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Comparative Analysis of Orange Peels and Magnetic Nanomaterial in the Removal of

Malachite Green from an Aqueous Solution

A Research Paper
Presented to the Faculty of
Canossa School
City of Santa Rosa, Laguna

An Interdisciplinary Research Project


In Grade 12 English, Science and Mathematics

GROUP 1 – STEM
MFR

Leader:
Barrinuevo, Kervin E.

Members:
Alvarez, James Rojan T.
Camarillo, Rosselle
Paragas, Jerald Nathaniel

March 1, 2019
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF FIGURES…………………………………………………………………………….....4
LIST OF TABLES………………………………………………………………………………...5
ABSTRACT……………………………………………………………………………...............6
CHAPTER 1: THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND……………………………………7
INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………………...7
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY………………………………………………………8
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK…………………………………………………………9
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM……………………………………………………...9
HYPOTHESIS…………………………………………………………………………...10
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY……………...………………………………………11
SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS…………………………………….……………………..11
DEFINITION OF
TERMS……………………………………………………………….12
CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES………………………13
INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………...…..13
RRL DIAGRAM…………………………………………………………………………13
RELATED LITERATURE………………………………………………………………14
SYNTHETIC DYE………………………………………………………………14
ADSORPTION…………………………………………………………………..14
ORANGE PEELS………………………………………………………………..15
MAGNET………………………………………………………………………16
ADSORBENT DOSAGE………………………………………………………16
MALACHITE GREEN…………………………………………………………17
BASIS OF PROCEDURE………………………………………………………17
CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY…………………………………………………………….…19
RESEARCH DESIGN…………………………………………………………………...19
RESEARCH SETTING………………………………………………………………….19
MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT………………………………………..…………….20
INSTRUMENTATION………………………………………………………………….20
PROCEDURE……………………………………………………………………………21

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STATISTICAL TREATMENT………………………………………………………….24
CHAPTER 4: PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA…….….27
CHAPTER 5: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION…………………...33
SUMMARY……………………………………………………………………………...33
CONCLUSION…………………………………………………….…………………….34
RECOMMENDATION………………………………………………………………….35
APPENDIX……………………………………………………………………………..………..36

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LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE 1.1 SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM………………………………………….………………9
FIGURE 2.1 LITERATURE MAP………………………………………………………………13
FIGURE 3.1 ADSORBENT MATERIAL PROCESS……………………..…………...……….22
FIGURE 3.2 DYE SOLUTION PROCESS……………………..……………………...……….22
FIGURE 3.3 DYE ADSORPTION PROCESS……………………..………...………...……….23
FIGURE 4.1 PH COUNT..……………………………………………………………………....28
FIGURE 4.2 REMAINED MALACHITE GREEN IN THE SOLUTION..…………….……....29

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LIST OF TABLES
TABLE 4.1 TABLE OF VALUES OF PH……………………………………………………....27
TABLE 4.2 TABLE OF VALUES OF ABSORBANCE…………………………………..…....28
TABLE 4.3 INDEPENDENT T-TEST RESULTS FOR PH COUNT AT 50g/ml……………....30
TABLE 4.4 INDEPENDENT T-TEST RESULTS FOR PH COUNT AT 75g/ml……………....30
TABLE 4.5 INDEPENDENT T-TEST RESULTS FOR PH COUNT AT 100g/ml……………...31
TABLE 4.6 INDEPENDENT T-TEST RESULTS FOR ABSORBANCE AT 50g/ml………....31
TABLE 4.7 INDEPENDENT T-TEST RESULTS FOR ABSORBANCE AT 75g/ml………....32
TABLE 4.8 INDEPENDENT T-TEST RESULTS FOR ABSORBANCE AT 100g/ml………....32

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ABSTRACT

Dye is one of the reason why our water is polluted. This study was done to help improve
the capacity of adsoprtion of dye in aqueous solution by suggesting the used of orange peel and
magnetic nanomaterial while maintaining the safety of people, marine animals and at the same
time, improving the environment. Using quasi experimental design, the researcher used two
groups: experimental group (the mixture of malachite green and aqueous solution with the
adsorbent which is orange and magnetic nanomaterial) and control group (control group is the
ratio of aqueous solution with malachite green with a ratio of 50,75 and 100ml). To get the
treatment, blender was used for mixture and filtration using magnetic nanomaterial. To test if
there is no significant difference between the ratio of 50:50 and 25:75 orange peel and
nanomagnet respectively in the solutions 50, 75 and 100 ml in terms of pH and Absorbance.
Observational design were also used and the result of adsorbance were analyzed by using
Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Null hypothesis was rejected, result show that there is a
significant difference between the ratio of 50:50 and 25:75 orange peel and nanomagnet.
However, it is recommended for the future researcher to explore whether there are alternative
ways on testing how much dye remains in the solution since the analytical services can be
expensive and need to travel great distances and also the future researcher should also explore
more about the kind of dye they would use because magnetic nanomaterial only works on dye
that has metal.

