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ADAMA SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY UNIVERSITY

SCHOOL OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AND COMPUTNG


BSC THESIS DOCUMENTATION
COMMUNICATION STREAM
TITLE: GSM Based Smart Generator Monitoring System in Industry

MEMBERS ID NO.
1. AMANUEL SISAY R/0190/06
2. BEIDE MELAKU R/0297/06
3. TIRSIT GEBREKIDAN R/0153/06
4. SAMUEL LEMMA R/1150/06
5. ABAS SULTAN R/0004/06

Advisor: Dr. K. KAVITHA

Submission Date: June 12,2017


ASTU JUNE 2018

AKNOWLEGMENT
First of all thanks to God for each and every success throughout our project and the entire life as
well. We would like to express our deepest appreciation to all who provided us the possibility to
complete this project. A special gratitude we give to our final year project advisor Dr. K.
KAVITHA for her suggestions on the software simulation and as well as encouraging us for doing
our project. We also want to thank her for the brilliant comments and suggestions that she gave us
when we prepare our project documentation and for helping us to coordinate our project as a whole.
We would also like to thank the Electrical and Computer Engineering department for helping us
on different aspects especially for the electronic components they borrowed us. At last our special
thanks goes to our family for all of the sacrifices that they have made on our behalf.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Contents
AKNOWLEGMENT .................................................................................................................................... ii
LIST OF FIGURES ..................................................................................................................................... vi
LIST OF TABLES ...................................................................................................................................... vii
LIST OF ACRONYMS ............................................................................................................................. viii
ABSTRACT................................................................................................................................................. ix
CHAPTER ONE ......................................................................................................................................... 10
INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................................... 10
1.1 Background of the project ................................................................................................................. 10
1.2 Objectives of the project ................................................................................................................... 11
1.2.1 General objective ....................................................................................................................... 11
1.2.2 Specific objectives ..................................................................................................................... 11
1.3 Statement of the Problem .................................................................................................................. 12
1.4 Methodology ..................................................................................................................................... 12
1.4.1 System development methodology block diagram. ................................................................... 12
1.4.2. System Development Tools ...................................................................................................... 14
1.4.3. Hardware requirement list ......................................................................................................... 14
1.4.4 Software requirement list ........................................................................................................... 14
1.5 Scope of the project .......................................................................................................................... 14
1.6 Significance of the project ................................................................................................................ 15
1.7 Limitation of the project ................................................................................................................... 15
1.8 Thesis Organization .......................................................................................................................... 15
CHAPTER TWO ........................................................................................................................................ 16
LITREATURE REVIEW ........................................................................................................................... 16
2.1 Real World Monitoring Systems....................................................................................................... 17
2.1.1 AKCP Generator Monitoring System ........................................................................................ 18
2.1.2 Supreme Solution ....................................................................................................................... 19
CHAPTER THREE .................................................................................................................................... 21
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION AND CIRCUIT DESIGN ................................................................................ 21
3.1 Overall operation of the project ........................................................................................................ 21
3.2 System description of the project ...................................................................................................... 21
3.2.1 Power supply circuit................................................................................................................... 22

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3.2.2 Temperature Sensor ................................................................................................................... 27


3.2.3 Fuel level and oil level sensor .................................................................................................... 29
3.2.4 12 V DC fan motor..................................................................................................................... 30
3.2.5 GSM Modem ............................................................................................................................. 30
3.2.6 Serial Communication................................................................................................................ 32
3.2.7 PIR sensor .................................................................................................................................. 32
3.2.8 Bluetooth Module (HC-05) ........................................................................................................ 35
3.2.9 Flame Sensor .............................................................................................................................. 36
3.2.10 LED (Light Emitting Diode) .................................................................................................... 38
3.2.11 Resistor .................................................................................................................................... 38
3.2.12 Engine Generator ..................................................................................................................... 39
3.2.13 LCD (liquid crystal display) .................................................................................................... 42
3.2.14 Arduino kit ............................................................................................................................... 43
3.3 Flow chart of the project ................................................................................................................... 45
CHAPTER FOUR....................................................................................................................................... 47
RESULT ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION............................................................................................... 47
4.1 Result analysis .................................................................................................................................. 47
4.1.1 First condition ................................................................................................................................ 47
4.1.2 Second condition ........................................................................................................................ 48
4.1.3 Third condition........................................................................................................................... 49
4.1.4 Fourth condition ......................................................................................................................... 50
4.2 Discussion ......................................................................................................................................... 51
CHAPTER FIVE ........................................................................................................................................ 53
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION .......................................................................................... 53
5.1 Conclusion ........................................................................................................................................ 53
5.2 Recommendations ............................................................................................................................. 53
LIST OF REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................ 55
Appendix A ................................................................................................................................................. 56
Components Description ......................................................................................................................... 56
Appendix B ................................................................................................................................................. 58
Simulation Root Sheets ........................................................................................................................... 58
Appendix C ................................................................................................................................................. 59
Hardware prototype ................................................................................................................................ 59

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Appendix D ................................................................................................................................................. 61
Simulation Code...................................................................................................................................... 61
Code for system 1 ............................................................................................................................... 61
Code for system 2 ............................................................................................................................... 65

