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Michael Grashinton Kurniawardhani1, Oki Setyandito1,2
1 Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Bina Nusantara University, Jakarta,
2 Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Mataram, Lombok



Some coastal areas in Indonesia were eroded by waves so dyke construction is needed to prevent it.
Surface layer of dyke can be coated by various materials, such as asphalt. The purpose of this study
was to obtain the effective characteristics of asphalt mixture on the variation of surface layer for dyke
slope due to waves. Marshall test (in accordance with SNI 06-2489-1991) and compressive strength
test (in accordance with SNI 03-1974-1990) were conducted on the asphalt samples. Theoretical
calculation of wave compressive strength affected by wave height (H) and period (T), and dyke slope
(m) were compared to laboratorium test result. It was found that the shape and the mineralogy of
aggregate affect charateristics of asphalt mix, for example limestone and coral reef contain calcium
carbonate (CaCO3) will perform the better mix of characteristics than sedimentary rock that consists
of several layers of mineral. (MGK)
Keywords: Dyke, dyke slope, wave, characteristics of aggregate, asphalt.


Beberapa daerah pantai di Indonesia yang mengalami erosi akibat gelombang laut sehingga
dibutuhkan pembuatan dyke untuk mencegah hal tersebut. Lapisan permukaan dyke dapat dilapisi
dengan berbagai macam material, misalnya aspal. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan
karakteristik campuran aspal yang efektif pada variasi kemiringan lapisan permukaan dyke akibat
gelombang. Uji Marshall (sesuai dengan SNI 06-2489-1991) dan uji kuat tekan menggunakan alat uji
tekan beton (sesuai dengan SNI 03-1974-1990) akan dilakukan pada sampel aspal. Perhitungan
teoretis kuat tekan gelombang yang dipengaruhi oleh tinggi (H) dan periode gelombang (T), serta
kemiringan dyke (m) akan dibandingkan dengan hasil pengujian laboratorium. Dalam penelitian ini,
ditemukan bahwa bentuk dan mineralogi agregat mempengaruhi karakteristik campuran aspal,
contohnya batuan kapur dan karang mengandung senyawa kalsium karbonat (CaCO3) akan
menghasilkan karakteristik campuran yang lebih baik dibandingkan batuan sedimen yang terdiri dari
beberapa lapisan mineral. (MGK)
Kata Kunci: Dyke, kemiringan dyke, gelombang, karateristik agregat, aspal.
The purpose of dyke construction generally is to protect the coastal area from the impact of
wave force. There are some materials that can be used as protective layer, for example asphalt layer,
concrete layer, and others. Not a lot of researches has been done about variation on mixed agregation
material as dyke protective layer with variation of slope, so that in this research, the test for variation
of material on asphalt mixed against wave force and its interaction with existing based steepness will
be done. Where in this research, the used aggregate material are sedimentary rock, limestone, and
coral reef.
Some researchers have found how to calculate wave pressure force that can damage coastal
area, some of them are (Führböter and Sparboom, 1988) and (Oumeraci, 2010). (Führböter, 1998)
found a max pressure force (Pmax) in sloping dyke 1:4 and 1:6 in shallow sea area with high condition
from half wave resides below still water level (SWL) in series are 6.ς.g.H and 4.ς.g.H. Method that is
used by Führböter and Sparboom is by using stability block revetment criteria that is put in two
dimension geotextile filter with strercher-bond pattern. (Oumeraci, 2010) counted max pressure in
revetment layer for impact load with equality: and
method that is used is by assuming all the pressure forces that are measured points to pressure that is
caused by wave force only and is not affected by hydrostatic force because all the equipments that are
used to measure force (Pressure Transducers or PT) has been put in p=0. (See pict. 1)

Picture 1 Pressure P0(x) Observation on Each Pressure Transducers

(Source: Oumeraci, H. 2010)

The purpose of this research is to get the characteristics of material mix on variation of slope
dyke protective layer against waves.