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CHAPTER 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction

Textile dyeing wastewater is one of the main sources of pollution in our water bodies. It

is recognized as one of the root cause of environmental pollution. High concentrations of textile

days in water bodies stop the reoxygenation capacity of the receiving water and cut-off sunlight,

thereby upsetting biological activity in aquatic life and also the photosynthesis process of aquatic

plants or algae. Dyes are expansively used in several industries, like textile, rubber, cosmetics,

paper, leather tanning, paint, printing, pharmaceutical, and food. In textile industry alone

accounts for two-three of the total dye stuff production. Even presence of small amount of dyes

in wastewater are highly toxic, undesirable, visible and serious hazards to aquatic environment.

According to a report from Cambridge University, approximately 50,000 tons of dye are

discharged into global water systems from textile industries.” When chemicals used in making

synthetic dyes find their way into water bodies, they affect human health and cause the death of

water ecosystems. This problem is especially experienced in developing countries, who are still

struggling to enforce high standards of safety regulations. Factory workers often use harmful

dyes without protective clothing or use dyes laced with banned ingredients. Some examples of

harmful chemicals contained in dyes include: aniline, dioxin, formaldehyde and heavy metals

such as zinc. These substances, when consumed or come into contact with human skin, cause

negative effects ranging from hormone disruption in children and cancer in factory workers.

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In addition, agricultural waste, like orange peels, also contribute to the overall pollution

today.In 2014, the world produced around 68,925,200 tons of oranges, with much of that figure

being used to make products like jams, marmalades, and juices– all of which result in around 3.8

million tons of orange peel waste per year.

In response to both issues regarding agricultural waste management and aquatic

environment, the researchers decided to conduct a study wherein they will make a magnetic

adsorbent that is made up from orange peels, nickel, and iron in order to remove one of the most

common dye, Malachite green.

Background of the study

In recent years, the quantity of agricultural, industrial and food wastes has been rising

rapidly all over the world, resulting to environmental problems. The Philippines is mainly an

agricultural country with a land area of 30 million hectares, 47 percent of which is agricultural.

The total area devoted to agricultural crops is 13 million hectares distributed among food grains,

food crops and non-food crops. One of the most common agricultural wastes in the Philippines is

orange peels. Since the 1980s, orange production has continued to grow across the world, and in

2014, orange production clocked in at 68,925,200 tons, with much of that figure being used to

make products like jams, marmalades, and juices–all of which result in the waste of orange peels

at a massive scale of around 3.8 million tons of waste a year.

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The researchers came up with the study of using agricultural/food and nano material

wastes, specifically orange peels and magnetic nano material, in the removal of the synthetic

dye, Malachite Green, in the water. The raw materials, magnetic nano and orange peels, were

turned into a bio adsorbent as an alternative device for water filter.

Conceptual Framework

Input Process Output


- Nanomagnet and - Prepare adsorbent and - Orange peel
orange peel solution absorbent with
- Treating malachite Nanomagnet
green dye using
orange peel with
Nanomagnet
- Comparison of the
treated solution of
orange peel with
Nanomagnet in terms
of:
1. pH
2. Absorbance
- Independent t-test

Fig 1.1 Schematic Diagram

Statement of the Problem

The study aimed to determine if combining Orange Peel (OP) in powder form and

ferromagnetic powder can improve the performance of the adsorbent in adsorbing a 50, 75, 100

ml dye concentration Malachite Green (MG) in an aqueous solution:

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1. Where does the absorbent 50 OP:50 FM and 25 OP:75 FM reach the peak of absorbance?
3.1 50 ml
3.2 75 ml
3.3 100 ml

2. What is the best ratio of the orange peel powder and magnet powder?
2.1 50% : 50%
2.2 75% :25%

3. What is the significant difference between the ratio of 50:50 and 25:75 orange peel and

Nanomagnet respectively in the solutions 50, 75 and 100 ml in terms of:


3.1 pH
3.2 Absorbance

Research Hypothesis

Null Hypothesis (Ho): There is no significant difference between the ratio of 50:50 and 25:75

orange peel and nanomagnet respectively in the solutions 50, 75 and 100 ml in terms of pH and

Absorbance.

