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Plane and axisymmetric models

in
Mentat & MARC

Tutorial with some Background

Eindhoven University of Technology


Department of Mechanical Engineering
Piet J.G. Schreurs
Lambèrt C.A. van Breemen March 6, 2014
Contents
1 Plane stress and plane strain 3
1.1 Background : Theory and element formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2 Plate with a central hole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.2.1 Modeling and analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.2.2 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.2.3 Edge load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.3 Axle support with radial load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.3.1 Modeling and analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.3.2 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
1.3.3 Quadratic elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1.4 Orthotropic plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
1.5 Circular disc with prescribed radial edge displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
1.5.1 Modeling and analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
1.5.2 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
1.6 Rotating solid disc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
1.6.1 Modeling, analysis and results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

2 Axisymmetry 28
2.1 Background : Axisymmetric modelling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
2.2 Axle support with axial load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
2.2.1 Modeling, analysis and results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
2.3 Circular discs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

2
1 Plane stress and plane strain
1.1 Background : Theory and element formulation
In the tutorial ”Truss and beam structures” trusses and beams are described and used to model simple
structures with MSC.Marc/Mentat. Although the nodes of the truss and beam elements can have
a displacement (and rotation) in three directions, only one stress is relevant : the axial stress. For
linear elastic material behavior, the stress in a truss is related to the axial strain ε = ∆l
l0 , according to
σ = Eε, where E is the Young’s modulus, which can be measured in a tensile experiment.

Plane stress

Many structures are build from flat plates, having a thickness, which is much smaller than the dimen-
sions of the plate in its plane. The figure below shows such a plate, with its plane in the xy-coordinate
plane and with a uniform thickness h0 .

z
y
x

h0

In many cases it is allowed to assume that the plate is loaded in its plane, as shown in the figure. When
the plate is isotropic, there will be no bending of the plate and it will stay flat after deformation.

z
y
x
P

In a point P of the plate a ”column” is cut out, with its sides parallel to the xz- and yz-coordinate
planes, respectively, and with dimensions dx × dy × h0 . This small part of the plate is loaded with
stresses, so forces per area. Because the thickness of the plate is very small, it can be assumed
that these stresses are uniform over the thickness. The stress components working on a stress cube
dx × dy × dz are the normal stresses σxx and σyy and the shear stresses σxy and σyx . It can be shown
that σxy = σyx , so only three stress components are relevant.

3
z
y
x
P

σyy
σyx

σxx σxy

Because there are no stresses working in z-direction, this stress state is referred to as plane stress. The
deformation in point P is described by the normal strain components εxx and εyy and the shear strain
εxy .
For linear isotropic elastic material behavior the next relation holds between stresses and strains :
    
σxx 1 ν 0 εxx
 σyy  = E  ν 1 0   εyy 
1 − ν2
σxy 0 0 1−ν εxy

Due to the stresses σxx and σyy the thickness of the plate will change. The strain in thickness direction,
so in z-coordinate direction in our case, is :
∆h ν
εzz = = − (σxx + σyy )
h0 E

Plane strain

The displacement in the z-direction, which is for our plate the direction perpendicular to its plane, is
suppressed. The plate is for instance glued to two parallel rigid bodies, which stay at the same distance.
In that case we have εzz = 0, and call the deformation a state of plane strain.
In a state of plane strain, there is generally a stress σzz ̸= 0. The linear elastic material behavior
is described by :
    
σxx 1−ν ν 0 εxx
 σyy  = E  ν   εyy 
1−ν 0 ; σzz = ν(σxx + σyy )
(1 + ν)(1 − 2ν)
σxy 0 0 1 − 2ν εxy

It is noted that problems will occur when ν approaches 0.5. Stresses will become infinite. This is
not strange, since in a linear elastic material the volume change will be zero for ν = 0.5. To prevent
numerical problems in MSC.Marc, we use the option CONSTANT DILATATION in the menu GEOMETRY.

Interpolation and integration : the element stiffness matrix

When analyzing plane stress and plane strain problems with the finite element method we have to
use plane stress or plane strain elements. These elements are in MSC.Marc always located in the

4
xy-plane. Also the deformation is in the xy-plane and is described by the x- and y-displacement of
a number of nodal points, situated on the edges of the elements. The displacement of an internal
point of the element is interpolated between the displacement of the nodes. For this interpolation, a
local coordinate system is used with isoparametric coordinates ξ1 and ξ2 , which have values between
-1 and +1. In mathematical terms the interpolation of the displacement u and v in x- and y-direction,
respectively, can be written as follows :

n
u(ξ1 , ξ2 ) = N 1 (ξ1 , ξ2 )u1 + N 2 (ξ1 , ξ2 )u2 + N 3 (ξ1 , ξ2 )u3 + · · · = N i (ξ1 , ξ2 )ui
i=1

n
v(ξ1 , ξ2 ) = N 1 (ξ1 , ξ2 )v 1 + N 2 (ξ1 , ξ2 )v 2 + N 3 (ξ1 , ξ2 )v 3 + · · · = N i (ξ1 , ξ2 )v i
i=1

where N i are the interpolation functions, associated to node i, and ui and v i the nodal displacement
components. The number of element nodes is n.
Calculation of the element stiffness matrix, which relates nodal displacements to nodal forces,
implies integration of a function over the element volume. This integral can only be evaluated numer-
ically : the integrand is calculated in a discrete number of internal integration points and these values
are added after multiplication with a certain coefficient. The location of the integration points and the
coefficients are fixed for a certain element type.