The conducted research method is comparing data of laboratory test result and calculation
result form developing the existing formula. Laboratory data can be obtained by making and testing
sample, and then continuing by analyzing data. Marshall test in accordance to ISO 06-2489-1991 and
pressure test accordance to ISO 03-1974-1990 will be conducted to the samples. Calculation result
can be obtained by developing the existing formula that already used in previous research, which aim
to get wave pressure force that can damage the coast. By comparing laboratory test, theoretical
calculation result, and developing formula that has already been used before, then protection pattern
for dyke that affected by wave parameter, mix characteristics, and dyke slope will be obtained.
Table 1 Example of Result of Correlation Analysis Between Stability, Flow, and Compressive
Strength (F’c)

Compressive Stregth against

Rock Type F’c against Stability Stability against Flow
Sedimentary Inversely Propotional F’c isn’t Affected Stability isn’t Affected
Limestone Inversely Propotional No Correlation No correlation
Coral Reef Directly Propotional F’c isn’t Affected Stability isn’t Affected

On Table 1 presented the results of the correlation analysis between the sedimentary rock and
limestone’ compressive strength and stability are inversely proportional, while for coral reef is
directly proportional. In addition, the sedimentary rock and coral reef’s compressive strength and
stability are not affected by the flow but for limestone, there is no clear correlation between the
compressive strength and stability towards flow.

tg α = 1/2
tg α = 1/3
1600000 tg α = 1/4
1400000 tg α = 1/6
P (kg/m.s2)

1200000 tg α = 1/10
1000000 Sedimentary-4,5%
600000 Limestone-4,5%
400000 Limestone-5,5%
200000 Limestone-6%
0 Coral-4,5%
0,00 0,05 0,10 Coral-5,5%
H/Lo Coral-6%

Picture 2 Correlation between Wave Steepness (H/L0) and Pressure Force (P)

Picture 2 shows how much the outcoming pressure force (ordinate) based on wave steepness
and dyke slope (abscissa).
tg α = 1/2
tg α = 1/3

P / (ρm . g . b)
tg α = 1/4
tg α = 1/6
tg α = 1/10

20 Sedimentary-4,5%

0 Sedimentary-5,5%
0,00 0,02 0,04 0,06 0,08 0,10

Picture 3 Correlation between Wave Steepness (H/L0) and Pressure Force P/(ρm.g.b) for Sedimentary

tg α = 1/2
tg α = 1/3
P / (ρm . g . b)

tg α = 1/4
tg α = 1/6
tg α = 1/10

20 Limestones-4,5%

0 Limestones-5,5%
0,00 0,02 0,04 0,06 0,08 0,10

Picture 4 Correlation between Wave Steepness (H/L0) and Pressure Force P/(ρm.g.b) for Limestone
tg α = 1/2
tg α = 1/3

P / (ρm . g . b)
tg α = 1/4
tg α = 1/6
tg α = 1/10

20 Coral-4,5%

0 Coral-5,5%
0,00 0,02 0,04 0,06 0,08 0,10

Picture 5 Correlation between Wave Steepness (H/L0) and Pressure Force P/(ρm.g.b) for Coral Reef

There are also parameter that found from Picture 2 until Picture 5, where as:
H/L0 dan H/gT2 : wave steepness;
P : pressure force (kg/m.s2);
ρm : aggregate density (kg/m3);
ρ1(batuan sedimen) : 2112 kg/m3;
ρ2(batuan kapur) : 1978 kg/m3;
ρ3(batuan karang) : 1547 kg/m3;
b : observed wide of dyke area (1m’).

The distribution of the data in Figure 2 till Figure 5 shows at the particularly wave steepness
and slope of the dyke, will be obtained wave forces that must be endured by the protective layer of the
dyke. Meanwhile, for the limit of maximum compressive strength of rock aggregate is presented in
two-dimensional figure and a colored line in the picture above, for example, the compressive strength
limits for sedimentary rocks aggregate with 6% asphalt content is shown with a red rectangular shape
and line. When the wave conditions are under a red rectangular shape and line, then the characteristic
of sedimentary rock mix with 6% asphalt content were able to endure the wave force, otherwise if the
conditions are above it, then the asphalt mixture is not able to endure the wave force. This condition
applies also to limestone and coral reef aggregate in Figure 4 and Figure 5.
Table 2 Correlation between The Effect of Waves and Asphalt Mix Condition on The Slope Of 1 : 2