Alternative Hypothesis (Ha): There is a significant difference between the ratio of 50:50 and

25:75 orange peel and nanomagnet respectively in the solutions 50, 75 and 100 ml in terms of pH

and Absorbance.

Significance of the Study

The study aimed to provide an alternative way to remove dyes in aqueous solution

By using fruit peel and magnetic powder. This study could beneficial to the following:

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The Fruit vendors, this study will give them other source of income. Instead of disposing

the peels, they can gather it and sell for a better usage of the waste material.

The environmental organizations and environmentalists, this study will give them new

ideas in terms of helping the nature to avoid the increase of risk of global warming. This new

knowledge can also serve as a new foundation in exploring more about the capacity of orange

peel and magnet and their benefits.

The Future Researchers, The study will help the future researchers to have basis in their

research in terms of theories and procedure. This will also serve as a reference for them to go

beyond the study.

Scope and Limitation

This study focused on the removal of Malachite Green Dye using orange peels and

magnetic adsorbent from aqueous solution. The researchers aims that what is the effectiveness of

orange peel and magnetic adsorbent in the eradication of Malachite Green from aqueous

solution.

The researchers will observe and gather data of the experiments which will be analyzed

afterwards to determine the effectiveness of orange peels and magnetic adsorbents in removal of

malachite green from aqueous solution.

Definition of Terms

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Malachite green – a certain type of dye that are environmentally persistent and toxic to a wide

range of aquatic and terrestrial animals.

Adsorbent – a material that are capable of adsorption.

Adsorption - the process in which atoms, ions or molecules from a substance (it could be gas,

liquid or dissolved solid) adhere to a surface of the adsorbent.

Dye- a natural or synthetic substance used to add a color to or change the color of something.

Contact Time - A term of art referring to the length of time water is exposed to low cost bio

adsorbent.

Ratio- the quantitative relation between two amounts showing the number of times one value

contains or is contained within the other.

Orange Peel –A peel that is capable of in the study as Low Cost Bio Adsorbent.

Magnet - A material considered in the study as Low Cost Adsorbent

Chapter 2

Review of Related Literature and Studies

Introduction

This chapter provided the literature and studies that aided the researchers for a more

relevant and related information also serves as a reference in conducting this research. The main

purpose of literature review work was to survey previous studies on the removal of malachite

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green from aqueous solutions. Then in the related literature the orange peels and the magnet

characteristics makes it possible to adsorb dye. In line with the studies and the experiments in

dye separating it from aqueous solution that supports this research. The structure of the past can

also be seen in the related studies.

RRL Diagram

Biosorbent

Orange Peel Magnet

Water Treatment

Adsorption

Dye

Such as
Malachite Green

Figure 2.1 Literature Map

As shown above, the different literature and studies helps the researchers' for the study

they chose. It shows that to form the bio cleaner prototype device, the properties and structures

of the hair as the main component must be studied and conduct experiment to know the capacity

in the oil adsorption of the device.

Review of Related Literature

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Synthetic Dye

The dyes which are not naturally occurring and are produced by human beings are called

synthetic dyes. They impart better properties to the materials they are applied upon and are also

less expensive and also have vast options to be chosen from. Due to these properties, they have

replaced the natural dye in a very short span of time. Today, the scenario is such that we can see

synthetic dyes almost everywhere, ranging from paper, food, clothes and many more. They are

also used in rubber industries, cosmetics etc. But even though with so many advantages,

synthetic dyes are very harmful for the mankind as well for the environment. That is why there

are number of methods being applied these to separate these dyes from water stated by Laxmi, V

(2014).

Adsorption

The dye removal from wastewater by adsorption technique has become popular day by day. It

refers the accumulation of a substance at the interface between two phases such as solid and

liquid and solid and gas. The substance that adsorb on the surface is called adsorbate. The

substance on which it adsorbs is called adsorbent. Adsorption can either be physical or chemical

in nature and frequently involves both (Cheremisinoff 1995).

Orange Peels

A study that has been conducted by Hassan (2014), states that orange peels also contain

other chemicals such as cellulose, pectin, hemicellulose, lignin, chlorophyll pigments, and other

low-molecular weight hydrocarbons.