Linear and quadratic elements

The figure below shows a 4-node element with all nodes in the four corners of a quadrilateral with
straight sides. Nodal points have a local counterclockwise numbering, which is in accordance with the
MSC.Marc program. The figure also shows the element in the so-called isoparametric space, where
[ ]T
points are identified with the local isoparametric coordinates ξ = ξ1 ξ2 .
˜
3
4 η
4 3

1 2 1 2

Because there are only two nodes on one element side, the displacement of an arbitrary point on the
side can only vary linearly between the two nodal values. A 4-node quadrilateral is therefore called a
linear element. The four interpolation functions, associated with the nodes are :

N 1 = 14 (ξ1 − 1)(ξ2 − 1) ; N 2 = − 14 (ξ1 + 1)(ξ2 − 1)


N 3 = 41 (ξ1 + 1)(ξ2 + 1) ; N 4 = − 14 (ξ1 − 1)(ξ2 + 1)

The element has 4 integration points, which are shown in the figure below. Their local coordinates are
fixed and determined such that the numerical integration is as accurate as possible.

3
4 η
4
3
1

3 3
2 ξ
1
1 2
1

3 3

5
In a quadratic element, the displacement of an arbitrary point is interpolated using interpolation
functions, which are quadratic in the local coordinates ξ1 and ξ2 . This element has 8 nodes and is
therefore also referred to as an 8-node element. Four of these nodes are situated in the corners of
the element, the other four are in the middle of the element sides in the undeformed situation. The
numbering of the local nodes is indicated in the figure below and is in accordance with the MSC.Marc
program. The interpolation functions are :

N 1 = 41 (ξ1 − 1)(ξ2 − 1)(−ξ1 − ξ2 − 1) ; N 2 = 41 (ξ1 + 1)(ξ2 − 1)(−ξ1 + ξ2 + 1)


N 3 = 41 (ξ1 + 1)(ξ2 + 1)(ξ1 + ξ2 − 1) ; N 4 = 14 (ξ1 − 1)(ξ2 + 1)(ξ1 − ξ2 + 1)
N 5 = 21 (ξ12 − 1)(ξ2 − 1) ; N 6 = 12 (−ξ1 − 1)(ξ22 − 1)
N 7 = 12 (ξ12 − 1)(−ξ2 − 1) ; N 8 = 12 (ξ1 − 1)(ξ22 − 1)

The 8-node element has 9 integration points, the location of which is indicated in the figure.

3
7
4 ξ2
4 7 3
6
8 6
8 ξ1

1 5 2 1 5 2

9
7 8 ξ2
6 1

4 5 15
5
ξ1
1 2 3
1

5 15

6
1.2 Plate with a central hole
The figure below shows a square plate with a central hole. Relevant dimensions are indicated.

Young’s modulus = 210 [GPa]


Poisson’s ratio = 0.3 [-]

thickness = 1 [cm]

u [mm]

10 [cm]

16 [cm]

The plate is loaded in its plane. Displacements of left and right edges (x = ±8 [cm]) are prescribed :
u = ±0.1 [mm]. In y-direction the displacement of the edge points is free. Top and bottom edge
(y = ±8 [cm]) are also free. This load leads to a plane stress state in the plate.
The material of the plate is isotropic and can be assumed to be linearly elastic. Young’s modulus
and Poisson’s ratio are known : E = 210 [GPa] and ν = 0.3 [-].
Deformation of and stresses in the plate will be determined using MSC.Marc and therefore a model
must be made with MSC.Mentat. Considering symmetry and load learns that only a quarter of the
plate has to be modeled. We choose the part with 0 ≤ (x, y) ≤ 8 [cm]. The correct symmetry
conditions must of course be prescribed as boundary conditions.

7
1.2.1 Modeling and analysis
GEOMETRY & MESH

We start in the GEOMETRY & MESH. We will use the Cartesian coordinate system.
This is shown on the computer screen as a two-dimensional grid in the xy-plane. In
the grid points we can define (nodal) points and other things by clicking with the
left mouse button. In the grid settings the grid dimensions and the spacing between
the grid points can be specified. The program does not know of dimensions and
units, so we have to choose them and stick to them during the modeling and
analysis. Here, dimensions will be expressed in unit of meters. We choose the grid
point spacing to be 0.01 meter.

