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VRay

THE COMPLETE GUIDE


VRay
THE COMPLETE
GUIDE
Francesco Legrenzi
SUMMARY

CHAPTER 1 - Introduction

GENERAL …………………………………………………………………………………………….……….. 1
About the author ………………………………………………………………………….……….. 1
Acknowledgments …..…………………………………………………………………….………… 2
Preface ………………………………………………………………………………….………… 3
About the book ……………………………………………………………………….………….. 3
Structure of the book ……………………………………………………………………….………….. 4
Getting the most from the book ……………………………………………………………….………… 4
Attached DVD-ROM ……………………………………………………………………….………….. 4
What is VRay? ………………………………………………………………………………….………… 5
VRay and the hardware ……………………………………………………………………….………….. 5
The book’s webpage ……………………………………………………………………….………….. 7

VRAY AND THE INTERFACE ……………………………………………………………………….………….. 8

ORGANIZATION AND AIM OF THE BOOK ……………………………………………………….………..13

CHAPTER 2 - The complete story of Computer Graphics

THE GENERAL STORY ……………………………………………………………….………………….. 16


1200 B.C. ………………………………………………...………………………………………….. 16
1500 A.D. ………………………………………………...………………………………………….. 17
1600 A.D. ………………………………………………...………………………………………….. 18
1800 A.D. ………………………………………………...………………………………………….. 19
1900 A.D. ………………………………………………...………………………………………….. 25
1910 A.D. ………………………………………………...………………………………………….. 27
1930 A.D. ………………………………………………...………………………………………….. 29
1940 A.D. ………………………………………………...………………………………………….. 32
1950 A.D. ………………………………………………...………………………………………….. 39
1955 A.D. ………………………………………………...………………………………………….. 44
1960 A.D. ………………………………………………...………………………………………….. 49
1965 A.D. ………………………………………………...………………………………………….. 54
1970 A.D. ………………………………………………...………………………………………….. 61
1975 A.D. ………………………………………………...………………………………………….. 68
1980 A.D. ………………………………………………...………………………………………….. 79
1985 A.D. ………………………………………………...………………………………………….. 93
1990 A.D. ………………………………………………...………………………………………….. 108
1995 A.D. ………………………………………………...………………………………………….. 114
2000 A.D. ………………………………………………...………………………………………….. 122
2005 A.D. ………………………………………………...………………………………………….. 126

THE STORY OF VRAY …………………………...……………………………………………………………….. 134


2001 A.D. ………………………………………………...………………………………………….. 134
2003 A.D. ………………………………………………...………………………………………….. 138
2004 A.D. ………………………………………………...………………………………………….. 139
2005 A.D. ………………………………………………...………………………………………….. 142
2006 A.D. ………………………………………………...………………………………………….. 144
2007 A.D. ………………………………………………...………………………………………….. 144

SUMMARY VII
CHAPTER 3 - VRay: Renderer PART 1

VRAY: FRAME BUFFER ………………………………………………………………………………….. 148

INTRODUCTION ………………..………………………………………………………………………….. 148

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 149


Frame buffer ……………………………………………………………………………...…………….. 149
Frame buffer toolbar ………………………………..………………………………………...……….. 150
Frame buffer shortcut ………………………………………………………………………………….. 152

VRAY: GLOBAL SWITCHES ………………………………………………………………………………….. 154

INTRODUCTION ………………..………………………………………………………………………….. 154

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 154


Geometry ……………………………………………………………………………...…………….. 154
Lighting ………………………..………………..………………………………………...……….. 154
Materials …………...……………………………………………………………………………….. 156
Indirect illumination ……...………..………………..……………………...………………...……….. 158
Raytracing …………...........………………………………………………………………………….. 159

VRAY: IMAGE SAMPLER (Antialiasing) ……………………………………………………………….. 160

INTRODUCTION ………………..………………………………………………………………………….. 160

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 163


Image sampler ……………………………………………………………………………...…………….. 163
Antialiasing filter …………………………………………………………………...……..……….. 165