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In addition, Arami. Et al. (2005), states that these components contain various functional

groups, such as carboxyl and hydroxyl groups which make the orange peel to be a potential

adsorbent material for removing metal ions from aqueous solution.

According to Ali. Et al., states that in their study the use of the low cost and eco-friendly

material orange peel as a biosorbent for the removal of dichlorotriazine Reactive Blue (RB-

Drimarine-K2 RL) dye from aqueous solutions was studied, containing equilibrium and dynamic

studies. Experiments were performed on different dye concentration, particle size, adsorbents

dose, pH, shaking speed and shaking time. It was revealed that the adsorption capacities of

orange peels were comparatively high for the reactive dyes.

The effectiveness of orange peel in adsorbing Acid Violet 17 dye was studied by Sivaraj.

Et al. (2001), as a function of agitation time, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration and pH.

Congo red, Procion Orange and Rhodamine B dyes (Namasivayam et al 1996), Direct Red 80

and Direct Red 23 was also used as low-cost adsorbent for the removal of textile dyes from

aqueous solutions (Arami et al 2005).

Furthermore, according to the study of Abdussalam Zhul-quarnain Et al. ., (2018) his

study shows that orange peel can be used as a suitable adsorbent for the removal of malachite

green dyes from solutions. The orange peel is sourced locally. Proximate analysis done on the

adsorbent revealed that the orange peels had 13.25% Moisture content, 5.68% Ash content and

4.7% Carbon content. FTIR technique was also used to identify the functional groups and

organic compounds inherent in the orange peels. The adsorption isotherm models used were

Henry, Langmuir I, Langmuir II, Langmuir III, Langmuir IV, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-

Radushkevich. The result from the models shows that Henry isotherm model fits better for the

adsorption of the dye with Orange peels. Results obtained showed that adsorption followed

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second order kinetics. Thermodynamic data for enthalpy (∆H) for the adsorption of the dye

shows that adsorption was endothermic. The entropy result indicates that there is an increase in

randomness at the solid liquid interface. Free energy change shows that adsorption for the dye at

temperatures of 298, 323, 343 and 373 were spontaneous and feasible.

Magnet

According to Sivashankar. Et al. (2014), states that Adsorption is the most extensively

used technique for dye sequestration. Magnetic separation of toxic pollutant is becoming a

potential method in waste water purification and found to have predominant significance in the

removal of dyes more effectively compared to conventional method of treatments.

In addition Bonetto. Et al. (2015) Adsorption is a promising technique for the removal of

textile color effluent at relatively low cost and with satisfactory efficiency such as the halloysite-

magnetite-based composite as an adsorption in the removal of methyl violet 2B cationic dye.

Adsorbent Dosage

A good adsorbent material can only be considered as such in removing plenty of dye

molecules in an aqueous solution if its dosage is low. Effective adsorption is most observed when

22 dosage ranges increases only from 0.1g to 0.5g. In addition, this enables the whole procedure

to be less expensive and affordable, (Dahiru, Zango, & Haruna, 2018).

Malachite green

It is an environmentally persistent and acutely toxic to a wide range of aquatic and

terrestrial animals. It is highly lethal to freshwater fish, in both acute and chronic exposures. It

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causes serious public health hazards and also poses potential environmental problem. Both

clinical and experimental observations reported so far reveal that MG is a multi-organ toxin. It

decreases food intake, growth and fertility rates; causes damage to the liver, spleen, kidney and

heart; inflicts lesions on the skin, eyes, lungs and bones; and produces teratogenic effects.

Malachite green is highly cytotoxic to mammalian cells. Incidences of tumour in the lungs,

breast and ovary have also been reported from rats exposed to MG. It also acts as a respiratory

enzyme poison and it has a copper that can attract by a magnet. Decrease in RBC count

(dyscrasia), Hb (anaemia) and HTC (%); increase in WBC count (leukocytosis) and delay in

blood coagulation were observed post-exposure to MG (Srivastav et al., 1999, Srivastava et al.,

2004, Yonar and Yonar, 2010).

Basis for Procedure

According to (Rahmat, N. A., Ali, A. A., Salmiati, Hussain, N., Muhamad, M. S.,

Kristanti, R. A., & Hadibarata, T. (2016)), first, the solution of Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR)

was prepared by pouring 1g of RBBR powder in a volumetric flask with a solvent of 1000 ml

distilled water to produce a 1000 mg/L dye concentration. The flask was shaken to obtain equal

mixture. The series of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/L of RBBR dye standard solutions was prepared

from the stock solution prepared. Second, the preparation of adsorbent samples. The selected

agricultural wastes were washed with distilled water for several times to ensure a clean surface.