SET(Coordinate System)
U DOMAIN : -0.1, 0.1
U SPACING : 0.01
V DOMAIN : -0.1, 0.1
V SPACING : 0.01
2
 GRID (Coordinate Systen)
(Fill view)

In the tutorial for ”Truss and beam structures” we used only (CURVES), but this is
not enough any more; we have to do more. We want to define a (SURFACE) and
subdivide this into elements. A simple method is used here, which can be applied
in many cases. First two (CURVES) are defined, one POLYLINE and a quarter of a
circle, an (ARC). The (POINTS) which define the (CURVES) can be located in grid
points by clicking the left mouse button.
After defining the (CURVES), a surface of the type RULED is made. The idea is that
a ”stick” is placed with its begin and end point on two separate (CURVES) and is
subsequently rolled over them, thus describing a (SURFACE) in space.

GEOMETRY & MESH (Basic Manipulation)


(CURVES)
POLYLINE
(CURVES)ADD

Define three points of the POLYLINE.


Close the window with (End list).

(CURVES)
ARC CEN/PNT/PNT
(CURVES)ADD

Define the required (see Command-screen) points of the (ARC).

When the (ARC) is drawn in the wrong direction, click (Undo) and define the
latter two (ARC) points in swapped order.

(SURFACES)
RULED

8
(SURFACES) ADD

Click on the two (CURVES).

A ”strange” surface may appear because of different ”orientation” of the two


curves. In that case we have to (Undo) the last action (definition of the surface)
and ”flip” one of the two curves in the CHECK (Operations) menu with FLIP CURVES.
The surface must then be redefined. When this is done successfully, the surface is
now going to be converted into elements.

(ELEMENTS)
QUAD(4)

CONVERT (Operations)
DIVISIONS : 8, 4
(Convert)
SURFACES
(To)
ELEMENTS

CONVERT
Select (SURFACE).
Close with (End list).

After defining the element mesh, SWEEP (Operations) has to be used to remove
coinciding nodes and elements. It is recommended to go to the CHECK (Operations)
menu and check whether there are elements INSIDE OUT or UPSIDE DOWN. When this
is the case these elements must be ”flipped”.
It is recommended to prevent future drawing of (CURVES) and (SURFACES) in the
view → plot control-menu.

GEOMETRIC PROPERTIES
NEW (STRUCTURAL)
PLANAR
PLANE STRESS
PROPERTIES
Thickness : 0.01
OK
(ELEMENTS) ADD
Enter geometry add element list : (All existing)

MATERIAL PROPERTIES

Prescribe the material parameters : E = 2.1e11 [Nm−2 ] and ν = 0.3 [-].

The initial yield stress does not have to be prescribed. Mentat uses a default value,
which is very high (σv0 = 1020 [Pa]).

BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

9
Prescribe the NEW (STRUCTURAL) boundary conditions.
Besides the prescribed boundary conditions symmetry conditions have to be prescribed.

Selecting nodes after NODES ADD is done with the mouse. Hold the left mouse
button and draw a box around the nodes to be selected. This is easy in this case,
because the nodes are located on a straight line. Do some experiments with making
boxes, by pressing the Control key during box drawing. Close the selection with
(End list).

Model definition is now completed. We are going to specify the analysis.


First we choose the element type. Element 3 is a plane stress element with 4 nodes.
((QUAD(4))). As can be seen from the list, there are more elements with straight
edges and four nodes.

JOBS
ELEMENT TYPES (Element Types)
(ANALISYS DIMENSION)
PLANAR
SOLID
(PLANE STRESS FULL INTEGRATION) 3
OK
Enter element list : (All existing)

After choosing the element type, the mechanical ((MECHANICAL)) analysis is spec-
ified further.

JOBS
NEW
STRUCTURAL
PROPERTIES

- INITIAL LOADS : all ”applies”


- JOB RESULTS : stress, strain, von-mises
- ANALYSIS DIMENSION : PLAIN STRESS
OK

file → save as → File name: plate1 → SAVE

10
The model can now be analyzed. This is done by the finite element program
MSC.Marc, by submitting the model in JOBS.

JOBS
RUN
SUBMIT 1
MONITOR

The program MSC.Marc is started and the model is analyzed. In the (RUN)
menu we see some information about the analysis. In the status screen the word
”Running” is seen. When the status indicates ”Ready” the analysis is finished.
When everything has worked well, we see in the (RUN) menu the exit number
3004. After completion of the analysis, three files are written by MSC.Marc :

plate1 job1.log
plate1 job1.out
plate1 job1.t16

The results of the analysis can be visualized with Mentat.

The file with extension .out contains the results in alpha-numerical format (ASCII). It is generally a
rather long file and is mostly only opened when an error has occurred during the analysis. The file
with extension .t16 contains the results which can be visualized and post-processed in Mentat. The
file with the extension .log contains information about the analysis.

11
1.2.2 Results

We take a look at the analysis results in Mentat. The .t16 file must be opened.
This can be done directly from via file → open default. It can also be opened
from within the (MAIN)-menu in the submenu RESULTS. When MSC.Marc has been
started by Mentat (via RUN), the Post file can be opened with OPEN DEFAULT. When
Mentat has been closed and we want to open a new Post file, we have to use the
OPEN-button.

