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VIVA-VOCE

III B.Sc. V Semester [Paper V & VI]

DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS
HPPC.GOVT FIRST GRADE COLLEGE CHALLAKERE-577522
III B.Sc. V Sem ester [Paper V & VI]
1

Paper-5
BRIDGE RECTIFIER
(1). What is rectification?
Ans: The process of converting an alternating current (or voltage) into a Direct current
(or Voltage).
(2). Name an electronic device whose function is opposite to that of rectifier
Ans: Oscillator.
(3). What is rectifier?
Ans: It is an electronic circuit which converts Ac into Dc
(4). What is half wave rectifier?
Ans: It is an electronic circuit which converts only half of the Ac signal into pulsating dc.
(5). What is full wave rectifier?
Ans: It is an electronic circuit which converts complete cycle of the Ac signal into pulsating
dc.
(6). What is ripple factor?
Ans: It is the ratio RMS value of Ac output to the Dc output of the rectifier output.
(7). What is AC?
Ans: It is the voltage or current which varies periodically with time.
(8). Which component in the circuit does the rectification?
Ans: Junction diode.
(9). Which property of the diode is used in the rectification?
Ans: The property that the diode conducts current only in forward bias.
(10). What is the rectifier filter?
Ans: It is a circuit which converts pulsating output form of a rectifier into steady output.
(11). Define efficiency of rectifier?
Ans: It is defined as the ratio of DC output to the Ac output power.
(12). What is a semiconductor or crystal diode?
Ans: A Pn-junction device is known as crystal diode.

(13). What is meant by peak inverse voltage?


Ans: It is a maximum reverse voltage that diode can withstand without destroying the
junction

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TRANSISTOR CHARACTERISTICS
(1). What is a transistor?
Ans: It is a two junction, 3 terminal semi conducting devices.
(2). What is a semiconductor?
Ans: It is a material who’s conducting lies in between conductor and insulator.
(3). Name the type of transistors?
Ans: npn and pnp.
(4). What is n-type semiconductor?
Ans: Pentavalent impurity is added to pure Ge and is so that majority charge carriers are
electrons.
(5). What is a hole?
Ans: It is a vacancy produced in the broken covalent bond
(6). At what temperature semiconductor behaves as an insulator?
Ans: At 0 k, no free charge carriers are present therefore semiconductor is a perfect insulator
at 0 k.
(7). Which are the characteristics of a transistor?
Ans:(1) Input characteristics – I/P current I B against VBE is plotted at constant V CE
(2)Output characteristics- O/P current Ic against O/P voltage VCE at constant I B
(3) Transfer Characteristics- I C against I B
(8). What is β?
Ans: β is the forward current gain for ac, it is the ratio of changes in collector current ( ΔI C )
to the change in base current ( ΔI B) in common emitter configuration.
(9). What is meant by biasing?
Ans: Applying some external voltage to a p-n junction diode is called biasing
(10). Name two types of biasing?
Ans: Forward biasing and reverse biasing.
Forward bias- P side is connected to positive side and n-side is connected to negative side
of the diode.
Reverse bias- P- side to negative side and N-side to positive side of the diode.
During forward biasing, resistance across the junction is very low so it allows the current to
pass through it.

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During reverse biasing resistance across the junction are very high, no current flows through
it.
(11). What is the basic function of transistor?
Ans: Amplification.
(12). What is amplification?
Ans: Increasing the amplitude of the input signal.
(13). What is an amplifier?
Ans: The device which brings about the amplification is called amplifier.
(14). Which are the three regions of transistor?
Ans: Emitter, base, collector
(15). Which is the heavily doped region?
Ans: Emitter
(16). Which is the lightly doped region?
Ans: Base.

LASER-WAVELENGTH USING METAL RULER & PARTICLE SIZE

(1). What does LASER stands for?