The wet adsorbents will then be dried using a hot air oven at 105 °C for 24 hrs. Then, the dried

adsorbents were grounded and sieved to obtain a particle size of 150 μm. The materials were

sieved to make sure that the materials are equal of sizes. Then, the adsorbent materials were

stored in an airtight container. Third, batch experiments were performed in a 100 mL Erlenmeyer

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flask. 5g of pineapple leaf powder and lime peel powder were poured to each flask. The working

solutions’ original pH was maintained throughout the experiments. Each flask was agitated at

120 rpm at a room temperature of (±27 °C) for 24hrs. Constant speed was maintained to obtain

equal mixture. Aluminum foil was utilized to cover the flasks to avoid spillage and to avoid

substances getting in to the flasks.

Lastly, the adsorbents were eliminated from the mixture via filtration using Whatman no.

1 filter paper. The concentration of RBBR after adsorption was determined using the instrument,

UV/Vis spectrophotometer at 590 nm. Distilled water was used to obtain control. All experiment

was performed in triplicate.

Chapter 3

METHODOLOGY

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This chapter discussed the methods involved in the study. It is comprised of the research design

research variables, instrumentation, research procedure, and the statistical treatment for data

gathered.

Research Design

The study used Quasi-Experimental-Observational research design. The study used

experimental group wherein the researchers applied a treatment of orange peel with magnetic

nanomaterial to remove dye in an aqueous solution. The experimentation process entailed three

(3) trials for a more accurate data gathering.

Research Setting

This study took place at Canossa School Santa Rosa, Laguna, during the school year

2018-2019. The orange peels used in the experiment were collected from the market of Barangay

Market Area City of Santa Rosa Laguna.

Materials and Equipment

The following materials and equipment were utilized by the researchers for the

experimentation of the study.

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Ingredients

- Orange Peels (10 g)


- Magnet (200g)
- Malachite Green Dye (200g/ml)
- Distilled Water (1 L)

Tools and Equipment

- Strainer
- Blender
- Beaker
- Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometer
- Container

Instrumentation

The researchers used observation as their instrument to gather data in their experiment.

The study aimed to determine if the magnetic nanomaterial added to the orange peel would affect

the adsorption of malachite green. The researchers used observational checklist for the recording

the data and the result of the experiment

Procedure

In preparing the adsorbent, the orange peel first washed with tap water. Then the samples

were dried under sunlight for 3 days. The dried orange peels were chopped to obtain its particle

size. Next, the chopped peels were washed again with distilled water to remove any acidity or

basicity,and sun-dried again for 3 days. The chopped peels were grinded using a blender. Finally

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the sieve was used to obtain uniform particle sizes of the grinded material. Then the adsorbent is

mixed with a ferromagnetic powder.

The aqueous solution was prepared by dissolving different amount of Malachite Green

dye in distilled water at varying concentrations. The different concentrations are 50, 75, and 100

g/ml with 1 ml of malachite green

The researcher put 50, 75, and 100 g/ml of the Malachite Green Dye respectively in

different beakers next put 1 gram of orange peel along with 1 gram of ferromagneric (50 OP: 50

FM) and .5 gram of orange peel along with 1.5 grams of ferromagnetic (25:75). The samples

were closed by a cover to isolating it from substances. Each sample was mixed for exactly 10

minutes. A magnet is used to gather the adsorbent and separate it from the solution. The

researchers had conducted two trials of experimentation to obtain a precise and reliable data.

Wash the OP with Chop the OP to small


Tap Water pieces

Wash the OP with Sundry


Distilled Water

Blend the OP then


Sundry
sieve

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Put the OP in a
Ziplock

Fig 3.1 Adsorbent Material Process

Pour the dye in each beaker with distilled


water with a concentration of, 50, 75, Stir each
100 g/ml solution

Fig 3.2 Dye Solution Process

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Fig. 3.3 Dye Adsorption Process

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Statistical Treatment

The following statistical treatment shows how the researcher able to calculate the

adsorption of malachite green in order to address the research problem and answer the research

questions. The given equations would allow the researchers to prove their results with

mathematical equation and guarantee that the results of the study to be accurate and precise.