RESULTS
file → open default
(Fill view)
(DEFORMED SHAPE)
DEFORMED & ORIGINAL

Because the deformation is very small – as it should be for a linear elastic analysis
–, we have to enlarge it in SETTINGS and when AUTOMATIC is used the scaling is
selected so that a proper deformation is visible.
Values of the variables selected in JOB RESULTS can be visualized. Selection is done
with SCALAR, TENSOR or VECTOR.

SCALAR
Equivalent Von Mises Stress
OK
CONTOUR BANDS

It is possible to make a plot of a variable along a path in the model, a PATH PLOT.
Here we will plot the y-displacement of the top edge of the plate as a function of
the x-distance along that edge. Try other possibilities.

PATH PLOT
NODE PATH
Enter first node in Path-Plot node path : select (lm) node1
Enter next node in Path-Plot node path (1) : select (lm) node2
etc. etc. close with # ( (End list))
ADD CURVE
Enter X-axis variable : Arc Length
Enter Y-axis variable : Displacement y
FIT

Close the .t16 file with file → close. It is very important to do this because
problems may occur when loading a (new) model into Mentat. After closing the
.t16 file, the model file is restored automatically.

12
1.2.3 Edge load
Instead of prescribing the displacement of the right edge of the plate, we can also apply a distributed
load.

If necessary, we load the model file → open → plate1. The prescribed displacement
is replaced with a prescribed edge load, which is a force per unit of area. In
BOUNDARY CONDITIONS we make a new EDGE LOAD. To use it we have to
select it in INITIAL LOADS. In that case we remove the prescribed displacement.

file → open → plate1


BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
NEW (STRUCTURAL)
EDGE LOAD
PRESSURE
Enter value for ’p’ : -1e8
OK

The given value must be negative for a tensile load.

(EDGES) ADD
Enter add apply element edge list : select (EDGES)

Remove apply3 in INITIAL LOADS and select apply4.

file → save as → File name: plate2 → SAVE

Run MSC.Marc and look at results.

13
1.3 Axle support with radial load
An axle is fixed into a rubber ring in a rigid block as is shown in the figure below. Relevant dimensions
are indicated.

FR

FR

0.05 [m]

0.15 [m]
y
x

0.1 [m]

Material properties of the axle material are known :

Young’s modulus : E = 2.1 · 1011 [Nm−2 ]


Poisson’s ratio : ν = 0.3 [-]

The rubber material is assumed to be linearly elastic with the next material parameters given :

Young’s modulus : E = 1.0 · 107 [Nm−2 ]


Poisson’s ratio : ν = 0.49 [-]

The axle is loaded by two radial forces, which are equal : FR = 15000 [N]. Bending of the axle is not
taken into account.
It is assumed that a plane strain deformation state exists in the rubber material. Due to symmetry
in the yz-plane w.r.t. the y-axis, only one half of the axle and rubber ring has to be modeled.
Which half part are you going to model?

14
1.3.1 Modeling and analysis
GEOMETRY & MESH

The distance between the grid points is chosen in accordance with the dimensions
of the model. In the grid points we can locate model (POINTS).

SET(Coordinate System)
U DOMAIN : -0.1, 0.1
U SPACING : 0.005
V DOMAIN : -0.1, 0.1
V SPACING : 0.005
2
 GRID (Coordinate Systen)
(Fill view)

We define three (ARCS). Because we want to model a solid axle, we define the third
arc of the type CENTER/POINT/POINT with radius zero by clicking three times on the
central grid point (0, 0, 0). This ’virtual’ curve can be used to define a surface.

(CURVES)
ARC CEN/PNT/PNT
(CURVES)ADD

Define the half circle of the axle.


Define the half circle of the rubber ring.
Define the central arc with radius zero.
Define the surface between the two half-circles.
Define the surface between the axle-circle and the arc in the center point.

The two defined (SURFACES) are converted to 4-node elements. The axle surface
has some elements near the center point which are triangles. This is no problem :
a quad4 element can have two points coinciding.

(ELEMENTS)
QUAD(4)

CONVERT (Operations)
DIVISIONS : 8, 8
(Convert)
SURFACES
(To)
ELEMENTS

CONVERT
Select ring surface
Select the axle surface

After generating the element mesh we have to use SWEEP (Operations) and CHECK
(Operations).

15
Geometry parameters, material properties, and boundary conditions (note the sym-
metry) must be prescribed.

GEOMETRIC PROPERTIES
NEW (STRUCTURAL)
PLANAR
PLANE STRAIN
PROPERTIES
Thickness : 0.1
OK
(ELEMENTS) ADD
Enter geometry add element list : (All existing)

MATERIAL PROPERTIES

Prescribe the elastic properties of the axle (material1) and the rubber ring (material2
strangely named material4 by Mentat).

BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
NEW (STRUCTURAL)

Suppress all displacements of the edge of the rubber ring (apply1).


Nodes on the symmetry axis can only have a displacement in y-direction (apply2).
Prescribe the force FR (apply3).