NOTE ………………………….………………………………………..………………………………………….. 166

EXAMPLES ………..……….………………………………………..………………………………………….. 167


Example 1: what is antialiasing? …………………………………………………………...…………….. 167
Example 2: Adaptive subdivision sampler …………………………..……………………...…………….. 167
Example 3: Adaptive QMC sampler …………………………………….…………...…………….. 168
Example 4: DOF, bump and textures …………...…….…...…………..……………...…………….. 169
Example 5: DOF and procedural textures ………………………..………………………...……………..173
Example 6: scene without textures and DOF ….…..………………………………...…………….. 179
Example 7: textures and antialiasing ..………………………………………………...…………….. 185
Example 8: Object outline and normal ……………..…………………………………...……………..191
Example 9: random antialiasing ………………………………………………..……..…...…………….. 194
Example 10: the filters …………………………………………………………..………...…………….. 195
Example 11: moire effect ………………………………………..………...……………………………….. 203

VRAY: GLOBAL ILLUMINATION (GI) ……………………………………………………………….. 209

INTRODUCTION ………………..………………………………………………………………………….. 209

CALCULATION METHODS FOR THE GI .………………………………………………………………..213


Exact and approximate calculation methods ………………………..………………………...……………..214
Shooting methods vs. Gathering methods ………………………………………………...……..………..215
Approximate methods: Dependent view vs independent View …………..………………………..……….. 217
Methods supported by VRay …………………………………………..……………….…………….. 218

VIII VRay - THE COMPLETE GUIDE


GLOBAL ILLUMINATION (GI) IN VRAY ………………………….……………………………………..219

PARAMETERS ……………………………………………………………….…………………………………….. 222


GI caustics …………………………………………………....………………………...…………….. 222
Post-processing ………………………………………………..…………………………...……..……….. 223
Primary bounces ………………………………………………………….………………………..……….. 224
Secondary bounces …………………..………………………………..……………….…………….. 225

METHOD ASSOCIATIONS …………………………………………….…………………………………….. 225

ANIMATION ……………………………………………………………….…………………………………….. 226

VRAY: quasi-Monte Carlo (QMC) ……………………………………………………………...………….. 228

INTRODUCTION ………………..…………………………………………………………………….…….. 228

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 228

VRAY: IRRADIANCE MAP (IM) ……………………………………………………………...………….. 233

INTRODUCTION ………………..…………………………………………………………………….…….. 233

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 234


Basic parameters ………..…………………..……………………....………………………...…………….. 235
Advanced option ...……...……………………………..…………………………...……..……….. 250
Mode ………..………………………………………………………….………………………..……….. 260
On render end ………..…………………..………………………………..……………….…………….. 264

METHOD ASSOCIATIONS ……………………….………………………………………………………….. 265

VRAY: PHOTON MAP (PM) ………………………………………………………………..……...………….. 272

INTRODUCTION ………………..…………………………………………………………………….…….. 272

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 276

NOTE …………………..……………….………………………………………………………………………….. 285

METHOD ASSOCIATIONS …………………….…………………………………………………………….. 286

VRAY: LIGHT CACHE (LC) ………………………………………………………………..……...………….. 293

INTRODUCTION ………………..…………………………………………………………………….…….. 293

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 294


Calculation parameters ………..………....……………………....………………………...…………….. 294
Reconstruction parameters ...……...……………..……..…………………………...……..……….. 301
Mode ………..………………………………………………………….………………………..……….. 305
On render end ………..…………………..………………………………..……………….…………….. 310

METHOD ASSOCIATIONS …………………….…………………………………………………………….. 311

SUMMARY IX
CHAPTER 4 - VRay: Renderer PART 2

VRAY: ENVIRONMENT ………………………………………………………………..……...………….. 326

INTRODUCTION ………………..…………………………………………………………………….…….. 326

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 328


GI Environment (skylight) ………....……………………....………………………...…………….. 328
Reflection/refraction Environment ……………………..……..…....………………………...…………….. 331

VRAY: CAUSTICS ……………………..…………………………………………………..……...………….. 335

INTRODUCTION ………………..…………………………………………………………………….…….. 335

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 339


Rollout VRay: Caustics …………..……....……………………....………………………...…………….. 343
Mode ………………………………………………..……..…....………………………...………..…….. 348
On render end ……………………………..………..……..…....………………………...………..…….. 348

