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lim [𝑓(𝑥) + 𝑔(𝑥)] = lim 𝑓(𝑥) + lim 𝑔(𝑥) lim [𝑓(𝑥) − 𝑔(𝑥)] = lim 𝑓(𝑥) − lim 𝑔(𝑥)

$→& $→& $→& $→& $→& $→&

lim [𝑓(𝑥) × 𝑔(𝑥)] = lim 𝑓(𝑥) × lim 𝑔(𝑥) lim 2 3 = $→&

limit laws: $→& $→& $→& $→& 𝑔(𝑥) lim 𝑔(𝑥)

$→&

$→& $→&

1 1 1

= −∞ = 𝑈𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑑 =∞

𝒇(𝒙) 𝟎 𝑓(𝑥) ±∞ 07 0 0>

𝐥𝐢𝐦 = or lim =

𝒙→𝒂 𝒈(𝒙) 𝟎 $→& 𝑔(𝑥) ±∞

lim lim =0 = 𝑈𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑑 = 𝑈𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑑

fraction separately $→& 𝑔(𝑥) = $→& 𝑔′(𝑥) ∞ ∞ 0

A closed An open

The Squeeze Theorem states if: Interval interval [𝑎, 𝑏] interval (𝑎, 𝑏)

Use when involving trigonometric functions Notation: includes end excludes end

points points

$→& $→& A function is continuous at 𝑥 = 𝑎 when:

lim 𝑓(𝑥) = lim 𝑓(𝑥) = limR 𝑓(𝑥)

Then: lim 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝐿 $→&Q $→& $→&

$→&

S→T S→T

A function is differentiable at a point 𝒙𝟎 if: 𝑓(𝑥) must not have a “sharp point” at 𝑥V

The derivative of a function 𝒇(𝒙) at the point 𝒙𝟎 can be found if the limit exists by:

If not, then the function is not differentiable at that point

𝒇′(𝒙𝟎 ) = 𝐥𝐢𝐦 or 𝑓′(𝑥V ) = lim

𝒉→𝟎 𝒉 X→V 𝑥 − 𝑥V

Rolle’s Theorem requires three Mean Value Theorem

conditions: 𝑓(𝑥) is differentiable requires three conditions:

𝑓(𝑥) is differentiable on ]𝑎, 𝑏[

a and b are found from the given

on (𝑎, 𝑏) a and b are found from the given

interval interval

𝑓(𝑎)= 𝑓(𝑏) 𝑐 ∈]𝑎, 𝑏[

If these conditions are met, then there exists a point 𝑐 such that:

If three conditions are met then there must be a point 𝒄 such

that 𝒇[ (𝒄) = 𝟎 𝑓(𝑏) − 𝑓(𝑎)

𝑓 [ (𝑐) =

𝑏−𝑎

Topic 9: Calculus Option Improper Integrals

The p-series states for: Converges if 𝑝 > 1

on [𝒂, 𝒃] where:

T

1

] 𝑑𝑥

𝑭(𝒙) =

𝒙

∫𝒂 𝒇(𝒕) 𝒅𝒕 𝒂 ≤𝒙≤𝒃 then 𝐹′(𝑥) = 𝑓(𝑥) _ 𝑥^ Diverges if 𝑝 ≤ 1

And for any function where 𝒈(𝒙) such that 𝑭′(𝒙) = 𝒇(𝒙)

g h g g &

] 𝑓(𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 = ] 𝑓(𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 + ] 𝑓(𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 ] = −]

𝒃 & & h & g

Where 𝐹(𝑥) is the

] 𝒇(𝒙) 𝒅𝒙 = 𝑭(𝒃) − 𝑭(𝒂)

𝒂 antiderivative of 𝑓(𝑥)

T

T Convergent when ∫& 𝑓(𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 = 0 𝑜𝑟 𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑒 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒

Integrals in the form ∫𝒂 𝒇(𝒙) 𝒅𝒙 are known as improper integrals

Divergent when ∫& 𝑓(𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 = ±∞

T o

When integrating improper integrals, use 𝐥𝐢𝐦 and replace ∞ with 𝒕 ] 𝑓(𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 = lim ] 𝑓(𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 =

