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ORAL COMMUNICATION M. Nauman Abdul.

Quddus

Roll No: 22

ORAL COMMUNICATION
Non written or oral communication is referred to as oral
communication. It includes speaking [lecturing, verbally reporting,
briefing, introducing, welcoming], Dictating, Interviewing, Listening,
Reading, and Writing

“Oral communication is a process whereby information is


transferred from a sender to receiver; in general communication is
usually transferred by both verbal means and visual aid throughout
the process’

The receiver could be an individual person, a group of persons or


even an audience. There are a few of oral communication types:
discussion, speeches, presentations, etc. However, often when you
communicate face to face the body language and your voice tonality
has a bigger impact than the actual words that you are saying

Speaking {verbally reporting}


Speaking or verbally reporting is any spoken statement based upon
planning and gathered facts. It ranges from brief discussion to
formal speeches or lectures

The preparation for giving a business talk is similar to the


preparation for writing letters memos and reports. Yet the oral and
written communication has their differences. Speaking is important
in business. Successful managers have good oral skills they spend
35 % of their time speaking according to a survey

Strategies for successful speaking


Strategies for improving oral Presentation:

In ancient times writers like Aristotle Cicero and Quintilian names


unfamiliar to many people were some of the Greek and Roman
practitioners of the art of rhetoric or persuasion. It roots are deep
its heritage is oral

Our statement suggests that orally moving a message from sender


to receiver is not new. Throughout each day, in your personal life

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and in the world of business you orally communicate with


customers, colleagues, associates, supervisors, employees and
others

Seven steps are essential for successful oral statements, short or


long. They more up front preparation you do the more confidence
you will have before a group

1 Determine the purpose

2 Analyze the audience and occasion

3 Select the main idea for the message

4 Research the topic

5 organize the data and write the draft

6 Create the visual aids

Rehearse the talk

Determining the purpose


Before speaking or making an oral presentation it is necessary to
determine the purpose it determines what to say and how to say

The purpose may be

You are merely informing

You are teaching

You are trying to secure belief or action

You want to convince

You are simply trying to entertain

You are answering to a blame or clarifying your position

You are blaming the audience

You want to motivate guide etc

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Analyzing the audience and situation


The following information about the audience aids us in
construction the method and style for speaking

Name and sex of the audience

Age

Education

Experience

Other qualifications

His or their place in the organization

His or their importance and responsibility in the organization

His or their attitude, Knowledge of the problem

The above data will help in trimming our message

Organizing the Data


Organize and arrange the data as follows

Introduction

Text [explanation and discussion]

Conclusion, Suggestion, remedial steps advice etc

Planning Visual Aids


At appropriate times the display of meaningful and visual aids help
the audience to understand the message clearly. Common devices
for display are chalkboards, flip sheets, cards and posters and
projectors and VCRs through them we can better convey our
message to the audience.

Rehearse the Talk


The audience judge the speaker by his attitude bodily action tone of
voice syntax speech content and style these all must be natural

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rather then offensive or aggressive. Proper pause should be given


when speaking you must know your opening sentence word to word
you must be sure that you can deliver the message within the
prescribed time

Physical Appearance of the speaker


Physical appearance is the combination of the following

Facial expression

Gesture

Vocal tone of voice

The behavior of the speaker is very important. It may attract or


distract the attention of the audience [effective business comm. By Murphy
pg 283 onwards}

Methods of delivering oral communication


There are four methods of delivering oral communication of ideas

1 Extemporaneous Method

2 Manuscript reading Method

3 Memorization Method

4 Impromptu Method

Extemporaneous Method
In this method the speaker communicates on the groundwork or pre
planned outlines and notes. The outlines are supported with
comments quotations statistics facts figures and other relevant
data

The extemporaneous method is usually used by most good


speakers. To a speechwriting newcomer,
“extemporaneous” sounds synonymous with “impromptu” or
“extempore,” but in the language of public speakers, it means
something quite different. The delivery seems to be off the cuff,
while actually the material has been well prepared and rehearsed.