VRAY: rQMC SAMPLER ……………………..…………………………..……………..……...………….. 350

INTRODUCTION ………………..…………………………………………………………………….…….. 350

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 351

NOTE ………………………….………………………………………………………………………..………….. 356

VRAY: COLOR MAPPING ……………………..…………………………..……………..……...………….. 357

INTRODUCTION ………………..…………………………………………………………………….…….. 357

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 359

THE LIGHT ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 363


Color’s features …………..……....……………………....………………………...………………..…….. 369
Color’s spaces ………..……………………………..……..…....………………………...………..…….. 371
Colors and computer ………………..…..………..……..…....………………………...………..…….. 372
The screen and its characteristics ………....……………………....………………………...…………….. 375
Color’s management in digital environment………….…………….…………………...…………....…….. 382
Screen calibration …………………………..…....……………………………...…......……..…….. 386
Work spaces ………....………………………………………....………………………...…………….. 391
Color management in Photoshop ……………………….…………….…………………...………..…….. 394
Self-printing and laboratory printing …………..……..…....………………………...………..……..402
Conclusions ……………………………..………..……..…....………………………...………..…….. 403

LINEAR WORK FLOW (LWF) ……………….………………………………………………………………….. 404

VRay 1.5 RC2 ………………………………….………………………………………………………………….. 415

X VRay - THE COMPLETE GUIDE


VRAY: CAMERA ……………………..…………………………..……………..…………….....………….. 422

INTRODUCTION ………………..…………………………………………………………………….…….. 422

PARAMETERS ………………..……………..……………………………………………………………….…….. 422


Camera type …………..……………………………..…..…....………………………...………..…….. 426
Depth of field (DOF) ……………..……..………..……..…....………………………...………..…….. 438
Motion blur (MB) ……………..……..………..……..…....………………………...………..…….. 445

VRAY: DEFAULT DISPLACEMENT ……………………………..……………..…………….....………..….. 451

INTRODUCTION ………………..…………………………………………………………………….…….. 451

PARAMETERS ………………..……………..……………………………………………………………….…….. 453

VRAY: VRAY DISPLACEMENT MOD ……………………………..……………..…………….....………..….. 464

INTRODUCTION ………………..…………………………………………………………………….…….. 464

PARAMETERS ………………..……………..……………………………………………………………….…….. 464


Type …………..……………………………………....…..…....………………………...………..…….. 464
2D mapping ……………..……..………..……………....…....………………………...………..…….. 482
3D mapping/subdivs ……………..……..………..……..…....………………………...………..…….. 484

VRAY: SYSTEM ………………………………………………..……………..…………….....………..….. 490

INTRODUCTION ………………..…………………………………………………………………….…….. 490

PARAMETERS ………………..……………..……………………………………………………………….…….. 491


Raycaster params ………..……………………....…..…....………………………...………..…….. 491
Render region division ……………..……..……………....…....………………………...………..…….. 503
Frame stamp ……………..……..………..……..…....…………………………..……...………..…….. 508
Distribuite rendering ………..……………………....…..…....………………………...………..…….. 510
VRay log ……………..……..……………....…....……………..…………………...………..…….. 512
Miscellaneous options ……………..……..……..…....…………………………..……...………..…….. 513

CHAPTER 5 - VRay: MATERIALS AND MAPS

VRAY MATERIAL: VRayMtl …………………………………………………………………………….…….. 531

INTRODUCTION ………………..………………………………………………………………………….. 531

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 532


Basic parameters ……………………………………………………………………………...…………….. 532
BRDF ………………………………..…………………………………………………………...……….. 573
Options ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 577

SUMMARY XI
VRAY MATERIAL: VRayMtlWrapper …………………..……………………………………………….…….. 582

INTRODUCTION ………………..………………………………………………………………………….. 582

VRAY MATERIAL: VRayLightMtl ……………………………………..…………………………….…….. 583

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 583

VRAY MATERIAL: VRay2SidedMtl …………………………………..……………………………….…….. 588

INTRODUCTION ………………..………………………………………………………………………….. 588

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 588

VRAY MATERIAL: VRayBlendMtl …………………………………………..……………………….…….. 594

INTRODUCTION ………………..………………………………………………………………….……….. 594

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 601

VRAY MATERIAL: VRayFastSSS …………………………………………..……………………….…….. 608

INTRODUCTION ………………..………………………………………………………………….……….. 608

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 608

VRAY MATERIAL: VRayOverrideMtl …………………………………………..……………………….…….. 614

INTRODUCTION ………………..………………………………………………………………….……….. 614

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 614

VRAYMAP: VRayMap ……………..………..……………………………………..……………………….…….. 617

INTRODUCTION ………………..………………………………………………………………….……….. 618

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 618


Reflection params ………..…………………………………………………………...…………….. 621
Refraction params ……………..…………………………………………………………...……….. 625

