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Surface Finish

• An engineering component may be cast,


forged, drawn, welded or stamped, etc.
• All the surfaces may not have functional
requirements and need not be equally
finished
• Some surfaces (owing to their functional
requirements) need additional machining
that needs to be recorded on the drawing
Surface Roughness
The geometrical characteristics of a surface include,
1. Macro-deviations,
2. Surface waviness, and
3. Micro-irregularities.
The surface roughness is evaluated by the height, Rt and mean
roughness index Ra of the micro-irregularities.
Surface roughness number
Represents the average departure of the surface
from perfection over a prescribed sampling
length, (usually selected as 0.8 mm)

Surface roughness number (Ra) is expressed in


microns.
Ra = (h1+h2+-----+hn)/n

The measurements are usually made along a line,


running at right angle to the general direction of
tool marks on the surface.
• Actual profile, Af
–It is the profile of the actual surface obtained by finishing
operation.

• Reference profile, Rf
–It is the profile to which the irregularities of the surface is
referred to. it passes through the highest point of the actual
profile.

• Datum profile, Df
–It is the profile, parallel to the reference profile .it passes
through the lowest point B of the actual profile
• Mean Profile, Mf
– It is that profile, within the sampling length chosen (L)
such that the sum of the material-filled areas enclosed
above it by the actual profile is equal to the sum of the
material void area enclosed below it by the profile.
• Peak to valley height, Rt
– It is the distance from the datum profile to the reference
profile.
• Mean roughness index, Ra
– It is the arithmetic mean of the absolute value of the
highest hi between the actual and mean profile.
x=L
– Ra = 1/L ∫x=0 |hi| dx , where L is sampling length
Surface Roughness expected from manufacturing processes
Surface Roughness expected from manufacturing processes
Measurement of roughness
The roughness may be measured, using any of the following :
1. Straight edge
2. Surface gauge
3. Optical flat
4. Tool marker’s microscope
5. Profilometer
6. Profilograph
7. Talysurf
Surface gauge
Tool marker’s microscope
Profilometer
Talysurf
INDICATION OF SURFACE TEXTURE

The basic symbol consists of two legs of


unequal length inclined at approximately
60’ to the line representing the considered
surface
The symbol must be represented by thin line

If the removal of material by machining is


required, a bar is added to the basic symbol,

If the removal of material is not permitted,


a circle is added to the basic symbol.

When special surface characteristics have to


be indicated, a line is added to the longer arm of
any of the above symbols,

Basic symbol : only be used alone when its meaning is explained by a note
Indication of Surface Roughness

The value or values defining the principal criterion of roughness


are added to the symbols

a- surface roughness value

Roughness a obtained by Roughness a obtained by Roughness a shall be


any production process removal of material by obtained without removal
machining of any material

If it is necessary to impose maximum


and minimum limits of the principal criterion
of surface roughness, both values shall be
shown

maximum limit (a1) ;minimum limit (a2).


If it is required that the required surface texture be produced by one
particular production method, this method shall be indicated in plain
language on an extension of the longer arm of the symbol

Indication of machining allowance where it is necessary to specify the value


of the machining allowance, this shall be indicated on the left of the symbols.
This value shall be expressed in millimeters.
Generally to indicate the surface roughness, the symbol is used instead of value.
The relation is given in following table.
Machining Symbols

This symbol may also be used in a drawing, relating to a production process , to indicate that
a surface is to be left in the state ,resulting from a preceding manufacturing process,
whether this state was achieved by removal of material or otherwise
Position of the Specifications of the Surface Texture in the Symbol - The
specifications Of surface texture shall be placed relative to the symbol as
shown in figure.
symbol Interpretation
Parallel to the plane of projection
of the view in which the symbol is used

Perpendicular to the plane of projection


of the
view in which the symbol is used

Crossed in two slant direction relative to


the plane of projection of the view in
which the
symbol is used

Multidirectional

Approximately circular relative to the


centre of the surface to which the symbol
is applied

Approximately radial relative to the


centre of the surface to which the symbol
is applied
Symbols with Additional Indications.
If it is necessary to define surface texture
both before and after treatment, this shall
be explained in a suitable note or in
accordance with figure

The direction of lay is the direction of the


predominant surface pattern, ordinarily determined
by the production method employed.

