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-Derived from the Greek word “logike” or “logos” which means word, speech, discourse, argument, idea,

and plea, possessed of reason.

-The study of the methods and principles used to distinguish correct from incorrect reasoning.

-The science and art of correct thinking. As science it employs the same approach and attitude in

studying its object (arguments). It relies on careful observation, critical analysis and conclusive rational

proofs.

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

-Traced back to the Greek Pre-Socratic philosophers starting with the Thales of Miletus around 585 B.C.

-Plato (428-347 B. C.)- At least began asking the veracity and validity of ideas and theories. It started a

way of seeing logic as an object of study. Later, logic became a branch of philosophy.

-Aristotle (384 B. C.)- He laid down the nature of reasoning. “Reasoning” is an argument in which certain

things being laid down, something other than necessary comes about through them.” SYLLOGISM.

ELEMENTS OF REASONING

1. Words

2. Statement

3. Argument

4. Judgement

DEDUCTIVE REASONING

- Top-Down Logic

Ex:

INDUCTIVE REASONING

- Bottom-Up Logic

Ex:

Socrates is mortal. (Particular statement)

- Word has a general meaning than term. Term is used to mean special words in particular fields

or subjects.

DEFINING A WORD

Arguments from definition- is an argument in which the conclusion is claimed to depend merely

upon the definition of some words or phrase used in the premises and conclusion.

Example Cases;

2. Orceo v. Comelec, G. R. No. 190779, March 26,2010

3. Leus v. St.Scholastica’s College, G. R. No. 187226, Jan. 28,2015

2. Stipulative Definition- use to eliminate ambiguity

3. Precising Definition- Used chiefly to reduce vagueness.

4. Theoretical Definition- Used to advance theoretical understanding.

5. Persuasive Definition- used to influence conduct.

CLAIM OR STATEMENT- a sentence about which it makes sense to ask whether it is true or false. It has a

truth value.

KINDS OF SENTENCES:

2. Normative vs. Descriptive

3. Singular vs. Categorical

4. Simple vs. Compound

Categories of Sentences:

1. Declarative : Asserting

2. Interrogative: Questioning

3. Imperative: Commanding

4. Exclamatory: Exclaiming

2. Principles of Inductive Generalization

3. Reasoning by Analogy

It does not contain any other statement as a It contains at least one simple statement as a

component. Any statement that is not truth- component. W/N the truth value of the compound

functionally compound. statement is determined wholly by the truth value

of its components, or determined by anything

other than the truth value of its components.

Ex. SCJ’s impeachment proceedings were closely Ex. PRRD is the president and Leni is the vice-

monitored by many people. president.

It does not convey any information about how It describes or tells us truly or falsely about

things are but rather prescribes how things ought something or the world.

to be.

Ex. People ought to obey the laws. Ex. Sometimes people disobey the law.

Whose truth values depends on languages and Statements whose truth value depends upon facts

logic alone. about the word.

It does not convey any new information. It is informative.

Must be either always true or always false May be true or may be false, neither necessarily

a. Tautology- a necessary statement that is true nor necessarily false.

always true.

b. Contradiction- a necessary statement that is

always false.

Ex. Either Renato Puno is a retires justice or Ex. Renato Puno is a retired Supreme Court Justice.

Renato Puno is not a justice.

SINGULAR STATEMENT CATEGORICAL STATEMENT

Statement which are about a single thing or Statements which are about classes or categories

situation. of things or situation. They assert that a particular

class is either in part or as a whole related to

another class.

Ex. 1. The SC rules on the constitutionality of the 1. universal affirmative

statutes. 2. universal negative

2. Erap has been found guilty of plunder. 3. particular affirmative

3. The death penalty is cruel and unusual 4. particular negative

punishment.

KINDS OF COMPOUNDS:

- These are formed with the word “and” or one of its cognates (but, although, also, yet, however

etc.)

RULE:

- For any 2 statements “p” and “q”, the conjunction “p and q” is true when and only when both

component statement “p”, “q” are true. Otherwise it is false.

Ex: Pedro was found guilty in the criminal trial of physical injuries and he was held liable in the civil

trial to pay the damages resulted therein.

- These are formed with the word “or” and one of its cognates (either, unless). A type of

compound proposition if TRUE, at least one of the component must be true.

RULE:

- For any 2 statements p and q, the disjunction “p or q”, is false when and only when both

components p, q are false. Otherwise it is true.

Ex: 1. Either Atty. A cross-examined the witness or Atty. B cross examined the witness.

( Hypothetical/ implication/ implicative proposition)

- These are formed with the form “ if p then q” where the symbols are filled by simple

statements.

- The 1st blank is called the antecedent and the 2nd blank is called the consequent of a conditional.

RULE:

- For any 2 statements p and q, the conditional “ if p then q” is false when and only when the

antecedent is true and the consequent is false. Otherwise it is true.

-these are also called “equivalence”, and they are formed with the expression “ if and only if”

RULE:

- For any 2 statements p and q, the biconditional “p if and only if q” is true when both p and q

have the same truth value.”

- The truth value of a negative statement depends on the truth value of the affirmative statement.

-it is formed with the word “not”, it is not the case that, or “it is false that”

-it is also formed with the expression “neither, nor”. (negation of a disjunction)

RULE:

- If the statement p is true, then not p is false, and if p is false then its negation not p is true.”

(Conjunction) (Disjunction) q) q (p = q) (Bi- (~p)

(Conditionals) conditionals) (Negation)

T T T T T T F

F T F T T F T

T F F T F F

F F F F T T

RELATIONS OF STATEMENTS

RULE:

-Two statements are equivalent if they have exactly the same truth value.

PATTERNS:

2. “if p then q” is EQ to “not q unless p”

3. “if p then q” is EQ to “it is not the case that p and not q”

Ex. If Pedro committed the crime then he will go to prison, is equivalent to, If Pedro did not commit

the crime, then he will not go to prison.

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