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LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1.1 Methodology .............................................................................................................................. 13
Figure 2.1 AKCP Block Diagram ................................................................................................................... 18
Figure 3.1 Block diagram of the project ...................................................................................................... 21
Figure 3.2 Design of power supply circuit ................................................................................................... 22
Figure 3.3 Power supply circuit simulation ................................................................................................. 26
Figure 3.4 LM35 temperature IC ................................................................................................................. 27
Figure 3.5 Temperature sensing circuit ...................................................................................................... 28
Figure 3.6 Oil and fuel level sensing circuit................................................................................................. 29
Figure 3.7 12v DC fan circuit ....................................................................................................................... 30
Figure 3.8 GSM modem and pin configuration........................................................................................... 31
Figure 3.9 Virtual terminal .......................................................................................................................... 32
Figure 3.10 PIR sensor................................................................................................................................. 34
Figure 3.11 Intruder sensing circuit ............................................................................................................ 35
Figure 3.12 Bluetooth Module (HC-05) Pins ............................................................................................... 36
Figure 3.13 Flame Sensor ............................................................................................................................ 37
Figure 3.14 Flame sensing circuit ................................................................................................................ 37
Figure 3.15 LED (Light Emitting Diode) ....................................................................................................... 38
Figure 3.16 Resistors ................................................................................................................................... 39
Figure 3.17 Diesel generator with its components ..................................................................................... 40
Figure 3.18 LCD internal working principle ................................................................................................. 42
Figure 3.19 LCD and pin configuration........................................................................................................ 43
Figure 3.20 Arduino-Uno and pin configurations ....................................................................................... 44
Figure 3.21 Flow chart of the project ......................................................................................................... 46
Figure 3.21 Flow chart of the project ......................................................................................................... 46
Figure 3.21 Flow chart of the project ......................................................................................................... 46
Figure 3.21 Flow chart of the project ......................................................................................................... 46
Figure 3.21 Flow chart of the project ......................................................................................................... 46
Figure 4.1 Temperature result .................................................................................................................... 48
Figure 4.2 Fuel and Oil level sensing ........................................................................................................... 49
Figure 4.3 Intruder Detection System ......................................................................................................... 50
Figure 4.4 Flame sensing system ................................................................................................................ 51
Table A. 1: Arduino UNO .......................................................................................................................... 56
Table A. 2: LM 35 ...................................................................................................................................... 56
Table A.3: PIR Sensor ................................................................................................................................ 56
Table A.4: Bluetooth Module(HC-05) ........................................................................................................ 57
Table A.5: Flame Sensor............................................................................................................................. 57
Table B.1: Root Sheet for system 1 ............................................................................................................ 58
Table B.2: Root Sheet for system 2 ............................................................................................................ 58
Figure C.1 Hardware prototype .................................................................................................................. 59
Figure C.2 Fuel level, Oil level and temperature sensing circuits ............................................................... 59
Figure C.3 Displaying temperature, oil level and fuel level sensing values on LCD .................................... 60
Figure C.4 Light and sound notification ...................................................................................................... 60

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LIST OF TABLES

Table A. 1: Arduino UNO .......................................................................................................................... 56


Table A. 2: LM 35 ...................................................................................................................................... 56
Table A.3: PIR Sensor ................................................................................................................................ 56
Table B.1: Root Sheet for system 1 .......................................................................................................... 565
Table B.2: Root Sheet for system 2 .......................................................................................................... 565

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LIST OF ACRONYMS
3G Third Generation
4G Fourth Generation
AT ATtention
CMOS Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor
DC Direct Current
EB Electronic Beam
EEPCO Ethiopian Electric Power Corporation
GND Ground
GPS Global Positioning System
GSM Global System for Mobile communication
IDE Integrated Development Environment
IR Infrared Radiating
LED Light Emitting Diode
MMS Multimedia Messaging Service
PCB Printed Circuit Board
PIN Personal Identification Number
PIR Passive Infrared Sensor
RPM Revolution Per Minute
SCADA Supplementary Control And Data Acquisition
SIM Subscriber Identity Module
SMS Short Message Services
SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol
SSP Serial Port Protocol
TTL Transistor Transistor Logic
UART/TXD Universal Asynchronous Receive/Transmitter

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ABSTRACT
The electrical power systems are highly non-linear, extremely huge and complex networks. There
is no continuous flow of electrical power to industries at all the time. So, backup generator must
be provided so as to make the system continuous. This Project focuses on the detection of power
failure and takes reflex action to solve the problem with help of GSM communication. The power
failure will be detected by relay, any intruder approaching the generator it will be detected by a
motion sensing system, any sudden fire occurring on and around the generator will be detected by
a flame sensing circuit and it communicates to Arduino to alert the authorized person. In addition
to this, parameters of generator like fuel level, oil level, temperature etc., are monitored and
communicated to authorized person. The acquired parameters are processed and recorded in the
system memory. If there is any abnormality in their process, according to some predefined
instruction and policies that are stored on the embedded system EEPROM then GSM alerts to
concerned person immediately.

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the project
Generator is a device that converts mechanical energy in to electrical energy, the generator works
based on the principle of electromagnetic induction discovered in 1831 by Michael Faraday, a
British scientist. Michael Faraday proposed the Faraday law which states that when you see that
rotation of the coil continually changes the magnetic flux through the coil and therefore generates
a voltage. Generators, motors, transformers, and solenoids each use the principle of
electromagnetism. This is the ability to create electrical current in a conductor by moving a
magnetic field past the conductor. The reverse is also true a magnetic field is produced in a
conductor by passing electrical current through the conductor. In general, the requirements for
electromagnetism are a magnetic field, a conductor, and relative movement between them.

Power generators are necessary in buildings requiring constant source of electricity, such as
airports, huge industries, hospitals and hotels. Losing electricity can be problematic. Power failures
may last from a few minutes to a few weeks depending on the cause and configuration of the
blackout. These occurrences may appear with or without warning and can bring about issues in
terms of inoperable businesses and mechanical failures and even food can spoil in warming
refrigerators. Power is necessary for medical facilities such as hospitals and doctor offices to have
access to it in order to continually maintain care for patients. Lives could be at stake if emergency
scans and tests were unavailable because the facility was without power. Heating and cooling,
lighting systems and life support machinery would all be at loss without these generators.
Commercial and mainstream businesses have also begun purchasing backup emergency generators
to prevent losing customer contact with electrical disruptions.

