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1.

Project at a Glance

1 Product Details : NAACB light weight Blocks

Type : Fly Ash Based

BIS Code : IS 2185 : 1984 …..Part 3

Technology Area : Infrastructure & Green-Tech

Capacity Utilization : 60 % (For the 1St year of operation)

2. Assumptions : The following assumptions have been made while preparing this Project Report.

a. Land of ………. Acres is required

b. Fly to be provided free of cost by power plants. Only transportation to be arragned by Project.
Average distance of 50 KM

c. Production is estimated at % capacity,

d. 300 working days is considered in a year during the first year.

e. Boundary wall to be constructed from trial production bricks of Unit.

f. Carbon Credit estimates are for reference purpose. The Project owner must handle his part of CDM
project to get Carbon credits, through independent consultants.

g. Carbon credit can be transacted on registration. The PCN preparation & presentation, the PDD
preparation & presentation, host country approval and the UNFCCC Registration might take somewhat 6
months to 2 years year. So it may be wise to start early.

h. Sale price at site is estimated a conservative Rs 2500/- per cubic meter. Almost at par price of regular
bricks.

i. NAAC Blocks of all sizes will be manufactured according to the market requirement, though mainly
stipulated sizes as per the BIS standards.
Fly ash Bricks

Pulverized ash brick (PAB) technology is a process of converting industrial waste materials into
quality building materials. At present, the technology is well established in converting thermal
power plant waste into quality bricks.

PAB technology uses dry ash (fly ash collected from ESP or silos of thermal power plants); filler
materials (usually coarse sand or stone crusher dust); and additives (lime, gypsum or cement).
The strength of the bricks can be engineered by varying compositions. Equipment used can be
manual or mechanized. Mechanized machines deploy hydraulic compaction to produce a variety
of bricks and can be operated through electric or diesel power.

What is ash?
Pulverized coal ash (PCA) is one of the major
residues generated during the combustion of
coal in thermal power plants. Though PCA is
a waste product for the power sector, it's
used as a raw material, primarily, in
construction. PCA is generally classified into
three types depending upon its particle size
and zone of collection.

‘FLY ASH’ is the extremely fine ash ‘flying’


along with flue gases is trapped in electro-
static precipitators (ESP) and is collected.
The relatively coarser ash generated at the
bottom of the boilers is mixed with water,
made into slurry and pumped into fill sites
called ‘ash ponds’.

This ash forms the bulk of the ash generated


and is termed as ‘POND ASH’. Depending
upon the boiler design and efficiency, the
ratio of fly ash to pond ash varies between
70:30 and 80:20. In some older and relatively
inefficient thermal power plants, a coarser
variety of ash is generated called ‘BOTTOM
ASH’. This has appreciable carbon content
but cannot be collected separately. This is
also mixed with pond ash and pumped to
ash fill sites.
Scale of problem

India generated 145,000 MW of power in 2008. 63% of it was from coal-based thermal power
plants. During generation of the above, approximately 150 million tons of pulverized ash was
generated in 2008 alone. In India, low-ash high-grade coal is reserved for the metallurgical
industry. Thermal power plants, therefore, are compelled to use high-ash low-grade coal with
ash content that is often as high as 40% or more. This is the major source of generation of vast
amounts of PCA. As the power requirement goes up in coming years and more power plants are
built, the amount of PCA generated will increase and create more problems for safe disposal. It is
estimated that by 2012, India will generate around 175 million tons of PCA every year.

Fly-ash Bricks Fly-ash bricks production Fly-ash Bricks


Ministry notification

The Ministry of Environment and Forests (through its notification published in the Gazette of
India, Part II, Section 3, sub section (ii), vide S.O. 763(E) dated 14th September, 1999) issued
directives for proper utilization of fly ash discharged from coal or lignite-based thermal power
plants. The importance for restricting the excavation of top soil for manufacture of bricks and
promoting the utilization of fly ash in the manufacture of building materials and in construction
activity was recognized. It was notified that within a radius of 100 km from a coal or lignite-based
thermal power plant, all brick making units must compulsorily utilize 25% of fly ash (by weight)
This notification was supported by the High Court of Delhi in its order dated 25th August, 1999
in Centre for Public Interest Litigation, Delhi v/s Union of India (CWP No. 2145/99).

The highlights of the notification was

1. Use of fly ash, bottom ash or pond ash in the manufacture of bricks and other construction
activities.

a) Within a radius of 100 km from coal or lignite based thermal power plants, no person shall
manufacture clay bricks,
tiles or blocks (for use in construction activities) without mixing at least 25% of ash with soil
on weight basis.

b) The authority for ensuring the use of specified quantity of ash shall be the concerned Regional
Officer of the State Pollution
Control Board. In case of non-compliance, the authority (in addition to cancellation of consent
order issued to establish the
brick kiln) shall move the district administration for cancellation of the mining lease. To enable
the authority to verify the
actual use of ash, the thermal power plant shall maintain monthly records of ash made
available to each brick kiln.

2. Availability of fly ash for brick making

a) Every thermal power plant shall make available ash, for at least ten years without any
payment or any other consideration
for the purpose of manufacturing ash-based products.

b) Central and State Government Agencies, State Electricity Boards, NTPC and the management
of the thermal power plants
shall facilitate in making available land, electricity and water for manufacturing activities and
also provide access to the
ash lifting area. This will promote and encourage setting up of ash-based production units
proximate to the area where
ash is generated by the power plant.

3. Specifications for use of ash based products

a) Every construction agency engaged in the construction of buildings within a radius of 100 km
from thermal power plants
shall use fly ash bricks in construction projects. It shall be the responsibility of the
construction agencies (either
undertaking the construction or approving the design or both) to ensure compliance.
History of Brick Making

A brick is a block made of clay burnt in a kiln. It is one of the primary building materials known to
mankind. Over time, bricks have appeared, gained prominence, lost importance and then come
to the forefront again with various styles of architecture. Burnt bricks were used in ancient
Indian, Babylon, Egypt and Roman civilizations. They are still being used as filler materials for
framework structures as well as to construct load bearing structures. Down the ages, there have
been various interesting historic and cultural references to bricks.

• Bricks find mention in the Bible; the tower of Babel was built with burnt bricks.

• Bricks were predominantly used in the Indus valley civilisation. In fact, the civilisation was first
discovered when;
ancient bricks being used to build railway ballast came to the notice of a passing archaeologist.

• While the Taj Mahal was built in white marble, it had extensive scaffolding made entirely out
of brick,
which was pulled down after completion.

Making the Brick

The process of making a brick has not changed much over the centuries or across geographies.
Traditionally the main steps followed to make a brick are explained below.