Ans: Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation.
(2). What is population Inversion?
Ans: The number of atoms in excited state is greater than in the ground state.
(3). What are the properties of LASER?
a) It is highly monochromatic light, b) It is highly coherent, c) It is highly directional.
(4). What is advantage of Semiconducting LASER?
Ans: Mono chromaticity, Coherence and directionality are inferior to those of other laser.

TRIODE VALVE
(1). Define Triode.
Ans: Transistor is a device it consists of three terminals namely i. Cathode (k) ii.Anode (A)
iii.Control grid (G)

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(2). What is the main difference between BJT and FET?


Ans: BJT-is a current controlled device.
FET- voltage controlled device.
(3). How many types of FET are there?
Ans: two types, they are i) JFET ii) MOSFET
(4). What is JFET?
Ans: It is a three terminal semiconducting device in which current conducting is by type of
carrier i.e. electron or holes.
There are two types of JFET i.e. n- channel, p-channel
(5). Which are the three terminals of FET?
Ans: source. Drain, Gate
(6). Why does the name JFET?
Ans: current from drain to source can be controlled by the application of potential or
(electric field)
(7). What is the importance of JFET?
Ans: JFET is a voltage controlled device i.e input voltage controls the output current vacuum
tubes are replaced by JFET.
(8). What are the difference between BJT and FRT?
Ans: BJT is a bipolar device but FET is a unipolar device

PHASE MEASUREMENT USING CRO


(1). What is CRO?
Ans: It is cathode ray oscilloscope.
(2). Define the phase of AC?
Ans: It gives the position or state of AC. It is measured in terms of fraction of 2π of period T.
It is the fraction of 2π from the position where it has elapsed from zero in positive
direction.
(3). What is phase difference?
Ans: The difference in phase between two alternating voltages or currents.
(4). Define resonant frequency?
Ans: The frequency of AC for which current in the circuit is maximum in LCR series circuit.
(5). What is the condition for resonance?

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Ans: When XL=XC i.e. inductive reactance = capacitive reactance, Impedance becomes min.
and current becomes max.
(6). Mention the important parts of CRO?
Ans: Electron gun, Deflecting plates, (x-plates and y-plates), fluorescent screen, high and
low voltage power supplies, etc.
(7). Applications of CRO?
Ans: It is used for (a) phase measurements,(b) Measuring frequency,
(c) Measuring AC and DC voltages,(d) To trace transistor curves etc.
(8). What is cathode ray oscilloscope?
Ans: It is an electronic instrument used to display and measure electrical quantities like
ac/dc Voltages, time phase relationships etc.

LDR ABSORPTION CO-EFFICIENT

(1). What does LDR stands for?


Ans: Light dependent resistor.
(2). What is the principle of LDR?
Ans: Resistance depends on the intensity of light falling.
(3). What is the relation between resistance and intensity of light?
Ans: Resistance inversely proportional to intensity.
(4). On what factors does absorption depends?
Ans: Nature of the body and types of radiation used.
(5). Which type of glass absorbs more yellow light among violet glass or green glass?
Ans: Violet glass.

REFRACTIVE INDEX OF GLASS USING LASER


1. Define optics & light?
Ans: the branch of physics that deals with the nature, sources properties & effect of light is
called light optics. And light is form of energy that enables us to sensation of sight.

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2. Name 2 branches of optics.


i) Physical optics: wave like nature of light & interaction between light and matter.
ii) Geometrical optics: it deal with the study of simple properties of light.
3. What transparent bodies?
The bodies which allows the light to flow through it such bodies called transparent.
4. What is optical medium?
Ans: It is one, which allows major portion of incident light to pass through them and opaque
bodies doesn’t allow the light.