Permanent standby generators are backup power systems that are installed as part of the facility’s
electrical wiring. These will automatically activate seconds after power failure, and shut itself off
once the utility source is restored to the facility. This is commonly a high rated option if your
facility is in an area that frequently loses electricity because it allows you to keep your vital
equipment running. Many businesses simply cannot afford to wait out another power outage

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Instead, many companies opt to prepare by installing the proper type and capacity of generators in
to protect their companies and investments from devastating losses.

While using these generators a number of challenges are faced by the user such as maintaining the
quality of grid power, asset protections, generator maintenance, capturing real time data, Remote
monitoring of the generator, fuel theft, data collection analysis issues, human dependency etc. The
Generator Monitoring System (GMS) is designed specifically for emergency power generators to
monitor engine operations and detect pre-alarms or failures. This insures us of increased generator
availability and a rapid response to service problems. The GMS monitors the power generators
placed at the remote areas and increases its efficiency by monitoring the various parameters of
generator, reporting critical problems minimizes downtime and maximizes availability by sending
generator failure messages instantly to you for diagnosis and emergency service dispatch if
required. It works on Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) technology. GMS can
monitor various parameters such as external power supply, the battery voltage, temperature status
of the engine, oil level, fuel level, etc. This system provides ideal solution to the problems caused
in situations when a wired connection between a remote appliance/device and the control unit
might not be feasible. The project is aimed to analyzing and testing the use of mobile phones to
remotely monitor an appliance control system through GSM based wireless communication.

1.2 Objectives of the project


1.2.1 General objective
The main objective of this project is to design, simulate and implement a prototype of a smart
generator monitoring system using GSM technology and Arduino microcontroller board.

1.2.2 Specific objectives


The specific objectives of this project are: -

• To design temperature sensing circuit.


• To design oil and fuel level sensing circuit.
• To detect if any intruder is available around the generator area.
• To identify and prevent generator faults.
• To detect any sudden fire occurrence around the generator.

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• To turn off the generator in case of sudden emergency using a switch made by a Bluetooth
module.
• To interface GSM modem with the Arduino.
• To develop the microcontroller code using Arduino software.
• To simulate the whole system using software called proteus.
• To implement a partial section of the system as a prototype.

1.3 Statement of the Problem


Power failure is a series problem in industry and to solve this problem backup generator should be
used. In order to perform their task, which is to continuously support electrical, power backup
generator’s parameters shall not exceed or lower from the predetermined value. In fact, in industry
there is a mechanism to check different parameters of the generator but there is no any method that
informs the concerned body to notify the abnormality that happens on generator. This implies that
the technician or operator have to check each parameter by manual operation and this method takes
much time than the expected and moreover the generator may be damaged if no one checks with
the fixed time. For example, the temperature may exceed the limit value and it will cause the
generator to be burnt not only this but also if the fuel level lowers beyond the normal level, then
the generator will not support any electric power.

1.4 Methodology
1.4.1 System development methodology block diagram.
The system consists of hardware and software. The hardware part involves Arduino Uno R3
microcontroller, motor pump, sensors, Relay and power supply. The software part is the Arduino
board is programmed using the Arduino IDE software used to interface hardware and protues 8.6
professional. The Arduino Based Automatic model atomization of generator monitoring system
will be made in the following steps:
• Complete layout of the whole setup will be drawn inform of a block diagram.
• Sensor will first sense the condition and give its output to the Arduino microcontroller &
displayed on the LCD.
• The generator temperature condition is checked by temperature sensor, depending upon the
condition, fuel and oil level, fun motor is turned on or off.

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The methodology used to address the problem is described in this section.


• Study state problem and objectives of the project.
• The next section describes the procedures used for this study which includes a detailed
account of Arduino microcontroller.
• The ARDIUNO software used for implementing the techniques

Literature review

Collection of data

Analyzing the selected


data

Simulate using Arduino


software

Implementing the
project

Figure 1.1 Methodology

For successful completion of this project some steps have been followed to carry out different
tasks. In the first stage of conducting the project we are going to search for reading materials.
Since we are going to use digital devices, we were expected to refer points on the working
principles, logical characteristics and general operation principle of those components we use on
our project. And we were exploring any related materials that can be used as an equivalent for
those materials that we could not find in the department store and even in the market

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Different literature was revised relating to this project and data had been collected about condition
and control parameter of generator. As a case analysis we were even collecting generator
characteristics from our campus generator operators. Based on this parameters and different
characteristics and conditions of a generator system model was designed. Some software's were
selected to develop the software programming. All the required materials are not available. Sensors
like fuel level, oil level sensors and conditional circuit were replaced by equivalent materials.

1.4.2. System Development Tools


The development tools used in this project are GSM handset with GSM Modem and a driver
circuit, LCD display, fan motor, temperature sensors, level sensors, battery source, diesel
generator, LED, Arduino IDE, and proteus.

1.4.3. Hardware requirement list


Power supply, GSM modem, LCD display, temperature sensors, level sensors, battery source,
engine generator.

1.4.4 Software requirement list


• Arduino IDE
• Proteus 8.6 software

1.5 Scope of the project


The scope of this project is to develop continuous real time condition monitoring and control
system for generator in industry based on GSM. All the sensors were installed remotely to acquire
data from the generator and transfer the data they acquire to Arduino Uno microcontroller board.
A serial port communication is used between Arduino Uno microcontroller based on ATmega2560
and GSM modem.

Finally, the highest priority is given to the software design in order to develop a suitable algorithm
that will promptly interact with the all the sensors, Arduino Uno microcontroller and the GSM
modem.