1. Material Procurement: The clay is mined and stored in the open. This makes the clay soft and
removes unwanted oxides.
2. Tempering: This clay is then mixed with water to get the right consistency for moulding.
Mixing is done manually with hands and feet. Sometimes and in certain areas, animal driven
pug mills are used.
3. Moulding: A lump of mix is taken, rolled in sand and slapped into the mould. Initially moulds
were made of wood, now metal moulds are used. Sand is used so the brick does not stick to the
mould.
4. Drying: The mould is emptied onto the drying area, where the bricks are arranged in a
herring bone pattern to dry in the sun. Every two days they are turned over to facilitate
uniform drying and prevent warping. After two weeks they are ready to be burnt.
5. Firing: The green bricks are arranged in a kiln and insulation is provided with a mud pack.
Fire holes left to ignite the kiln are later sealed to keep the heat inside. This is maintained for a
week. Firing like other operations also depends on the knowledge and experience of the brick
maker.
6. Sorting: After the kiln is disassembled, the bricks are sorted according to colour. Colour is an
indication of the level of burning. Over burnt bricks are used for paving or covering the kiln
while slightly under burnt bricks are used for building inner walls or burnt once again in the
next kiln.

Indian Brick Sector


The construction industry
contributes to about 10 % of the
Gross Domestic Product (GDP),
registering an annual growth of
about 9 %. Clay fired bricks form
the backbone of the construction
industry which is valued at
approximately US$ 70.8 billion. The
brick sector in India, although
unorganised, is tremendous in size
and spread. India is the second
largest brick producer (China
dominates with 54 % share) in the
world. It is continuously expanding
on account of a rapid increase in
demand for bricks in infrastructure
and housing industries. In order to
meet this demand, over 150,000
brick units provide direct
employment to more than 8
million workers. During the Ninth
Five-year Plan period (1997-2002),
the annual demand of 170 billion
bricks per year was estimated to be
generating revenues of over US$
4.8 billion.
Bihar needs over 7500 million
bricks over the next five years just
to meet the rural housing gap of
1.1 million dwellings per
year. Potential savings of 2.8
million tonnes of CO2e are
possible while creating livelihoods
for 0.35 million people by
introducing cleaner production
systems.

Orissa is poised to be a major hub


for manufacturing industries,
which will lead to the generation of
enormous quantities of industrial
wastes. The use of industrial
wastes like fly ash, dolochar etc. in
brick production can potentially
save over 4.6 million tonnes of
CO2e per year. Setting up 800 new
units just to utilize the available fly
ash will lead to the generation
of over 15,000 jobs for local
people.
Tempering Moulding
Drying Sorting

Though the overall method remains the same, there are certain regional variations considering
the local soil and climatic conditions. In different areas, different soil types are used with
respect to local situation. The three general approaches for firing bricks include using a
massive fire, a massive volume and insulation. In Africa and South America, a massive fire
using wood fuel is built, and insulated with mud or grass. In India and Mexico, they fire large
volumes together and the volume itself acts as an insulator to prevent escape of heat. Fuel
ranges from wood to coal to biomass to even garbage and trash in the absence of others.
Brick Kilns

Brick Kilns can be classified as intermittent and continuous. Clamps, Scotch, Scove and
Downdraft kilns are intermittent while the Bull Trench (BTK), Hoffman, Zig-zag, Tunnel and
Vertical Shaft Brick Kilns (VSBK) are continuous. The continuous kilns are more efficient as they
have heat recovery features from both the heat in fired bricks and flue gases unlike the
intermittent ones.

Intermittent Kilns

The oldest kiln is the clamp. Invented in 4000 BCE, these are still very common in India.
Clamps are temporary constructions made of green bricks or clinker. The clinker can be reused
while the green bricks are sold. A slight variation is the Scove with a pile of dried bricks with
tunnels at the bottom allowing heat from fires to pass through and upward in the pile of
bricks. It is plastered with mud (scoved) to insulate it. Certain brick makers use permanent
clamps made of refractory bricks. Two basic variations of kilns are the updraft and the
downdraft kilns, named after the direction of heat movement. The updraft ones or
Scotch have flues running through the floor of the kiln with spaces between the stacks of
bricks to allow heat to circulate, while the top is covered for insulating the kiln. The downdraft
ones are circular with the flue running from the floor to the chimney stack. The hot air is then
directed downwards from the dome through the stacks of bricks.

Continuous Kilns

Continuous Kilns can be based either on the principle of moving fire or on moving ware. The
Hoffman, BTK and Zig-zag work on the principle of moving fire. In the Tunnel and VSBK, the
firing zone remains constant while the bricks move.

Hoffman’s kilns are continuous domed kilns invented in Germany. They have a permanent
arched masonry and tall chimney. The circular arched tunnel surrounding the chimney has
various chambers where green bricks are placed and the fuel is added via vents in the roof.

The Bull Trench Kiln (BTK), which is very popular in the Indian sub continent, is an arch-less
modification of the Hoffman’s kiln. It is circular or elliptical in shape. Bricks to be fired are
arranged in a trench and tall movable metal chimneys are placed on the brick setting. They are
moved as the firing progresses. There are also modifications of the BTK which have a
permanent fixed chimney.

The Habla Zig-Zag Kiln is also a German invention. It is an automated tunnel kiln. This one has
a fire zone moving through a stack of stationary bricks. The fire moves with the help of an axial
fan. The bricks are arranged such that hot flue gases move between them in a zig-zag manner
resulting in better heat utilization and energy efficiency.
Another kind of continuous kiln is the Tunnel Kiln. The principle is to move green bricks
through a stationary fire. It is energy intensive and generally used in developed countries. It is
essentially a 50-100 ft long rectangular chamber lined with high quality refractory bricks. The
bricks are loaded from one end in a car at a predetermined pattern. After a fixed interval of
time, depending on the firing cycle, a car is pushed from one end, simultaneously taking one
car out from the other end of the tunnel.