If it is necessary to control the direction


of lay, it is specified by a symbol added to the
surface texture symbol
Ways to represent roughness
Surface finish grade is shown

Surface finish value is shown


Separate note is written
Surface finish grades specified
Development of Surfaces
The development of surface of an object means the
unrolling and unfolding of all surfaces of the object on a
plane
Methods of Development:
(a) Parallel-line development
(b) Radial-line development
(c) Triangulation development
(d) Approximate development

Parallel-line Method:
It is used for developing prisms and single curved surfaces like
cylinders, in which all the edges/generation of lateral surfaces
are parallel in each other.
Radial-line Method:
It is employed for pyramids and single curved surfaces like cones in
which the apex is taken as centre and the slant edge or generator as
radius of its development.

Triangulation Method:
It is used for developing transition pieces.

Approximate Method:
It is employed for double curved surfaces like spheres, as they are
theoretically not possible to develop. The surface of the sphere is
developed by approximate method. When the surface is cut by a
series of cutting planes, the cut surfaces is called a zone.
P 1. A hexagonal prism, edge of base 20 mm and axis 50 mm
long, rests with its base on H.P such that one of its rectangular
faces is parallel to V.P. It is cut by a plane perpendicular to V.P,
inclined at 45o to H.P and passing through the right corner of
the top face of the prism. Draw the sectional top view and
develop the lateral surface of the truncated prism.
P2. A cone of base 50 mm diameter and height 65 mm rests
with its base on H.P. A section plane perpendicular to V.P
and inclined at 30o to H.P bisects the axis of the cone. Draw
the development of the lateral surface of the truncated cone.
Toggle Bolt

When the screw is tightened a firm anchorage is made.


Deck Screws

A straight shank wood screw with a bugle head. Commonly made with a Phillips or square drive 2 1/2" of longer. Coated
to prevent rusting.
Wood Screws

A tapered screw with a round, oval, or flat head. The threaded portion of the screw is tapered with a very coarse thread
and cuts its own thread as it is turned into the wood. Shown L-R oval head, round head, flat head Phillips, and flat head
slotted.
Machine Screw

The head is slotted for a screwdriver and may be either round of flat. Typical sizes 4-12.
Plow Bolt

No wrench is necessary to hold the bolt head.


Machine Bolt

The head and nut may be square or hexagon shaped.


Lag Bolt

The bolt has a square or hex head with a tapered wood screw on the other end. Common sizes 1/4 to 1/2 in diameter, 2"
to 12" long. Also called a Lag Screw.
Carriage Bolt

Never use a washer under the head. Use to bolt wood.


Cap Screw

It resembles a short bolt with a hexagon head with either coarse, fine, or metric thread. Term describes machine bolts and
machine screws.
Eye Bolt

It has an eye on one end and coarse or fine threads on the other.
Grade 2 Bolt

Soft bolt commonly used for landscape applications and other applications where strength is not important.
Grade 5 Bolt

Mildly hardened bolt used commonly in machinery and equipment applications. Three markings on the head.
Grade 8 Bolt

Hardened bolt used where high tensile strength is required. 6 markings on the head.
Hex Nut

It may have NC, NF, or metric threads.


Wing Nut

Used where hand tightening (no wrench) is desired such as inspection covers.
Square Nut

Used on farm implements with carriage bolts, machine bolts, stoves bolts and plow bolts.
Self-Locking Nut

When tightened on a bolt the scored threads bite into the threads of the bolt preventing it from backing off.
Castellated Hex Nut

Used with a cotter pin to prevent loosening or tightening. Top of the nut is smaller in diameter than the base.
Cap Nut

A nut closed on one side to cover an exposed bolt.


Slotted Hex Nut

It differs from the castellated nut in that there is no stepped-in castle-like top.
Finishing Washer

This is a chrome plated countersunk washer used with oval head wood or metal screws.
Malleable Iron Washer

Used where excess pressure or stress is exerted on wooden structures.


Flat Washer

Used to prevent the nut from rubbing and becoming imbedded in the bolted material. Also called a Cut Washer.
Fender Washers

The large holes are used for aligning or adjusting for proper fit.
Lock Washer

It should not be used on wood.