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An extemporaneous delivery is a happy medium between the


overly casual impromptu and the stiff memorization or
manuscript. The talk is very carefully planned and outlined in
detail. Sometimes a complete draft of it is written out, but this draft
is only used in rehearsal. The talk is delivered from an outline
with the speaker memorizing the sequences on the outline, but
never the exact wording. What makes the extemporaneous
method so effective is that it borrows the good qualities
from the other three methods of speaking without incorporating
their bad qualities. A thorough and careful use of the
extemporaneous method results in a talk as polished as a
memorized one, and certainly more vigorous, flexible and
spontaneous. There are other advantages of the extemporaneous
method. With an outline, you can adapt your talk to the situation,
spending more time than originally planned

Manuscript reading method


The speaker reads out manuscript of his speech. During reading out
his speech the speaker often looks at his audience. Sometimes he
may speak out of written manuscript to emphasize and elaborate
some points

A great many Navy speakers read speeches that have been written
out word for word. This manuscript method is almost as inflexible as
memorization. Again, it sets up a barrier between the speaker and
his audience because the speaker must pay close attention to what
he is reading and cannot react to the responses of the
audience. Occasionally, talks are read effectively when the
speaker is particularly gifted and practiced at reading, but for
the most part, the manuscript method should be left to special
circumstances, such as the following: l l l When the verbatim text
has been or will be released to the news media and it is probable
that the speaker will be quoted extensively. When the subject
matter involves security or policy considerations so sensitive that
the exact wording is essential. When the talk is being

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broadcast and timing is critical. A speaker must have a lot of


experience and usually a bit of training to read a speech effectively,
since a speech is read effectively only when it sounds as though it
were not being read. This method is not recommended for your own
use; and if you are called onto help any officer or petty officer
prepare a speech, you should do what you can to discourage him
from reading from a completely prepared text

Ref :
[http://www.tpub.com/content/photography/14129/css/14129_165.htm}

Memorization Method
Here the speaker communicates by memory. He speaks spontaneously
before he delivers the speech he has the theme of the message He
explains and elaborates the points he has memorized. The speaker may
sound like a parrot it may create an awkward situation if he forgets a line
or a word. He may slip up, have the slip of the tongue or skip over some
useful points

Impromptu Method
On the spur of moment, without preparation, as the expediency demands
the speakers communicates trimming the message. Impromptu refers to
without preparation improvised off hand

It refers to” Prompted by the occasion rather than being planned in


advance”

LISTENING
According to Dumont and Lennon”listening is the selective and
complex process of receiving Focusing deciphering accepting and
storing what we hear Listening may not occur without these five
interrelated, yet distinct processes”

An individual in business spends most of the day listening and


talking listening plays an important role in business by listening we
get information, briefing orders guidance warning news we can say

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that Listening is Learning. The wise listen more then speak. some
people hear but don’t listen because they are mentally absent they
don’t concentrate such people are losers. A person can not learn
when he is talking He learn when he is listening. Business managers
spends 40% of their time listening

According to D G Treichler people remember twenty percent of what


they hear. Analyses to communication suggests that they spend
forty percent of their listening

To keep a relationship healthy there has to be good communication. It doesn't matter if


the relationship is in an intimate, casual or business context. The best way to be a great
communicator is to be a really good listener. This makes people feel respected as well as
understood

QUALITIES OF A GOOD LISTENER

Identification

 Listening skills are essential in the workplace, the family and in the community at large.
Careers in communications, management, planning, sales, and fund raising, to name a few, rely
on good listening skills. Listening, however, is more than just being able to hear and understand
what someone else says. Listening skills involve etiquette, asking for clarification, showing
empathy and providing an appropriate response.

Body Language

 Good listening skills include using body language that empowers the speaker. You should
make eye contact with the speaker. In a large auditorium or in a classroom, this means keeping
your eyes looking at the speaker, not down or gazing at some daydream. Keep your hands
down, not folded across your chest. Sit up and look alert.

Respect
 People who have good listening skills show respect to the speaker by not interrupting him
while he is talking. Even if the speaker stutters or is slow to speak or select his words, patience
and restraining yourself from finishing his sentences is a mark of a good listener.

Comprehension

 Good listening skills depend on good comprehension. Demonstrate that you understand by
restating what you think you have heard. Then ask if you, in fact, did hear correctly. Ask

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questions that request specific clarification on points that you are unsure about. Be cognizant of
the length of time that you speak, making sure not to dominate or usurp the conversation.

