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Comprehensions UNIT 6

Linked Comprehension Type

C1. 1. Answer (1)

We observe that

1

∑a ∑ 3

n n

Sn = a1 + a2 + a3 + ...+ an

1 1 1 1

= ...

2 3

3 3 3 3n

1 ⎛ n⎞

⎜1 – ⎛⎜ 1 ⎞⎟ ⎟

⎜ ⎡ ⎛ 1 ⎞n ⎤

3

⎝ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎟⎠ 1

⎢1 – ⎜ ⎟ ⎥

= = 2 ⎢ ⎝3⎠ ⎥

1 ⎣ ⎦

1–

3

1⎡ 1 ⎤ 1

lim Sn = ⎢1 – n ⎥

lim

n 2 ⎣ 3 ⎦ 2

1

S= which is finite and definite

2

2. Answer (2)

Here an = 4n

Sn = a1 + a2 + a3 + ... + an–1 + an

= 4 + 42 + 43 + ... + 4n–1 + 4n

=

4 4n – 1

=

4 n

4 –1

4–1 3

4

nlim lim ( 4 n 1) =

Sn = n 3

The given series under consideration is divergent.

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776 Brain Storming Comprehensions Success Magnet (Solutions)

3. Answer (3)

We have

an = (– 1)n – 1

Sn = a1 + a2 + a3 + a4 + a5 + ...+ an–1 + an

= 1 – 1 + 1 – 1 + 1 ... + (–1)n–2 + (– 1)n–1

= 0 or 1 according as n is even or odd.

n

The given series is ∑ an is oscillatory.

C2. 1. Answer (1)

2. Answer (2)

3. Answer (1)

We have

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

∑n 2 = 1

2 2

3 2

4 2

5 2

6 2

72

...

⎛ 1 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 1 1 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 1 1 1 ⎞

= 1 ⎜ 2 2 ⎟ ⎜ 2 2 2 2 ⎟ ⎜ 2 2 2 ... 2 ⎟ +.......

⎝2 3 ⎠ ⎝4 5 6 7 ⎠ ⎝8 9 10 15 ⎠

⎛ 1 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 1 1 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 1 1 ⎞

1 ⎜ 2 2 ⎟ ⎜ 2 2 2 2 ⎟ ⎜ 2 2 ... 2 ⎟ +.......

⎝2 2 ⎠ ⎝4 4 4 4 ⎠ ⎝8 8 8 ⎠

1 1 1

= 1 2 3 ... ...

2 2 2

1

= = 2 = a finite number

1–1

2

1

∑n 2

is convergent

We have

1 1

, n N, n 1

n n

1 1 1 1 1

∑ n

∑n = 1 ... ...

2 3 n

1

Which is a divergent series the given series ∑ n

, being greater than a divergent series is itself divergent.

Also

1 1 1 1 1 1

∑ – 1 n –1

n 2 = 1–

2 2

3 2

–

4 2

5 2

–

62

... to

1 1 1 1 1

< 1 2

2

2

2

...

2 3 4 5 62

a convergent series

1

∑ – 1 n –1

n2

is a convergent series.

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C3. 1. Answer (1)

2. Answer (2)

3. Answer (3)

We have

a1 > 0, a2 > 0 a1 > a2

an + 1 = an an – 1 , n 2

For n = 2 a32 = a1 a2

a1 > a3 > a2, as a1 > a2

For n = 3,

a42 = a3a2

a3 > a4 > a2, as a3 > a2

For n = 4

a52 = a3a4

a3 > a5 > a4, as a3 > a5

For n = 5

a62 = a4a5

a5 > a6 > a4

Combining the above inequalities we get

a1 > a3 > a5 > a6 > a4 > a2

Continuing in this way we get

a1 > a3 > a5 > a7 > ...> a2n – 1 > a2n > a2n – 2 >...> a6 > a4 > a2

which shows that

{a2n–1} is monotonic decreasing sequence bounded below by a2

and {a2n} is monotonic increasing sequence bounded above by a1 hence they are convergent and converges

to limits l and l1 respectively, say

i.e. a2n + 1 l

a2n l1 as n .