The Vertical Shaft Brick Kiln (VSBK) is a Chinese technology based on the traditional updraft
intermittent kiln. The kiln consists of one or two shafts in a rectangular structure insulated
with agriculture residue and clay. The shaft is loaded from the top in a pre determined pattern.
After being fired in the shaft they are removed batch wise from the bottom via an unloading
tunnel. It is well suited to the context of the South Asian brick sector.
Introduction and Overview

Concrete is the most widely used building material in the world. Because of this, reducing the environme
ntal impacts associated with its production, particularly from energy inputs, would be of great benefit to
the planet. This project seeks to design a new concrete that will address environmental concerns while
maintaining material properties for structural use. Our prototype is a non-autoclaved, aerated concrete
(NAAC) with two main benefits: efficient material usage due to a porous structure and less embodied e
nergy due to the elimination of autoclaving. Since aerated concrete is less dense than traditional concret
e, it uses less material. The use of aerated concrete would cut down on emissions and energy associate
d with the primary materials used in concrete. Traditionally, aerated concrete is autoclaved in order to a
chieve the high compressive strength necessary for structural use. While the high temperatures and pre
ssures from the autoclaving process give rise to crystallization and thus high compressive strength, the p
rocess is extremely energy intensive. Eliminating autoclaving would save significant energy, but other m
ethods would need to be employed to maintain good compressive strength. Thus, the project goal is to
develop a form of concrete with a high strength-to-density ratio: low density for high materials efficienc
y and high compressive strength with the elimination of autoclaving. In this project, we will dis-
cuss our final prototype: a non-autoclaved aerated concrete that boasts higher compressive strength tha
n previously developed non-autoclaved concretes through the optimized additions of 0.05 wt% titanium
dioxide (TiO2) and 0.05 wt% sodium alginate. Our prototype also exhibits low density, consistent foam-li
ke structures and is cost-efficient. Further research on raising prototype strength may be warranted

Concrete Formation: The reactions that drive the concrete formation process are essential to understa
nding the optimization process of NAAC. The ingredients that comprise NAAC and their descriptions are
presented in Table 2.1.

Table 2.1 Materials for non-autoclaved aerated concrete mixture

Raw Materials Description

Aluminum Flake Reacts with water and Quicklime to form hydrogen gas, aerating the concrete

Type I/II Portland cement provides most of the compressive strength in its hydrated form and acts as
a binding agent.

Quicklime Facilitates aluminum-aeration reaction and acts as a binding agent

Water Hydrates the Portland cement to increase compressive strength, and reacts with
Quicklime to form calcium hydroxide

Fine Sand Acts as a filler/aggregate

The aeration of NAAC is fundamentally the result of the chemical reaction of aluminum with water to pr
oduce hydrogen gas, which becomes entrapped in the concrete slurry and forms voids, creating the cellu
lar structure required for NAAC. Although the reaction between aluminum and water is thermodynamic
ally favorable, the aluminum oxide layer on the surface of the aluminum inhibits the reaction, requiring
the presence of Ca(OH)2 to aid in the removal of the oxide layer.

2. Quicklime, otherwise known as calcium oxide, exothermically reacts with water to form calcium hydr
oxide, which then facilitates the aluminum reaction:3 CaO + H2O = Ca(OH)2.

(1) Portland cement, sand, lime, and water form the hardened concrete matrix. Many types of cement
are available in the market, but the most commonly used is Portland cement, which contains ~75%
various forms of calcium silicates, as well as a combination of aluminates and metal oxides.
(2) The two calcium silicates most commonly found in Portland cement are (CaO)3*SiO2 (alite) and (Ca
O)2*SiO2 (belite), and the main oxides in Portland cement are CaO, SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, and
SO3.5 The curing reactions in concrete involve the hydration of the Portland cement to form calci
um silicate hydrates (C-S-H). Allite, for example, is formed in the following stoichiometric reaction,
with calcium hydroxide also formed as a byproduct:

(CaO) 3*SiO2 + 6H2O = (CaO)3*(SiO2)2*(H2O)3 + 3Ca(OH)

(3) In AAC, all components of the concrete slurry are exposed to temperatures of ~180oC and pressure
s of ~800 kPa; Consequently, chemical reactions which may not occur at STP go to completion and
all the processes occur much more quickly. Principally, the C-S-H formed in the hydration reactions
are crystalline, providing AAC with high strength. The most prevalent crystalline mineral formed is t
obermorite; However, other mineral phases are present.
(4) Conversely, in NAAC, the hydration of portland cement results in various amorphous C-S-H produ
cts, displaying poor crystallinity and resembling a porous solid/rigid gel referred to as tobermorite
gel, due to its chemical resemblance to the sought-after product from autoclaving. However, tober
morite gel is inherently weaker than crystalline tobermorite.
(5) Additionally, while autoclaving reduces the curing process to a matter of hours, NAAC requires at l
east several months of curing to reach full compressive strength.
(6) Concrete Additives
(7) Increasing Strength

Obtaining the compressive strengths of NAAC without the autoclaving process is challenging without tob
ermorite crystal formation, and complete curing. However, additives could potentially increase the com
pressive strength. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), TiO2 nanoparticles, and Fe2O3 microparti
cles could potentially facilitate the heterogenous nucleation process, which would increase the overall cr
ystallinity of the C-S-H products and thus the compressive strength. Previous studies have shown that n
ano-dispersed particles act as nucleation sites for both AAC and NAAC, although the effects were more p
ronounced in AAC. In NAAC, the addition of up to 0.04 wt% MWCNTs resulted in an increase of compres
sive and flexural strength, with a maximum compressive strength increase of 11.03% obtained at 0.02 w
t% 8
However, carbonnanotubes are not economically viable for concrete manufacturing; Thus, other additiv
es were investigated. To investigate the effects of adding nanoparticles in comparison to microparticles,
TiO2 nanoparticles and Fe2O3 microparticles were independently tested in similar weight percentages a
s the MWCNTs.

Controlling Density
Sodium alginate, an anionic polysaccharide derived from brown algae, was considered as an additive to s
tabilize the foam structure. The carboxylic acid groups present on the alginate backbone chelate with div
alent and trivalent metal ions such as Ca2+, forming a hydrogel.

8) With a solubility limit of 1-2 wt%, alginate also forms a somewhat viscous solution, and is commonly u
sed as a thickener in food and cosmetic products.

9) When mixed with water at ~30%, far past the solubility limit, it also serves as a basis for molds, such a
s in dental products. We speculate that in concrete slurries, sodium alginate solution could potentially ac
t as an air entrainer, with its higher surface tension and viscosity in comparison to water. Thus, it could t
rap gas bubbles from the aeration reaction without adding mass to the mix, thereby lowering the densit
y. While using an organic additive with chemical functionalities for a concrete mix is risky because it wou
ld significantly complicate the concrete chemistry, we viewed alginate as a promising additive due to its
solubility in alkaline solution, interactions with calcium ions, and molding properties.

3. Design Analysis and Discussion

3.1 Design Overview due to time constraints, complex concrete chemistry, as well as the sheer number
of potential additives, we chose a broad approach to optimizing the formula for the concrete slurry. Th
e prospects of a four-month study required a flexible, somewhat qualitative approach towards higher str
ength NAAC. Industry standard cure time for samples are generally at least one month, allowing the hyd
ration reactions to go mostly to completion. With limited time, our team decided to cure each sample fo
r only 7 days. Although concrete does not reach full compressive strength within one week, it can obtain
approximately 45% of its compressive strength in that time period. Also to stay within time constraints,
small batches of 3-4 samples were preferred to larger data sets.