VRAYMAP: VRayHDRI ……………..………..……..……………………..……………………….…….. 631

INTRODUCTION ………………..………………………………………………………………….……….. 631

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 638

VRAYMAP: VRayDirt ……………..………..……………………………………..……………………….…….. 647

INTRODUCTION ………………..………………………………………………………………….……….. 647

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 650

XII VRay - THE COMPLETE GUIDE


VRAYMAP: VRayEdgeTex ……………..……………………………………..……………………….…….. 661

INTRODUCTION ………………..………………………………………………………………….……….. 661

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 662

VRAYMAP: VRayBmpFilter ……………..……………………………………..……………………….…….. 666

INTRODUCTION ………………..………………………………………………………………….……….. 666

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 669

VRAYMAP: VRayColor ……………..………..…………………………..……………………….…….... 672

INTRODUCTION ………………..………………………………………………………………….……….. 672

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 673

VRAYMAP: VRayCompTex ……………..……………………………………..……………………….…….. 676

INTRODUCTION ………………..………………………………………………………………….……….. 676

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 677

CHAPTER 6 - CAMERAS AND LIGHTS

THEORY ………………………………………………………………………………….…………..….. 684


THE CAMERA ………………………….....……………………………………………………………………….. 684

VIGNETTING EFFECT ………..………...……………………..………………………………………………….. 709

BOKEH EFFECT ………...………………………………………………………………………………….. 709

THE VIDEO CAMERA ………..………...…………………………………………..…………………………….. 710

VRAY CAMERA: VRayPhysicalCamera ……………..………..……………....………………….……..713

INTRODUCTION ………………..………………………………………………………………….……….. 713

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 713


Basic parameters ……………..…..…………………………………………………………...…………….. 714
Bokeh effects ……………..…..…………………………………………………………...…………….. 736
Sampling ………..…………………………………………………………...…………………..….. 739

SUMMARY XIII
VRAY LIGHT and VRAY SHADOWS ……………..………..……………....………………….…………..….. 741

TECHNICAL ILLUMINATION THEORY ………...……………………………………………………………….. 741


Geometric parameters ……………..…..………………………..………………………...…………….. 741
Physics parameters ………..…………………………………………………………...…………….. 744
Radiometric parameters ...........................................….…………………………...…………………..….. 746
Fotometric parameters ………..………..………………………………………...…………………..….. 748

3DS MAX LIGHTS ……………..….………………………………………………………………………….. 759

VRAYSHADOW ………………………………..………..……………....………………….…….. 762

INTRODUCTION ………………..………………………………………………………………….……….. 762

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 763

VRAYLIGHT ………………………………..………..……………....………………….…………..….. 768

INTRODUCTION ………………..………………………………………………………………….……….. 768

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 769


General ………………………………..…..………………………..………………………...…………….. 769
Intensity ………………………………..…..………………………..………………………...…………….. 776
Size ………………………………..…..………………………..………………………...…………….. 790
Options ………………………………..…..………………………..………………………...…………….. 790
Sampling ……………..………..…..………………………..………………………...…………….. 798
Dome light options ……………..…..………………………..………………………...…………….. 800

VRAYSUN and VRAYSKY ……………..………..………..……………....………………….…………..….. 810

INTRODUCTION ………………..………………………………………………………………….……….. 810

PARAMETERS VRaySun ..……...………………………………………………………………………….. 813

PARAMETERS VRaySky ..……...………………………………………………………………………….. 819

CHAPTER 7 - VRay: OBJECT and ENVIRONMENT

VRAY OBJECTS ………………..…………………………………………………………………….…….. 824

VRAYPROXY ………………..………………..…………………………………………………………….…….. 825

INTRODUCTION ………………..………………………………………………………………………….. 825

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 831

NOTE ……………………..…………….………………………………………………………………………….. 832

XIV VRay - THE COMPLETE GUIDE


VRAYPLANE ………………..………………..…………………………………………………………….…….. 833

INTRODUCTION ………………..………………………………………………………………………….. 833

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 833

VRAYFUR ………………..………………..…………………………………………………………….…….. 835

INTRODUCTION ………………..………………………………………………………………………….. 835

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 836


Parameters ………………..……..…..………………………..………………………...…………….. 836
Maps ………………………………..…..………………………..………………………...…………….. 848
Viewport display …………………………..………………………..………………………...…………….. 854

VRAYTOON ………………………………………………..……………..…………….....………..………….... 857

INTRODUCTION ………………..…………………………………………………………………….…….. 857

PARAMETERS ………………..……………..……………………………………………………………….…….. 858


Basic parameters ………..…………..…………………....…..…....………………………...………..…….. 858
Maps ………..…………..……………..……………....…..…....………………………...………..…….. 863