Set Screw

When screwed into a set collar the cup point makes an indentation in the shaft preventing the collar from vibrating loose.
Sheet Metal Screws

Head types are flat, round, pan, oval and binding.


Screw Eye

It may be described as a screw with an eye or ring head.


Torx Head Screws

The head is similar to the Phillips but having a six point star shaped opening in the center of the head rather than a four
point star.
Self Tapping Screws

Screw has a sharp point with coarse threads that make their own threads when screwed into a pre-drilled hole that is
smaller than the diameter of the screw.
Self Drilling Screws

No pre-drilling is necessary when using a self drilling screw.


Drywall Screws

All Are Phillips Except the Hex Wafer Head. Used to fasten drywall. Bugle shaped flat head.
Screw Hook

Can be screw into wood walls or concrete or masonry when pre-drilled and a plastic or lead anchor is used.
Duplex-Head Nail

The point is sharp, and there are two heads, one above the other, to make removal easy. Common sizes 6d, 8d, 16d.
Box Nail

Roughly speaking, d equals 1/4 inch in length, but this is not constant. The shank is smaller in diameter than the common
nail to prevent splitting of the wood. Common sizes 2d to 16d
Common Nail

Roughly speaking, d equals 1/4 inch in length, but this is not constant. The shank is larger in diameter than the box nail
making the nail less likely to bend. Common sizes 2d – 20d. Sizes larger then 20d are often called spikes.
Finish Nail

The sizes range from 2d to 20d. The nail is designed to be counter sunk and the hole filled.
Galvanized Nail

Common, box, and finish nails are available for exterior use with a galvanized coating. The coating may be hot dipped
(thicker) or electro-plated (EG).
Spiral Shank Nails

Designed for the construction and repair of wood pallets. These spiral shank nails are also good for re-nailing wagon
beds, trailers.
Wire Brad

The size is expressed in wire gauge and ranges from 1/4 to 1 1/2 inches long.
Cement Coated Nails

Sizes range from 2d to 16d. Commonly found in a green coating in 8d and 16d ("sinkers").
Blue Plaster Board Nail

The range in size is 1 to 1 1/2 inches.


Aluminum Roofing Nails

Sizes range from 1 to 1 1/2 inches long. Used to apply aluminum roofing.
Lead-Head Nails

Lead washer is to prevent oxidation between the head of the nail and the galvanized roofing and also prevents leakage.
Galvanized Shingle Nail

The 3d is generally used for shingling.


Galvanized Roofing Nail

The head is about 1/2 inch in diameter, and the length ranges from ¾ to 2 inches.
Furring Nail

This allows the wire to become a reinforcing agent and the nails hold the plaster to the wall.
Corrugated Fastener

The size is 1/4 to 1 inch in depth and 2 to 7 corrugations. Used to fasten wood.
Cotter Pin

This prevents the nut from working loose. Also called a Cotter Key.
Soft Iron Rivet

The size is based on length and diameter.


Pop Rivet

A pop rivet tool is required to set the rivet.


Pop Rivet Tool

Tool is adjustable to use the various sizes (diameter) of rivets available.


Rivet Set

A rivet set is a small bar of steel with a hole drilled in the end to receive the rivet, and with a cup-like depression for
forming a round head on the rivet.
Nomenclature of screw threads
This thread profile has a larger contact area, providing more
frictional resistance to motion. Hence, it is used where effective
positioning is required. It is also used in brass pipe work.
This thread form is adopted in Britain in inch units. The
profile has rounded ends, making it less liable to damage
than sharp V-thread.
This thread is a combination of V-and square threads. It exhibits
the advantages of square thread, like the ability to transmit
power and low frictional resistance, with the strength of the V-
thread. It is used where power transmission takes place in one
direction only such as screw press, quick acting carpenter’s vice,
etc.
Square thread is an ideal thread form for power transmission.
In this, as the thread flank is at right angle to the axis, the
normal force between the threads, acts parallel to the axis, with
zero radial component. This enables the nut to transmit very
high pressures, as in the case of a screw jack and other similar
applications
It is a modified form of square thread. It is much stronger than
square thread because of the wider base and it is easy to cut. The
inclined sides of the thread facilitate quick and easy engagement
and disengagement as for example, the split nut with the lead
screw of a lathe.
Worm thread is similar to the ACME thread, but is deeper. It is
used on shafts to carry power to worm wheels.
Forms of V-threads
•British Standard Whitworth Threads (BSW)
•British Association Threads (BA)
•Sellers Threads
•Unified Standard Threads
•ISO Metric Thread
•ISO Metric Trapezoidal Threads
Forms of square threads
•Square Threads
•Acme Threads
•Knuckle Threads
•Buttress Threads
British Standard
Whitworth
Threads
1. steel pipes and
tubes carrying
fluids
2. leak-proof joint
due to their fine
pitches and form