2

Now a2n 1 = a2n a2n –1

l 2 = ll1

l = l1 as l 0

Hence the sequences {a2n} and {a2n + 1} converge to the same limit

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778 Brain Storming Comprehensions Success Magnet (Solutions)

We observe that

2

an 1 = anan–1

2

an 1 an = an2an –1

= an2–1 an – 2

= an2– 2 an – 3

............................

............................

= a22a1

Taking limit as n , we get

n

l 3 = a22a1

1

l = a a2 3

1 2

1

nlim

an = a a 2 3

1 2

2. Answer (1)

3. Answer (1)

We have

x – 1 x – 2 x – 3 x –

y = f(x) = x –

For x , f(x) = (x – 1) (x – 2) (x – 3)

Let g(x) = (x – 1) (x – 2) (x – 3)

= x3 – 6x2 + 11x – 6

1 1

g(x) = 3x2 – 12x + 11 = 0 gives x = 2 ,2–

3 3

We observe that

⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞ 1 ⎛1 ⎞ –2

g ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟ = ⎜1

⎟ ⎜

⎟⎜

⎟⎜

⎟ ⎜– 1

⎟⎜

⎟ =

⎟ ⎜ – 1⎟ =

⎝ 3⎠ ⎝ 3⎠⎝ 3⎠⎝ 3⎠ 3 ⎝3 ⎠ 3 3

⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞ 1 ⎛ 1⎞ 2

and g ⎜⎜ 2 – ⎟ = ⎜1 –

⎟ ⎜

⎟ ⎜–

⎟⎜

⎟ ⎜– 1–

⎟⎜

⎟ =

⎟ ⎜1 – ⎟

⎝ 3⎠ ⎝ 3⎠⎝ 3⎠⎝ 3⎠ 3 ⎝ 3 ⎠ 3 3

–2 1

Thus (x – 1) (x – 2) (x – 3) = has 2 as twice repeated root. Let the third root be k1. Then

3 3 3

2

2 ⎛ 1 ⎞

(x – 1) (x – 2) (x – 3) + = ⎜⎜ x – 2 – ⎟

⎟ x – k 1

3 3 ⎝ 3⎠

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2

Equating the coefficient of x2 from both sides we get 6 = k1 4

3

2

k1 = 2 –

3

2 1

(x – 1) (x – 2) (x – 3) = has 2 – as twice repeated root. Let the third root be k2

3 3 3

2

⎛ 1 ⎞

2

Then (x – 1) (x – 2) (x – 3) – = ⎜⎜ x – 2 ⎟

⎟ x – k 2

3 3 ⎝ 3⎠

2

On equating the coefficient of x2 from both sides we get k2 = 2

3

1

2

k2 3

1 2–

1 2 3 k1

3

⎡ 2 2 ⎤

1. Since g(x) = (x – 1) (x – 2) (x – 3) is many one in [k1, k2] i.e. ⎢2 – ,2 ⎥ and if [k1, k2] range

⎣ 3 3⎦

of f(x) is (– , )

1

We observe that g(x) has a maxima at x = 2 – , hence when f(x) has no local maximum value,

3

1

= 2–

3

We have

f (x) = 3x2 – 12x + 9 = 3(x2 – 4x + 3) = 3(x – 1) (x – 3)

f (x) = 0 gives x = 1, 3

We observe the sign of f (x)

x – 0 3

Sign of

– ve + ve + ve + ve

f(x)

Which shows that only one variation of the sign of f(x) takes place and hence the given equation

x3 – 6x2 + 9x + 10 = 0 has exactly one real root.

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780 Brain Storming Comprehensions Success Magnet (Solutions)

2. Answer (3)

= 3(x – 1) (x – 3)

f (x) = 0 gives x = 1, 3

x – 0 3

The sign of

– ve + ve + ve +ve

f(x)

There are three variations of signs of f(x) and hence the equation f(x) = 0 has all roots real (three real roots)

3. Answer (4)

= 4 (x – 1) (x – 2) (x – 3)

f(x) = 0 gives x = 1, 2, 3.