This allowed testing of significantly more different formulas and ruling out entire sections of possible fo
rmulas without excessive time spent taking large amounts of data for every single set.

Table 3.1 displays the initial array of testing parameters. It was decided that a number of additives woul
d be considered for strength enhancement, and modifying mix ratios or other additives could reduce de
nsity. The bulk of the study was designed around assessing whether these parameters contributed to th
e high strength or low density desired in the resulting concrete foams. Once the choice additives and/or
formulas with any positive effect on strength/density were singled out, the team moved on to create lar
ger data sets from these select few testing parameters.
Table 3.1 Initial experimental array of testing parameters
Enhanced Strength
Concentration(wt Concentration
Additive %) grams intended results
0.02 0.3
Fe2O3(Iron oxide)
0.2 3.0
0.02 0.3 Crystal Nucleation
TiO2 (Titania)
0.2 3.0
Carbon
Nanotubes 0.02 0.3

Density Control

Mix Mix
Ingredient/Additive Adjustment(%) Adjustment(Grams) intended results
Sodium Alginate * +0.71 Foam Stabilizer
-35 -250
Increased Viscosity
H2O -12 -85
+23 +165 Decreased viscosity
-50 -1.0
Decreased pore size
Aluminum Flake -25 -0.5
+25 +0.5 Increased pore size
*Note : Additive was previously not in standard Mix

3.2 Sample Preparation Slurry:


Samples were prepared with the mixture described in Table 3.2 as a control sample or adjusted by one o
f the methods described in Table 3.1. For all samples, the wet and dry mixtures were prepared separatel
y, blended until fully mixed, and then the dry mix was incrementally added to the wet mix until the com
plete slurry formula formed an evenly distributed suspension. Unique to the powder additives, sodium
alginate was dissolved in the wet mix to form a hydrocolloid (hydrophilic polymer suspension in water) r
ather than adding to the dry mix as with all the other additives. For this reason, quoted sodium alginate
concentrations are with
respect to wet mass rather than dry mass. Slurries were then poured into 4” diameter ASTM standard c
ompression testing sleeves and allowed to foam and cure. The resulting sample cylinders went untouche
d for 5 days, at which time they would be solid enough to remove without being destroyed. Afterwards,
excess foam
would be removed and the samples released from the sleeves to further cure and dry in air for a minimu
m of 2 days. After the drying process was complete, samples were cut to form flat topped cylinders for c
ompressive strength testing, or cut lengthwise to study pore distribution. Samples were then compress
ed in the Instron Model 4206 to measure ultimate compressive strength. Thin slices were also taken to a
nalyze using scanning electron microscopy, and small pieces were pulverized for X-ray diffraction analysi
s. These tests were used to observe crystal growth visually and quantitatively, respectively.

Standard concrete mixture.


Dry Mixture
% of dry
Ingredient mass(Grams) mass
Fine Sand 1000 60%
Portland
Cement(Type I/III) 500 30%
Lime 170 10%
Additives 0 0%
Wet Mixture
% of Wet
Ingredient mass(Grams) mass
H2O (Water) 710 99.70%

Aluminium Flake 2 0.30%

3.3 Optimization Process :


Certain additives intended to increase crystallinity via nucleation sites were immediately ruled out: Fe2
O3 and MWCNTs. It is unsurprising that the addition of Fe2O3 (<5 microns) microparticles had little/no
effect on the compressive strength, given that the base mixture already contained finely milled quartz s
and (microparticles) as well as Fe2O3 in the Portland cement. The MWCNTs increased the strength/den
sity ratio from ~1.5 to 1.8 kPa/kg/m3, but MWCNTs are expensive and not an economically viable solutio
n. However, the TiO2 nanoparticles of 21 nm diameter increased the compressive strength from 1.3 to 1
.6 kPa/kg/m3. While TiO2 nanoparticle additives reached high strength/density ratios, samples containi
ng alginate additive obtained unusually low densities. To allow for thorough testing of these two additiv
es during the limited time of the study, all other possible enhancers were discounted, so this document
will focus only on Titania and sodium alginate. It is understood, however, that with greater number of sa
mples and longer curing time, some of these other parameters could prove to reveal desired concrete at
tributes, which may be an avenue to pursue further. With the focus now on TiO2 nanoparticles and sod
ium alginate, a second array of tests was conducted to characterize the effects of titania, alginate, and a
mixture of the two over a larger and more populated range of concentrations. Mixes were prepared and
tested in the same manner as the initial experiments, and batches were subsequently labeled “O­#” for
“Optimization Batch - #.”
3.4 Titania Optimization:

Small weight percentages of TiO2 nanoparticles proved to be the most successful in increasing the stren
gth/density ratio of the NAAC. Figure 3.2 shows a positive correlation between TiO2 concentration and c
ompressive strength/density ratio, with the highest strength/density ratio at 0.05 wt%. Although the var
iation in the strength/density ratio is large, especially for the highly concentrated samples, adding TiO2 n
anoparticles consistently raised the
strength/density values to as high as 2.34 kPa/kg/m3, in comparison to the best performing sample in o
ur initial array, at 1.69 kPa/kg/m3. A possible source of error that would increase the variation in compr
essive strength values is the inconsistent dispersion of TiO2 nanoparticles in solution - if the nanoparticl
es were not well dispersed beforehand, the resulting compressive strength would be lower than expecte
d.

3.5 Alginate Optimization

The second initial result of interest was the organic macromolecule sodium alginate, which proved to be
a very effective foam stabilizer and density controller. These alginate samples demonstrated a more unif
orm foam structure than any previously tested samples, capable of controlling density with consistent re
sults. Even adding just 0.05 wt% sodium alginate drastically decreased the density from 1,618 kg/m3 to
1,255 kg/m3. Alginate samples showed desirable qualities such as homogeneous foam structures and mi
nimal materials loss to overly dense or overly porous top layers. The density controlling nature of the pol
ymer is useful for processing consistently low density samples.
Although most sodium alginate samples were tested at concentrations below 0.1 wt% due to the high vi
scosity of alginate solution and its limited solubility in water, using high Concentrations of alginate allow
s for processing in less tightly controlled mold environments. The gelified slurry does not need a water-t
ight mold like standard NAAC and is extremely resistant to perturbation, which are both properties extre
mely valuable to processing. However, compression testing indicated that adding high concentrations of
alginate sharply decreased the overall compressive strength
Adding organic polymers significantly complicates the curing process, and due to the lack of literature re
ferences in this research area, a more complete curing study would be needed to determine the long-ter
m effects of sodium alginate on compressive strength. Although it is difficult to ascertain the exact effe
cts of alginate on the curing mechanisms in NAAC, we can speculate some factors that might strengthen
or weaken the concrete, at least in the short-term. Ionic interactions between the carboxylic acid groups
on the alginate backbone with Ca2+ would accelerate the hydration reaction shown in Equation (2) by L
e Chatelier's principle, since the chelation process essentially removes a component of the calcium hydr
oxide byproduct, thereby increasing the compressive strength. The extensive formation of calcium carbo
nate in the alginate samples, confirmed by XRD results, would also increase the strength. Calcium carbo
nate forms when calcium hydroxide salt in concrete is exposed to carbon dioxide in air, resulting in a pH
drop. Not only does the compressive strength increase, but interestingly, the porosity also decreases sin
ce the since the calcium carbonate occupies a greater volume than the calcium hydroxide. Porous materi
als such as alginate-based concrete are more susceptible to carbonation, since carbonation is dependen
t on air-exposure.11 However, the addition of sodium alginate could also delay the curing process due t
o the polymer’s hydrophilicity and water-retaining properties, slowing diffusion in the concrete matrix
and entrapping water that could otherwise be used for the hydration of Portland cement. In addition, or
ganic molecules tend to have retarding effects on calcium silicate hydration, most likely due to adsorptio
n effects. Organic molecules tend to aggregate on Ca-rich surfaces, inhibiting the calcium silicate hydrati
on reaction.