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1.6 Significance of the project


The project has the following main advantages:
• Generator parameters can be checked easily
• Immediate reflex action can be taken to solve the problem with help of GSM
communication
• Power failure will be detected by relay
• The load on the generator operator will be reduced.
• Increases customer satisfaction
• Lifetime of the generator can be increased
• Generator fuel theft can be detected
• The generator can support continues power to the industry.

1.7 Limitation of the project


The project has the following limitations:

• Only some major parameters are monitored.


• The receiver must reside in a location where a signal with sufficient strength can be
received from a cellular phone network.
• Operation of the monitoring unit is only possible through a cell phone with SMS
messaging capabilities

1.8 Thesis Organization


The thesis is organized into five chapters. The contents of these chapters are summarized as:-
Chapter 1 Introduces overall background information of the system. This includes
Background, problem statement, objective, proposed methodology of the work and
its scope and contribution.
Chapter 2 Focuses revision of related literatures to this system.
Chapter 3 Covers the system design and detail analysis of the system components. This consists
Controlling and monitoring system, explanation system components in
Detail.
Chapter 4 Investigates the observed results and discussions.
Chapter 5 Summarizes the conclusion and recommendation for future work.
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CHAPTER TWO

LITREATURE REVIEW
The American journal of electrical power and energy systems have published a journal on June
3,2015 which was titled as smart generator monitoring system in industry using microcontroller.
This paper was prepared by S. Boopathi, M. Jagadeeshraja, L. Manivannan, M. Dhanasu. The
paper begins by introducing the importance of generators and how they become a very common
in almost every passive infrastructure companies, industries, hospitals, townships etc. while using
these generators a number of challenges are faced by the user such as maintaining the quality of
grid power, asset protections, generator maintenance, capturing real time data, remotely
monitoring of the generator, fuel theft monitoring, data collection analysis issues, human
dependency etc.

On this paper the proposed system has two parts, hardware and software. The hardware
architecture consists of a stand-alone embedded system that is based on Microcontroller a GSM
handset with GSM Modem and a driver circuit. The GSM modem provides the communication by
means of SMS messages. The SMS message consists of commands to be executed. The SMS
message is sent to the GSM modem via the GSM public networks as a text message with a definite
predefined format. Once the GSM modem receives negative signal from the power supply, it sends
the SMS to the user consisting of non-availability of power supply, fuel level, temperature of the
coolant, etc. The user can decide whether to switch the generator on/off and issue the command.
Based on the message, the commands sent will be extracted and executed by the Microcontroller.
In this case, if the power supply resumes, again the user is made to know the status of on-site
generators.

They have used a AT89S51 microcontroller is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit


microcontroller with 8K bytes of in-system programmable Flash memory. The device is
manufactured using Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with
the industry standard 80C51 instruction set and pin out. The on-chip Flash allows the program
memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer.

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There are some sensors that are used on the project like the oil level sensor (R SERIES) which
have a detecting range of 10 – 2000mm, temperature sensor (LM35D) which have a detecting
range of -55 degree Celsius to 150 degree Celsius and Fuel level sensor (PH606) which have a
detecting range of 10mm to 2000mm. GSM SIM900 is used for notification purpose to send a
message for the operators.

The output of their project was to monitor temperature range and fuel, oil level and circuit
breaker status of generator.
Under normal condition
Temperature Range: 100 degree Celsius
Fuel Level: 1000 Liter
Oil Level: 4 Liter
Taking the data of previous fault condition and intimated automatically when they exist their
limit. Regarding taking threshold value, we have to take account the normal fuel, temperature, oil
of generator and associated errors.

There is some difference from our project and the project described by the American journal of
electrical power and energy systems. Those differences make our project much better, our project
have included some features like detecting intruders, detecting fire flame if it exists and has a
Bluetooth module to control the generator this features make our project more advanced. Generator
monitoring systems are becoming very advanced and versatile. Anyone who reads this
documentation can understand how much this system are important that’s why we decided to work
on this sector. There are multinational companies working on not only generator monitoring
system even generator manufacturing companies are working on the monitoring their generator.
Below here we will try to investigate some companies and their work.

2.1 Real World Monitoring Systems


There are a lot of generator monitoring systems in the real world. Those systems use different
means of notifications. Some of them use mobile communication like GSM, 4G, 3G and EGDE
while others use internet for notification with a specified web applications made by them self.
Below here we have tried to show some real world companies producing a generator monitoring
system.

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2.1.1 AKCP Generator Monitoring System


AKCP established in the USA in 1981, created the market for networked temperature,
environmental and power monitoring solutions. Today with over 100 employees and 130,000
installations, AKCP is the world’s oldest and largest manufacturer of SNMP enabled networked
sensors for the data center.

AKCP offers the ideal solution for generator monitoring, from 1 to 1,000 generators we have the
system for you. By deploying the SP2+E device you can connect to the generator RS485 port and
monitor all engine parameters you need. A 3G cellular data modem can be included as an option
to allow alerts to be sent directly from the device. A built-in web interface gives access to data via
the internet. AKCess Pro Server, a world-class central management software, gives you an
overview of multiple sites. Customizable desktops and drill down mapping allow you to present
the data from multiple generators in the format that suits you best.

Figure 2.1 AKCP Block Diagram

The SP2+E has additional 3 sensor ports for connecting any of AKCP’s environmental, power or
security monitoring sensors. For a complete monitoring system, you can add on an ultrasonic fuel
level sensor for monitoring standby fuel tanks. Ensure that your fuel tanks are always full and
ready to go, detect fuel theft and leakages and much more.

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2.1.2 Supreme Solution


Supreme Solutions is a leading global technology solution provider. Over the years, Supreme
Solutions has been an unprecedented leader as a Solution Integrator with a differentiated vertical
approach providing innovation solutions in many domains. With geographical presence spanning
to Africa, Middle East, North America and South Asia, Supreme Solutions truly has Global
presence to meet the requirements of its esteemed clients across the geographies.
One of the services provided by this company is a remote generator monitoring system which will
be discussed below.