X – 1 2 3

The sign of

– ve + ve + ve + ve + ve

f(x)

Here no variation of sign of f(x) takes place and hence the given equation f(x) = 0 has no real root.

2. Answer (4)

3. Answer (2) (5, 24)

y

⎧ 6, x2

⎪

f(x) = ⎨ 6 x – 6 2 x5

⎪34 – 2 x x5 x

⎩ 0 1 5

is as follows :

Clearly the graph intersects x-axis in one point, hence the number of real root of f(x) = 0 is 1. For f(x) = 6,

the branch of curve coincides with x-axis hence f(x) = 6 has infinites many solutions. When f(x) = –2008 the

number solution of positive value of x is one.

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Success Magnet (Solutions) Brain Storming Comprehensions 781

C7. 1. Answer (1)

The number of ways of selecting one or more fruits

= 6 × 8 × 10 – 1 = 479

2. Answer (2)

The number of possible combination of dyes under given condition

= (23) (24 – 1) (25 – 1) = 3720

3. Answer (3)

The required number of ways

= 24 × 4 × 25 – 1 = 2047

C8. 1. Answer (1)

Let us divide the square into 16 unit squares as given in the figure. Out of 17 points distributed in the

big square, atleast one of the small squares must have at least two points by Pigeon hole principle. These

two points being on a unit square are at the most 2 units distance apart as 2 is the length of the

diagonal of the unit square.

2. Answer (1)

Let ABCDEF be the regular hexagon of side 2 cm and P,Q,R,S, T, U are respectively the midpoints of

the sides AB, BC, CD, DE, EF as FA. Let us join the opposite vertices so that we get in all 24 equilateral

triangles of side 1 cm.

E S D

11 9

T 12 10 8

R

13 21 7

14 22 6

20

F C

15 23 19

5

16 18 4

U 17 24 3 Q

1 2

A P B

We have 25 points, so of these 25 points inside the hexagon ABCDEF, atleast 2 points lie inside and one

of the triangle whose sides are 1 cm long, hence at least two points among them will be 1 cm apart.

3. Answer (1)

100 – 1

These are 1 34 elements in the progression 1, 4, 7, ..., 100 Let us consider the following

3

49 – 4

pairs (4,100), (7, 97) (10, 94), ....(49, 55) There are in all 1 = 16 pairs. Use PHP.

3

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782 Brain Storming Comprehensions Success Magnet (Solutions)

dy

Slope of the tangent at any point p(x, y) is y

dx

dy

cy

dx

y = ec(x–1)

Since x + ky = 1 + k is normal at (1, 1)

k = 1,

Hence y = f(x) = ek(x – 1)

2. Answer (4)

⎛ dy ⎞

Slope of the tangent is B (0, e– k) is ⎜ dx ⎟ = ke–k

⎝ ⎠B

y – e = ke (x)

–k –k

y = e–k (kx + 1)

3. Answer (3)

Area bounded

1

⎛1 x k x – 1 ⎞

= ∫ ⎜⎝ k – k i – e ⎟ dx

⎠

0

1⎛ 1 ⎞

= ⎜ k – e –k ⎟

k ⎝ 2 ⎠

C10. 1. Answer (1)

2. Answer (1)

3. Answer (3)

The equation of the tangent to the given conic is

y – 1 = mx m 2 – 1

m2 = 2

m= 2

(p,q)

m=– 2 for negative slope.

q

But slope of the tangent = = – 2

p (–1, 1) (1, 1)

p 1 x x

q

2 – 2, 0 (0, 0) 2, 0

⎛p⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ 3

cos –1 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = cos –1 ⎜⎜ – ⎟⎟ =

q

⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ 4

⎛p⎞

sin –1 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = sin –1 ⎛⎜ 1 ⎞⎟ = –

⎝q⎠ ⎜ ⎟ 4

⎝ 2⎠

2b

Length of latus rectum = = 2a = 2

a

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Success Magnet (Solutions) Brain Storming Comprehensions 783

C11. 1. Answer (2)

2. Answer (3)

3. Answer (2)

The two parabolas y2 = 4pn x and y2 = 4pn (pn – x)