The question is where this POINT LOAD must be applied, i.e. in which node(s).
Must we prescribe a total force of 15000 N or 30000 N in negative y-direction?

In JOBS we select element 11, a 4-node linear plane strain element. Then we select
the variables, which we want as output in JOB RESULTS and specify the load in
INITIAL LOADS. Finally we indicate that the deformation state is plane strain.

JOBS
ELEMENT TYPES (Element Types)
(ANALISYS DIMENSION)
PLANAR
SOLID
(PLANE STRAIN FULL INTEGRATION) 11
OK
Enter element list : (All existing)

NEW
STRUCTURAL
PROPERTIES

- INITIAL LOADS : apply1, apply2, apply3


- JOB RESULTS : stress, strain, von-mises
- ANALYSIS DIMENSION : PLAIN STRAIN

file → save as → File name: support1 → SAVE and run


MSC.Marc. The results, available in the .t16 files can then be loaded and
the results can be visualized.

16
1.3.2 Results

Looking at Von Mises contour plots it is immediately clear that the stresses in the
rubber are much lower than those in the axle. We can visualize the stress state in
the rubber in more detail by making the axle invisible in the SELECT menu.

view → visibility
ELEMENTS (Make Invisible)

Select the elements of the axle with a ”box”


Close with (End list)

Push ELEMENTS (Make Visible) and (All existing) again to make everything visible.

17
1.3.3 Quadratic elements

The analysis is done using linear elements with four element nodes (QUAD(4)).
More accurate results, mostly with fewer elements, can be reached, using quadratic
elements with eight element nodes. We can adapt the model support1. First file
→ CLOSE the .t16 file.

file → open → support1


GEOMETRY & MESH
CHANGE CLASS (Operations)
QUAD(8)
ELEMENTS
(All existing)

SWEEP (Operations)

BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

Some boundary conditions must be adapted, as there are no boundary conditions


defined in the new nodes.

Adapt the boundary conditions.

ELEMENT TYPES (Element Types)


(ANALISYS DIMENSION)
PLANAR
SOLID
(PLANE STRAIN FULL INTEGRATION) 27
OK
Enter element list : (All existing)

Save the model and run MSC.Marc. Results can be visualized in Mentat.

18
1.4 Orthotropic plate
The figure below shows a square plate, which will be loaded in its plane. It can be assumed that a
plane stress state exists in the plate : σzz = σxz = σyz = 0.

2 y

α x

The plate’s material is a ”matrix” in which long fibers are embedded, which all have the same orientation
along the direction indicated as 1 in the ”material” 1, 2-coordinate system. Both matrix and fibers are
linearly elastic with Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio Em , Ef , νm and νf , respectively. The volume
fraction of the fibers is V . The angle between the 1-direction and the x-axis is α = 10 degrees. In
the 1, 2-coordinate system the material behavior for plane stress is given by the next relation between
stress and strain components :
    
σ11 E1 ν21 E1 0 ε11
 σ22  = 1  ν12 E2   ε22 
E2 0
1 − ν12 ν21
σ12 0 0 (1 − ν12 ν21 )G12 γ12

The Young’s moduli, Poisson’s ratios and shear modulus are defined as :
σ11 σ22 ε22 ε11 σ12
E1 = ; E2 = ; ν12 = − ; ν21 = − ; G12 =
ε11 ε22 ε11 ε22 γ12
The material stiffness matrix is symmetric :

ν21 E1 = ν12 E2

which leaves us with four independent material parameters describing this orthotropic behavior.

The material parameters can be calculated with the next formulas, which are based on the rule-of-
mixtures :
1 V 1−V Ef Em
E1 = V Ef + (1 − V )Em ; = + → E2 =
E2 Ef Em V Em + (1 − V )Ef
1 V 1−V Gf Gm
ν21 = V νf + (1 − V )νm ; = + → G12 =
G12 Gf Gm V Gm + (1 − V )Gf
The next table lists numerical values for material parameters where the above formulas are used to
calculate E1 , E2 , ν12 and G12 .

Em = 70 GPa Ef = 500 GPa E1 = 242 GPa E2 = 106.7 GPa


νm = 0.4 νf = 0.25 ν21 = 0.34 G12 = 38.5 GPa
V = 0.4 ν12 = 0.77

19
In Mentat we also have to give values for E3 , G13 , G23 , ν31 and ν23 . These values are taken to be
the same as the ones for the matrix material.

E3 = E2 = 106.7 GPa ; G13 = G12 = 38.5 GPa ; G23 = Gm = 25 GPa


ν31 = ν21 = 0.34 ; ν23 = νm = 0.4

The sides of the plate have a length 1 m, and the thickness of the plate is 1 cm. The plate is modeled
in plane stress with 10 × 10 4-node elements of type 3.

Input of orthotropic material parameters in the material coordinate system can be done with the fol-
lowing commands.