The researchers used the following formula to calculate the dye concentration after the

adsorption process. Langmuir adsorption isotherm: adsorption is usually described through

isotherms, that is, the amount of adsorbate on the adsorbent as a function of its concentration (if

liquid) at constant temperature. The quantity adsorbed is nearly always normalized by the mass

of the adsorbent to allow comparison of different materials. qe are obtained from adsorption

experiment.

qe = (Co – Ce) V/M

where:

qe– Dye concentration in mass.

Co- Initial concentration of dye (g/ml).

Ce- Final concentration of dye in solution (g/ml).

V- Volume of aqueous solution.

M- Mass of adsorbent (g).

For the mean of both group A and group B which are used in most calculations made by

the researchers, here is the formula which the researchers have used:

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For Dye solution with 50% ferromagnetic and 50% orange peel:

Σ ( xa )
m a=
na

For Dye solution with 25% orange peel and 75% ferromagnetic:

Σ ( xb )
m b=
nb

The gathered data in the experiment will be interpreted using the standardized

independent sample t-test compares the means of two independent groups in order to determine

whether there is statistical evidence that the associated groups means are significantly different.

With this formula the researcher are allow to compare the results between each sample to

determine the best adsorbent dosage for malachite green. The formula for sample t-test is

presented below:

ma−¿ m b

√ s s2
2
+
na nb
t=¿

The formula in order to compute for the common variance between the two samples is

shown:

x b−mb ¿2
¿
x a−m a ¿2 + Σ¿
Σ¿
2
σ =¿

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In order to solve for the standard deviation: is a number used to tell how measurements

for a group are spread out from the average (mean), or expected value which is used to show the

deviation in the results of the two groups in the experiment, the researchers used this formula:

x b−mb ¿2
¿
x a−ma ¿2 + Σ¿
Σ¿
¿
σ=√ ¿

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CHAPTER 4

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter presented the gathered data, and its analysis using the statistical

computations.

The research study aimed to determine if there is a significant difference between the

ratio of 50:50 and 25:75 orange peel and nanomagnet respectively in the varying dye solutions

50, 75 and 100 ml in terms of pH and Absorbance. To evaluate the comparison of the two ratios

with each corresponding dye solution, was done in terms of pH Count and Absorbance test was

provided.

pH

Samples 50 mg/L 75 mg/L 100 mg/L

50% Orange Peels T1 T2 Ave. T1 T2 Ave. T1 T2 Ave.


50% Nanomagnet
4.28 4.32 4.3 4.07 4.1 4.085 4.4 4.38 4.39

25% Orange Peels T1 T2 Ave. T1 T2 Ave. T1 T2 Ave.


75% Nanomagnet
4.45 4.5 4.475 4.13 4.15 4.14 4.7 4.8 4.5

Table 4.1 Table of Values of pH

The table above shows the samples 50:50 (OP and NM) and 25:75 (OP and NM) in terms

their pH. The values of pH in the results in the two trials and their average in 50ml, 75ml, and

100ml is also written in the table. The average of 50:50 (OP and NM) are 4.3, 4.085, and 4.39 in

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50ml, 75ml, and 100ml respectively. On the other hand, the average of 25:75(OP and NM) are

4.475, 4.14, and 4.5 in 50ml, 75ml, and 100ml respectively.

pH Count
Trial 1 Column1

OP and NM (25:75) 100 g/ml 4.8


4.7

OP and NM (25:75) 75 g/ml 4.15


4.13

OP and NM (25:75) 50 g/ml 4.5


4.45

OP and NM (50:50) 100 g/ml 4.38


4.4

OP and NM (50:50) 75 g/ml 4.1


4.07

OP and NM (50:50) 50 g/ml 4.32


4.28

Fig. 4.1 pH Count

As shown to the figure 4.1 above that the pH count of the ratio 25%OP and

75%nanomagnet at 50 g/ml and 100 g/ml solution is greater than the pH count of the ratio 50%

OP and 50%Ferromagnet with the same solution, and the least pH count is the solution of 75

g/ml in both ratio, which means that ratio of 50%OP and 50%Ferromagnet is more acidic than

the 2nd ratio.

Absorbance

Samples 50 mg/L 75 mg/L 100 mg/L

50% Orange Peels T1 T2 Ave. T1 T2 Ave. T1 T2 Ave.


50% Nanomagnet
0.838 0.742 0.79 0.472 0.523 0.50 0.312 0.271 0.29

25% Orange Peels T1 T2 Ave. T1 T2 Ave. T1 T2 Ave.

