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Ph.D.

Problem Number One

The second-order system with output variable y(t) is given a sinusoidal input:

y + 3 y + 2 y = 20sin t


Initial conditions: y (0) = 1, y (0) = 0

Find the complete solution y (t ) for t ≥ 0 using the method of undetermined coefficients.
Ph.D. Fundamentals Exam ME Sample Exam 1

Problem Number Two

The differential equation with output variable y(t) is given a ramp input x (t ) = 72 t , t ≥ 0 :

y + 5 y + 6 y = 72 t


Assume the following initial conditions: y (0) = 0, y (0) = 0

Find the complete solution y (t ) for t ≥ 0 using Laplace transforms. (Transform table is given
on the last page of the exam.)
Ph.D. Fundamentals Exam ME Sample Exam 1

Problem Number Three

The open loop transfer function k G p ( s ) is used in a feedback configuration, as shown, where k
is a gain parameter, to be chosen. (The range of allowable gain is 0 < k < ∞ .)

R(s) Y(s)
k Gp(s)

k
k G p ( s) =
s ( s + 2)

(a.) Find the range of gain k for a stable closed-loop system.

(b.) Select the gain k so that the damping ratio ζ of the closed loop system is equal to 0.2.

(c.) Find the damped natural frequency of oscillation ωd of the closed loop system for this k.

(d.) Find the closed loop pole locations for this value of k and plot them. (Label your axes.)

(Label your axes and choose the scale as appropriate.)

Ph.D. Fundamentals Exam ME Sample Exam 1

Problem Number Four

The open loop transfer function k G p ( s ) is used in a feedback configuration, as shown, where k
is a gain parameter.

R(s) Y(s)
k Gp(s)

(a.) Sketch the root locus (i.e., roots of the closed loop characteristic equation) for
0 < k < ∞ . Include asymptotes and real axis intercept (centroid) of asymptotes, if appli-
cable. Show the direction of increasing k on all branches, using arrows.

k ( s + 3)
k G p ( s) =
s ( s + 2)( s + 6)

(b.) Find the range of k for a stable closed loop system.

(c.) Describe (and/or sketch) the closed loop system step response for k small ( k → 0) .

(Label your axes and choose the scale as appropriate.)

Ph.D. Fundamentals Exam ME Sample Exam 1

An electric circuit is shown below with a sinusoidal input voltage vi (t ) .

V o ( jω )
(a) Derive the expression for the complex frequency response function; H ( jω ) = where Vo
V i ( jω )
is the voltage across the inductor.

(b) Write simple equations that approximate the magnitude of the complex frequency response func-
tion for the limiting conditions when the input frequency approaches zero and approaches infinity
(you do not have to break the complex frequency response function into real and imaginary parts
to approximate the magnitude at the limiting conditions).

(c) Describe clearly if your approximations in part (b) make sense physically based on the behavior
of the R,L,C components.

Show all work. Please be neat. Use symbols in the solution.

vo (t )

L
vi (t ) C R
Ph.D. Fundamentals Exam ME Sample Exam 1

Problem Number Six

A Wheatstone bridge circuit with a switch and calibration resistor is shown below. Find: (a) the
output voltage Vo when the calibration switch is open; and (b) the output voltage Vo when the
calibration switch is closed. Use symbols in the solution.
Ph.D. Fundamentals Exam ME Sample Exam 1

Problem Number Seven

C (s )
Simplify the following block diagram and obtain the closed loop transfer function
R (s )

H3

+
R(s)
+ + + C(s)
G1 G2 G3 G4

- -

H1 H2
Ph.D. Fundamentals Exam ME Sample Exam 1

Problem Number Eight

Given the following (open loop) frequency response function G(jω), answer the following ques-
tions below:

10 ( jω + 3)
G ( jω ) =
( jω )( jω + 2 ) ( jω ) + jω + 2
2

(b) What is the value of the DC (ω = 0) magnitude, G ( j 0) ?

(c) What is the value of the high frequency phase angle, ∠G ( j∞) ?

(d) If an input forcing function equal to x(t ) = 2 sin 5t is applied, describe (in general terms)
the output which is obtained.
Laplace Transform Properties:

X ( s ) = L [ x (t )] = ∫ x (t ) e − st dt
0

L [ x (t )] = sX ( s ) − x (0)

L [ 
x (t )] = s 2 X ( s ) − x (0) − s x (0)

X(s) x(t) (t > 0)

1 δ (t )

1 1
s
1 t
s2
1 e − at
s+a
ωn sin ωn t
s + ωn 2
2

s cos ωn t
s + ωn 2
2

s+z z
cos ωn t + sin ωn t
s 2 + ωn 2 ωn

1 1
e −ζωnt sin ωd t , ωd = ωn 1 − ζ 2
s + 2ζωn s + ωn
2 2
ωd

ωn 2 1−
1
e −ζωnt sin (ωd t + φ ) , φ = cos −1ζ
s( s 2 + 2ζωn s + ωn 2 ) 1− ζ 2

s +α s +α (α − a ) 2 + b2 − a t
= e sin ( bt + φ ) ,
s + 2ζωn s + ωn
2 2
( s + a )2 + b2 b
a = ζωn , b = ωn 1 − ζ 2 , φ = tan −1 (b /(α − a ))