Response

 Good listening skills are measured by the response of the listener. First, the response should
validate the speaker with etiquette and empathy. Next, it should show that the listener
understands the message. When the message has been adequately delivered and received, the
result should be an action or statement that demonstrates that there has been a transaction
between the speaker and the listener.

Ref [By Lesley Barker, eHow Contributor.http://www.ehow.com/about_5127470_definition-listening-


skills.html]

Practical Steps for More Effective Listening


1. Receiving. Getting ready and physically hearing the message

2. Get rid of distractions. If it is important for you to listen, do everything you can
to eliminate internal and external noise and distractions that interfere with careful
listening.

3. Don't judge prematurely. All of us are guilty of forming snap judgments and
evaluating others before hearing them out especially when the speaker's ideas
conflict with our own

4. Look for key ideas. We think much faster than people speak. To help focus
attention (rather then drift off in boredom) extract the central idea.

5. Ask sincere questions. Devil's advocate questions are really statements or


criticisms in disguise. Sincere questions are requests for new information that
clarifies a speaker's thoughts or feelings.

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6. Paraphrase. Reword the speaker's thoughts in your own words to make sure
your interpretation as a listener is accurate.

7. Suspend your own agenda. In other words, while you are listening, concentrate
on what the speaker is saying not what you think.

8. Empathic listening. Empathic listening is knowing that given the same set of
circumstances you might have done the same thing. It is the ability to experience
the world from the other's point of view. It doesn't necessarily mean that you
agree, but that you understand.

Nine Steps for poor listening


1 Competition for attention: It results when you are overly busy

2 Failure to concentrate:

* Lack of concentration is the result of

> Competition for attention

> Existing environmental condition

> Speakers speed which is greater then listeners

3 Emotions and Feelings: Angry shouting grieved and overly happy persons are
poor listener

4) Evaluations: You stop listening when you become busy in evaluating the
situation

5) Sluggishness: When you let your mind wander and when you just don’t want to
concentrate you are unable to listen

6) Distraction: When your attention distracts from the speaker to some other
object you cannot listen

7) Languages: When the speaker doesn’t speak the language of the listener it
results in lack of understanding by the listener

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8 ) Exhaustion and Drowsiness: When you are done up or feel like sleeping you
can not listen

9 ) Topic: When the topic is uninteresting you become poor listener

Results Of Good Listening


>It permits mutual understanding between speaker and listener

>It permits the speaker and the listener to improve communication because both are
receptive to each other

>It leads to positive attitude

>It results in receiving useful information enabling the listener to make accurate
decisions

>It helps the one speaking to talk out problems

>It shows the speaker that listeners are interested. In turn the speaker is motivated and
encouraged to give his best presentations

INTERVIEWING
Definition

Interviewing is a conversation with a purpose. It uses all forms of Communication such


as listening, Speaking, Writing etc

Types of Interview

1] Selection and placement Interview: Its purpose is to select the right person for the
right job

2]Vocational Guidance Interview: It is to help an individual find his best vocation,


occupation or profession

3]Counseling Interview: It is conducted to help emotionally disturbed. Home and


personal problems are also discussed

4] Survey Interview: It is used by marketing personnel to find answers to the marketing


problems

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5] Group Interview: Groups are formed to talk out the problem

6] Diagnostic Interview: This type of interview is conducted by clinical psychologists to


help patients

7] Appraisal Interview: In many companies managers periodically interview their


subordinates to appraise their performance. The interview works as a control device and
it determines weather the goals established have been accomplished

8] Information Interview: It is held to give or get information. Such interviews are held
between buyer and seller, teacher and student, Parent and child patient and physician,
lawyer and client manager and subordinates. Here you observe what has been avoided
omitted exaggerated concealed fabricated or twisted

9] Exit Interview: such an interview is held when an employee resigns or fired.


