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Method

General Start-up Procedure

1. All valves from V1 to V2 were checked so that they were initially closed.

2. Sump tank was filled with water. The selector tube was placed into the sump tank.

3. By-pass valve was opened. The pump was switched on and the pump flowrate control

knob was turned about 70%.

4. The conductivity meter was switched on and the unit was checked that it working

properly.

5. The equipment was ready to be used for the experiment.

Water Decationization

1. 5 L of tap water was prepared in test water tank. The conductivity meter was used to

measure the conductivity of the tap water.

2. All valves were checked so that they were initially closed.

3. The cationic resin was in contact with tap water in upward flow pattern by opening

valves V3, V5, and V9.

4. The selector tube was placed into the tap water tank and the pump was started with

70% flowrate.

5. The by-pass valve was fully opened to remove the residue from the previous operation.

6. After a while, the by-pass valve was partially closed to slow down the flowrate of tap

water drop by drop.

7. The damper valve was opened and checked so that it was half-filled with water before

the damper value was closed.

8. The control valve was adjusted in order to obtain flowrate between 35 to 40 cm3/min.
9. The conductivity sensor was placed into the sensor holder was close to sumtank and the
conductivity meter was observed. At the same time, the timer will begin to be switched on
and the reading process begins for every 10 seconds.

10. The reading process were stopped when the conductivity reading of tap water was
costant.

11. The valves 15 was opened so that the tap water will be flushed out and then that valve
was closed when the test water fully flushed.

Regenerate The Cation Resin

1. 6 L of 8 % of HCl was prepared and poured into the regeneration for cation resin tank.

2. All valves were checked so that they are initially closed.

3. The cationic resin was rinsed in upward flow pattern by opening V3, V5, and V9.

4. The pump was started with 70 % flowrate and 40 minutes of contact time was allowed and
the flowrate was adjusted to 60 cm3/min.

5. The by-pass valve was fully opened to remove the residue from the previous operation.

6. After a while, the by-pass valve was partially closed to slow down the flowrate of the

solution drop by drop.

7. The damper valve was opened and was checked so that it was half-filled with water

before the damper valve was closed.

8. Valve 16 opened to flush out the HCl solution and then closed when that solution fully
flushed.

9. The regenerate tank was cleaned and rinsed with deionized water.
General Shut-Down Procedure

1. The flow rate was set to zero by turning the control valve.

2. The dosing pump flow rate control knob was turned to 0%.

3. The drain valves were opened to drain out any liquid from the entire tanks.

4. At the same time, all valves were opened to drain out the water or liquid in the tubes

and pipes.

5. The power of the dosing pump and of the conductivity meter was turned off.

conclusion

There are two main objectives of this experiment are to dertermine the breakthrough time of
ion exchange unit by using tap water as test water and also to determine the volume of the
test water decationized. Based on the data, we can conclude that the conductivity of the
water increases by time but the conductivity of the test water remains at a certain point of
time with high value of conductivity. In our experiment the breakthrough time at 150 seconds
and the conductivity at that time was 71.3mS which means the test water was fully
decationized reached its maximum conductivity level. Then, the value of the conductivity
decreased until 29.5 mS at 600 seconds because of the water fully decationized where the
the numbers of ion decreased causing the value of conductivity also decrease.The volume of
test water decationized was obtained by using the equation which is, multiplying the
breakthrough time with the flowrate of tap water which is 87.5 𝑐𝑚3 . As a conclusion, the
value of conductivity of test water achieved its maximum level and drop to the minimum
value because the test water was fully decationized