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0.493 0.43 0.422 0.230
75% Nanomagnet
0.369 0.391 0.41 0.211 0.22

Table 4.2 Table of Values of Absorbance

The table above shows the samples 50:50 (OP and NM) and 25:75 (OP and NM) in terms

absorbance. The values of absorbance in the results in the two trials and their average in 50ml,

75ml, and 100ml is also written in the table. The average of 50:50 (OP and NM) are 0.79, 0.50,

and 0.29 in 50ml, 75ml, and 100ml respectively. On the other hand, The average of 25:75(OP

and NM) are 0.43, 0.41, and 0.22 in 50ml, 75ml, and 100ml respectively.

Remained Malachite Green in the Solution


Trial 1 Trial 2

25:75 OPand FM in 100ml solution 0.21


0.23

25:75 OP and NM in 75ml solution 0.42


0.39

25:75 OP and NM in 50ml solution 0.37


0.49

50:50 OP and NM in 100ml solution 0.27


0.31

50:50 OP and NM in 75ml solution 0.52


0.47

50:50 OP and NM in 50ml solution 0.74


0.84

Fig. 4.2 Remained Malachite Green in the Solution

In the figure 4.2 above shows the difference in the remaining malachite green in the 50,

75, 100ml solution. First for the 100 ml solution result shows that the ratio 25:75(OP and NM)

had lesser remained malachite green than the ratio 50:50 (OP and NM). In the second solution,

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75 ml result shows that the ratio 25:75 is also lesser remained of malachite green than the ratio

50:50 with Lastly for the 100ml solution, the result shows that the ratio 25:75 is also lesser

remained of malachite green than the ratio 50:50 the same result as the 50 ml and 75 ml solution.

In conclusion, there is a significant difference between the ratio 50:50 and 25:75 orange peel and

nanomagnet respectively in the solutions 50, 75, 100 ml in terms of absorbance.

Table 4.3 Independent t-test results for pH Count at 50g/ml


P-value T df t critical value

Equal variances 0.00 5.46 4.30

assumed 0 6 2 3

The Table 4.3 above shows that the t value of the data for pH Count at 50g/ml of the

experimental group is greater than the t critical value. Since the computed t-value (5.466) is

greather than the critical critical value (4.303), which means that there is significant difference

between the ratio of 50:50 and 25:75 orange peel and nanomagnet respectively in the solution

50ml in terms of pH.

Table 4.4 Independent t-test results for pH Count at 75g/ml


P-value T df t critical value

Equal variances 0.00 3.05 4.30

assumed 0 1 2 3

The Table 4.4 above shows that the t value of the data for pH Count at 75g/ml of the

experimental group is less than the t critical value, which is 4.303, which means that there is no

30
significant difference between the ratio of 50:50 and 25:75 orange peel and nanomagnet

respectively in the solution 75 ml in terms of: pH and Absorbance.

Table 4.5 Independent t-test results for pH Count at 100g/ml


P-value T df t critical value

Equal variances 0.00 7.06 4.30

assumed 0 0 2 3

The table above shows that the t value of the data for pH Count at 100g/ml of the

experimental group is greater than the t critical value, which is 4.303, which means that there is

significant difference between the ratio of 50:50 and 25:75 orange peel and nanomagnet

respectively in the solution of 100 ml in terms of: pH and Absorbance.

Table 4.6 Independent t-test for Absorbance at 50g/ml

P-value T df t critical value

Equal variances 0.00 4.57 4.30

assumed 0 9 2 3

The table above shows that the t value of the data for Absorbance at 50 g/ml of the

experimental group is greater than the t critical value, which is 4.303, which means that there is

significant difference between the ratio of 50:50 and 25:75 orange peel and nanomagnet

respectively in the solution of 50ml in terms of Absorbance.

Table 4.7 Independent t-test for Absorbance at 75g/ml

31
P-value T df t critical value

Equal variances 0.00 3.04 4.30

assumed 0 9 2 3

The table above shows that the t value of the data for Absorbance at 75g/ml of the

experimental group is less than the t critical value, which is 4.303, which means that there is no

significant difference between the ratio of 50:50 and 25:75 orange peel and nanomagnet

respectively in the solution 75 ml in terms of Absorbance.

Table 4.8 Independent t-test for Absorbance at 100g/ml

P-value T df t critical value

Equal variances 0.00 3.14 4.30

assumed 0 2 2 3

The table above shows that the t value of the data for Absorbance at 100g/ml of the

experimental group is less than the t critical value, which is 4.303, which means that there is no

significant difference between the ratio of 50:50 and 25:75 orange peel and nanomagnet

respectively in the solution 75 ml in terms of Absorbance.