Information is gathered may be valuable and help future policies. Here he talks fearlessly

10] Persuasive Interview: It is to persuade the other party such as seller-buyer interview.
It requires Careful listening and speaking and understanding the viewpoint of the other
person

11] Disciplinary Interview: Here the accused subordinate is given an opportunity to


explain or justify his action. His reply may follow a warning to keep from the repetition of
such actions

12] Job Interview: It is conducted to select the best candidates Ref[Amen Khalid pg278}

It Includes the following

The Screening Interview

Companies use screening tools to ensure that candidates meet minimum qualification
requirements. Computer programs are among the tools used to weed out unqualified
candidates. (This is why you need a digital resume that is screening-friendly. See our
resume center for help.) Sometimes human professionals are the gatekeepers. Screening
interviewers often have honed skills to determine whether there is anything that might
disqualify you for the position. Remember-they do not need to know whether you are the
best fit for the position, only whether you are not a match. For this reason, screeners
tend to dig for dirt. Screeners will hone in on gaps in your employment history or pieces
of information that look inconsistent. They also will want to know from the outset
whether you will be too expensive for the company.

Some tips for maintaining confidence during screening interviews:

• Highlight your accomplishments and qualifications.

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• Get into the straightforward groove. Personality is not as important to the


screener as verifying your qualifications. Answer questions directly and
succinctly. Save your winning personality for the person making hiring decisions!
• Be tactful about addressing income requirements. Give a range, and try to avoid
giving specifics by replying, "I would be willing to consider your best offer."
• If the interview is conducted by phone, it is helpful to have note cards with your
vital information sitting next to the phone. That way, whether the interviewer
catches you sleeping or vacuuming the floor, you will be able to switch gears
quickly.

The Informational Interview

On the opposite end of the stress spectrum from screening interviews is the
informational interview. A meeting that you initiate, the informational interview is
underutilized by job-seekers who might otherwise consider themselves savvy to the
merits of networking. Job seekers ostensibly secure informational meetings in order to
seek the advice of someone in their current or desired field as well as to gain further
references to people who can lend insight. Employers that like to stay apprised of
available talent even when they do not have current job openings, are often open to
informational interviews, especially if they like to share their knowledge, feel flattered by
your interest, or esteem the mutual friend that connected you to them. During an
informational interview, the jobseeker and employer exchange information and get to
know one another better without reference to a specific job opening.

This takes off some of the performance pressure, but be intentional nonetheless:

• Come prepared with thoughtful questions about the field and the company.
• Gain references to other people and make sure that the interviewer would be
comfortable if you contact other people and use his or her name.
• Give the interviewer your card, contact information and resume.
• Write a thank you note to the interviewer.

The Directive Style

In this style of interview, the interviewer has a clear agenda that he or she follows
unflinchingly. Sometimes companies use this rigid format to ensure parity between
interviews; when interviewers ask each candidate the same series of questions, they can
more readily compare the results. Directive interviewers rely upon their own questions
and methods to tease from you what they wish to know. You might feel like you are being
steam-rolled, or you might find the conversation develops naturally. Their style does not
necessarily mean that they have dominance issues, although you should keep an eye
open for these if the interviewer would be your supervisor.

Either way, remembers:

• Flex with the interviewer, following his or her lead.


• Do not relinquish complete control of the interview. If the interviewer does not ask
you for information that you think is important to proving your superiority as a
candidate, politely interject it.

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The Meandering Style

This interview type, usually used by inexperienced interviewers, relies on you to lead the
discussion. It might begin with a statement like "tell me about yourself," which you can
use to your advantage. The interviewer might ask you another broad, open-ended
question before falling into silence. This interview style allows you tactfully to guide the
discussion in a way that best serves you.

The following strategies, which are helpful for any interview, are particularly important
when interviewers use a non-directive approach:

• Come to the interview prepared with highlights and anecdotes of your skills,
qualities and experiences. Do not rely on the interviewer to spark your memory-jot
down some notes that you can reference throughout the interview.
• Remain alert to the interviewer. Even if you feel like you can take the driver's seat
and go in any direction you wish, remain respectful of the interviewer's role. If he
or she becomes more directive during the interview, adjust.
• Ask well-placed questions. Although the open format allows you significantly to
shape the interview, running with your own agenda and dominating the
conversation means that you run the risk of missing important information about
the company and its needs.

