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Index

A Dislocation, 94–99, 115, 144, 493


Ammonia synthesis, 420, 441 Ductile and brittle failure, 99, 100, 102, 214
Annealing, 37, 54, 66, 87, 118, 125–127, 137,
193, 200, 250, 500 E
Electrochemical reactions, 222
C Engineering materials, 18, 118, 517
Carbon and alloy steels, 33, 53, 58, 60, 74, 88,
136, 243, 247, 473, 475, 493, 527 F
Casting, 25, 36, 44, 46, 49–52, 126, 154, 303, Failure examples, 8
412, 428, 525 Forging, 23, 49, 54, 57–60, 137
Cathodic protection (CP), 2, 32, 190, 201, 212,
213, 215, 222, 223, 225–227, 236, 263, G
295, 296, 300, 306, 308, 310, 311, 316, Grain boundaries, 87, 96, 97, 99, 100, 115,
332–336, 340 122, 152, 168, 208, 211, 248, 432, 488,
Cladding, 2, 7, 37, 66, 68–71, 189, 529
201, 229, 302–304, 352, 376–378, 385,
460, 496, 506 H
CO2 corrosion, 274, 276, 278, 280, 287, 289, Hardenability, 128, 129, 131, 145, 376, 474
292, 297, 299 Hardness, 7, 9, 14, 24, 53, 71, 106, 108, 109,
Cold cracking, 143–145, 147 126, 128–131, 147, 149, 151, 157, 213,
Corrosion monitoring, 7, 13, 238, 243, 244, 214, 247, 252, 295, 317, 388, 400,
296, 338, 366, 463 406–409, 474, 478, 481, 500, 506, 522,
Corrosion prediction model, 287 530, 533, 539
Corrosion-Resistant Alloys (CRA), Hot cracking, 143, 164, 167
274, 282, 285, 286, 297, 299–303, 308, Hydrogen attack, 2, 238, 261, 380, 383, 385,
310, 317, 318 405, 431, 434, 436, 442, 488
Creep, 3, 4, 21, 23, 24, 31, 32, 51, 98, 100, Hydrogen production, 382
112–116, 152, 250, 258, 259, 370, 378, Hydrotesting, 508
420–422, 424, 426–429, 433, 470,
489–491, 519, 522 I
Crevice corrosion, 189, 193–195, 197, 313, Inspection procedure, 367, 486
314 Intelligent pigging, 339
Crystal structure, 81–83, 85, 87, 95, 120, 144, Intermetallic phases, 173
527, 536
M
D Martensite, 99, 112, 120, 121, 123–126,
Deformation, 53, 54, 57–59, 62, 73, 93–97, 99, 128, 129, 131, 133, 136,
100, 104, 105, 108, 112, 125, 426, 471, 143, 147, 165, 175, 474
506, 530, 537

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017 543


A.K. Lahiri, Applied Metallurgy and Corrosion Control,
Indian Institute of Metals Series, DOI 10.1007/978-981-10-4684-1
544 Index

Material selection, 4–8, 197, 239, 274, 287, R


293, 300, 305, 323, 351, 352, 358, 360, Repair welding, 151, 493, 498, 500
377, 385, 402, 403, 421, 511 Rolling, 23, 36, 47, 50, 54, 55, 59, 60, 64, 69,
Material specification, 36, 38, 100, 387, 428, 71, 72, 74
466, 472
Mechanical properties, 7, 19, 20, 35–38, S
48–50, 59, 71, 87, 98, 107, 125, 126, Solid solution, 32, 84–86, 89, 96, 97, 134, 152,
133, 149, 151, 153, 539 370, 437
Metal dusting, 380, 381, 430–433, 442 Solution annealing, 137, 172, 210, 426, 541
Metallurgical analysis, root cause analysis, 541 Sour service, 36, 148, 157, 285, 406, 409, 493,
Metallurgical degradation, 2, 3, 247, 250, 252, 494, 500
389, 436, 519, 525 Sour system, 317, 318, 400
Stainless steels, 23–28, 33, 36, 45, 47, 53, 58,
N 59, 68, 74–76, 90, 102, 134, 136, 137,
Naphthenic acid, 2, 352–357, 363–365, 366, 142, 163–166, 168, 172, 175, 183, 189,
391–393 191, 193, 196–198, 200–202, 204, 205,
Non-destructive testing, 72, 491 208, 210, 211, 219, 228, 231, 249–251,
Non-ferrous alloys, 45, 125, 163, 184, 258, 282, 297, 299, 302, 314, 364, 367,
283, 409 383, 403, 421, 433, 434, 437, 445, 452,
Normalizing, 37, 118, 127, 145, 500 459, 471, 488, 492, 508, 510, 511, 526,
527
O Stainless steel welding, 164–168
Overhead corrosion, 8, 239, 355, 392, 398, 399 Steel making, 44, 46, 47, 252, 253, 389, 412
Oxidation resistant alloys, 24, 258 Stress corrosion cracking, 2, 7, 11, 28, 107,
147, 201, 202, 205, 208, 238, 240, 250,
P 282, 284, 299, 336, 391, 400, 401, 413,
Passivation, 193, 196, 228, 445, 446, 448, 414, 436, 439, 440, 450, 492, 508, 510,
450–452 536
Pearlite, 52, 89, 118, 120, 121, 123–125, 129, Sulphidation, 352, 353, 360, 361, 367, 383
143, 247, 412 Sulphide stress corrosion cracking, 349
Phase diagram, 83–85, 88, 89, 91, 118, 256 Surface hardening, 135
Pipe making, 65
Pitting, 2, 28, 174, 189, 191, 194–198, 201, T
220, 238, 244, 281, 282, 293, 299, 313, Temper bead welding, 155–157, 500
341, 380, 457, 459, 482, 508, 520, 524
Plant engineering, 7, 103 U
Plant inspection, 458–460, 521 Urea production, 419, 444, 451
Post-weld heat treatment, 3, 14, 409, 541
Pressure vessel code, 105, 157, 409, 410, 465, V
467, 474, 477, 482, 483, 523 Visual inspection, 162, 524

Q W
Quenching, 118, 119, 124, 125, 128–132, 136, Waste heat boilers, 219, 441, 442, 467
137, 172, 371, 372, 500 Welding stress, 401