⎛ pn ⎞ ⎛p ⎞

intersect each other at ⎜ , 2 pn ⎟ and ⎜ n – 2 pn ⎟

⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠

An = Area enclose between the parabolas

⎡ pn ⎤

⎢ 2 1 pn 1 ⎥ (0, 0) (pn, 0)

= 2 ⎢2 pn . x dx 2 pn . pn – x dx ⎥⎥

2

⎢ ∫ 2

∫

⎢ 0 pn ⎥

⎢⎣ 2 ⎥⎦ (pn/2,p2 pn)

⎡2 2 2 2⎤ 1 16 2 1 4 2 2

= 4 ⎢ . pn pn ⎥ = 3 pn = pn

⎣ 3 3 ⎦ 2 2 2 2 3

Since p1, p2, p3..., pn are in G.P.

4 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 4 2 2

p , p22 , p3 ,...., pn are in G.P.

3 1 3 3 3

A1, A2, A3, .., An are in G.P.

The sum of areas when n

A1 + A2 + A3 + ... + ...

4 2 2 4 2 2

p1 .1

3 3

= = 1

⎛ p2 ⎞ 1–

1 – ⎜ 22 ⎟ 2

⎜p ⎟

⎝ 1 ⎠

8 2

= sq. units

3

The distances between directrices of the parabolas = distance between (x + pn = 0) and (x – 2pn = 0) = 3pn

d1, d2, d3, ..., dn, ... are in G.P.

C12. 1. Answer (1)

The given functional realtion is f(x) + f(2x) + f(1 + x) + f(2 – x) = 0

f(0) + f(0) + f(1) + f(2) = 0 for x = 0

f(1) + f(2) + 2f(0) = 0

Also for x = 1, f(1) + f(2) + f(2) + f(1) = 1

2f(1) + 2f(2) = 1

1

f(1) + f(2) =

2

Substituting the value of f(1) + f(2), we get

1

2f(0) + =0

2

1

f(0) = –

4

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784 Brain Storming Comprehensions Success Magnet (Solutions)

2. Answer (3)

⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞

Thus ⎜⎜ x – 1⎟⎟ ⎜ y – 1⎟ ⎜ z – 1⎟ ⎜ t – 1⎟ = 1

⎝ y ⎠⎝ z ⎠⎝ t ⎠⎝ x ⎠

3. Answer (1)

We have

⎛ 1 ⎞

3f (x + 2009) + 4f ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = 4x

⎝ x 2009 ⎠

⎛ 1⎞

3f x 4f ⎜ ⎟ = 4(x – 2009)

⎝x⎠

⎛ 1⎞ ⎛1 ⎞

and 4f(x) + 3f ⎜ ⎟ = 4 ⎜ – 2009 ⎟

⎝x⎠ ⎝ x ⎠

4

7f(x) = 4 ⎡⎢ – 4 2009 – 3 x 2009 3⎤⎥

⎣x ⎦

⎡4 ⎤

= 4 ⎢ – 3 x – 2009 ⎥

⎣x ⎦

4 ⎡ 4 ⎤

f(2009) =

7 ⎢ 2009 – 4 2009 ⎥

⎣ ⎦

16 2009 – 1

2

16 ⎛ 2008.2010 ⎞

= – – ⎜ ⎟

7 2009 7 ⎝ 2009 ⎠

x 2 1 x

We have ∫ f t dt

0

=x

1

f(2) =

5

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Success Magnet (Solutions) Brain Storming Comprehensions 785

2. Answer (3)

We have

1

g(1) = 5 and ∫ g t dt

0

=2

x

1

∫ x – t g t dt

2

f(x) = 2

0

x

1

f (x) = 2 x – t g t dt 0

∫

2

0

f (x) = g t dt 0

∫

0

1

Thus f (1) = g(1) = 5 and f (1) =

∫ g t dt

0

=2

f (1) – f (1) = 5 – 2 = 3

3. Answer (3)

We have

x 1

2t ⎛ 2 ⎞

g(x) = xke2x and f(x) = ∫ e ⎜ 3t 1⎟ 2 dt

⎝ ⎠

0

1

2x 2

and f (x) = e 3 x 1 2

1

f x e2x 3x 2 1 2

Now xlim

g x

= lim 2 x k –1

x e . x 2 x k

1

⎛ 1 ⎞2

x ⎜3 2 ⎟

= lim ⎝ x ⎠

x ⎛ k⎞

xk ⎜2 ⎟

⎝ x⎠

f x 3

lim

g x

x

=

2

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786 Brain Storming Comprehensions Success Magnet (Solutions)