3.6 X-ray Diffraction

X-ray diffraction (XRD) was conducted to determine the percent crystallinity of the concrete samples an
d the chemical compounds present. However, it was difficult to analyze the XRD results due to the comp
lexity of the curing process. Ordinarily, percent crystallinity is calculated by finding the areas under the c
rystalline and amorphous peaks, but the XRD graphs contained so many sharp, presumably crystalline p
eaks that it was nearly impossible to tell which peaks were amorphous. Since our concrete samples wer
e certainly not 100% crystalline as the XRD results may have suggested, we decided not to calculate perc
ent crystallinity for any concrete samples. Thus, we cannot confirm the direct relation between compres
sive strength and crystallinity. XRD analysis confirmed the following compounds for all concrete samples
: Ca(OH)2, SiO2, Ca3SiO5, and MgO. These results are expected: MgO and alite (Ca3SiO5) are some of th
e main constituents in Portland cement, sand (SiO2) was added to the concrete mixture, and Ca(OH)2 fo
rms in the reaction between quicklime and water. The more concentrated (0.2 wt%) TiO2 samples were
also shown to contain TiO2, which is unsurprising given that TiO2 nanoparticles were adding to the conc
rete slurry. Finally, the XRD results for the alginate-based sample had matching peaks for calcium carbon
ate, which tends to form in especially porous materials.

3.7 Comparison to other Aerated Concrete:


The optimized recipe was on par with the strength/density of non-autoclaved aerated concrete created
in previous research. The Fernandez Lab was able to obtain NAAC with strength/density ratios of 1.8 - 2.
3 kPa/kg/m3,1 and our samples were in the range of 0.7 - 2.3 kPa/kg/m3. This is still significantly lower t
han the strength/density of AAC, which ranges from 7.5 - 9.5 kPa/kg/m3. However, as previously mentio
ned, our samples were only allowed to cure for 7 days, while the standard is a curing time of at least one
month. Literature has shown that for Type I/II Portland cement samples, the compressive strength incre
ases 2.75x times from 3 to 90 days. Therefore, normalization metrics were needed to accurately compar
e the optimized samples with other aerated concrete. Two control samples were prepared using the sta
ndard recipe in Table 3.2 and were allowed to cure for 28 days in the compression cylinders. At the end
of this period, the samples were removed from the cylinders, allowed to sit in air for two days, and com
pression tested. Ultimate compressive strength of 6.61 MPa and 6.49 MPa were measured, which is mo
re than double the average compressive strength of the same mixture cured after one week, at 2.4 MPa.
The density was not significantly lower in these samples. Generally, excess water added to concrete mi
xtures dries out over time, lowering the density. However, these samples were cured for one month in c
ompression sleeves, which do not allow for adequate water loss in air. Therefore, testing was conducte
d to determine the density reduction that could be expected in our samples if allowed to dry in air for a
period of 28 days. Three samples were created with the standard mixture, allowed to cure for 5 days in t
he compression sleeves, then removed and dried in air.
Where a 40% reduction in density was observed. Since experimentation showed an increase in strength
and a reduction in density over time, the strength/density ratios of our optimized NAAC are expected to
be significantly greater than the 7-day measurements. Assuming a conservative estimate of a 200% stre
ngth increase and 25% density reduction, the new range for our strength/density ratio is 1.9 - 6.1 kPa/k
g/m3. In this case, our optimized NAAC outperforms the Fernandez Lab’s NAAC and, while it does not re
ach the high strength/density of NAAC, it is much more comparable. The comparisons between
NAAC, AAC, our optimized NAAC with and without time normalization.

Bhanumathi Kalidas of INSWAREB have achieved a breakthrough whereby AUTOCLAVE is dispensed


away but the aeration is maintained to render a lightweight product. It is possible to manufacture the
product with a density of 600-900 kg/m3 at strength of 25-60kg/cm2. The conventional clay bricks weigh
about 1800 kg/m3 rendering the strength of 20-40 kg/cm2. This feat has been achieved integrating the
principles of FAL-G technology with parameters of age old aeration process. Thus the name NON-
AUTOCLAVED AERTED CONCRETE. The strengths have been achieved in the absence of autoclave by
consuming about 75k cal against 250k cal/kg. At the same time the quality of the product has improved
despite using 70-80% fly ash depending on its reactivity. Through this approach it is hoped to sell this
non autoclaved aerated concrete product @ Rs. 800-100 per m3 as against 2500-3500 prevailing as of
now.

Comparing to the clay brick wall an aerated autoclave wall insulates a room by 3-4 times which means
significant energy conservation where air-conditioning is used. Through the aerated concrete which
costs 1/3rd of the conventional product the hope of providing living comfort to the common man at
affordable costs, free of air-conditioning is not a distant dream.

The honeycombing of commercial autoclaved concrete gets inter-connected and hence the water
absorption is more. By virtue of aerated FAL-G, we can localize the honeycombs and minimize the
interconnectivity and in turn the water absorption. The fact is that the chemistry between sand and lime
is inferior to that of fly ash and lime. This is the reason why aerated concrete would prove superior over
that of autoclaved sand-lime concrete with 20-30% less water absorption for the same density.

In view of NON-AUTOCLAVING, it is possible to introduce plants to the modest capacities of 10-20m3


per shift. This in turn would enlarge the scope for the proliferation of small-scale plants in mushroom
like growth throughout the country. It is only through such strategies we can answer the 90 million
tones of fly ash generation problem every year in India.
4. Advantages:--

 Fire Resistant
Depending upon the thickness of the Non-Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (NAAC)
Blocks, they offer fire resistance from 2 hours up to 6 hours. These blocks are highly
suitable for the areas where fire safety is of great priority.