Remote Generator Monitoring Solution (iGenSmart)

The Generator Management solution (iGenSmart) utilizes highly sophisticated M2M (Machine to
Machine) cloud platform capabilities to remotely monitor generators, Diesel tanks and provide
360 degree visibility of key parameters including fuel volume, run time, Generator battery Voltage,
GPS location, fuel theft and more.

IGenSmart offers precise generator event and fault reporting, location, fuel level and fuel theft
detection along with various detailed reports and visual analytics to optimize the usage of
generators and sensors that need to be managed. A robust user configurable alarming and
notification engine provides 24/7 monitoring of critical generator parameters to inform
administrators of operating conditions and deliver predictive failure information.

IGenSmart provides complete visibility into operational health of the assets. “The solution
provides the tools needed to remotely monitor and manage critical generator parameters. This
enables users to optimize daily operations, understand where equipment is located, and ensure
higher reliability of the entire fleet of generators. With our remote generator monitoring there is
no need to dedicate personnel to visually monitor the equipment, and there is no need to send
support personnel from site to site to check the status of equipment. If an alert condition is detected,
the appropriate personnel is notified immediately via text message or email with the exact fault
condition, they can then respond appropriately with the correct equipment to minimize down-time.

Key parameters include:

• Fuel level & Fuel Volume.


• Running hours.
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• Fuel Consumption.
• Generator ON/OFF detection.
• Generator Battery Voltage.
• GPS location of Generator.
• RPM & much more.

Key Features Include:

• Immediate alarm sensing & Display (Text and/or Email Alerts).


• Detect unauthorized fuel usage.
• Detailed reports (Fuel & Energy consumption Reports).

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CHAPTER THREE
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION AND CIRCUIT DESIGN
3.1 Overall operation of the project
Our project has two parts, namely; hardware and software. The software section was done using
proteus 8.6 simulation software we have tried to show the overall system using this software. In
the simulation The hardware architecture consists of a stand-alone embedded system that is based
on Microcontroller a GSM handset with GSM Modem and a driver circuit. The GSM modem
provides the communication by means of SMS messages. The SMS message consists of
commands to be executed. The SMS message is sent to the GSM modem via the GSM public
networks as a text message with a definite predefined format. Once the GSM modem receives
negative signal from the EB supply, it sends the SMS to the user consisting of non-availability of
power supply, fuel level, temperature of the coolant, etc.

3.2 System description of the project


The project was being done with the help of the following block diagram.

Figure 3.1 Block diagram of the project

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3.2.1 Power supply circuit


The power supply circuit design is one of the important parts of this project, without a power
supply the electronic devices such as sensors, relay, fan, and LCD display will not function.
Similarly, a wrong power supply design will lead to the damaging of the electronic devices used
in this project.
The main power supplies needed for this project is 5VDC and 12 VDC in order to power on the
relay and other electronic devices. The design is done using a transformer, bridge rectifiers and
filter capacitor. Figure 3.1 shows the sequential process of designing a constant DC power supply.

Figure 3.2 Design of power supply circuit

The input source is 230v single phase with a frequency of 50Hz and this must be converted to 5v
Dc and 12v Dc. The 5v in needed for the LCD and the 12v is for the relay coil and the fan. After
the bridge the 12 Dc is with a high ripple and is not smooth, and a shunt capacitor of 1000uF is a
must to remove this ripple. The choice of the capacitor value needs to fulfil a number of
requirements. In the first case the value must be chosen so that its time constant is very much
longer than the time interval between the successive peaks of the rectified waveform:

𝑅𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑×C ≫ 1𝑓

Where:
𝑅𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑= the overall resistance of the load for the supply
C= Value of capacitor in Farads

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𝑓= the ripple frequency this will be twice the line frequency a full wave rectifier is used shown
below.

𝑓= 2× line frequency
𝑓= 2× 50=100Hz
C ≫ 1𝑓× 𝑅𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑
C ≫ 1100𝐻𝑧×10K
C ≫ 1𝑢𝐹 and we have taken 1000uF
IC 7812 and 705 are voltage regulators which are used to produce a fixed voltage of 5V and 12V.
The 1k and 2.2k ohm resistors are used for safety purpose. The above designed circuit is simulated
on Proteus software and the result is shown below.

The bridge rectifier converts ac voltage to dc voltage. The advantages of bridge rectifier are
➢ The center tap of the transformer secondary is eliminated.
➢ It provides output twice that of center taps circuits for the same secondary voltage.
➢ The peak inverse voltage is one half of the center tapped circuits.

Choosing diode

VREV (reverse voltage in diode) = VP – VF

VP= VO max + 2VF = 12.6 + 2 (0.7) = 14V

VREV = 14V – 0.7V = 13.3V

I (average forward current) =ILDC/2 = 35 mA

IFRM (forward repetitive current) = IL/t2 (t1+t2) = 500mA

Now from datasheet 1N4001 is chosen

For 1N4001 IF (surge) = 30A

𝑉𝑝 14𝑉
So R surge = 𝐼 = 30A = 0.5Ω
𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑔𝑒

Choose standard 1 Ω

Designers recommend;

