical aspects of the workplace
training content that must be covered/delivered you should:
Involve your designated workplace OHS representative – and obtain information from
them about what needs to be addressed: it is perfectly acceptable. If they are willing,
to involve them by getting them to deliver the OHS component of the training content
Involve your local safety officials – ask them to visit the workplace to provide relevant
information for you to act on, and to pass on to learners. It is standard operating
procedure in most businesses that you seek management approval before contacting
such external authorities. It is also acceptable to ask them to participate in training
delivery b acting as a specialist guest speaker.
Since training sessions are often the first time a learner will be attempting a new task,
there is more likelihood that accidents may happen.
As a trainer you must prepare for these as much as possible and have safety on the
minds of all people in the training session at all times.

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Work Projects
It is a requirement of this Unit you complete Work Projects as advised by your Trainer.
You must submit documentation, suitable evidence or other relevant proof of completion
of the project to your Trainer by the agreed date.

3.1 To fulfil the requirements of this Work Project you are asked to identify how to
confirm attendance of learners at the training session including:

Reasons for confirming attendance


Methods to follow up.

3.2 To fulfil the requirements of this Work Project you are asked to identify how prepare
the training venue for the training session

3.3 To fulfil the requirements of this Work Project you are asked to identify how to
introduce training topic to learners including:

Welcome
How to generate interest
Reason for the training
Outcomes for the training.

3.4 To fulfil the requirements of this Work Project you are asked to identify how to
explain the training and assessment activities involved in the training session
including:

Summary of training activities


Summary of assessment activities.

3.5 To fulfil the requirements of this Work Project you are asked to identify how to
present a training session including:

Role of leadership
Types of training styles
Structure of training program
Training techniques
How to communicate with learners
Providing support.

3.6 To fulfil the requirements of this Work Project you are asked to identify how to
provide opportunities for learners to practice skills

3.7 To fulfil the requirements of this Work Project you are asked to identify how to
provide feedback to learners

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3.8 To fulfil the requirements of this Work Project you are asked to identify how to
ensure on-going safety of learners during training delivery and practice including:

Equipment safety
Learner safety
Safety equipment.

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Summary
Deliver training sessions
Confirm attendance of learners at the training session:
Reasons for confirming attendance
Methods to follow up.
Prepare the training venue for the training session:
Preparation activities.
Introduce training topic to learners:
Welcome
Generate interest
Reason for the training
Outcomes for the training.
Explain the training and assessment activities involved in the training session:
Summary of training activities
Summary of assessment activities.
Present training session:
Leadership
Training styles
Structure of training program
Training techniques
Communicating with learners
Pace
Making quick decisions
Providing support
Enhancement of learning
Always finish on time.
Provide opportunities for learners to practice skills:
Observing learner‟s practise.
Provide feedback to learners:
What learners want to know
Providing constructive feedback
Out of session feedback
Seek feedback from learners
Feedback with people other than learners.
Ensure on-going safety of learners during training delivery and practice:
Equipment safety
Learner safety
Safety equipment
Involvement of OHS experts.

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Presentation of written work

Presentation of written work


1. Introduction
It is important for students to present carefully prepared written work. Written presentation
in industry must be professional in appearance and accurate in content. If students
develop good writing skills whilst studying, they are able to easily transfer those skills to
the workplace.

2. Style
Students should write in a style that is simple and concise. Short sentences
and paragraphs are easier to read and understand. It helps to write a plan
and at least one draft of the written work so that the final product will be
well organized. The points presented will then follow a logical sequence
and be relevant. Students should frequently refer to the question asked, to
keep „on track‟. Teachers recognize and are critical of work that does not
answer the question, or is „padded‟ with irrelevant material. In summary,
remember to:
Plan ahead
Be clear and concise
Answer the question
Proofread the final draft.

3. Presenting Written Work


Types of written work
Students may be asked to write:
Short and long reports
Essays
Records of interviews
Questionnaires
Business letters
Resumes.

Format
All written work should be presented on A4 paper, single-sided with a left-hand margin. If
work is word-processed, one-and-a-half or double spacing should be used. Handwritten
work must be legible and should also be well spaced to allow for ease of reading. New
paragraphs should not be indented but should be separated by a space. Pages must be
numbered. If headings are also to be numbered, students should use a logical and
sequential system of numbering.