The Stress Interview

Astounding as this is, the Greek hazing system has made its way into professional
interviews. Either employers view the stress interview as a legitimate way of determining
candidates' aptness for a position or someone has latent maniacal tendencies. You might
be held in the waiting room for an hour before the interviewer greets you. You might face
long silences or cold stares. The interviewer might openly challenge your believes or
judgment. You might be called upon to perform an impossible task on the fly-like
convincing the interviewer to exchange shoes with you. Insults and miscommunication
are common. All this is designed to see whether you have the mettle to withstand the
company culture, the clients or other potential stress.

Besides wearing a strong anti-per spirant, you will do well to:

• Remember that this is a game. It is not personal. View it as the surreal interaction
that it is.
• Prepare and memorize your main message before walking through the door. If you
are flustered, you will better maintain clarity of mind if you do not have to wing
your responses.
• Even if the interviewer is rude, remain calm and tactful.
• Go into the interview relaxed and rested. If you go into it feeling stressed, you will
have a more difficult time keeping a cool perspective.

The Behavioral Interview

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Many companies increasingly rely on behavior interviews since they use your previous
behavior to indicate your future performance. In these interviews, employers use
standardized methods to mine information relevant to your competency in a particular
area or position. Depending upon the responsibilities of the job and the working
environment, you might be asked to describe a time that required problem-solving skills,
adaptability, leadership, conflict resolution, multi-tasking, initiative or stress
management. You will be asked how you dealt with the situations.

Your responses require not only reflection, but also organization. To maximize your
responses in the behavioral format:

• Anticipate the transferable skills and personal qualities that are required for the
job.
• Review your resume. Any of the qualities and skills you have included in your
resume are fair game for an interviewer to press.
• Reflect on your own professional, volunteer, educational and personal experience
to develop brief stories that highlight these skills and qualities in you. You should
have a story for each of the competencies on your resume as well as those you
anticipate the job requires.
• Prepare stories by identifying the context, logically highlighting your actions in
the situation, and identifying the results of your actions. Keep your responses
concise and present them in less than two minutes.

The Audition

For some positions, such as computer programmers or trainers, companies want to see
you in action before they make their decision. For this reason, they might take you
through a simulation or brief exercise in order to evaluate your skills. An audition can be
enormously useful to you as well, since it allows you to demonstrate your abilities in
interactive ways that are likely familiar to you. The simulations and exercises should also
give you a simplified sense of what the job would be like. If you sense that other
candidates have an edge on you in terms of experience or other qualifications,
requesting an audition can help level the playing field.

To maximize on auditions, remember to:

• Clearly understand the instructions and expectations for the exercise.


Communication is half the battle in real life, and you should demonstrate to the
prospective employer that you make the effort to do things right the first time by
minimizing confusion.
• Treat the situation as if you are a professional with responsibility for the task laid
before you. Take ownership of your work.
• Brush up on your skills before an interview if you think they might be tested.

The Group Interview

Interviewing simultaneously with other candidates can be disconcerting, but it provides


the company with a sense of your leadership potential and style. The group interview

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helps the company get a glimpse of how you interact with peers-are you timid or bossy,
are you attentive or do you seek attention, do others turn to you instinctively, or do you
compete for authority? The interviewer also wants to view what your tools of persuasion
are: do you use argumentation and careful reasoning to gain support or do you divide
and conquer? The interviewer might call on you to discuss an issue with the other
candidates, solve a problem collectively, or discuss your peculiar qualifications in front
of the other candidates.

This environment might seem overwhelming or hard to control, but there are a few tips
that will help you navigate the group interview successfully:

• Observe to determine the dynamics the interviewer establishes and try to discern
the rules of the game. If you are unsure of what is expected from you, ask for
clarification from the interviewer.
• Treat others with respect while exerting influence over others.
• Avoid overt power conflicts, which will make you look uncooperative and
immature.
• Keep an eye on the interviewer throughout the process so that you do not miss
important cues.

The Tag-Team Interview

Expecting to meet with Ms. Glenn, you might find yourself in a room with four other
people: Ms. Glenn, two of her staff, and the Sales Director. Companies often want to gain
the insights of various people when interviewing candidates. This method of interviewing
is often attractive for companies that rely heavily on team cooperation. Not only does the
company want to know whether your skills balance that of the company, but also
whether you can get along with the other workers. In some companies, multiple people
will interview you simultaneously. In other companies, you will proceed through a series
of one-on-one interviews.