Two curves are symmetrical about both axes and intersect in four points, so the circle through their points

of intersection will have centre at origin.

x2 y2

Solving x2 – y2 = 0 as = 1, We get

a2 b2

a 2b 2

x2 = y2 =

a2 b2

2a 2 b 2 2 ab

radius of the circle = =

a2 b2 a b2

2

2. Answer (3)

Let the eccentric angle of S be . We know that the sum of eccentric angles of four concyclic points of

the elipse is even multiple of

+ = 2n

2

3

= 2 – – 3

2

= – 3

2

3. Answer (3)

The equation of the curve through the point of intersection of the given curves is

x2 + y2 – 4x – 5 + (x2 + y2 – 1) = 0

(1 + )x2 + (1 + ) y2 – 4x – (5 + ) y = 0

which will represent a pair of straight lines if

– (1 + ) [(1 + ) (5 + ) + 0 – (1 + ) . 0 – (1 + ) .4 + 0 = 0

(1 + ) [(5 + ) (1 + ) + 4] = 0

(1 + ) [2 + 6 + 9] = 0

(1 + ) ( + 3)2 = 0

= – 1, – 3

Hence, two pairs of straight lines can be drawn.

C15. 1. Answer (3)

We have

a2008 + b2008 + 2006 = 2008ab

2008

a b 2008 1 1 1 ..... 1 2008 2008 2008 2006

a b 1 = |a| |b|

2008

By hypothesis, equalitis holds only when all the 2008 terms are equal i.e. a2008 = b2008 = 1

a = ± 1, b = ± 1 is the solution set.

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Success Magnet (Solutions) Brain Storming Comprehensions 787

2. Answer (1)

c a

–1 a b – 1

ab –1

bc c = 5 = 5 × 1 × 1; 5 is a prime number. Hence the different possibilities are either

c a b c a b c a b

ab –1

5, b c –1

1, c a –1

1 or a b –1 = 1, b c –1

5 , c a –1 = 1 and a b –1 = 1, b c –1 = 1 c a –1 = 5.

Hence either a = 5, b = 2, c = 1 or a = 1, b = 5, c = 1 or c = 5, a = 2, b = 1

3. Answer (2)

We observe that

2. Answer (4)

3. Answer (3)

Any matrix of order (n – 1) × (n – 1) can be formed using entries as 1 or – 1 in 2 n – 12 different ways.

Now the nth row and the nth column can be filled by unique method keeping in mind the product of members

of the each row and column is –1

2

Also 2 n – 1 10000

2

least value of n is 5

2. Answer (3)

3. Answer (4)

3 + x2 + y + z = 0

Hence a + b + c = – x

ab + bc + ca = y

abc = – z

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788 Brain Storming Comprehensions Success Magnet (Solutions)

2. Answer (2)

3. Answer (3)

Let 1, 1 ; 2, 2; 3, 3 be the roots after given equations ax2 – 2bx + c = 0, bx2 – 2cx + a = 0 and

cx2 – 2ax + b = 0 respectively, Then

2b c

1 + 1 = , 11 =

b a

2c a

2 + 2 = , 22 =

a b

2a b

3 + 3 = , 33 =

c c

⎛ 1 1 ⎞ ⎛ 2 2 ⎞ ⎛ 3 3 ⎞ 1

⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ 11 2 2 33 2

⎝ 2 ⎠⎝ 2 ⎠⎝ 2 ⎠

1

b c a ⎛ c a b ⎞2

⎜ ⎟

a a c ⎝a b c ⎠

11

Equality holds

We know that equality of AM – GM inequalities holds iff numbers are equal

i.e 1 = 1, 2 = 2, 3 = 3

a=b=c

ax2 + bx + c = 0

x2 + x + 1 = 0 has no real root.

