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Discourse and Pragmatics

1. Speech Acts

Conversation 1
You and a close friend are having dinner together and you suddenly realize you have left your
money at home. Ask your friend to lend you some money to pay your dinner.

A : Do you bring more money ?

B : Yes, I bring more money. Why ?
A : My wallet is left in the boarding house . Please, pay for my food because.
A : Thank you, I will return at boarding house.
B : You’re welcome.

Based on the conversation above, the speaker’s utterance (A) is include into direct speech act,
because the speaker ask his friend to lend his some money directly, There is direct relationship
between the form and the function of that utterance, so the hearer didn’t need to analyze the
meaning of that utterance.

Conversation 2
You want to take a week off work to see a friend who is visiting you from overseas and you have
no holidays owing to you. You go to your boss’s office to ask for the week’s leave.

A : Excuse me, sir. Can I come in?

Boss : Yes of course, sit down please. What happen?
A : Do I still have the time to take my annual leave?
Boss : Yes, you have. Where will you go?
A : I have to meet my friend who visiting me next week.
B : Oke, because next week the company is not busy, so you can take your week’s leave
A : Thank you Mr.
Based on the conversation above, the employee’s utterance (A) is include into indirect speech,
because there is indirect relationship between the form and the function. The form is
interrogative but the function is more than just a question, but also the employee ask to
her boss for take an annual leave. From the utterance above, the hearer (boss) will
analyze the meaning of the utterance.

Conversation 3
You are in a restaurant. Your steak is over-cooked. You wanted it cooked rare. Ask the waiter to
bring you another steak.

A : Excuse me, Mrs. Do you forget my order? I ask for a medium rare
Waiter : Oh Iam sorry miss. It is over cooked. I will change it ,please wait Mrs.
A : Oke, I will wait it.

Based on the conversation above, the customer’s utterance is include into indirect speech, because
there is an indirect relationship between the form and the function. The form is interrogative, but
it is more than just an interrogative form, the interrogative form is use to make a complaint and
request. The customer complain about the steak which is over cooked and ask the waiter to bring
her another steak, so in this case the waiter have to analyze what the customer wants according to
her utterance .

2. Locutionary act, illocutionary act, and perlocutionary act

“This desk is very heavy” ( source : Newspaper boy by John Escott page: 19 )

The utterance “this desk is very heavy” has a locutionary acts, it has illocutionary acts to give the
information about the desk is very heavy, the man just tell about the desk is very heavy. The
illocutionary acts from this utterance is has a function as a request of helping / asking someone
helping, and the Perlocutionary acts of the utterance is the effect of the utterance, so the effect is
the hearer ( the newspaper boy) will help him ( the man ) to move the heavy desk.

3. Maxim quantity, quality, relation, and manner

( Source : REAL STEEL:2011)

Max : Is there real robot boxer in there?

Charlie : noisy boys in there.

Charlie has said before that the content of the box is robot boxer, then Max ask to him again
because he doubt if Max able to buy robot boxer and he never see the real of robot boxer. Because
in that time robot boxer is just for adult because it contains maturity, so Max’s curiosity seem
blatant in this dialogue. In order to truning down Max curiousity, Charlie answer Max question by
generating a conversational implicature that violate the maxim of cooperative principle, since his
answer is just simple and can make different interpretation, with un brief and using obscurity
expression. Charlie answer Max’s question by “noisy boys in there” that is mean if Charlie shared
background knowledge between Charlie and Max, since Charlie know that Max is game lover, and
as game lover Max should understand the name of robot boxer, and that time, Charlie bought the
rarest robot boxer called Noisy boys, of course Charlie proud about that, and Charlie said to Max
proudly. The proud feeling inside Charlie heart makes him said that to Max, since he never have a
good robot boxer ever, and that time he got a second hand robot boxer, but that is the best robot at
his time. That’s why Charlie generates 10 that utterance rather say “yes there are” or say “yes there
are robot boxer called noisy boys”. Because Charlie utterance has function to shows Charlie proud
to his new robot.

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