Chapter 5

Summary, Summary of findings, Conclusion and Recommendation

Summary

32
The main objective of the study was to measure the effectiveness of orange peel and

nanomagnet in adsorbing malachite green in aqueous solution through adsorption process. Malachite

green is the cause of toxicity in fish; the toxicity of this dye increases with exposure time, temperature

and concentration. To address this problem, this research was undertaken. The orange peel and

nanomagnet that was used in adsorption reduced the amount of malachite green and so it was used as the

treatment for the study.

The researchers used Experimental-observational research design. The design was used to

examine the changes that occurred in both control and experimental group. The researchers aimed to

determine the effective contact time of 50 minutes in which malachite green will be best removed and

also to know the amount of malachite green adsorbed by each ratio of the orange peel with nanomagnet

given by the researchers (75:25 & 25:75). In addition the study desired to find if there is a significant

difference between the two different ratios of orange peel and nanomagnet in terms of their amount of

malachite green adsorbed with regards to time. The orange peel and nanomagnet were mixed with the

malachite green in different contact time which is then filtrated in a clean beaker. The experiments were

conducted on the Biochemical lab of Canossa School Santa Rosa and the results were sent and analyzed

by UP Los Banos Biotech. The result of the data from the experiments is analyzed using the independent

t-test to resolve the problem statement of the study.

Conclusion

From the performed experiment and analysis of data, the following conclusions were

drawn:

33
1. From the 100, 75, and 50 ml dye concentrations, the peak of absorbance is in the 100 ml

dye concentration in using both 50 % OP: 50 % NM and 25 OP % : 75 NM % adsorbent

since it adsorbed more than 50 percent of the Malachite green using both of the ratio.
2. From the two ratio that are used in adsorbing the 100, 75, and 50 ml dye concentration,

the best ratio is the 25 % OP and 75 % Nanomagnet. Based from the result of the

absorbance test, the 25 % OP and 75 % Nanomagnet has better absorption and pH count

than the other ratio. The 25 % OP and 75 % Nanomagnet resulted higher pH count and

less Malachite green remains using this ratio.


3. There is a slight difference between the two different ratios which are 50% OP and 50%

Nanomagnet, and 25%OP and 75% Nanomagnet in the terms of pH level and absorbance.

For the pH count, the second ratio resulted an average of 4.5 which are higher to the 4.3

average of the first ratio. However, both are the ratio are not drinkable since it is acidic

and not close to the pH scale of water. For the absorbance, the second ratio had a better

result because less than malachite green remains in using the 25% OP and 75%

nanomagnet. Moreover, both of the ratios are effective in removing the Malachite green

in the aquaeous solution.

Recommendation

Orange peels is a common citrus fruit and has a strong adsorption in terms of adsorbing

malachite green. For this reason, there is a need to find other peels or fruits that are capable in

absorbing synthetic dye.

34
Nanomagnet is one of the adsorbent in the removal of malachite green. Magnet is used

in filtering the adsorbent in the dye concentration. For this reason, the researcher suggest to use

more powerful magnet to get a better result in filtrating the adsorbent from the dye concentration.

There is a need to explore whether there are alternative ways on testing how much dye

remains in the solution since the analytical services can be expensive and need to travel great

distances.

Appendix

35
Figure 1, Orange peel powder and Nanomagnet

Figure 2, Preparation of Solution

Figure 3, Addition of Adsorbent to the Dye Concentration

36
References

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https://www.academia.edu/6512764/ORANGE_PEEL_AS_AN_ADSORBENT_FOR_THE_RE

MOVAL_OF_REACTIVE_BLUE_DYE_FROM_TEXTILE_WASTEWATER

Arami. et al. (2005). (PDF) Removal of two textile dyes from aqueous solutions onto calcined

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https://www.researchgate.net/publication/259166032_Removal_of_two_textile_dyes_from_aque

ous_solutions_onto_calcined_bones

Cheremisinoff (1995). Retrieved from

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0043135496000036

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Laxmi, V. (2014). Retrieved from http://ethesis.nitrkl.ac.in/6030/1/E-178.pdf

https://www.academia.edu/6512764/ORANGE_PEEL_AS_AN_ADSORBENT_FOR_THE_RE

MOVAL_OF_REACTIVE_BLUE_DYE_FROM_TEXTILE_WASTEWATER

Cheremisinoff (1995). Retrieved from

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0043135496000036

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ous_solutions_onto_calcined_bones

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