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Topic 9: Calculus Option Limits of Sequences and Functions

lim [𝑓(𝑥) + 𝑔(𝑥)] = lim 𝑓(𝑥) + lim 𝑔(𝑥) lim [𝑓(𝑥) − 𝑔(𝑥)] = lim 𝑓(𝑥) − lim 𝑔(𝑥)
$→& $→& $→& $→& $→& $→&

Algebraic 𝑓(𝑥) lim 𝑓(𝑥)


lim [𝑓(𝑥) × 𝑔(𝑥)] = lim 𝑓(𝑥) × lim 𝑔(𝑥) lim 2 3 = $→&
limit laws: $→& $→& $→& $→& 𝑔(𝑥) lim 𝑔(𝑥)
$→&

lim [𝑐𝑓(𝑥)] = 𝑐 lim 𝑓(𝑥)


$→& $→&

L’Hopital’s rule states if the following occurs:


1 1 1
= −∞ = 𝑈𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑑 =∞
𝒇(𝒙) 𝟎 𝑓(𝑥) ±∞ 07 0 0>
𝐥𝐢𝐦 = or lim =
𝒙→𝒂 𝒈(𝒙) 𝟎 $→& 𝑔(𝑥) ±∞

Differentiate top and bottom 𝑓(𝑥) 𝐿′𝐻 𝑓′(𝑥) 1 ∞ 0


lim lim =0 = 𝑈𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑑 = 𝑈𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑑
fraction separately $→& 𝑔(𝑥) = $→& 𝑔′(𝑥) ∞ ∞ 0

A closed An open
The Squeeze Theorem states if: Interval interval [𝑎, 𝑏] interval (𝑎, 𝑏)
Use when involving trigonometric functions Notation: includes end excludes end
points points

𝒈(𝒙) ≤ 𝒇(𝒙) ≤ 𝒉(𝒙) and lim 𝑔(𝑥) = lim ℎ(𝑥) = 𝐿


$→& $→& A function is continuous at 𝑥 = 𝑎 when:
lim 𝑓(𝑥) = lim 𝑓(𝑥) = limR 𝑓(𝑥)
Then: lim 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝐿 $→&Q $→& $→&
$→&

The Absolute Value Theorem states: if lim |𝑎S | = 0, then lim 𝑎S = 0


S→T S→T

𝑓(𝑥) must be continuous at 𝑥V

A function is differentiable at a point 𝒙𝟎 if: 𝑓(𝑥) must not have a “sharp point” at 𝑥V

the tangent to 𝑓(𝑥) at 𝑥V must be vertical

The derivative of a function 𝒇(𝒙) at the point 𝒙𝟎 can be found if the limit exists by:
If not, then the function is not differentiable at that point

𝒇(𝒙𝟎 + 𝒉) − 𝒇(𝒙𝟎 ) 𝑓(𝑥) − 𝑓(𝑥V )


𝒇′(𝒙𝟎 ) = 𝐥𝐢𝐦 or 𝑓′(𝑥V ) = lim
𝒉→𝟎 𝒉 X→V 𝑥 − 𝑥V

𝑓(𝑥) is continuous on [𝑎, 𝑏] 𝑓(𝑥) is continuous on [𝑎, 𝑏]


Rolle’s Theorem requires three Mean Value Theorem
conditions: 𝑓(𝑥) is differentiable requires three conditions:
𝑓(𝑥) is differentiable on ]𝑎, 𝑏[
a and b are found from the given
on (𝑎, 𝑏) a and b are found from the given
interval interval
𝑓(𝑎)= 𝑓(𝑏) 𝑐 ∈]𝑎, 𝑏[

If these conditions are met, then there exists a point 𝑐 such that:
If three conditions are met then there must be a point 𝒄 such
that 𝒇[ (𝒄) = 𝟎 𝑓(𝑏) − 𝑓(𝑎)
𝑓 [ (𝑐) =
𝑏−𝑎
Topic 9: Calculus Option Improper Integrals

The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus states if 𝒇(𝒙) is continuous


The p-series states for: Converges if 𝑝 > 1
on [𝒂, 𝒃] where:
T
1
] 𝑑𝑥
𝑭(𝒙) =
𝒙
∫𝒂 𝒇(𝒕) 𝒅𝒕 𝒂 ≤𝒙≤𝒃 then 𝐹′(𝑥) = 𝑓(𝑥) _ 𝑥^ Diverges if 𝑝 ≤ 1

And for any function where 𝒈(𝒙) such that 𝑭′(𝒙) = 𝒇(𝒙)
g h g g &
] 𝑓(𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 = ] 𝑓(𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 + ] 𝑓(𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 ] = −]
𝒃 & & h & g
Where 𝐹(𝑥) is the
] 𝒇(𝒙) 𝒅𝒙 = 𝑭(𝒃) − 𝑭(𝒂)
𝒂 antiderivative of 𝑓(𝑥)

T
T Convergent when ∫& 𝑓(𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 = 0 𝑜𝑟 𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑒 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒
Integrals in the form ∫𝒂 𝒇(𝒙) 𝒅𝒙 are known as improper integrals