5. What is isotropic medium and anisotropic medium?


Ans: Isotropic medium-->speed of light is same in all direction (Ex:Glass)
Anisotropic medium--> speed of light is not same in all directions. (Quartz)
6. Define plane of incidence.
Ans: Plane of containing the incident ray & normal at the point of incidence, is called plane
of incidence.
7. What is refraction of light?
Ans: Change in speed of light as it travels through one medium to another medium to
another and consequent bending of a ray of light incident obliquely at eh surface of
separation of through media “ is known as refraction of light.
8. State Snell ‘slaw of refracting.
𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝑖
Ans: = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡 𝑚𝑒𝑑𝑖𝑢𝑚 2 𝑤𝑖𝑡ℎ 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑡 𝑡𝑜 𝑚𝑒𝑑𝑖𝑢𝑚 1
𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑟

9. Define absolute R.I of medium?


Ans: “Ratio of velocity of light in air or vacuum to that in given medium m”.

10. Define angle of deviation when light undergoes refraction”.


Ans: “The difference between angle of incidence & the angle of refraction”.
11. What happens when light travels from rarer to denser medium & vice-versa?
a) Rarer to denser: i)light bend towards to normal, ii)speed of light decreases
b) Denser to rarer :i)light bends away from the normal. ii) speed of light increases.

12.For which color in the visible region is the R.I 1.5?


Ans: i) Maximum for violet(lease wavelength )

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ii) Minimum for Red (greater wavelength)


13.What is total internal reflection (TIR) ?
Ans: When the angle of incidence of a ray of light travelling from a denser to a rarer medium
is greater than the critical angle of the pair of media, the incident ray is reflected back into the
same medium. The reflection is complete or100% this phenomenon is known as TIR.

14.Define critical angle of medium.


Ans: Angle of incidence in the medium for which the angle of refraction in air is 90 0 .
15. Give the reason for the formation of circle when laser light falls parallel on glass plate?
Ans: When a ray that enter the glass plate travel through until the condition for TIR inside
the plate is fulfilled. At this critical angle or for larges angles the rays are reflected
internally within the medium forms ring pattern.
16.On what factors critical angle of medium depend?
Ans: i) R.I & medium, ii) Colour or wavelength of light.
17. Mention any two consequences of TIR
Ans: i) Diamond glitters. ii) An air bubble in water appears to shine.
18.What are condition for TIR?
 Ray of light must travel from optically denser to rarer medium.
 The angle of incidence in the optically medium must be greater that the critical angle for
the given pair of media.
DIELECTRIC CONSTANT
(1). Define dielectric constant of the material.
Ans: It is the ratio of force between the two charges in air to the force between the same two
charges in the given medium.
(2). What is capacitor?
Ans: It is the ability to store electric charge.
(3). Define capacity?
𝑄
Ans: It is the ratio of charge to the p.d applied across capacitor. 𝐶 = 𝑉 .

(4). On what factor, the capacity of capacitor depends?


Ans: It depends upon dielectric constant of the medium separation between the plates and
are of the plates.

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(5). Where does the charge reside in the condenser of capacitor?


Ans: Charge reside on the plates of the capacitor.
(6). Where does the energy stored in capacitor?
Ans: In between the plates of the capacitor.
(7). Define farad?
Ans: It is the unit of capacitor.
1farad=1coulomb/1volt.
If the 1 coulomb of charge is required to raise its potential by 1 volt then the capacity is said to
be 1 farad.

Paper-6
ENERGY GAP OF THERMISTOR

(1). What is thermistor?


Ans: It is the thermally sensitive resistor.
(2). Which material is use in its construction?
Ans: Semiconducting metal oxides like nickel oxide. Manganese oxide, zirconium oxides are
heated to a suitable temperature to make it a hard mass.

(3). What is semiconductor?


Ans: It is the material whose conducting properties lied in between conductor and insulators
.Ex: Ge and Si etc.
(4). What is energy gap?
Ans: The energy difference between conduction band and valence band is known as energy
gap.
(5). What is energy band?
Ans: The group of closely lying same energy levels from a band is known as energy band.
(6). How do increase a conductivity of a semiconductor?
Ans: By increasing the temperature and by adding chemical impurity.
(7). What is doping?
Ans: The process of adding and impurity is called doping.