MATERIAL PROPERTIES
NEW
STANDARD
STRUCTURAL
Type : ELASTIC-PLASTIC ORTHOTROPIC
E1 E1
E2 E2
E3 E3
NU12 ν12
NU23 ν23
NU31 ν31
G12 G12
G23 G23
G31 G31
(ELEMENTS) ADD
Enter add material element list : (All existing)

The orientation of the material coordinate system w.r.t. the global coordinate system must also be
given. This is done per element in the submenu ORIENTATION. In this submenu we see that there are
several TYPEs of orientations. The EDGE-types say that the 1-axis of the local coordinate system is
defined by rotation over an ANGLE relative to a particular side of an element. Side 12 can be seen in the
plot of the element mesh as a half-arrow on the element edges. It is the side from local node 1 to local
node 2. We can also define the rotation of the local 1-axis relative to one of the global coordinate planes.

NEW (Orientations)
EDGE12
ANGLE 10
(ELEMENTS) ADD
Enter add material element list : (All existing)

Boundary conditions are defined for tensile loading in x- and y-direction and for simple shear loading
in x-direction. In the latter case the y-displacement of the upper boundary is suppressed. Tensile loads
and shear load are edge loads of 1 GPa.

For all these loadcases, calculate the stress and strain components in the global and the material co-
ordinate system.

The calculated stress and strain components can be given in the global coordinate system (default) and
in the ”preferred system”. This ”preferred system” coincides with the ”material coordinate system”
which is defined above in the NEW (Orientations) submenu.

20
1.5 Circular disc with prescribed radial edge displacement
The next figure shows a circular disc with outer radius b having a central circular hole with radius a.

a b

For linear isotropic material behavior the analytical solution for radial displacement and radial and
tangential stresses are given as a function of the radius r :
c2 E [ c2 ] E [ c2 ]
ur = c1 r + ; σrr = (1 + ν)c 1 − (1 − ν) ; σtt = (1 + ν)c 1 + (1 − ν)
r 1 − ν2 r2 1 − ν2 r2
where E is Young’s modulus and ν is Poisson’s ratio. The integration constants c1 and c2 are deter-
mined by the boundary conditions. For ur (r = b) = ub ; σrr (r = a) = 0 we have :

(1 − ν)b (1 + ν)a2 b
c1 = ub ; c2 = ub
(1 − ν)b2 + (1 + ν)a2 (1 − ν)b2 + (1 + ν)a2
The next parameter values are given :

a = 0.01 [m] | b = 0.1 [m] | d = 0.01 [m] | E = 2 · 1011 [Pa] | ν = 0.3 [-] | ub = 0.001 [m]

For both a plane stress or a plane strain situation deformation and the stresses can be calculated with
planar elements. Due to the axial symmetry of geometry and loading, a representative part of the disc
can be modeled and analyzed. In this case we model and analyze a quarter of the plate as shown in
the figure below.

y
x
x
z

21
1.5.1 Modeling and analysis

We start in the GEOMETRY & MESH. We will use the Cartesian coordinate system.
Proceed as in the example ’Plate with a central hole’ and make the geometry using
two arcs and a ruled surface between them.
Use CONVERT (Operations) to make the mesh with QUAD(4) elements:

GEOMETRY & MESH


GEOMETRY & MESH
(ELEMENTS)
QUAD(4)

CONVERT (Operations)
DIVISIONS : 10, 10
(Convert)
SURFACES
(To)
ELEMENTS

Select (SURFACE).
Close with (End list).

After defining the element mesh, SWEEP (Operations) has to be used to remove
coinciding nodes and elements. It is recommended to go to the CHECK (Operations)
menu and check whether there are elements UPSIDE DOWN. When this is the case
these elements must be ”flipped”.
It is recommended to prevent future drawing of (CURVES) and (SURFACES) in the
view → Plot Control-menu.

In this example we want to analyze a plane stress situation. This has to be selected
when we specify the thickness.

GEOMETRIC PROPERTIES
NEW (STRUCTURAL)
PLANAR
PLANE STRESS
PROPERTIES
Thickness : 0.01
OK
(ELEMENTS) ADD
Enter geometry add element list : (All existing)

In BOUNDARY CONDITIONS we have to suppress the X-displacement on the


vertical symmetry section and the Y -displacement on the horizontal symmetry
section.

To prescribe the radial displacement on the outer edge, a local coordinate system
has to be used, which can be defined in TRANSFORMS.

22
TABLES & COORD. SYST.
(New) (Coordinate System)
CYLINDRICAL (R,Phi,Z)

Give three points to define the axis of the cylindrical coordinate system, eg. [0 0 0], [0 0 1]
and [1 0 0]. Now we need to transform the nodes on the outer edge to the cylindrical
system.

TOOLBOX
TRANSFORMATIONS (General)
NEW
2
 Coordinate System
COORDINATE SYSTEM
crdsyst1
NODES ADD select nodes at outer edge

Insert the material properties as usual.


Although the material is isotropic and there is no real need for a material coordinate
system, we will define one. The reason is that we want MSC.Marc to calculate
the radial and tangential stresses, which are the stresses in the ”preferred system”.
This coordinate system can be defined in all elements analogously, due to the fact
that the elements are all oriented in the same way.
In the submenu ORIENTATION we use EDGE12 for all elements with ANGLE zero. The
”preferred stress”component-11 is then the tangential stress and the component-22
the radial stress.