Improper integrals are either convergent or divergent: T


Divergent when ∫& 𝑓(𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 = ±∞

T o
When integrating improper integrals, use 𝐥𝐢𝐦 and replace ∞ with 𝒕 ] 𝑓(𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 = lim ] 𝑓(𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 =
𝒕→T o→T &
&

If 0 ≤ 𝑓(𝑥) ≤ 𝑔(𝑥) for all 𝑥 ≥ 𝑎 then:

The Comparison Test for improper T T


∫& 𝑓(𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 is convergent if ∫& 𝑔(𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 is convergent
Integrals states:
T T
∫& 𝑔(𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 is divergent if ∫& 𝑓(𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 is divergent

or a decreasing function 𝑓(𝑥) for all 𝑥 > 𝑎, T


T
T

then there is an upper and lower sum such q 𝑓(𝑘) < ] 𝑓(𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 < q 𝑓(𝑘)
&
that: st&>_ st&

The Rienmann Sum states:


For an increasing function 𝑔(𝑥) for all 𝑥 > T
T
T

𝑎, then there is an upper and lower sum q 𝑔(𝑘) < ] 𝑔(𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 < q 𝑔(𝑘)
&
such that: st& st&>_
Topic 9: Calculus Option Series Part 1

T T

A series consists of 𝒂𝟏 + 𝒂𝟐 + 𝒂𝟑 … q 𝑎S = 𝑆 q 𝑎s = 𝑆S
St_ st_

It is denoted by: For a total sum For a partial sum

If lim 𝑎S ≠ 0 or does not exist then ∑ 𝑎S diverges


S→T
The Divergence Test states:
If lim 𝑎S = 0 then ∑ 𝑎S may converge or may diverge
S→T

Geometric Infinite Series: Converges if |𝑟| < 1 Diverges if |𝑟| ≥ 1


T

q 𝑎𝑟 S7_ 𝑎
Sum of infinite geometric series: =
St_ 1−𝑟
Key series Telescoping Series:
types: Find 𝑆S equation Simplify 𝑆S Take lim 𝑆S
S→T
Partial Fractions

_
P-Series: Converges if 𝑝 > 1
S}
_
(Harmonic Series: S) Diverges if 𝑝 ≤ 1

If 𝑎S ≤ 𝑏S for all of 𝑛 and ∑ 𝑏S converges, then ∑ 𝑎S also converges


The Comparison Test states given for two
series of positive terms:
If 𝑎S ≥ 𝑏S for all of 𝑛 and ∑ 𝑏S diverges, then ∑ 𝑎S also diverges

1. Check if positive (0 ≤ 𝑎S)

2. Find 𝑏S (𝑏S generally is 𝑎S take away a useless term)


Steps:
3. Determine whether 𝑏S is smaller or larger than 𝑎S

3. Find if 𝑏S is convergent or divergent

&~
If ∑ exists and 𝑎S and 𝑏S are Then both series either converges of
g~
positive to use limit comparison test: diverges

The Limit Comparison Test States:


1. Find 𝑏S (𝑏S generally is 𝑎S take away a useless term)
Steps:
&
2. Find if 𝑎S and 𝑏S are positive and if ∑ g~ exists
~

T
T
Will both converge
The Integral Test states for 𝒇(𝒏) = 𝒂𝒏 , if then q 𝑎S ] 𝑓(𝑥)𝑑𝑥
St_ or diverge
St_

1. Check criteria: If it’s positive decreasing


Positive Decreasing Continuous 2. Then integrate 𝑎S
and continuous
Topic 9: Calculus Option Series Part 2

The Alternating Series Test states for:


T if lim |𝑎S | = 0 and |𝑎S>_ | < |𝑎S |, then the series will converge
S→T
q(−𝟏)𝒏 𝒂𝒏
𝒏t𝟏

Use if series is not always


The Absolute Converge states: For ∑ 𝑎S, if ∑|𝑎S | =
If: ∑ 𝒂𝒏 converges, then 𝐥𝐢𝐦 𝑺𝒏 = 𝑺 positive, or not
𝒏→T |𝑎_ | + |𝑎• | + ⋯ is convergent, then ∑ 𝑎S is absolutely
alternating, or when
However, if 𝒏 does not approach ∞ then convergent
dealing with trig
the Error of a Sum can be found:
1. Write ∑ 𝑎S as ∑|𝑎S |

For alternative series only: Note:

|𝑹𝒏 | = |𝑺 − 𝑺𝒏 | ≤ 𝒂𝒏>𝟏 Absolute convergence, is stronger than convergence


|𝐸𝑟𝑟𝑜𝑟| ≤ |𝒂𝒏>𝟏 | If a series is absolute convergent, it must be convergent
𝒂𝒏>𝟏 ≤ 𝒆𝒓𝒓𝒐𝒓 𝒔𝒑𝒆𝒄𝒊𝒇𝒊𝒆𝒅 Conditional convergence is when series converges, but is not absolutely convergent

&~RŒ
1. lim ‹ &~
‹ < 1, ∑ 𝑎S is absolutely convergent
S→T

The ratio test stages if: &~RŒ


2. lim ‹ &~
‹ > 1, ∑ 𝑎S is divergent
S→T
Don’t need to use divergent test for ratio test
&~RŒ
3. lim ‹ ‹ = 1, ∑ 𝑎S is inconclusive
S→T &~