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(8). What is extrinsic semiconductor?


Ans: Doped semiconductor is called extrinsic semiconductor.
(9). What is intrinsic semiconductor?
Ans: The pure form of semiconductor is called intrinsic semiconductor.

ASTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR
(1). What is a multivibrator?
Ans: An electronic circuit hat generates square waves ( or other non-sinusoidal such as
rectangular ,saw tooth waves ) is known as a multivibrator.
(2). Why do we call it as an multi vibrator?
Ans: Because a square wave consists of a large number of large number of sinusoidal of
different frequencies.
(3). What type of feedback is used here?
Ans: +ve feedback. Output of one amplifier circuit is fed to the input of the other , it is a two
stage amplifier with 100% +ve feedback.
(4). How many types of multivibrator are there ? Mention them?
Ans: Three types i) Astable ii) Bistable iii) multistable.
(5). What is Astable multivibrator?
Ans: It is one which alternates automatically between the two states (cut off and saturation)
and remains in each for a time depending on the circuit constant.
(6). Is it requiring an external pulse for its operation?
Ans: No. it is just an oscillator. It requires only DC power.
(7). Why the multivibrator does is also known as free running multivibrator?
Ans: Because if continuously produces the square output.
(8). Why does the name Astable multivibrator?
Ans: Because it has no stable state .it switches back and forth from one state to another stat
e, remaining in each state for a time given by circuit constant.

ZENER DIODE AS A VOLTAGE REGULATOR

(1). What is Zener diode?

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Ans: A heavily doped p-n junction diode designed to use in the reverse breakdown region
without spoiling the junction.
(2). What is the difference between ordinary p-n junction diode and Zener diode?
Ans: Zener diode is heavily doped & has sharp break down voltage.
(3). What is breakdown voltage or Zener voltage?
Ans: the reverse voltage at which the junction breakdown and the reverse current exactly
increases sharply is called breakdown or Zener voltage.
(4). Which property of the Zener diode is used in voltage regulator?
Ans: It maintains constant voltage in revere biased condition.
(5). O what factor Zener break down voltage depends?
Ans: It depends on amount of doping.
(6). What is doping?
Ans: Addition of chemical impurities to a pure semiconductor Ex: Phosphorus, Sb,Bi etc. is
pentavalent for Ge Indium ,B,Al are trivalent impurities
(7). What is meant by regulation?
Ans: Maintaining nearly constant voltage across the terminal of the Zener diode of a
specified range of a reverse current value.
(8). Why do we use Zener diode as voltage regulator?
Ans: Zener diode operating in breakdown region as a voltage regulator because it maintains
a nearly a constant voltage its terminals.
(9). Where exactly it is used?
Ans: It is usually use at the output of an unregulated power supply to provide a constant
output voltage.
C-E AMPLIFIER
Transistor : There are 3 leads in the transistor namely Emitter, base & Collector .But when
a transistor is connected in a circuit , 4 terminals are needed –two for the input and two
for the output, this difficulty is overcome by making one of the transistor terminals
common to both input and output terminals. The input fed between the common terminal
and one of the other two terminals and the output is taken out between the common
terminal and the remaining terminal .so a transistor can be connected in a 3 ways.
a) .common Base connection (or configuration).
b) Common Emitter connection.

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c) Common Collector connection.


