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Characteristic and strength

of waste water.
Engr. Muhammad Irfan
Characteristics of sewage.
• Treatment. The partial or complete removal excessive impurities
present in waste water.
• Methods.
• Physical, chemical or biological mean are applied.
• Unit operation. The means of treatment in which the application of
physical forces predominant are called unit operation. Major
treatment methods are.
• Screening, mixing, flocculation, sedimentation, floatation, filtration and heat
transfer and drying.
• Chemical Unit Process. The type of treatment in which the removal of
contaminants is brought above by the addition of chemicals.
• Chemical neutralization.
• Chemical coagulation.
• Chemical precipitation.
• Chemical oxidation.
• Chemical disinfection.

• Biological Unit process. Reduction or removal of solids by microorganisms.

• Suspended growth process. Activated sludge process, aerated lagoon, oxidation pond,
aerobic and anaerobic digesters etc.
• Attached growth process. Tricking filter, rotating biological contactors, bio towers, up-
flow filters etc.
• When the removal of excessive nutrients and liquids or gaseous impurities, specific
advanced treatment method used like biological nitrification-denitrification, reverse
osmosis, ion exchange, ultra filtration etc.
• Treatment system.
• Primary treatment system.
• Secondary treatment system.
• Tertiary treatment system.

Preliminary treatment system. To remove the floating and large inorganic

content. Different process involve in this process are.
• Sump and pump unit.
• Approach channel.
• Screen chamber.
• Grit chamber.
• Skimming tank.
The sump and pump and approach channel are not the treatment unit. They
can be called the holding and conveying units as basically collect, lift and
convey the waste water.
• Primary treatment system. (PST) preliminary treatment unit and
primary sedimentation tank called the primary clarifier. When the below
units are provided for treatment it is called primary treatment of waste
• Most large floating materials take palace in screening chamber.
• Most heavy suspended solids separated in grit chamber.
• 60 to 70 % of fine suspended solids then in PST. Which include about 30 to
32% suspended organic solids.
• The colloidal and dissolved organic content is not removed in this system.
• The settleable suspended organic matters is removed in primary
treatment system. And the colloidal and dissolved organic fraction
removed in secondary treatment system.
• Secondary treatment system. if waste water have colloidal and dissolved
organic matter. Then the treatment is called secondary treatment system.
• Usually consist of Activated sludge process (ASP) which is an aerated basin with
return sludge facility. OR
• Trickling filter which is a basin with fixed filter media.
• And Secondary settling tank (SST).
• Tertiary treatment system. When the effluent needed further treatment.
Then passed through the tertiary or advanced system.
• If the organic matter or suspended solids required further reduction or
complete removal.
• The nitrogen and phosphorus concentration is high for final disposal or reuse
of waste water.
• Different methods are.
• Waste stabilization ponds (also called Oxidation ponds).
• Oxidation lagoons (aerated lagoons).
• Oxidation ditches (extended aeration system).
• Rotating biological contactor (RBC).
• Up-flow anaerobic filter (UAF).
• Up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB).
• Strength and characteristic of waste water.
• Strength of waste water is pollution load which is physical, chemical and biological
content in waste water.
• Characteristic of waste water depends on quality of water used by the community,
population and effluent discharge into sewerage system by industrial without or
after treatment of their waste water.
• First forecast the population.
• Then find the fluctuations in that flow.
• Then total sewage which is the combination of storm and dry weather flow.
• Mass Load. The combine effect of both varying flow and its characteristics
are taken care together by a factor as known as mass-loading rate.
• This mass loading factor is determined by commuting concentration of
waste water constituents.
• Mass load = BOD or SS x flow.
Example. The hourly variation in waste water flow for a given town along with
corresponding average concentrations of BOD and SS are given in table.
Compute the average and weighted average concentrations of BOD and SS,
average hourly flow rate and mass- loading data.

BOD (average) = total load/ total flow.

SS (average)= total load / total flow.
• The most frequently assumed criteria for designing a biological
wastewater treatment processes and plant units are as.
• Detention period or time (Hydraulic retention time HRT ) .
• Flow through velocity (horizontal velocity or flow) vh.
• Settling velocity (terminal velocity of setting particles). vs.
• Hydraulic loading rate or Surface loading rate or over flow rate (SLR, OFR).
• Weir loading rate. (WLR).
• Volumetric loading rate or Organic loading rate (BOD or COD).
• Basic geometry which is L:B:D for rectangular tank and Diameter with depth for
• Detention time or HRT.
v= Q x t or t = V/ Q where t = days.
t= ( V/Q ) x 24 t = hrs.
t= detention time. V = volume and Q = flow of waste water.

Example. A treatment unit is 1.5 m wide, 20 m long and has a waste water
depth of 2 m in it. If the waste water through the tank is 0.5 m3/sec.
calculate the detention time.
• Flow Through velocity. Vh. The solid particle in the basin moving with two
of velocities. 1) moving in horizontal direction due to drag force called flow
through velocity. Vh
• 2) vertical velocity due to gravitational force called settling velocity Vs.
Flow through velocity Vh = distance travelled / time taken (l/t)
L= length of tank (m).
B = Breadth of tank (m).
V = volume of tank (m3).
Vh = Flow through velocity. (m/d).
T= detention time. In days.
Vol = L x B x D where cross sectional area Ax = B x D
Flow rate Q = Vol / t or Q =( L x B x D )/ t or Q = Ax x Vh
Where Vh = L/ t.
• Example. A floating stick travels a distance of 15 m in 30 sec in a reactor
tank having 2 m width and 1.5 m depth. Find flow and flow through

Settling Velocity. (Vs). Used for the determination of depth of tank.

a sand particle of 0.2 mm size with specific gravity 2.65 is observed to
settle at a rate of 2.3 m /sec.
t= D / Vs
Example. A grit chamber has a wastewater depth of 0.9 m. calculate the
time required by o.2 mm sand particle to settle at a bottom. Also compute
the length of the grit chamber if the flow through velocity is 0.3 m /sec.
• Hydraulic loading rate or Surface loading rate. (SLR). Or Over flow Rate.
Surface loading is the hydraulic flow applied per unit surface area of the tank
is called hydraulic loading.
HLR is the volume of wastewater applied per unit surface area of the
treatment basin and expressed in m3/m2 –day.
The SLR is numerically equal to settling velocity.

SLR = Flow / surface area. = settling velocity.

Example. Assuming the diameter of clarifier to be 20 m and the waste water
flow rate is 10 MLD. Calculate the detention time and surface loading rate of
the clarifier having a waste water depth of 2.5 m.
• Example. Assuming a hydraulic loading rate of 25 m3/m2 –day. Determine
the surface area and diameter of a basin treating 0.5 MLD flow of waste

Weir Loading rate. (WLR). The quantity of wastewater flowing over a unit
weir length of the tank in a day.
WLR = Flow rate / total weir length. (m3 /m2 –day).

Example. For a circular clarifier of 20 m diameter, determine the weir loading

for a wastewater flow rate of 10MLD.
Example. A rectangular sedimentation tank has a length of 10m and a width
of 5m. For a flow rate of 1 MLD, calculate the weir loading rate.
• Organic Loading rate or Volumetric loading. The total quantity of organic
matter that is applied per day per unit volume of the treatment basin of tank.
Or the quantity of organic matter applied per day over a unit surface area.

Example. A trickling filter has a diameter of 20 mm and a liquid depth 2.5 m.

calculate the organic loading rate for an influent of 10 MLD having 220 mg /
liter BOD.