MATERIAL PROPERTIES
(New) (Orientations)
EDGE12
ANGLE 0
ADD
(All existing)

We are going to specify the analysis.


First we choose the element type. Element 3 is a plane stress element with 4 nodes.
((QUAD(4))). As can be seen from the list, there are more elements with straight
edges and four nodes.

JOBS
ELEMENT TYPES (Element Types)
(ANALISYS DIMENSION)
PLANAR
SOLID
(PLANE STRESS FULL INTEGRATION) 3
OK
Enter element list : (All existing)

After choosing the element type, the mechanical ((MECHANICAL)) analysis is spec-
ified further.

23
NEW
STRUCTURAL
PROPERTIES

- INITIAL LOADS : all ”applies”


- JOB RESULTS : stress, preferred stress, strain, von-mises
- ANALYSIS DIMENSION : PLANE STRESS
file → save as → File name: Disc1 → SAVE

24
1.5.2 Results

After analysis the result can be visualized.


The deformation can be shown as a deformed mesh. CONTOUR BANDS can be set to
visualize displacements, strains, stresses and preferred stresses. Numerical values
can also be viewed in nodal points.

In a PATH PLOT the stresses can be plotted against the radius. The result is shown
in the figure below.

8
x 10
6
σrr
σ
5 tt
σzz

3
σ [Pa]

−1
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1
r [m]

25
1.6 Rotating solid disc
A solid circular disc with radius b and uniform thickness, is rotated with a constant radial velocity ω
[rad/s] about its central axis perpendicular to its plane. The material is isotropic and linearly elastic
with Young’s modulus E and Poisson’s ratio ν. The density is ρ.

r
ω
b
z r

The general solution is :


( )
c2 1 − ν2 ρ
u = c1 r + −
r E
E E c2 3+ν E E c2 1 + 3ν
σrr = c1 − − ρω 2 r2 ; σtt = c1 + − ρω 2 r2
1−ν 1 + ν r2 8 1−ν 1 + ν r2 8
where c1 and c2 are integration constants. For a solid disc the displacement at r = 0 must remain finite,
while the stress boundary condition is σrr (r = b) = 0. Integration constants can now be determined :

3 + ν 1 − ν2 1 2 2
c1 = ρω b ; c2 = 0
1+ν E 8
The next parameter values are given for this example :

b = 0.05 [m] | f = 6 [c/s] | E = 200 [GPa] | ν = 0.3 [-] | ρ = 7500 [kg/m3 ] |

26
1.6.1 Modeling, analysis and results
In the menu MATERIAL PROPERTIES the density of the material has to be specified.
Again the axial symmetry allows the analysis of the quarter plate, using proper boundary conditions on
the section lines.
The rotation is modeled as a CENTRIFUGAL LOAD in BOUNDARY CONDITONS. The rotation rate is
given in rotations (= cycles) per second. The rotation axis has to be defined by two points in the
three-dimensional space.

BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
NEW (STRUCTURAL)
CENTRIFUGAL LOAD
2
 Angular Frequency (Cycles/Time) 6
Axis Of Rotation
X1 0
Y1 0
Z1 0
X2 0
Y2 0
Z2 1
OK
ELEMENTS ADD
Enter element list : (All existing)

Stress components for the analytical solution are plotted against the radius in the figure below.
5
x 10
12
σrr
σ
tt
10

8
σ [Pa]

0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
r [m]

27
2 Axisymmetry
2.1 Background : Axisymmetric modelling
Many devices and components have a geometry which is symmetric w.r.t. an axis and are thus called
axisymmetric. It is obvious that the position of material points of such an object can best be described in
a cylindrical coordinate system. Coordinates are the distance z measured along the axis of symmetry,
the distance r from and perpendicular to that axis and an angle θ, which indicates the position in
circumferential direction, with respect to an arbitrary starting point (θ = 0o : 0 ≤ θ ≤ 360o (= 2π[rad])
(see figure below).

z z

r r
r
θ

When the load is independent of the angle θ, it is also called axisymmetric. With the additional
assumption that there is no rotation around the z-axis, we only have to consider and model the cross-
section of the object, when we want to analyze its mechanical behavior (see figure).
Modeling such axisymmetric problems in MSC.Marc, the z-axis is oriented in the x-direction and
the r-axis in the y-direction. Only one half of the geometry of the cross-section must be modeled and
it must be located in the half-space y > 0, as is shown in the figure below.

z y = r-as

x = z-as

r r

The stress state in a material point is characterized by four stress components, which are indicated
on the faces of a stress cube in the figure below. This stress cube is shown two times, once in the
cross-section and once three-dimensional.