Comparison of the Three Transistor Configurations
SL. No Characteristic C-B C-E C-C
1 Input Impedance Low (100Ω) Low (100Ω) Very high (750Ω)
2 Output impedance Very high (450kΩ) High(45kΩ) Low (50Ω)
3 Voltage gain About 150 Very high Less than 1
about(500Ω)
4 Current gain Less than 1 High >100 High >100
5 Power gain Medium Highest Medium
6 Phase relation between In phase Out of phase In phase
I/P & O/P
7 Leakage current Very small Very large Very large
8 Areas of application High frequency For audio For Impedance
Applications frequency matching

Voltage gain:

It is the ratio change in output voltage ∆𝑽𝑪𝑬 to change in input voltage ∆𝑽𝑩𝑬

∆𝑽𝑪𝑬
𝑨𝒗 =
∆𝑽𝑩𝑬
Current gain:

It is the ratio of change in collector current ∆𝐼𝑐 to the change in base current 𝐼𝐵 .
∆𝑰𝒄
𝜷=
∆𝑰𝑩

B-H CURVE (MAGNETIC HYSTERESIS)

(1). Define the fallowing terms with suitable units.


Magnetic pole strength: the force –experienced by a magnet when two magnets brought
into the mutual influence of their field is called magnetic pole strength.
Magnetic Moment: the magnetic moment of a magnet is the product of magnetic pole and
the distance between two poles.
Magnetization: the magnetic moment per unit volume of a magnet is called magnetization.

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M=m/V, Where, V is the volume of the magnetic material.


Magnetic susceptibility: the ratio of magnetization to the magnetic strength of the field is
called the magnetic susceptibility of the material.
Magnetic susceptibility =Magnetization / Magnetic field strength 𝛘 = 𝐌/𝐇.
Magnetic field: Magnetic field is the region where a magnetic pole experiences a force.
Magnetic field Intensity: Magnetic field intensity H at any point in a magnetic field is
equal to and directed along the force experienced by a unit north pole at that point.
Magnetic induction: The magnetic induction is the magnetic flux over a unit area of a
surface held normally to the flux. It is denoted by B and SI unit is Tesla.
𝝋
(Tesla=Weber/m2 ), 𝑩 = 𝑨 . 𝐓𝐞𝐬𝐥𝐚

Permeability(𝝁): The permeability of a vacuum or free space is taken as the standard reference
with respect to which permeability of the other materials is expressed. The permeability of
𝟏𝟎 −𝟕 𝑯
vacuum of free space is denoted by 𝜇0 sand is assigned value as 𝝁𝟎 = 𝟒𝝅 × .
𝑴

Relative permeability(𝝁𝒓 ): the permeability of any given media is assessed relative to 𝜇0 in


terms of what is called relative permeability denoted by 𝜇𝑟

(2). What is the relation between B and H?


Ans: H is related through the relationµ = 𝐵/𝐻.
(3). Mention different types of magnetic materials.
Ans: Depending on the magnitude of the magnetic field all materials are classified broadly 3
types.
i. Diamagnetic materials
ii. Paramagnetic materials
iii. Ferromagnetic materials
(4). What is Hysteresis or B-H curve?
Ans: Hysteresis is the sluggishness or the phase lag of the magnetic induction B in
ferromagnetic materials with respect to the cycle variation of an applied magnetic field
when specimen is at a temperature below its curie temperature.

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(5). What is Curie temperature?


Ans: the temperature at which all ferromagnetic materials loss their ferromagnetism is
called Curie temperature (T c).
(6). What is hysteresis loss?

Ans: the energy loss that occurs during the magnetization and demagnetization process that
are carried out in cycles on a ferromagnetic specimen is called Hysteresis loss.

REFRACTIVE INDEX OF THE PRISM USING LASER


&
REFRACTIVE INDEX AND DISPERSIVE POWER OF A LIQUID,
USING HALLOW PRISM
1) Define refractive index?
Ans: The ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence to the sine of the angle or refraction is a
constant for a given of media & for light of given wavelength that constant ‘n’ is called
refractive index.
2) Define the terms.
a) Relative refractive index: When a ray of light travels from mediun-1 to Medium -2.
b) Absolute refractive index: When a ray of light travels from Air/vacuum to medium.

3) Why the absolute refractive index always greater than one?