Some helpful tips for maximizing on this interview format:

• Treat each person as an important individual. Gain each person's business card at
the beginning of the meeting, if possible, and refer to each person by name. If
there are several people in the room at once, you might wish to scribble down
their names on a sheet of paper according to where each is sitting. Make eye
contact with each person and speak directly to the person asking each question.
• Use the opportunity to gain as much information about the company as you can.
Just as each interviewer has a different function in the company, they each have a
unique perspective. When asking questions, be sensitive not to place anyone in a
position that invites him to compromise confidentiality or loyalty.
• Bring at least double the anecdotes and sound-bites to the interview as you would
for a traditional one-on-one interview. Be ready to illustrate your main message in
a variety of ways to a variety of people.
• Prepare psychologically to expend more energy and be more alert than you would
in a one-on-one interview. Stay focused and adjustable.

The Mealtime Interview

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For many, interviewing over a meal sounds like a professional and digestive catastrophe
in the making. If you have difficulty chewing gum while walking, this could be a
challenge. With some preparation and psychological readjustment, you can enjoy the
process. Meals often have a cementing social effect-breaking bread together tends to
facilitate deals, marriages, friendships, and religious communion. Mealtime interviews
rely on this logic, and expand it.

Particularly when your job requires interpersonal acuity, companies want to know what
you are like in a social setting. Are you relaxed and charming or awkward and evasive?
Companies want to observe not only how you handle a fork, but also how you treat your
host, any other guests, and the serving staff.

Some basic social tips help ease the complexity of mixing food with business:

• Take cues from your interviewer, remembering that you are the guest. Do not sit
down until your host does. Order something slightly less extravagant than your
interviewer. If he badly wants you to try a particular dish, oblige him. If he
recommends an appetizer to you, he likely intends to order one himself. Do not
begin eating until he does. If he orders coffee and dessert, do not leave him eating
alone.
• If your interviewer wants to talk business, do so. If she and the other guests
discuss their upcoming travel plans or their families, do not launch into business.
• Try to set aside dietary restrictions and preferences. Remember, the interviewer is
your host. It is rude to be finicky unless you absolutely must. If you must, be as
tactful as you can. Avoid phrases like: "I do not eat mammals," or "Shrimp makes
my eyes swell and water."
• Choose manageable food items, if possible. Avoid barbeque ribs and spaghetti.
• Find a discrete way to check your teeth after eating. Excuse yourself from the
table for a moment.
• Practice eating and discussing something important simultaneously.
• Thank your interviewer for the meal.

The Follow-up Interview

Companies bring candidates back for second and sometimes third or fourth interviews
for a number of reasons. Sometimes they just want to confirm that you are the amazing
worker they first thought you to be. Sometimes they are having difficulty deciding
between a short-list of candidates. Other times, the interviewer's supervisor or other
decision makers in the company want to gain a sense of you before signing a hiring
decision.

The second interview could go in a variety of directions, and you must prepare for each
of them. When meeting with the same person again, you do not need to be as assertive in
your communication of your skills. You can focus on cementing rapport, understanding
where the company is going and how your skills mesh with the company vision and
culture. Still, the interviewer should view you as the answer to their needs. You might
find yourself negotiating a compensation package. Alternatively, you might find that you
are starting from the beginning with a new person.

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Some tips for managing second interviews:

• Be confident. Accentuate what you have to offer and your interest in the position.
• Probe tactfully to discover more information about the internal company
dynamics and culture.
• Walk through the front door with a plan for negotiating a salary.
• Be prepared for anything: to relax with an employer or to address the company's
qualms about you.

REF : http://www.jobskills.info/resume_edge/types_of_interview.htm

Patterned Interview:
The patterned Interview is a combination of both direct and indirect Interviews

DIRECT INTERVIEW: In it the interviewer keeps very close control by directing limited
and specific questions

INDIRECT INTERVIEW: Here the interviewer Makes little or no attempt to direct the
applicants conversation

Objectives of the patterned Interview

To match the applicant and the job by judging qualifications and areas that others
methods cannot be determine

To give the candidate essential facts about the job and the company..to help candidate to
decide whether to accept the job or not. It is sort of orientation interview

To establish rapport between the company and the applicant who accept the job

To establish public relationing and image of the company by selling right impression to
the candidate whether he joins the company or not

Interview Assessment Criteria


Your assessment on the interview will comprise of the following.