Pest Resistant
Non-Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (NAAC) Block consist of the inorganic material in
its constitution that helps preventing/avoiding termites, damages or losses.

Sound Proof
The porous structure of the NAAC blocks results into enhanced sound absorption. The
Sound Transmission Class (STC) rating of theNAAC blocks up to 45 db. Thus, NAAC
blocks have been the most ideal material for the construction of walls in auditorium,
hotels, hospitals, studios, etc.

Earthquake Resistant
The light weight property of the NAAC blocks results into higher steadiness of the
NAAC blocks in the structure of the buildings. As the impact of the earthquake is directly
proportional to the weight of the building, the building constructed using NAAC blocks
are more reliable and safer.

Faster Construction
As the NAAC block is very easy to handle, manipulate and use ordinary tools for cutting
the wood such as the drill, band saws, etc. could be easily used to cut and align the
NAAC. Moreover, the NAAC blocks come with larger sizes and fewer joints. This
ultimately results in faster construction work as the installation time is significantly
reduced due to fewer amounts of blocks and the masonry amount involved is also
lowered resulting into reduced time-to-finish.

Long Lasting
NAAC blocks are highly superior in terms of the strength. Higher level of strength of
these blocks gives higher stability to the structure of the building. NAAC is manufactured
from non-biodegradable materials, which neither rot nor attract mould, keeping interiors
clean and durable.

Cost Saving
NAAC block weighs almost around 80% less as compared to the conventional red brick
ultimately resulting into great reduction of deadweight. Further, the reduced deadweight
results into reduction of the use of cement and steel which helps great in cost savings.

Versatile
NAAC Blocks have an attractive appearance and is readily adaptable to any style of
architecture. Almost any design can be achieved with NAAC.

Non-toxic
Autoclaved Aerated Concrete products do not contain any toxic gas substances. The
product does not harbor or encourage vermin.

Thermal Insulation
NAAC block has exceptional thermal insulating qualities. The thermal conductivity of
the NAAC blocks helps maintaining the inner temperature to be warm during the winters
and cool during the summers which ultimately leads to savings in air conditioning load
and consequently enhanced energy efficiency.

Moisture Resistance
Moisture from both external and internal sources can cause damage to buildings,
therefore, moisture protection is a primary consideration.
External moisture sources include rain and water from the soil. Internal moisture, usually
in the form of humidity, can cause condensation on the surface of the walls as well as
condensation inside the wall itself.
NAAC has a very porous structure which is characterized by "macro" pores. Macro pores
are small air bubbles evenly distributed throughout the material. Therefore, absorption of
water into the NAAC material is minimal.

Environment Friendly
NAAC is a non-toxic product which does not pollute the air, land or water. During the
manufacturing process, waste from the cutting process is recycled back with raw
materials and used again. During construction, there is virtually no waste generated. The
energy consumed in the production process is only a fraction compared to the production
of other materials. The manufacturing process emits no pollutants and creates no by-
products or toxic waste products.NAAC is manufactured from natural raw materials. The
finished product is thrice the volume of the raw materials used, making it extremely
resource-efficient and environmentally friendly.

Lightweight
One of the biggest features of NAAC blocks is its light weight. These blocks possess a
cellular structure created during manufacturing process. Millions of tiny air cells impart
NAAC blocks very light weight structure. Density of these lightweight blocks usually
ranges between 550 – 650 kg/m³ making them lighter than water.

Perfect Size and Shape


The process of manufacturing NAAC Blocks ensures constant and consistent dimensions.
Factory finished blocks provide a uniform base for economical application of a variety of
finishing systems. Internal walls can be finished by direct P.O.P., thus eliminating the
need of plastering.

High Compressive Strength


The block has an average compressive strength of (3-4.5) N/mm³ which is superior to
most types of light weight blocks, 25% stronger than other products of the same density.

High Resistance to Water Penetration


The NAAC products, because of their cellular and discontinuous micro structure are
superior to the normal clay brick in resistance of water penetrability and thus the external
surface of NAAC walls provides superior resistance to moisture penetration than the
traditional clay bricks.

5. Characteristics: --

The finished product is a 2.5 times lighter Block compared to conventional Bricks, while providing the
similar strengths. The specific gravity stays around 0.6 to 0.65. This is one single most USP of the NAAC
blocks, because by using these blocks in structural buildings, the builder saves around 30 to 35 % of
structural steel, and concrete, as these blocks reduce the dead load on the building significantly.
The major raw material…Fly-Ash, an indispensable by-product of Thermal Power Plants, is an
environmental threat across the globe. Power plants are facing an ever increasing challenge disposal of
this polluting agent. This unit is proposed to manufacture NAAC Bricks & Blocks by consuming the Fly-
Ash as one of the prime raw material. Secondly, it also helps environment by saving the invaluable top
soil by not using them in brick making like conventional brick making. Thirdly, they need no burning,
thus further enhancing their Eco-Friendly Brand. The steam curing requires far less fuel, compared to
the backing for each cubic meter of Bricks. This is the reason these bricks are also referred as Eco Bricks
or popularly Green Bricks, (though the color is gray).

NAAC Blocks are largely used in various constructions, such as load bearing and pillar structure
Buildings, Boundary walls, Roads, Culverts, Pavements, and wherever conventional bricks can be used.
The general NAAC blocks fall in the strength zone of 3060 Kg/Cm2, thus is having comparable strength
as conventional Bricks, and hollow concrete blocks. These Blocks gain strength over a period of time up
to 2 years, whereas the conventional bricks tend to lose strength over a period of time.

These green bricks can attain very regular and uniform shapes. As no burning is involved, so the shape
also remains unchanged. As a result, the final Brick work with these green bricks consumes less mortar
to build, less mortar to plaster. Further, the NAAC being a concrete itself, it forms a more uniform bond
with cement mortar, giving almost a homogeneous structure. Not only this, even exposed brickwork
(without plastering) is a good durable structure. So people prefer to leave the Green Bricks Brickworks in
garages, boundary walls etc. un-plastered.