Ans: The velocity of light in air or vacuum is always greater than other Medium

𝑐
.𝑛=
𝑣

4) What is the relation b/w relative index and absolute refractive index?
Ans: 1 n2 =n2 /n1
5) What is reflecting angel?

Ans: The angle b/w the normal ray & reflected ray is called reflecting angle.

6) What is prism?

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Ans: Prism is an optical medium bounded by three rectangular faces &

A two triangular faces which are parallel to each other

7) What is optical medium?


Ans: Any space comprised of matter through light propagates is called optical medium.

8) What is dispersion?

Ans: T he phenomenon in which composite light splits up into its constituent colours
on passing through a suitable medium is known as dispersion.

9) What is minimum dev iation?

Ans: I t is the angle at which angle of incidence emergence & the incident ray is
dev iated least.

1 0) What is normal dispersion & anamolous dispersion?

Ans: In the visible spectrum produced by a glass prism deviation decreases which is
increase of wav elength such dispersion is called normal dispersion otherwise
dispersion is said to be anamolous dispersion.

11) What is dispersiv e power?


Ans: Dispersion power is equal to the ratio of the angular dispersion to the mean
dev iation produced by the prism.
I t is denoted by w = e/b

12) Define mean dev iation?

Ans: Mean dev iation defined as the dev iation suffered by the y ellow Light.

13) What is minimum dev iation position?


Ans: T he position of the prism at a minimum angle of dev iation.

14) How the ray does passes in the position of minimum dev iation?
Ans: I n the minimum dev iation position the ray passes through the prism
sy mmetrically , i.e., the incident & emergent ray are equally inclined to the

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respectiv e faces of the prism


15) What is the relation b/w μ & λ?
𝒂+𝒃
Ans: 𝝁 = By Cauchy's relation.
𝝀𝟐

16) What is spectrometer?


Ans: An optical instruments used to produce & analyzes the pure spectrum of a given
source of light.

17) Define thin prism?


Ans: A prism with small angle, where the Angle of prism is less than 10°.
18) Define spectrum?
Ans: Band of colours obtained after dispersion.
19) What is normal dispersion and anomalous dispersion?
Ans: In the visible spectrum produced by a glass prism deviation decreases which is
increase of wavelength such dispersion is called normal dispersion otherwise
dispersion is said to be anomalous dispersion.
20) How the ray does passes in the position of minimum deviation?
Ans: In the minimum deviation position the ray passes through the prism
symmetrically that is the incident and emergent ray are equally inclined to the
respective face of the prism.

PLANCK’S CONSTANT

(1). Who put forward the concept of quantum theory of radiation?


Ans: The concept of Quantum theory of radiation was put forward by Max Planck in 1900

(2). What is photon?


Ans: Photon is tiny packets of energy/Discrete packets of energy.

(3). What is Planck’s constant? What is its value?

Ans: It is fundamental physical constant used to describe the energy of a photon and its
value is 6.625×10-34 Js
(4). What is unit of Planck’s constant and which is similar to this?

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Ans: The unit of Planck’s constant is Js. Angular momentum has the same unit of Planck’s
constant.

(5). What is semiconductor?

Ans: The materials whose electrical conductivity lies between conductors and insulator s.

(6). What is n-type semiconductor?

Ans: Addition of pentavalent atoms like phosphorous, antimony, arsenic or bismuth to a


pure semiconductor which results in the formation of n- type semiconductor.

(7). What is p-type semiconductor?

Ans: Addition of trivalent atoms like boron, aluminum, indium or gallium to a pure
semiconductor which results in the formation of p-type semiconductor.

(8). What is an intrinsic semiconductor?

Ans: The semiconductor in its purest form is called intrinsic semiconductor.

Example: Silicon, Germanium


(9). What is an extrinsic semiconductor?

Ans: The semiconductor added with suitable impurity atoms is called extrinsic
semiconductor.