Protective layer Condition

T (s) H (m) P (kg/m.s2) Sedimentary Limestone Coral Reef
5,5% 6% 5,5%
2.25 55358 Endured Endured Endured
2.5 74084 Endured Endured Endured
3 113208 Endured Endured Endured
4 196436 Endured Endured Endured
5 284351 Endured Endured Endured
5.48 327791 Endured Endured Endured
4 98414 Endured Endured Endured
5.5 214676 Endured Endured Endured
8 7 339694 Endured Endured Endured
8.5 470754 Damaged Endured Endured
9.5 560692 Damaged Endured Endured
6.5 172296 Endured Endured Endured
7 210024 Endured Endured Endured
8.5 327864 Endured Endured Endured
10 451322 Damaged Endured Endured
12.5 666417 Damaged Endured Endured
13 710571 Damaged Endured Damaged
14 799843 Damaged Endured Damaged
15 890286 Damaged Damaged Damaged
9 221432 Endured Endured Endured
9.5 258570 Endured Endured Endured
10 296337 Endured Endured Endured
12 452831 Damaged Endured Endured
14 616462 Damaged Endured Endured
12 16 785742 Damaged Endured Damaged
17 872166 Damaged Damaged Damaged
18 959640 Damaged Damaged Damaged
19 1048078 Damaged Damaged Damaged
20 1137404 Damaged Damaged Damaged
21 1227552 Damaged Damaged Damaged
12.25 301393 Endured Endured Endured
15 510650 Damaged Endured Endured
20 918221 Damaged Damaged Damaged
25 1350249 Damaged Damaged Damaged
27 1528204 Damaged Damaged Damaged
29.85 1785960 Damaged Damaged Damaged
Table 3 Correlation between The Effect of Waves and Asphalt Mix Condition on The Slope of 1 : 6

Protective layer Condition

T (s) H (m) P (kg/m.s2) Sedimentary Limestone Coral Reef
5,5% 6% 5,5%
0.60 16630 Endured Endured Endured
0.70 24330 Endured Endured Endured
0.80 32345 Endured Endured Endured
0.90 40619 Endured Endured Endured
1.00 49109 Endured Endured Endured
1.10 57783 Endured Endured Endured
1.20 66617 Endured Endured Endured
1.30 75591 Endured Endured Endured
1.00 24604 Endured Endured Endured
8 1.50 63886 Endured Endured Endured
2.00 106627 Endured Endured Endured
1.60 41214 Endured Endured Endured
2.00 71971 Endured Endured Endured
2.50 112831 Endured Endured Endured
3.00 155652 Endured Endured Endured
3.50 199961 Endured Endured Endured
3.80 227126 Endured Endured Endured
2.25 55358 Endured Endured Endured
2.50 74084 Endured Endured Endured
3.00 113208 Endured Endured Endured
3.50 154115 Endured Endured Endured
4.00 196436 Endured Endured Endured
4.50 239910 Endured Endured Endured
5.00 284351 Endured Endured Endured
5.47 326879 Endured Endured Endured
3.10 78114 Endured Endured Endured
4.00 147425 Endured Endured Endured
5.00 229555 Endured Endured Endured
6.00 315570 Endured Endured Endured
7.00 404529 Damaged Endured Endured
7.45 445350 Damaged Endured Endured

Table 2 and Table 3 show the condition of protective layer that made by aggregate mixture
material against height and period wave by 1:2 and 1:6 dyke slope.


From this research, it can be concluded the optimum asphalt content for aggregates of
sedimentary rock, limestone, and coral reef are respectively 5.5%, 6% and 5.5%. On the condition of
the slope of the dyke increasingly ramps, a mixture of limestone aggregate material (5.5%) has better
durability than the coral reef. However, the durability of the aggregate material mixture of coral reef
better than the sedimentary rocks. On condition that the steeper of dyke slope, a mixture of aggregate
material sedimentary rock, limestone, and coral reef are able to endure the generated waves force.
Suggestions for further research is to use different variations of rock aggregate from this research so
there is an available of desired alternative rock type.

[1] Führböter, Alfred. Sparboom, Uwe. (1988). Full-Scale Wave Attack Of Uniformly Sloping Sea
Dykes. (161): 2174-2188.
[2] Oumeraci, Hocine. (2010). Hydraulic Performance, Wave Loading and Response of Elastocoast
Revetments and their Foundation. Braunschweig: Leichtweiß-Institut für Wasserbau.

Michael Grashinton Kurniawardhani was born in Jakarta on November 15th 1994. The author
undergraduated from Bina Nusantara University in civil engineering 2016.