1. Pre - interview questions for your chosen interviewee.

2. The taped interview unedited

3. A transcript of the interview ( which will be edited ) and which


includes the following

• a title for the interview

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• name of the interviewee


• date
• circumstances
• purpose of the interview
• a key to help, me understand where editing has taken place
and where the person has paused, laughed etc.
• the actual transcript

4. A discussion of the interview. This will be completed by


answering the following questions to the best of your ability.

• How well did you ask questions? Consider the use of open and
closed questions , your confidence in asking them, the length
of questions and the responses received.
• Were your questions sequenced well so that you could see the
relationship between the questions , answers and follow up
questions ?
• Did you build on responses given by making statements and
asking questions you were not intending to use ?
• What tone of voice did you and your interviewee use and what
effect did this have on how the interview progressed ?
• How comfortable was the interviewee with you and why do you
think this is so ?
• what did you find difficult about the interviewing process?
Think in terms of the preparation involved, contacting your
interviewee, speaking to them face to face.

5. A letter of thanks which will be sent to the interviewee after


the interview

 6. A short biography on the person based on the interview

Dictation
Dictation refers to reading or speaking for a person to transcribe or for a machine to
record. After the officer has planned a letter, memo, or report he dictates it to his
secretary. Dictating becomes effective if following principles are followed

Principles
1 Enunciate clearly or pronounce. Articulate clearly;

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ORAL COMMUNICATION M. Nauman Abdul. Quddus

Roll No: 22

A dictating person should speak or read articulately and distinctly so that the
writer can follow correctly. When enunciating a message candy,
gum, cigarette or pen should not be in the mouth you should be careful with
plurals and words that sound alike.

2 Before dictating it is advisable to give any special instructions, such as number


of carbon copies, unusual tabulation of figures etc

3 Before starting a dictation allow your secretary to prepare

4 Spell uncommon and difficult words and names when you are using them for
the first time

5 Always dictate punctuation, and paragraph. In revision it will save your time

6 Dictate at a proper speed so that the transcriber may not miss any words

7 During long dictation give proper pauses allowing your secretary to relax and
overcome monotony

8 You secretary should have attitude to make grammar correction, additional


punctuations and rearrangement of your letters memos reports and other written
communication

9 By fixing dictation period time and money of the company can be saved

10 When dictating by telephones or a machine unconcerned comments chats


should be avoided or you will distort the message

11 Remember the correct dictation saves time and money of the company while
faulty dictation incurs unnecessarily high cost

12 Edit and revise dictation draft before it is finally typed

IMPORTANCE AND ADVANTAGES OF DICTATING


1 Dictating saves precious time of the officer. It is so because the manager can
only write longhand which consumes more time ten shorthand. On the other
hand the secretary knows shorthand and can write as quickly as spoken words of
the manager

2 Letters and reports are prepared quickly and in time

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ORAL COMMUNICATION M. Nauman Abdul. Quddus

Roll No: 22

3 Not only is time saved but also stationery and labor costs

4 It allows flexibility before final draft is prepared material may be adjusted by


adding, deleting trimming or correcting.

5 Dictating calls for the services of the stenographer who undertakes secretarial
drafting and saves time and paperwork of the manager

6 Quality of work improves throwing a good impression on customers,.


Suppliers, competitors and other readers

REFRENCES

1 [effective business comm. By Murphy pg 283 onwards}

2 Ref : [http://www.tpub.com/content/photography/14129/css/14129_165.htm}

3 [By Lesley Barker,e how


Contributor.http://www.ehow.com/about_5127470_definition-listening-skills.html]

4 [Amen Khalid}

Pg 261-269

Pg 271-276

Pg 277-282

Pg 291-292

5 http://www.jobskills.info/resume_edge/types_of_interview.htm

6 Business Communications By Naveed Wahab [Petiwala Book}

Pg 83-127

Note: All the above material have been extracted from above resources, edited
and re written by Mr. Nauman.Quddus

All rights reserved

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