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# MID-TERM TEST 2 ERT216

Question 1

## a) Define fouling factors by equation.

[10 Marks]
The fouling factor, Rf is define as: 1 1
Rf  
U dirty U clean

b) Describe phenomena that contribute to fouling factors of heat exchanger and discuss on
how to avoid or lessen these fouling problems.
[20 Marks]

• After a period of operation, the heat transfer surface for a heat exchanger may become
coated with various deposits present in the flow system, dirt, soot or the surface may
become corroded as a result of the interaction between the fluids and the material used
for construction of the heat exchanger.
• Biological growth such as algae can occur with cooling water in the biological
industries.
• These deposits offer additional resistance to the flow of heat and reduce the overall heat
transfer coefficient U.
• To avoid or lessen these fouling problems, chemical inhibitors are often added to
minimize corrosion, salt deposition and algae growth.
• It is necessary to oversize an exchanger to allow for the reduction in performance during
operation.

c) Oil flowing at the rate of 5.04 kg/s (c pm=2.09 kJ/kg K) is cooled in a 1-2 heat exchanger
from 366.5 K to 344.3 K by 2.02 kg/s of water entering at 283.2 K. The overall heat-
transfer coefficient Uo is 340 W/m2 K. Calculate the area required.
[20 Marks]
T’2=366.5K
T’1=344.3K
∆T2

∆T1 T2

T1=283.2K

## Oil heat balance

moil  5.04kg / s
c pm  2.09kJ / kg.K
q  m  c pm  T ' 2  T '1    5.04 2.09 366.5  344.3  233.85kJ / kg.K

## Water heat balance

2
mH 2O  2.02kg / s
c pm  4.185kJ / kg.K
q  233.95 10 3   2.02  4.185 10 3  T 2283.2 
T2  310.9 K

## T2  366.5  310.9  55.6 K

T1  344.3  283.2  61.4 K

Equation 4.9.1

## T1  T2 61.4  55.6

Tlm    58.31K
 T1  ln 61.4 / 55.6 
ln 
 T2 
Thi  T ' 2  366.5 K Tho  T '1  344.3K
Tci  T1  283.2 K Tco  T2  310.9 K

Figure 4.9.4a

## Thi  Tho 366.5  344.3

Z   0.801
Tco  Tci 310.9  283.2

## Tco  Tci 310.9  283.2

Y    0.333
Thi  Tci 366.5  283.2
FT  0.97

Equation 4.9.6
Tm  FT Tlm   0.97  58.31 K

Equation 4.9.5

q  U o Ao Tm
233.85   340 Ao  0.97  5831
Ao  12.16m 2

Question 2
3
a) In the process industries, the transfer of two fluids is generally done by heat exchanger.
Discuss the characteristics and functions of cross-flow exchanger AND shell and tube
exchanger. Sketch the diagrams of the respective heat exchangers.
[30 Marks]
1. Cross-flow exchanger
• A common device used to heat or cool a gas such as air
• One of the fluids, which is a liquid, flows inside through the tubes, and the exterior gas
flows across the tube bundle by forced or sometimes natural convection.
• The fluid inside the tubes is considered to be unmixed, since it is confined and cannot mix
with any other stream.
• The gas flow outside the tubes is mixed, since it can move about freely between the
tubes, and there will be a tendency for the gas temperature to equalize in the direction
normal to the flow.
• For the unmixed fluid inside the tubes, there will be a temperature gradient both parallel
and normal to the direction of flow.
• A second type of cross-flow heat exchanger shown in Fig. 1.7(b) is typically used in air-
conditioning and space-heating applications.
• In this type the gas flows across a finned-tube bundle and is unmixed, since it is confined
in separate flow channels between the fins as it passes over the tubes. The fluid in the
tubes is unmixed.

Cross-flow heat exchangers: (a) one fluid mixed (gas) and one fluid unmixed; (b)
both fluids unmixed.

## 2. Shell and Tube Exchanger

• The most important type of exchanger in use in oil refineries and larger chemical
processes and is suited for higher-pressure applications.
• Useful for larger flow rates as compared to double pipe heat exchanger.
• The simplest configuration: 1-1 counterflow exchanger (one shell pass and one tube
pass) – refer to Figure 1.2.
• consists of a shell (a large pressure vessel) with a bundle of tubes inside it.
4
• One fluid runs through the tubes, and another fluid flows over the tubes (through the
shell) to transfer heat between the two fluids.
• The cold fluid enters and flow inside through all the tubes in parallel in one pass
• The hot fluid enters at the other end and flow counterflow across the outside of the tubes.
• Cross-baffles – increase the shell side heat transfer coefficient

Shell and tube heat exchanger (1 shell pass and 1 tube passes (1-1 exchanger)

b) Hot oil at a flow rate of 3.00 kg/s (cp=1.92 kJ/kg K) enters an existing counterflow
exchanger at 400 K and is cooled by water entering at 325 K (under pressure) and flowing
at a rate of 0.70 kg/s. The overall heat transfer coefficient, U=350 W/m 2 K and area,
A=12.9 m2. Calculate the heat-transfer rate and the exit oil temperature.
[20 Marks]

## m oil   3.00kg / s THi=400K

H=oil
m H 2 O   0.70kg / s
c p  oil   1.92kJ / kg.K
Tco THo
U  350W / m 2
A  12.9m 2 C=H2O

Tci=325K
Assume water outlet Tco=374K

374  325
Tav   349 K , Refer A.2 for H2O at 349K
2

c p  4.196kJ / kg .K

Oil
mc p  H
 c H   3.00  1.02  103   5760W / K
5
H2O
mc p  c
 cc   0.7  1.92 103   2.937W / K  C min

Equation 4.9.19

Equation 4.9-10

Equation 4.9-7

## q  154190   mc p  c  Tco  Tci   2936 Tco  325

Tco  377.5 K
(Close enough to assumed value 374K)

THO  373.2 K

## Check on the above

Tlm 
 373.2  325   400  377.5  33.74
ln  373.2  325 /  400  377.5 
q  UATlm  35012.9 33.74  152320W