Also b2 + c2 = 22 + 22 = 8

and a3 + b3 + c3 – 3abc = 3a3 – 3a3 = 0

C19. 1. Answer (4)

2. Answer (1)

3. Answer (3)

We have

1

f(i, i + 1) =

3

f(i, j) = f(i, j – 1) + f(j –1, j) – 2f (i, j –1) f(j –1, j)

1 2

= f(i, j –1) + – f i , j 1

3 3

1 1

= f i , j 1

3 3

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Success Magnet (Solutions) Brain Storming Comprehensions 789

2 2

1 ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞

= ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ f i , j 2

3 ⎝3⎠ ⎝3⎠

2 3 j – 1

1 ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞

= ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ... ⎜ ⎟

3 ⎝3⎠ 3

⎝ ⎠ ⎝3⎠

⎧⎪ ⎛ 1 ⎞ j – 1 ⎫⎪

⎨1 – ⎜ ⎟ ⎬

1 ⎪⎩ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎪⎭

= 1

3

1–

3

1 ⎧⎪ ⎛ 1 ⎞ j – i ⎫⎪

= 2 ⎨1 – ⎜ ⎟ ⎬

⎪⎩ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎪⎭

1

lim f(1, n) =

n 2

C20. 1. Answer (1)

2. Answer (1)

3. Answer (3)

We have

1

f(x) = ∫t–x

0

tdt

⎧1

⎪ (t x )t dt ,

⎪ ∫ x0

⎪0

⎪x 1

⎪

∫ ∫

= ⎨ ( x t )t dt (t x )t dt , 0 x 1

⎪0 x

⎪1

⎪

⎪⎩0

∫

⎪ ( x t ) t dt , x 1

⎧ 1 x

⎪ 3 – 2, x0

⎪ 3

⎪x x 1

= ⎨ – , 0 x 1

⎪ 3 2 3

⎪ x – 1, 1 x

⎪ 2 3

⎩

Clearly f(x) is continuous everywhere and its graph doesnot cross x-axis. For the least value we have

1

f(x) = x2 – =0

2

Aakash Educational Services Pvt. Ltd. Regd. Office : Aakash Tower, 8, Pusa Road, New Delhi-110005 Ph.011-47623456

790 Brain Storming Comprehensions Success Magnet (Solutions)

1

x= in (0, 1)

2

1

f (x) = 2x which is + ve at x =

2

2 –1

and f(x)min =

3 2

2. Answer (1)

3. Answer (2)

p(x) is a polynomial of degree 21 as f(x) is a polynomial of degree 20.

p(x) is continuous and differentiable for all xR

i 1

Also ∫ f x dx

i

= p(i + 1) – p(i) = 0 (Given) i satisfying 0 i 19

p(i + 1) = p(i)

Rolle’s theorem is applicable.

There are 20 such intervals and hence. f(x) = 0 has at least 20 real roots. But f(x) is a polynomial of degree

20, hence f(x) = 0 has exactly 20 distinct real roots each in [i, i + 1], i [0, 19]

Moreover

d

= (f ( x ) f ( x ))

dx

C22. 1. Answer (2)

Let the radius of the circles be r.

C C2

C1

then CC1 = r1 – r

Aakash Educational Services Pvt. Ltd. Regd. Office : Aakash Tower, 8, Pusa Road, New Delhi-110005 Ph.011-47623456

Success Magnet (Solutions) Brain Storming Comprehensions 791

CC2 = r + r2

CC1 + CC2 = r1 + r2 = constant

locus of C is an ellipse

2. Answer (3)

CC1 = r + r1

CC2 = r + r2

CC1 – CC2 = r1 – r2 = constant

C1 C

C2

Locus of C is a hyperbola

3. Answer (4)

If r1 = r2 , then CC1 = CC2

C

C1

C2

Aakash Educational Services Pvt. Ltd. Regd. Office : Aakash Tower, 8, Pusa Road, New Delhi-110005 Ph.011-47623456

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