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C2 = C3 = 0.1µF

For proper output of IC7805

Rectification circuit

Outputs 12VDC for 70mA load

Let’s allow 10 present ripple for the rectified output

Then: - R ripple = 0.1 * 12V

Vmax = 12V + 0.5 (1.2V) = 12.6V

Vmin = 12V – 0.5 (1.2V) = 11.4V

1
T = 50𝐻𝑧 = 20m Sec

𝑉
Ө1 = sin-1(𝑉𝑚𝑖𝑛 ) = 65o
𝑚𝑎𝑥

Ө2 = 90o – 65o = 25o

Ө2
t2 = charging time = ∗ 𝑇 = 1.4m sec
360

T
t1 = discharging time = 2 − 𝑡2 = 8.6m sec

I𝑙 70m A ∗ 8.6m Sec


Then C1= ∗ 𝑡1 = = 500µF
𝑉𝑟 1.2𝑉

Use standard C1 = 470µF

Assume silicon diode

Vf = 0.7V, Vdc = 5v

Vprimary = 220v and

Vr = 10 percent of Vdc = 0.5v

So C1 = (IL*t1)/Vr

But IL= Vdc/RL = 5v/500 = 10mA and

Discharging time (t1) = 0.5T-t2

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t2(charging time) = 1.17msec

T (period) = 1/50

So t1 = 15.5msec

C1 = (10mA*15.5msec)/0.5v = 310nF

Diode selection

Peak = Vmax + 2Vforward

= 5.25 + 2*0.7

= 6.65v

For a full wave rectifiers

V reverse = Vp = 6.65v

I forward(average) = IL/2 = 5mA

IFRM is repetitive surge current

IFRM = (T*IL/2)t2 = 10(15.5 + 1.17)/1.17

= 142.5 mA

From data sheet

IFSM = 10 A

So Rs = Vp/ IFSM = 6.65/10 = 0.667 Ώ = 1 Ώ

12 Volt DC Power Supply

V r = 0.1 * V dc

V max = 14.7 V

V min = 13.3 V

Let I𝑙 = 100m A

𝑉
Ө1 = sin-1(𝑉𝑚𝑖𝑛 ) = 65o
𝑚𝑎𝑥

Ө2 = 90o – 65o = 25o

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2 Ө
t2 = charging time = 360 ∗ 𝑇 = 1.4m sec

T
t1 = discharging time = 2 − 𝑡2 = 8.6m sec

I𝑙 100m A ∗ 8.6m Sec


Then C1= ∗ 𝑡1 = = 615µF
𝑉𝑟 1.4𝑉

Choose standard C1 = 1000µF

Choose C2 = 10µF

𝑉𝑝 Vo max + 2Vf 14.7+1.4


Rs= = = =0.54 Ω
𝐼𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑔𝑒 30A 30

Choose standard R = 1.2 Ω.

Bridge Rectifier Ripple Voltage


Bridge Rectifier Ripple Voltage is calculated using equation 6 where, I is the DC load current in amps,
ƒ is the frequency of the ripple or twice the input frequency in Hertz, and C is the capacitance in Farads.
𝑉𝑟𝑖𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑒= 𝐼𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑𝑓×C. The fundamental frequency of the ripple voltage is twice that of the AC supply
frequency (100Hz) where for the half-wave rectifier it is exactly equal to the supply frequency (50Hz).

Figure 3.3 Power supply circuit simulation

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3.2.2 Temperature Sensor


The most common type of temperature sensors are; thermocouple, thermistor and Temperature
Detectors (RTDs). In this project a thermistor type LM35 temperature sensor is used due to the
following main advantage

1. Lower cost
2. Does not require any external calibration
3. Linear output
4. Precise and accurate output

LM35 is a basic temperature sensor that can be used for experimental purpose. It give the readings
in centigrade (degree Celsius) since its output voltage is linearly proportional to temperature. It
uses the fact that as temperature increases, the voltage across diode increases at known rate
(actually the drop across base-emitter junction of transistor). Its disadvantage is its sluggish
response.

LM35 has the following main features;

i. Calibrated directly in degree Celsius(centigrade).


ii. Linear +10.0 mV/ degree Celsius.
iii. 0.5 degree Celsius accuracy guarantee able (at +25degree Celsius).
iv. Rated for full -55 to +150 degree Celsius range.
v. Suitable for remote application.
vi. Low cost due to wafer-level trimming.
vii. Operates from 4 to 30 volts.
viii. Less than 60 Micro ampere current drain.

Figure 3.4 LM35 temperature IC

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As shown in the figure above the sensor has three terminals.

i. Input source; it ranges from 2.7V to 5V


ii. Ground
iii. Output; analogue voltage output ranges from 201mV to 20v

The code will be written in C code. Before we can get a Celsius reading of the temperature, the
analog output voltage must first be read. This will be the raw value divided by 1024 times 5000.
It is divided by 1024 because a span of 1024 occupies 5V. We get the ratio of the raw value to the
full span of 1024 and then multiply it by 5000 to get the millivolt value. Since the output pin can
give out a maximum of 5 volts (1024), 1024 represents the possible range it can give out. The raw
voltage over this 1024 (value) therefore represents the ratio of how much power the output pin is
outputting against this full range. Once we have this ratio, we then multiply it by 5000 to give the
millivolt value. This is because there is 5000 millivolts in 5 volts.

Once this analog voltage in millivolts is calculated, we then can find the temperature in Fahrenheit
by the equation: ((Celsius * 9)/5 + 32).

Figure 3.5 Temperature sensing circuit

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3.2.3 Fuel level and oil level sensor


Level sensors detect the level of oil and fuel. This type of level sensor is float type angular
potentiometer. The sensor is immersed in oil, fuel and its mechanical output is given to angular
potentiometer. When there is any mechanical movement of float, there is voltage generation
corresponding to mechanical movement of float. That voltage is used for oil and fuel level
monitoring. The level measurement can be either continuous or point values. Point-level sensors
only indicate whether the substance is above or below the sensing point. Generally the latter detect
levels that are excessively high or low. While we are design continuous level sensors measure level
within a specified range and determine the exact amount of oil and fuel in the generator oil and
fuel tank.