6. Additional Advantages of using NAAC Blocks.

1. Environmental friendly: Consumes Fly ash

2. Environmental friendly: Saves invaluable top soil

3. Environmental friendly: needs no burning/backing.

4. Strength: Higher Strength Bricks.

5. Uniform Shape: Easier and faster Brick working.

6. Uniform Shape: Less Mortar in Brick work.

7. Uniform Shape: Less Mortar in Plaster.

8. Natural Concrete: Gains strength over time.

9. Natural Concrete: Walls can be left exposed/un plastered.

10. Better heat & sound insulation compared to red Bricks

11. Far Lesser brakeage during handling & transportation.

12. Better Vibration resistance compared to red Bricks.


13. Light weight: Faster and easier transportation

14. Light weight: Faster and easier brickwork

15. Light weight: saves structural concrete by 35%

7. Market

Shelter is third skin, according to a German Concept, which implies it’s importance next to human Skin
and Clothing. This also shows the attachment of human race to this fundamental requirement.

Building Material accounts for major component of the construction cost. Depending on the location
they can contribute to 60 - 70 % of the cost of construction. With the ever increasing population, the
demand for housing increases. This directly creates demand for this prime commodity of building.

Add to the above fact the nearby area of this project site is undergoing a major infrastructure
revolution. As Residential, Commercial, IT companies, and Industrial establishments are coming in, we
can conclude that the Blocks unit will prosper and flourish in this environment.

There is a central government gadget notification mandating government departments and CPWD to
use 100% Fly Ash based Bricks in their all constructions- directly of through contractors. This factor will
help the marketability of this product immensely.
Fly Ash policy of the Government also mandates that 20% of Fly ash Generated by a power plant must
be given free of cost to SME sector on a priority basis.

8. Carbon Credits Estimates

NAAC blocks are being seriously considered for CDM projects in India for earning Carbon Credits. As the
CER Generated is also relatively less, four or five such units can be bundled together to make a Group
CDM in the same sectors.

This project is likely to generate 1 CER per each 7 or 8 Cubic Meter of Blocks production, depending on,
and subject to the CDM methodology adopted, and the interpretation of additional and baseline
parameters by the validating authority.

Just for a rough estimate of CERS, for an annual production of average size AAC plant,
that is 100000CM/Annum, we are likely to get around 12500 CERs on full capacity Production. At
present market rate of 11.5 Euros per CER and @ Rs. 60 per Euro, we can expect to get additional
revenue on CER. But we must expect to take a cut of around 20 to 30% of CERs, if we want to forward
sell the CERs and get the CDM part sponsored by the buyer.

9. Raw Materials, Sources and Availability.

Fly-Ash:

A lot has been said about this raw material in this Project Profile itself. But this Raw material is freely
available in Thermal Power plants. There are no taxes on this item whatsoever. Transportation charges
are only to be attended by the entrepreneur.

Lime:

Active powered lime is a requirement for giving the real aeration to the product. In phase 1 we can aim
to buy the active lime directly. In phase -2 we can think of having backward integration and making a
lime powering unit at site to have a more competitive advantage, We can also think of a lime burning
kiln inside the factory premises.

The project financials however have not considered the costs of powering unit, and the lime kiln in this
project.

Different qualities of lime are available, and depending on the raw materials, the mix design can be
chosen to get the optimal quality of production.

OPC. This Project aims to utilize OPC cement as main binder material. It will give faster strength to the
bricks, besides giving improved consistent quality. It also ensures a better cost effectiveness for the
same. Using OPC will be a standardized practice. The other prime advantages of using OPC (compared to
other binders) are its easy availability locally through nationwide Retail Network of Cement Companies.

Gypsum:

This too is an industrial waste. This is available as an industrial byproduct of Fertilizer Plant. Gypsum is
responsible to give long term strength to the Blocks.

Aluminum Power.

Finely ground Aluminum power is used in very limited quantity ( less than 0.5%), so that it reacts with
active lime, and silica in base material to make the aeration, and swell the product, making it very light
weight product.
8. Process

The Process of manufacture is simple t follow, and complex to implement.

First, the Fly Ash is mixed with water, and made Slurry in a slurry mixture. If Sand is used as a base
material, we need a ball mill to grind the sand to fine power. The slurry making process is same sand.

After Slurry is made, the slurry is stored in slurry storage tank, where the slurry is constantly agitated.
Care is taken to run the slurry storage tank all the time, so that is never settles down the particles.

Then a weigh batcher weighs the Slurry, lime, OPC, Gypsum and aluminum power in preset quantities,
and mixes thoroughly. The mixture also pours the mix into the Mould carried n the mould cart. The full
pouring of the mixture is just enough to fill around 50% of the mould.

Then the mould is kept in a warm chamber for 2 hours, so that the aeration and the light initial setting
takes place.

Next process is de-molding process of the big block, in which a sophisticated overhead hoist takes the
mould, de-moulds the block.

Next process is the level wire cutting of the Block, while the block passes on the cutting trolley through
the series of wires. This process follows a vertical wire cutting where as the block remains stationary,
and the cutter cuts the block vertically.

9. Flow Chart :

10. Overview of the global autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) market


According to Technavio’s market research report, the global autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) market
will grow at a CAGR of more than 7% during the forecast period. The growing use of AAC in different
forms will drive the growth prospects for the market until the end of 2021. AAC is also known as
autoclaved concrete, autoclaved lightweight concrete (ALC), autoclaved cellular concrete (ACC), cellular
concrete, and porous concrete. AAC bricks are considered as environment-friendly and sustainable
construction building materials because they employ a non-polluting manufacturing process. AAC helps
in the reduction of over 45% of greenhouse radiations, nearly 30% of environmental waste, and over
50% of integrated energy on the surface of the brick. AAC blocks are available in custom sizes and are 3-
4 times lighter in comparison to traditional bricks. These materials require less joining, which reduces
the overall cost of construction by 3%-5%. The coming years will continue to witness a high demand for
AACs as they require less amount of cement and steel.
During 2016, the AAC market in Europe accounted for the majority market share due to the presence of
many AAC blocks manufacturers in countries such as Poland, the UK, and Germany. The improvement in
properties of AACs such as superior resistance to fire, wind, solar damage, and pests will boost the
adoption of AACs during the projected period. Additionally, the growth of the construction market in
Europe will also drive the demand for these materials in this region.

11. Competitive landscape and key vendors


The AAC market has the presence of many vendors and is dominated by the global vendors. The market
is witnessing an influx of domestic vendors due to the rise in industrialization in developing regions. To
remain competitive in the market, the large players are adopting M&A strategies. Small and medium-
scale vendors are coming up with innovative capabilities, whereas, the prominent players are focusing
on gaining a strong foothold in the market. These vendors are increasingly competing against each other
based on factors such as price, quality and performance, innovation, and customer-centrism.
Key vendors in this market are -

 The H+H
 JK Lakshmi Cement
 UAL Industries
 UltraTech Cement
 Xella

Other prominent vendors in the market include Aircrete Group, AKG Gazbeton, AERCON AAC, Broco,
Buildmate Projects, Brickwell, Hebel, Kansal Group, Laston, Italiana, RPP Group, and SOLBET.

