You are on page 1of 2
Introduction 1-3 ‘and water distribution equipment can be downsized when supply temperatures are reduced and operating differentials are increased. By decoupling chiller operation from instantaneous load, cool storage systems also facilitate more constant loading on the refrigeration equipment and increase chiller efficiency due to lower condensing temperatures during nighttime operation. Cool storage systems can provide substantial operating cost savings by generating cooling using cheaper off-peak energy and reducing or eliminating on-peak demand charges. 1.3 APPLICATIONS FOR COOL STORAGE ‘Owners and designers should consider selecting a cool storage system when any of the following criteria apply: + The maximum cooling load of the facility is significantly higher than the average load. This is true for most nonindustrial facilities. ‘+ The clectric utility rate structure includes high demand charges, a significant ferential between on- and off-peak rates, or special rebates or incentives for cool storage installations. *+ An existing cooling system is undergoing expansion. + Aneristing tank suitable for cool storage use is available. + Cooling is needed for an application in a remote region or country where refrigeration equipment is extremely expensive, Electric power available at the site is limited. Backup or redundant cooling capacity is desirable, Cold air distribution can be used, is necessary, or would be beneficial. Office building cooling loads often peak ata level two or more times higher than the daily 24-h average load. Some industrial processes also have load peaks or spikes that rise much higher than the average load. A dairy, for example, might operate its refrigeration system at full capacity to cool a batch of milk, then throttle back to ‘maintenance mode or even shut down completely. A cool storage system generates cooling during low-load periods and meets the peak loads using stored cooling. The higher the ratio of peak load to average load, the greater the potential reduction in required chilling capacity using cool storage. Uiilities impose demand charges based on a customer's highest power demand during on-peak hours and during the entire billing cycle. During on-peak periods, when demand on the utility system is highest, demand charges are highest. Cool storage systems spread the generation of cooling over a longer period of time than nonstorage systems, resulting in a lower demand for power at any one time. Cool storage systems can also generate all required cooling during off-peak hours, 14 Design Guide for Coot Thermal Storage completely eliminating on-peak demand charges for chillers, condenser water ‘pumps, and cooling towers. Many utilities charge less for electrical energy con- sumed during off-peak hours. The reduction in on-peak demand and energy con- sumption provided by cool storage is particularly beneficial in areas where on-peak demand charges are high, or where on-peak energy charges are much higher than off- peak charges. Cool storage can be beneficial when an existing cooling system needs 0 be expanded. This may occur when a building is enlarged or remodeled, or if increases in loads necessitate additional cooling capacity. The addition of cool storage to an existing system can allow cooling capacity that is currently unused during low-load periods to be used. Particularly with large systems, or with multiple-building or ‘campus systems, the cost of adding cool storage capacity can be much lower than the ‘cost of adding new chillers to meet the higher load. In some retrofit situations, particularly in industrial applications, existing tanks may ‘be available for cool storage use. Existing fire protection tanks can often be used to store chilled water with minimal modifications. Other unused tanks may be compat- ible with storage of chilled water, ice, or phase-change materials. Even if cleaning or relining is required, a large part of the tank cost can be avoided, improving the economics of cool storage. ‘Where chilling equipment has to be imported, equipment costs can be especially high, and the costreduction resulting from a lower required chiller capacity can more than offset the cost of adding coot storage capacity toa system. In some cases, electric power available to a site may be limited, or the availability of additional power may depend on the addition of expensive transformers or ‘switchgear. Here the use of cool storage can significantly reduce electric demand for cooling. ‘Cool storage.can provide short-term backup or reserve cooling capacity for computer rooms and other critical applications. Cooling loads can be met from storage simply by operating pumps, thus reducing the required size of emergency generating equipment. For firm backup capacity, storage must be oversized to provide the desired reserve even ifachiller goes down atthe end of the normal discharge period. Cool storage technologies using ice as the storage medium permit the economical use of reduced supply water and air temperatures. In such systems, engineers can downsize pumps, piping, air handlers, and ductwork and realize substantial reduc tions in fist cost.