𝑅2
Vout= Vin*(𝑅2+𝑅1)

𝑅2 𝑚𝑎𝑥 2.5
Vout max=Vin*(𝑅2 𝑚𝑎𝑥+𝑅1) = 5V*2.5+0.22 = 4.596V

𝑅2 𝑚𝑖𝑛 0
Vout min=Vin*(𝑅2 𝑚𝑖𝑛+𝑅1) = 5V*0+0.22 = 0V

Figure 3.6 Oil and fuel level sensing circuit

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3.2.4 12 V DC fan motor


When the temperature of the generator exceeds the maximum limit, a SMS text will be sent to the
authorized person to take action and based on the command sent from the authorized person the
generator will be forced to be switched off because the temperature is out of its normal working
range. This results in power failure for short period of time. Therefore, in addition to informing
the concerned body that the temperature is too high it is also possible to use dc fan motor for
cooling purpose. The fan will work only when the temperature exceeds the highest limit and is off
for temperatures below the maximum value. The fan motor coil gets its power source from the
Arduino output and the Arduino output connected to the fan contactor coil will be high when the
temperature of the generator is too high.

Figure 3.7 12v DC fan circuit

3.2.5 GSM Modem


A GSM modem is a specialized type of modem which accepts a SIM card, and operates over a
subscription to a mobile operator, just like a mobile phone. From the mobile operator perspective,
a GSM modem looks just like a mobile phone. When a GSM modem is connected to a computer,
this allows the computer to use the GSM modem to communicate over the mobile network. While

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these GSM modems are most frequently used to provide mobile internet connectivity, many of
them can also be used for sending and receiving SMS and MMS messages.

GSM modems can be a quick and efficient way to get started with SMS, because a special
subscription to an SMS service provider is not required. In most parts of the world, GSM modems
are a cost effective solution for receiving SMS messages, because the sender is paying for the
message delivery. A GSM modem exposes an interface that allows applications such as Now SMS
to send and receive messages over the modem interface. The mobile operator charges for this
message sending and receiving as if it was performed directly on a mobile phone. To perform these
tasks, a GSM modem must support an “extended AT command set” for sending/receiving SMS
messages.

Figure 3.8 GSM modem and pin configuration

GSM modules are manufactured by different companies. They all have different input power
supply specs. We need to double check our GSM modules power requirements. The GSM module
requires a 12 volts input, so we feed it using a 12V, 1A DC power supply. It can be noticed that
GSM modules which require 15 volts and some other which needs only 5 volts. They differ with
manufacturers. If we are having a 5V module, we can power it directly from Arduino’s 5V out.

Booting up the GSM module:

1. Insert the SIM card to module and lock the sim holder.

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2. Connect the adapter to module and turn it ON!

3. Now wait for some time (say 1 minute) and see the blinking rate of ‘status LED’ (GSM module
will take some time to establish connection with mobile network)

4. Once the connection is established successfully, the status LED will blink continuously every 3
seconds.

3.2.6 Serial Communication


In this model serial communication from modem to microcontroller are done by connecting Txd
and Rxd pins to modem Rxd and Txd pin respectively. And the third pin of modem is grounded.
In our hardware architecture we have interface modem to microcontroller directly without the use
of Max232 or RS232 and having proper results with proper communication. Max232 or RS232
both are used as logic converter. They both can work in CMOS logic level or TTL logic level. If
microcontroller works in TTL level and GSM Modem works in CMOS level then logic converter
like RS232 is interfaced to bring same logic level. But in our model both Microcontroller and GSM
Modem works in TTL logic level so here we have not used Max232 0r RS232.Direct connections
between modem and microcontroller is done.

Figure 3.9 Virtual terminal

3.2.7 PIR sensor


A passive infrared sensor (PIR) is an electronic sensor that measures infrared (IR) light radiating
from objects in its field of view. They are most often used in PIR based motion detectors. PIR
sensor allow us to sense motion, almost always used to detect whether a human has moved in or
out of the sensor range. They are small, inexpensive, low-power and easy to use and don’t wear
out. PIRs are basically made of piezoelectric sensor which can detect levels of infrared radiation.

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Everything emits some low-level radiation, and the hotter something is, the more radiation is
emitted.
Operating Principle
All objects with a temperature above absolute zero emit heat energy in the form of radiation.
Usually this radiation isn't visible to the human eye because it radiates at infrared wavelengths, but
it can be detected by electronic devices designed for such a purpose. The term passive in this
instance refers to the fact that PIR devices do not generate or radiate any energy for detection
purposes. They work entirely by detecting the energy given off by other objects. PIR sensors don't
detect or measure "heat"; instead they detect the infrared radiation emitted or reflected from an
object. An individual PIR sensor detects changes in the amount of Infrared radiation impinging
upon it, which varies depending on the temperature and surface characteristics of the objects in
front of the sensor. When an object, such as a human, passes in front of the background, such as a
wall, the temperature at that point in the sensor's field of view will rise from room temperature to
body temperature, and then back again. The sensor converts the resulting change in the incoming
infrared radiation into a change in the output voltage, and this triggers the detection. Objects of
similar temperature but different surface characteristics may also have a different infrared emission
pattern, and thus moving them with respect to the background may trigger the detector as well.
PIRs come in many configurations for a wide variety of applications. The most common
models have numerous Fresnel lenses or mirror segments, an effective range of about ten meters
(thirty feet), and a field of view less than 180 degrees. Models with wider fields of view,
including 360 degrees, are available—typically designed to mount on a ceiling. Some larger
PIRs are made with single segment mirrors and can sense changes in infrared energy over thirty
meters (one hundred feet) away from the PIR. There are also PIRs designed with reversible
orientation mirrors which allow either broad coverage (110° wide) or very narrow "curtain"
coverage or with individually selectable segments to "shape" the coverage.
Features:
• Dual Element Sensor with Low Noise and High Sensitivity.
• Supply Voltage – 5V.
• Delay Time Adjustable.
• Standard TTL Output.