12.1 Segmentation by product and analysis of the AAC market

 Blocks
 Panels

AAC blocks are precast building materials that are light in weight and provide insulation, structure, and
resistance to fire and mold. The application of AAC blocks reduces the mass of the structure as they are
light in weight and decreases the impact of an earthquake on the building. This drives the demand for
AAC blocks over AAC panels and according to this industry research report, this segment will account for
the maximum shares of the AAC market during the estimated period.

12.2 Segmentation by end user and analysis of the AAC market

 Non-residential
 Residential

The AAC market by non-residential users accounted for the majority market shares during 2016. The
governments of both the developing and developed economies are increasingly focusing on the
development of public infrastructure and this will boost the demand for AACs in this segment. The
market segment will continue its dominance during the forthcoming years as AACs are used to construct
commercial buildings and infrastructures such as office spaces, shops, restaurants, hotels, industrial
buildings, schools, and hospitals.
13. Executive Summary
The report titled "India Bricks and Blocks Market to 2021 – Focus on AAC Block Segment" provides a
comprehensive analysis of the brick and blocks market in India and covers market size and segmentation
of overall market. The report covers the further segmentations of the overall market based on clay brick,
fly-ash brick, concrete block, AAC block and others. The sub segments of concrete blocks (Solid, hollow,
CLC and RMC) have been discussed separately and analysis on them has been presented individually.
Similarly, the market of clay brick has been segmented depending on the manufacturing technique.
Additionally, an overall segmentation of the market has been based on the application of brick and
block. The report covers detailed profiles of leading players in the different sub segments of the market.
The potential and future outlook has been individually discussed for India AAC block market and for the
overall India blocks and bricks market. The report provides detailed analysis of segments, trends &
developments, growth drivers and major restraints and challenges within the industry. The report also
serves as a benchmark for existing players and for new players who wish to capitalize on the market
potential and investors who are looking forward to venture into blocks and bricks market in India.

14. India Blocks and Bricks Market

India is the second largest brick manufacturer in the world after China. Indian brick industry is almost
entirely unorganized and characterized by the presence of large number of small scale manufacturers
which compete with one another at the regional level.
Bricks industry in India has recorded considerable growth over past few years, driven by the growth in
infrastructure and construction activities. Moreover, India's rising population, increase in per capita
income, improved economic growth, industrialization and rapid urbanization has augmented the growth
prospects of blocks and bricks industry. India's blocks and bricks market grew at a CAGR of ~% during
FY'2011-FY'2016 from INR ~ billion in FY'2011to INR ~ billion in FY'2016.
India blocks & bricks market is expected to witness a decline growth rate in FY-2018 ending march as the
real estate sector has been adversely affected by the effects of demonetization since November’’17, as
bricks and blocks market in India is an informal one to a large extent and the impact of demonetization
has been a big blow to the growth prospects of this industry in the short term. North India market has
been more affected as compared to the southern market as more transactions take place through
banking channels and off-take of government projects. With the construction projects in pipeline, the
market is expected to overcome short term effects of demonetization and grow at a good pace FY2019
March. “Companies are required to market AAC BLOCK, drawing attention about the overall cost and
construction time for the infra-structure that they intend to construct. Mouth-to-mouth marketing
highlighting the value proposition of the product is very vital in this market. Customers would naturally
opt for higher quality products , especially when recommended by their contractors.

15. Viability:--

The NAAC block industry is only viable if the manufacturing facilities are located within ~250 kms from
the client/place of construction

• Our Manufacturing Facilities are strategically located at Rampurhat which caters to West Bengal,
Jharkhand, Bihar, Orissa, Assam, and the other NE States which is where the major construction
activities take place

• Our current capacity to produce NAAC stands at 60,000 m3/annum

• Our plant can produce 10 truck loads/enough NAAC blocks required for a 10 storey building in a day.

16. KEY STRENGTHS: --

1) Rampurhat which is just 10 kms from our plant will lead to saving of huge Transportation costs.
Additionally it will lead to increase in demand due to new industrial and commercial set ups,
Construction of infrastructure will also require NAAC blocks in huge quantities.
2) Plant is strategically located in Rampurhat, which has wonderful road connectivity with the adjacent
states of Jharkhand, Bihar, Sikkim, Darjeeling, Orissa, Bhutan, wherein most of the constructions are
taking place.

3) 65% of the NAAC block by weight is fly Ash. It is a By-product of Coal Combustion. Therefore NAAC
makes productive use of recycled industrial waste. It is almost a RAW MATERIAL that is obtained at
almost no cost.

4) Final Product breakage stands at 3-4% as against 8-10% industry average.

5) Management will be in the hands of TECHNOCRATS, who are hands on with the manufacturing
process.

17. GROWTH DRIVERS:--

1) Huge scope for Growth since in India NAAC (Non-autoclaved aerated concrete) block market share is
less than 3%

2) India’s construction market is expected to reach USD 1 Trillion by 2025, the Third largest globally.

3) Investment required by housing for all by 2022 is valued to be at Rs. USD 2.5 Trillions.

4) Restrictions on CLAY BASED bricks in major cities due to its environmental Impact.

5) Mandated Govt Departments, CPWD, Public Health Departments to use 100% fly-ash based bricks in
all their constructions either directly or through the contractors.

6) Falling interest rates & incremental economic growth.

18. Affordable Housing…A huge Opportunity:--

1) The market potential of affordable housing projects in the country is expected to touch Rs. 6.25
trillion by 2022.

2) The Housing shortage is expected to increase from the current level of 19 million units to 25 million
by 2021, based on a STABLE decadal growth rate.

3) Assuming an Average ticket size of Rs. 25 lakhs per unit, this translates into a market potential of Rs.
6.25 trillion for affordable housing projects.

4) Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojna aims to construct 2 (Two) crore houses in India, in 3 (Three) phases till
2022.

5) The Demand for affordable Housing to remain Healthy, supported by a growing population, young
Demographic profile, shift towards nuclear families and Rapid Urbanization.
CONCLUSION: ---

Non Autoclave aerated Concrete blocks has come out to be the de- facto value chain, from each of the
stakeholder discussions, to be promoted in the region. The demands for the blocks are extremely high in
the region and is thus, sustainable. Therefore it becomes imperative for the setting up of a MODERN
Non Autoclave aerated Concrete blocks plant to drive the necessary intervention to revive the industry.

The promoters expect that with the modern PLANT, coupled with the help of government schemes
which have been discussed earlier will go a long way in establishing the growth of economy in West
Bengal. This feasibility report and the detailed analysis has been prepared keeping in mind the
requirements of the economy, considering the socio economic development of the region through
employment generation and wealth creation thereby helping in its own little way to the massive growth
engine of the government