VRAYSPHEREFADE ………..……………………………..……………..…………….....………..………….... 869

INTRODUCTION ………………..…………………………………………………………………….…….. 869

GENERAL ELEMENTS ………………..…………………………………………………………………….…….. 875

COMPOSITING BASIS ………………………………………………………………………………..…….…….. 875

PARAMETERS ……………………..…..…………………………………………………………………….…….. 879

CHAPTER 8 - RENDER ELEMENTS

VRAY RENDER ELEMENTS ………..………………………………………………………….…………..….. 892

INTRODUCTION ...………………………………………………………………………………………….. 892

PARAMETERS ...……………..…………………………………………………………………………………….. 893


Render Elements …………..…………………....…..…....………………………...………..…….. 907

COMPOSITING ...………………………………………………………………………………………….. 946

SUMMARY XV
CHAPTER 9 - UPDATES

VRay v1.5 RC3 ………..…………………………………………………………………………….…………..….. 952

INTRODUCTION ...………………………………………………………………………………………….. 952

PARAMETERS ...……………..…………………………………………………………………………………….. 953


Frame buffer rollout …………..……………..………....…....………………………...………..…….. 953
VFB …………..……………..................…....…………………………………………...………..…….. 953
Image sampler (Antialiasing) .……………..…………..…....…....……………………………..…….. 953
Adaptive rQMC (Antialiasing) ……………..…………...…....…....……………………………..…….. 954
Adaptive subdivision (Antialiasing) …….………..……....…....……………………………..…….. 956
Adaptive subdivision (Antialiasing) …….………..……....…....……………………………..…….. 956
Adaptive subdivision (Antialiasing) …….………..……....…....……………………………..…….. 956
Irradiance Map …….………..……....……………..………………....……………………………..…….. 958
Light cache …….…………………………..………....…....……….......……………………………..…….. 963
rQMC Sampler ………………...……..…………..…..................…....……………………………..…….. 963
Color Mapping …….………..……..........…………..………..……....……………………………..…….. 964

VRay v1.5 FINAL ……..…………………………………………………………………………….…………..….. 965

INTRODUCTION ...………………………………………………………………………………………….. 965

PARAMETERS ...……………..…………………………………………………………………………………….. 967


New Render Elements …………………..………….....…………....…...………..……...………..…….. 967
Quad menu …………..……………..…..................…....……………………………...………..…….. 971
Irradiance Map .……………..……..............................................…....……………………………..…….. 972
Sampling ……………..….…....…....………………………………………………..………..…….. 973
Legacy models and Use 3ds Max photometric scale ………..…..…....……………………………..…….. 974
VRayLight …….………..……....…....…………………..……………………………………..…….. 976
VRayPhysicalCamera …….………..……....…....………………..……………………………....…….. 979
VRayProxy …….………..……....……………………………......……………………………..…….. 982
Textures and shaders: VRayHDRI, VRayMtl, VRayDirt, VRayFastSSS, VRayEdgesTex ..…….... 982
Color Mapping ………………...……..……..................…....…………………………………………….. 990
Renderer …….………..……..........…………..……....………………..……………………..…….. 993

VRay v1.5 FINAL SP1 and SP2 ………...………………………………………………………….…………..…..994

INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………………………………………...…..994

PARAMETERS ...……………..…………………………………………………………………………………….. 995


VRayMtl (Anisotropy) …………………..………….....…………....…...………..……...………..…….. 995
VRayProxy (Scale) …………………..………….....…………....…...………..……...………..…….. 999
VRayFur (Taper) ………..…………………..………….....…………....…...………..……...………..…….. 1000
VRayMtl (Soften) …..……………..………….....…………....…...………..……...……………….. 1001
VRaySimbiontMtl …..……………..………….....…………....…...……..…..……...………..…….. 1001
VRayProxy (Animation) …..……………..………….....…………....…...………..……...………....…….. 1007
VRayIES ……………..……………..………….....…………....…...………..……...………..…….. 1010
VRayLight (Texture) …..……………..………….....…………....…...………..……...……………….. 1015
VRayMapShadows …..……………..………….....…………....…...………..……...……………….. 1017
VRayPhysicalCamera (White Balance) …..……………..…….…………....…...……...………..……..1015
Render Elements …..……………..……………...…………....…...……...………………..…..….. 1021

XVI VRay - THE COMPLETE GUIDE