𝒕→T o→T &

&

∫& 𝑓(𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 is convergent if ∫& 𝑔(𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 is convergent

Integrals states:

T T

∫& 𝑔(𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 is divergent if ∫& 𝑓(𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 is divergent

T

T

then there is an upper and lower sum such q 𝑓(𝑘) < ] 𝑓(𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 < q 𝑓(𝑘)

&

that: st&>_ st&

For an increasing function 𝑔(𝑥) for all 𝑥 > T

T

T

𝑎, then there is an upper and lower sum q 𝑔(𝑘) < ] 𝑔(𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 < q 𝑔(𝑘)

&

such that: st& st&>_

Topic 9: Calculus Option Series Part 1

T T

A series consists of 𝒂𝟏 + 𝒂𝟐 + 𝒂𝟑 … q 𝑎S = 𝑆 q 𝑎s = 𝑆S

St_ st_

S→T

The Divergence Test states:

If lim 𝑎S = 0 then ∑ 𝑎S may converge or may diverge

S→T

T

q 𝑎𝑟 S7_ 𝑎

Sum of infinite geometric series: =

St_ 1−𝑟

Key series Telescoping Series:

types: Find 𝑆S equation Simplify 𝑆S Take lim 𝑆S

S→T

Partial Fractions

_

P-Series: Converges if 𝑝 > 1

S}

_

(Harmonic Series: S) Diverges if 𝑝 ≤ 1

The Comparison Test states given for two

series of positive terms:

If 𝑎S ≥ 𝑏S for all of 𝑛 and ∑ 𝑏S diverges, then ∑ 𝑎S also diverges

Steps:

3. Determine whether 𝑏S is smaller or larger than 𝑎S

&~

If ∑ exists and 𝑎S and 𝑏S are Then both series either converges of

g~

positive to use limit comparison test: diverges

1. Find 𝑏S (𝑏S generally is 𝑎S take away a useless term)

Steps:

&

2. Find if 𝑎S and 𝑏S are positive and if ∑ g~ exists

~

T

T

Will both converge

The Integral Test states for 𝒇(𝒏) = 𝒂𝒏 , if then q 𝑎S ] 𝑓(𝑥)𝑑𝑥

St_ or diverge

St_

Positive Decreasing Continuous 2. Then integrate 𝑎S

and continuous

Topic 9: Calculus Option Series Part 2

T if lim |𝑎S | = 0 and |𝑎S>_ | < |𝑎S |, then the series will converge

S→T

q(−𝟏)𝒏 𝒂𝒏

𝒏t𝟏

The Absolute Converge states: For ∑ 𝑎S, if ∑|𝑎S | =

If: ∑ 𝒂𝒏 converges, then 𝐥𝐢𝐦 𝑺𝒏 = 𝑺 positive, or not

𝒏→T |𝑎_ | + |𝑎• | + ⋯ is convergent, then ∑ 𝑎S is absolutely

alternating, or when

However, if 𝒏 does not approach ∞ then convergent

dealing with trig

the Error of a Sum can be found:

1. Write ∑ 𝑎S as ∑|𝑎S |

|𝐸𝑟𝑟𝑜𝑟| ≤ |𝒂𝒏>𝟏 | If a series is absolute convergent, it must be convergent

𝒂𝒏>𝟏 ≤ 𝒆𝒓𝒓𝒐𝒓 𝒔𝒑𝒆𝒄𝒊𝒇𝒊𝒆𝒅 Conditional convergence is when series converges, but is not absolutely convergent

&~RŒ

1. lim ‹ &~

‹ < 1, ∑ 𝑎S is absolutely convergent

S→T

2. lim ‹ &~

‹ > 1, ∑ 𝑎S is divergent

S→T

Don’t need to use divergent test for ratio test

&~RŒ

3. lim ‹ ‹ = 1, ∑ 𝑎S is inconclusive

S→T &~

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