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DRONACHARYA GROUP OF INSTITUTIONS

(Greater Noida)

A
Presentation
on
GRADIENTS AND GRADE EFFECTS , SUPER-ELEVATION

TEAM:
1. Aok kumar (10452)
2. Indrajeet (10470)
GRADIENT

✓ Gradients are provided to negotiate the rise or fall in the level of the railway
track.

✓ A rising gradient is one in which the track rises in the direction of the
movement of traffic and a down.

✓ A falling gradient is one in which the track loses elevation in the direction of
the movement of traffic.
For example,
if there is a rise of 1 m in 400 m, the gradient is 1 in 400 or 0.25%
Gradients are provided to meet the following
objectives.

✓ To reach various stations at different elevations

✓ To follow the natural contours of the ground to the extent possible

✓ To reduce the cost of earthwork.


TYPES OF GRADIENT

(a) Ruling gradient

(b) Pusher or helper gradient

(c) Momentum gradient

(d) Gradients in station yards


RULING GRADIENT

The ruling gradient is the steepest gradient that exists in a section. It determines
the maximum load that can be hauled by a locomotive on that section.

The ruling gradients adopted:


1. In plains – 1 in 150 to 1 in 200
2.In Hilly tracks – 1 in 100 to 1 in 150
PUSHER OR HELPER GRADIENT

✓ Pusher gradient is the gradient where an extra engine is required to push


the train. These are steeper gradient than ruling gradient and are provided at
certain places of mountains to avoid heavy cutting or to reduce the length of
the track.

✓ A pusher gradient of 1 in 37 on Western Ghats with B.G. track is provided.


On Darjeeling Railway with N.G. track, a ruling gradient of 1 in 25 is provided.
MOMENTUM GRADIENT

✓ Gradient which is steeper than ruling gradient and where the advantage of
momentum is utilized is known as momentum gradient.
✓ A train gets momentum when moving in downgradient and this momentum
can be utilized for upgradient.
✓ A train while coming down a gradient gains sufficient momentum. This
momentum gives additional kinetic energy to the moving train which would
help the train to rise a steeper gradient than the ruling gradient for a certain
length of the track. This rising gradient is called momentum gradient.
✓ In such gradients, no signals are provided to stop the train.
GRADIENTS IN STATION YARDS
The gradients in station yards are quite flat due to the following reasons.

✓ To prevent standing vehicles from rolling and moving away from the yard due
to the combined effect of gravity and strong winds.

✓ To reduce the additional resistive forces required to start a locomotive to the


extent possible.
CONTINUED.....
✓ It may be mentioned here that generally, yards are not levelled completely
and certain flat gradients are provided in order to ensure good drainage.

✓ The maximum gradient prescribed in station yards on Indian Railways is 1 in


400, while the recommended gradient is 1 in 1000. Gradients in Station
Yards
SUPERELEVATION

✓ Superelevation or cant Superelevation or cant (Ca) is the difference in height


between the outer and the inner rail on a curve.
✓ It is provided by gradually lifting the outer rail above the level of the inner rail
by the ballast cushion to counteract the centrifugal force.
✓ The inner rail is taken as the reference rail and is normally maintained at its
original level.
✓ The inner rail is also known as the gradient rail.
✓ Actual cant for BG track limited to 165mm
The main functions of superelevation
✓ To ensure a better distribution of load on both rails.
✓ To reduce the wear and tear of the rails and rolling stock.
✓ To neutralize the effect of lateral forces.
✓ To provide comfort to passengers.
Thank you