(10). What is doping?

Ans: The process of adding impurity atoms to a semiconductor material is called doping.
Impurity atoms added are called dopants.

(11). What is energy band?

Ans: The collection of very closely spaced energy levels is called an energy band.

(12). What is valence band?

Ans: The highest energy band which is completely filled at absolute zero of temperature is
called valence band.

(13). What is conduction band?

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Ans: The band lying next to the valence band which may be partially filled or completely
filled is called conduction band.

(14). Is it possible to measure junction potential difference using a voltmeter?

Ans: Not possible, because it cannot drive a current through the circuit.

(15). What is saturation current in a junction diode?

Ans: The current constituted by minority carriers in the reverse bias mode of operation
which is independent of reverse voltage.

(16). What is diode?

Ans: It is an electronic device which allows current to flow in one direction.


(17). Where do the LED’s used?

Ans: Electronic displays, remote controls, electronic circuit and communications.


(18). What is the wavelength of visible region?

Ans: 4000Å to 8000Å.

(19). What is knee voltage?

Ans: In the forward mode of operation, the voltage at which current starts to increase rapidly
is called knee voltage.

(20). In LED why does Si or Ge not used?

Ans: Because they emit radiation in the form of heat and are very poor emitters of light on
the recombination of electron-hole pairs.

(21). On what factors color of LED depends?

Ans: Semiconductor material used.

Concentration of atoms which is used as impurity.

(22). LED is called multicolor diodes, why?

Ans: LED emits light of one color when forward biased and another color when reverse
biased are called multicolor diodes.

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(23). How LED emits radiation?

Ans: When LED is forward biased the electrons and holes move towards junction and
recombine. After those electrons in conduction band of n-region falling to the hole lying in
valence band is then radiated in the form of light.

 Violet color light gives high energy photon in visible region because of higher frequency.
 Red light gives low energy photon in visible region because of lower frequency.
(24). What is depletion region?

Ans: The positive and negative ions near junction are held by covalent bonds. Hence in this
region no free electric charges are present. Therefore this region is called depletion region.

(25). What is photo electric effect?

Ans: The phenomenon of emission of electrons from a metal surface when a light of suitable
wavelength falls on it and electrons emitted are called photo electrons.

(26). What is photo electric current?

Ans: When radiation falls on cathode of photocell, electrons ejected from cathode surface
and these are attracted by anode thereby photo electric current is establish which depends
on intensity of beam of radiation.

(27). Define threshold wavelength

Ans: Maximum wavelength of incident radiation above which photo emission completely
ceases.

(28). What is photo electric work function?

Ans: The minimum energy required to remove the electron from the Metal surface.

(29). What is stopping potential?

Ans: The negative potential given to the anode which is just sufficient to stop electrons from
reaching the anode is called stopping potential.

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(30). In which direction potential difference is applied in forward Biasing?

Ans: In the direction opposite to contact potential difference.

(31). What is contact potential difference?

Ans: When p-n junction is formed, there occurs abrupt charge gradient across p-n junction.
Due to this holes and electrons near the junction cross over junction p-region to n-region
and from n-region to p-region, which forms n-region with positive ions and p-region with
negative ions near the junction. Thus the potential difference developed across junction is
called contact potential difference.

G-M COUNTER (Inverse Square Law)

(1). G.M. counter:


Ans: It is a type of particle detector that measures ionizing radiation. It detects the nuclear
radiations (alpha, beta particles, etc...) by the ionization produced in low pressure gas in a
G.M.tube.
(2). Principle of G.M.counter:
Ans: It works on the principle of “Gas multiplication”.
(3). Gas multiplication:
Ans: Ionization in a gas is caused by the entry of photon. The ions are attracted to their
appropriate electrodes and they gain sufficient energy to eject electrons from the gas
atoms as they pass through the gas. This causes the atoms to ionize, therefore electrons
are produced continuously by this process and rapid gas multiplication takes place.
Therefore electrons create pulses which than can be amplified and counted using
G.M.counter.
(4). Ionization :
Ans: It is the process of removal of electrons from the atom.
(5). Quenching:
Ans: The process of removal of all the ions from the chamber by the continuous discharge
and make it ready for the fresh event.
*G.M.counter is a gas ionization detector.
(6). Background counts:
Ans: These are the counts due to the secondary cosmic rays present in the atmosphere.