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Cover Sheet
All written work should be submitted with a cover sheet stapled to the front that contains:
The student‟s name and student number
The name of the class/unit
The due date of the work
The title of the work
The teacher‟s name
A signed declaration that the work does not involve plagiarism.

Keeping a Copy
Students must keep a copy of the written work in case it is lost. This rarely happens but it
can be disastrous if a copy has not been kept.

Inclusive language
This means language that includes every section of the population. For instance, if a
student were to write „A nurse is responsible for the patients in her care at all times‟ it
would be implying that all nurses are female and would be excluding male nurses.
Examples of appropriate language are shown on the right:

Mankind Humankind

Barman/maid Bar attendant

Host/hostess Host

Waiter/waitress Waiter or waiting staff

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Recommended reading

Recommended reading
Brown, Douglas Robert & Arduser, Lora; 2005 (1st edition); The Encyclopedia Of
Restaurant Training: A Complete Ready-to-Use Training Program for All Positions in the
Food Service Industry; Atlantic Publishing Group
Cannon, Debra; 2002 (1st edition); Training and Development for the Hospitality Industry;
American Hotel & Motel Association
Dunn, D. M.& Goodnight, L.J., 2011(3rd edition); Communication: embracing difference;
Allyn & Bacon, Boston.
Ford, Robert; 1999 (1st edition); Managing the Guest Experience in Hospitality; Delmar
Cengage Learning
Ford, Robert C, Sturman, Michael C, Heaton, Cherrill P; 2011 (1st edition); Managing
Quality Service In Hospitality: How Organizations Achieve Excellence In The Guest
Experience; Delmar Cengage Learning
Gillen, Terry; 2001 (Lslf edition); The Performance Management Activity Pack: Tools for
Building Appraisal and Performance Development Skills; AMACOM
Holloway C, Davidson R, Humphreys C, 2009(8th Edition); The Business of Tourism;
Pearson Education
Jazsay, Christine; 2003 (1st edition); Training Design Guide for the Hospitality Industry;
Delmar Cengage Learning
Johnston, R & Clark G, 2008 (3rd Edition); Service Operations Management; Pearson
Education
Kusluvan Salih 2003; Managing employee attitudes and behaviours in the tourism and
hospitality; Nove Science Publishers, New York
Lashley, Conrad, Morrison, Alison; 2001 (1st edition); In Search of Hospitality (Hospitality,
Leisure and Tourism); Butterworth-Heinemann
Martin, William B: 2001 (1st edition); Quality Service: What Every Hospitality Manager
Needs to Know; Prentice Hall
Maxwell J, 2001; The 17 Indisputable Laws of Teamwork: Embrace Them and Empower
Your Team; Maxwell Motivation, USA
O'Fallon, Michael J.; 2010 (5th edition); Hotel Management and Operations; Wiley
Sturman, Michael C; 2011 (1st edition); The Cornell School of Hotel Administration on
Hospitality: Cutting Edge Thinking and Practice; Wiley
Walker, J, 2009, (36th edition); Supervision in the Hospitality Industry: Leading Human
Resources; University of South Florida
Zeithaml, Valarie A; 2009 (1st edition); Delivering Quality Service; Free Press

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Recommended reading

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Trainee evaluation sheet

Trainee evaluation sheet


Prepare and deliver training sessions
The following statements are about the competency you have just completed.

Don’t Do Not Does Not


Please tick the appropriate box Agree
Know Agree Apply

There was too much in this competency to cover


without rushing.

Most of the competency seemed relevant to me.

The competency was at the right level for me.

I got enough help from my trainer.

The amount of activities was sufficient.

The competency allowed me to use my own


initiative.

My training was well-organized.

My trainer had time to answer my questions.

I understood how I was going to be assessed.

I was given enough time to practice.

My trainer feedback was useful.

Enough equipment was available and it worked


well.

The activities were too hard for me.

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Trainee evaluation sheet

The best things about this unit were:


___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
The worst things about this unit were:
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
The things you should change in this unit are:
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________

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