British association
thread (BA)

precision work
Sellers thread

flat crest and root


withstand more rough usage

Unified standard
thread form

rounded crest and


roots
ISO metric
thread
ISO metric trapezoidal thread
Square thread Acme thread

power transmission. (e.g.


lead screws of lathe). brass valves, lead screws of
lathes, and bench vices
Knuckle thread
used in railway
carriage couplings
and necks of bottles
BOLTS
1.Hexagonal-headed bolt
2.Square-headed bolt
3.Cup-headed bolt
4.Cylindrical-headed bolt
5.T-headed bolt
6.Eye bolt
7.Lifting eye bolt
Hexagonal-headed bolt
This is one of the most commonly used
bolts. The size of the bolt is M8 and its
length is 24 mm. It is made of steel with
mechanical properties confirming to
symbol 4D. This bolt is denoted
as M8 × 24 — IS:2389-P-4D.

Here 4D indicates the minimum tensile


strength of 37 kgf/mm2 and 25 per cent
elongation. P shows the precision grade,
the other grades being T—Turned
and B—Black.
Square-headed bolt

Cup-headed bolt
Cylindrical-headed bolt

big ends of connecting


rods and eccentrics

T-Headed bolt
Eye bolt

Lifting eye bolt


NUTS
1. Hexagonal-headed nut
2. Square-headed nut
3. Flanged nut
4. Cup/Domed nut
5. Capstan nut
6. Wing nut
7. Ring nut
Flanged nut
Hexagonal-headed nut large bearing surface

Square-headed nut
preventing its rotation Cap nut or domed nut
to prevent corrosion at the end of
the bolt
Capstan nut

Wing nut
Ring nut
SCREWS
Locking devices, Keys and Cotter joints, Knuckle
Joint, Shaft Couplings, Bearings and Pipe joints
Locking devices

Lock nut or check nut Split-pin


Slotted nut
Castle nut

Sawn nut or wiles nut


Locking with grub screw

Locking with spring washers


Pipe joints

Varieties of Pipes and Their General Use


Cast iron flanged joint
Cast iron flanged joint with facings
Wrought iron flanged joint
Cast iron joint with screwed
flanges
Keys, Cotter Joints and Pin Joints
Sunk taper key
D is the diameter of the shaft, then

Width of key W = 0.25 D + 2 mm

Nominal thickness T = 0.2 D + 2 mm


Saddle keys

D is the diameter of the shaft, then


Width of key W = 0.25 D + 2 mm
Nominal thickness T = 0.08 D + 2 mm
Round key or pin key

D is the diameter of the shaft, then


Diameter of the key d = 0.2 D
Key with gib-head

Let D is the diameter of the shaft,

W = 0.2 D + 2 mm, H =
0.288 D,

T = 0.2 D + 2 mm, B =
0.2475 D, L = D to 1.5 D

Angle of chamfer = 45°


Parallel or feather keys
Cotter joint with sleeve
PIN JOINT OR KNUCKLE JOINT
Box or muff coupling
Half-lap couplings
Split-muff coupling
Flanged Couplings
Universal coupling
Oldham’s coupling
Bearings
Bearings are supports for shafts, providing stability, and free and
smooth rotation. The importance of bearings may be understood
from the supporting requirement of machine tool spindles, engine
crankshafts, transmission or line shafts in workshops, etc. Bearings
are broadly classified into two categories:
sliding contact bearings and
rolling contact bearings or antifriction bearings.
Sliding contact bearings are those in which the rotating shaft
has a sliding contact with the bearing and the friction is
relatively high. Hence, these bearings require more
lubrication.

According to the direction in which the bearing is loaded,


these bearings are further classified as: journal bearings and
thrust bearings.