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(7). Secondary cosmic rays:


Ans: When the primary cosmic rays enter the earth’s atmosphere, they ionize the medium
producing the charged particles, these are the secondary cosmic rays.
(8). Use of G.M.counter:
Ans: It is used to detect beta, gamma rays etc.
(9). Operating voltage:
Ans: It is the voltage applied to G.M.tube to detect radiation.

G.M.counter is operated in a region called “plateau region”.

(10). Plateau region:


Ans: This is the region of operation of the counter where the counting rate is independent of
the small changes in voltage across the tube.

(11). Half value thickness:


Ans: It is the thickness of the absorbing material at which the intensity of radiation entering
it is reduced by half of it’s original value.

(12). β-ray:
Ans: It consists of β-particles which are high energy, high speed electrons or positrons
emitted by certain type of radioactive nuclei.

 Beta rays are formed by beta decay.


 Beta rays consists of negatively charged particles.
 Gamma particles are electrically neutral.

 The source of beta ray used is Thallium.


 G.M. counters are also used in nuclear industries, geological exploration, radiation
dosimeter, etc.

(13). Limitations of G.M.counter.


Ans: It is unable to measure high radiation due to dead time of tube.

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(14). Dead time.


Ans: This is an insensitive period after each ionization of gas during which any incident
radiation will not result in a count.
(15). Starting voltage(vs):
Ans: This is the lowest applied to a G.M tube at which pulses just appears across the anode
resistor unit starts counting.
(16). Plateau:
Ans: This is the section of the G.M characteristics curve constructed with counting rate v/s
applied voltage over which the counting rate is substantially independent of t he applied
voltage. Unless otherwise stated the plateau is measured at a counting rate of an
approximately 100 counts.
(17). Plateau threshold voltage (V1 ):
Ans: This is the lowest applied voltage which corresponds to the start of the plateau for the
stated sensitivity of the measuring circuit.

(18). Plateau length:


Ans: This is the range of applied voltage over which the plateau region extends.

Upper threshold voltage (V 2 ): This is the higher voltage up to which plateau extends buy on
which count rate increase with increase in applied voltage.

(19). Plateau lope:


Ans: This is the change in counting rate over the plateau length, expressed in % per volume.
(20). Operating voltage (Recommended supply voltage)

Ans: This is the supply voltage at which G.M tube should preferable be used. This voltage in
normally chosen to be in the middle of plateau.

(21). Background(Bg) This is the counting rate measured in the absence of the
radiation source in place the Bg in due to cosmic race any act sources in the
experimental room

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(22). Dead time (Td): This is the time interval, after the initiation of a discharge
resulting in a normal pulse, during which the G.M tube is insensitive to further ionizing
events.

(23). Gamma Radiation: Photon emitted by excited atomic nucleus decaying to a


lower energy state gamma radiation as a line spectrum with photon energy which are
specific to the nuclide concerned. Gamma and X-rays are both electromagnetic radiation
& they are distinguished only by this made of generation

 G.M radiation counter tubes are intended to detect α, β, ν or x- radiation


 G.M tube is a gas filled device which reacts to individual ionizing events ‘thus enabling
them to be counted.

 Gamma Radiation: Photon emitted by excited atomic nucleus decaying to a lower energy
state gamma radiation as a line spectrum with photon energy which are specific to the
nuclide concerned. Gamma and X-rays are both electromagnetic radiation & they are
distinguished only by this made of generation

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