28
The deformation is described by four strain components, which are defined in accordance with the
stress components. For isotropic linear elastic material behavior we have :
    
σrr 1−ν ν 0 ν εrr
 σtt  E  ν 1−ν 0 ν   εtt 
    
 σzz  = (1 + ν)(1 − 2ν)  0 0 1−ν 0   εzz 
σrz ν ν 0 1 − 2ν εrz

σrr
σrz
σrr
y = r-as σzr
σrz σtt σzz
σzr
P
σtt σzz

x = z-as

Analyzing axisymmetric problems with the finite element method implies that axisymmetric elements
must be used, which are defined in the cross-section. The deformation of such an element is defined
by the displacement in r- and z-direction of the element nodal points. We must be aware that a nodal
point is in fact a nodal ring as is indicated in the figure below.

y = r-as

x = z-as

In the cross-section of the element the axial and radial displacement of a point is interpolated between
the displacements of the element nodes. As with the planar elements, linear or quadratic interpolation
can be used. Again we have 4-node and 8-node elements with 4 and 9 integration points respectively.
In MSC.Marc these elements are indicated as element type 10 and 28. The cross-section of a 4-node
element is shown in the figure below.

29
3
4 η
4 3

1 2 1 2

3
4 η
4
3
1

3 3
2 ξ
1
1 2
1

3 3

In MSC.Marc/Mentat the strains in the integration points are defined as follows :

strain 1 = global zz-strain = εzz


strain 2 = global rr-strain = εrr
strain 3 = global tt-strain = εtt
strain 4 = global rz-strain = γrz

Stress components are defined in the same way.

30
2.2 Axle support with axial load
The load on the axle is assumed to be an axial force : FA = 20000 [N], as is indicated in the figure
below.

FA

y
x

The geometry and the load allow for an axisymmetric Modeling and analysis, as indicated in the figure
below.

manchet
y
x as FA

NB. : The x-axis is the axial axis and the positive y-axis is the radial axis. This is the usual
definition in MSC.Marc/Mentat.

31
2.2.1 Modeling, analysis and results
GEOMETRY & MESH

Define the Cartesian coordinate system with grid point spacing 0.005 [m].

(CURVES)
LINE
(CURVES) ADD

Define three (LINES) parallel to the x-axis between −0.05 < x < 0.05 for y = 0,
y = 0.025 and y = 0.075.
Define (SURFACES) between these (CURVES).
Convert the surfaces in elements of type QUAD(4) with DIVISIONS [8, 4].
SWEEP and CHECK the mesh.

BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
NEW (STRUCTURAL)

Fix the top edge of the rubber part (apply1).


Nodes on the axial axis (y = 0) can only have a displacement in the x-direction (= axial)
(apply2).
Apply the axial force in one point of the axle (apply3).

Material properties of axle and rubber are prescribed in the usual way. Geometric
parameters are not relevant for this axisymmetric analysis.

In JOBS we select element 10, a 4-node quadrilateral axisymmetric element. We


indicate that the analysis is axisymmetric.

JOBS
ELEMENT TYPES (Element Types)
(ANALASYS DIMENSION)
AXISYMMETRIC
SOLID
(FULL INTEGRATION) 10
OK
Enter element list : (All exisiting)

NEW
STRUCTURAL
PROPERTIES

- INITIAL LOADS : apply1, apply2, apply3


- JOB RESULTS : stress, strain, von-mises
- ANALYSIS DIMENSION : AXISYMMETRIC

Save the model as Support2 and run MSC.Marc. The results, available in the .t16
file can be loaded into Mentat and visualized.

Change the model to use quadratic 8-node elements. For axisymmetric analyses in MARC this is
element 28.

32
2.3 Circular discs
A circular disc can be modeled with axi-symmetric elements. In fact these elements are ’ring’-elements.
What we model on the screen is the two-dimensional cross-section of the model.
In MSC.Mentat the axial-direction always coincides with the horizontal x-axis. Only the part of the
cross-section above this axis is modeled and converted in a finite element mesh.

y = radial
x = axial
z = tangential

For a disc with uniform thickness, this half-cross-section is just a rectangle, with the thickness as the
dimension in the x-direction (= axial direction) and the inner ad outer radius as the dimensions in the
y-direction (= radial direction). It would of course be no problem to model a disc with a nonuniform
thickness.
Boundary conditions have to be applied to prevent rigid body movement. It is obvious that there
can not be a rigid body movement in radial direction, but in axial direction we have to prevent the
rigid body displacement. When the disc is solid, it is advised to prescribe the radial displacements on
the axis to be zero.
Edge displacements and edge loads can be prescribed straightforwardly in BOUNDARY CONDI-
TONS. Rotation leads to radial accelerations, which are modeled in MSC.Mentat as body forces in
CENTRIFUGAL LOAD. We have to provide the rotational velocity as number of rotations (= cycles)
per second. We also have to define the axis of rotation. This is a straight line and thus defined with
two points in space. Below we have the x-axis as the rotation axis and the number of cycles/second is 6.

BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
NEW (STRUCTURAL)
CENTRIFUGAL LOAD
2
 Angular Frequency (Cycles/Time) 6
Axis Of Rotation
X1 0
Y1 0
Z1 0
X2 1
Y2 0
Z2 0
OK
ELEMENTS ADD
Enter element list : (All existing)

33