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• PIR sensor IC consists of 3 pins-Vcc, Ground and Output

Most PIR modules have a 3-pin connection at the side or bottom. One pin will be ground, another
will be signal and the final one will be power. Power is usually 3 5v DC input but may be as high
as 12v.The PIR has two knobs on the back for adjusting sensitivity and for changing the pulse
time.

Figure 3.10 PIR sensor

Application areas of PIR sensor


• All outdoor Lights
• Lift Lobby
• Multi Apartment Complexes
• Common staircases
• For Basement or Covered Parking Area
• Shopping Malls
• For garden lights

In this project the PIR sensor is used for intrusion detection. It lets us to know whether an intruder
is approaching the generator, the intruder can be either living or non-living with in a range of 10
meters. The system has different reaction for the intruder detection, it has a light, sound, LCD
display and even a text message telling “intruder is Detected” this message is also displayed on
the LCD. Below here we have tried to show the intruder detecting circuit from our simulation
which is done using Proteus 8.6 software.

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Figure 3.11 Intruder sensing circuit

3.2.8 Bluetooth Module (HC-05)


HC-05 Bluetooth Module is an easy to use Bluetooth SPP (Serial Port Protocol) module, designed
for transparent wireless serial connection setup. Its communication is via serial communication
which makes an easy way to interface with controller or PC. HC-05 Bluetooth module provides
switching mode between master and slave mode which means it able to use neither receiving nor
transmitting data.

Specification:
• Model: HC-05
• Input Voltage: DC 5V
• Communication Method: Serial Communication
• Master and slave mode can be switched

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VCC
GND
TXD
RXD
KEY

Figure 3.12 Bluetooth Module (HC-05) Pins

Pin Description
VCC +5V
GND Ground
TXD UART_TXD, Bluetooth serial signal sending PIN
RXD UART_RXD, Bluetooth serial signal receiving PIN
KEY Mode switch input

The Bluetooth module HC-05 is used to send a signal for the microcontroller when a button from
android phone is pressed. This action in turn will made the microcontroller to send a signal to the
pin where the relay is connected which in turn turns the generator on or off during a certain
predefined condition occur.

3.2.9 Flame Sensor


Flame sensor is the most sensitive to ordinary light that is why its reaction is generally used as
flame alarm purposes. This module can detect flame or wavelength in 760 nm to 1100 nm range
of light source. Small plate output interface can and single chip can be directly connected to the
microcomputer IO port. The sensor and flame should keep a certain distance to avoid high
temperature damage to the sensor. The shortest test distance is 80 cm, if the flame is bigger, test it
with farther distance. The detection angle is 60 degrees so the flame spectrum is especially
sensitive. The detection angle is 60 degrees so the flame spectrum is especially sensitive.
Specifications:
• On-board LM393 voltage comparator chip and infrared sensing probe.
• Support 5V/3.3V voltage input.
• On-board signal output indication, output effective signal is high level, and the same

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time the indicator light up, output signal can directly connect with microcontroller IO.
• Signal detection sensitivity can be adjusted.
• Reserved a line voltage compare circuit (P3 is leaded out).
• PCB size: 30(mm) x15(mm).

Figure 3.13 Flame Sensor

Pin Configuration:
1. VCC
2. Output
3. Ground

Figure 3.14 Flame sensing circuit

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The flame sensor is used to detect a fire flame happening suddenly in the region of the generator
which will be processed by the microcontroller. The microcontroller will send notification signals
to the LCD, LED, speaker and the GSM module.

3.2.10 LED (Light Emitting Diode)


A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor device that emits visible light when an electric
current passes through it. The light is not particularly bright. But in most LEDs it is
monochromatic, occurring at a single wavelength. The output from an LED can range from Red
(at wavelength of approximately 700 nanometers) to blue-violet (about 400 nanometers). In this
project LED is used for notification purpose for the major objectives of the project like:

• When fuel and oil levels are under the threshold value.
• When intruder is detected.
• When the temperature is above the threshold value.
• When a fire-flame is detected.
• To show whether the generator is running well or stop suddenly.

Figure 3.15 LED (Light Emitting Diode)

3.2.11 Resistor
A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as
a circuit element. Resistor is a component that resists the flow of direct or alternating electric
circuit. Resistors can limit or divide the current, reduce the voltage, protect an electric circuit, or
provide large amounts of heat or light. They are often color coded by three or four color bands that

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indicate the specific value of resistance. The current through a resistor is in direct proportion to the
voltage across the resistor's terminals. This relationship is represented by Ohm's law.

Figure 3.16 Resistors

3.2.12 Engine Generator


Generators are useful appliances that supply electrical power during a power outage and prevent
discontinuity of daily activities or disruption of business operations. Generators are available in
different electrical and physical configurations for use in different applications. In the following
sections, we will look at how a generator functions, the main components of a generator, and how
a generator operates as a secondary source of electrical power in residential and industrial
applications.

It is important to understand that a generator does not actually create electrical energy. Instead, it
uses the mechanical energy supplied to it to force the movement of electric charges present in the
wire of its windings through an external electric circuit. This flow of electric charges constitutes
the output electric current supplied by the generator. This mechanism can be understood by
considering the generator to be analogous to a water pump, which causes the flow of water but
does not actually ‘create’ the water flowing through it. The modern-day generator works on the
principle of electromagnetic induction discovered by Michael Faraday in 1831-32. Faraday
discovered that the above flow of electric charges could be induced by moving an electrical
conductor, such as a wire that contains electric charges, in a magnetic field. This movement creates
a voltage difference between the two ends of the wire or electrical conductor, which in turn causes
the electric charges to flow, thus generating electric current.

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Figure 3.17 Diesel generator with its components

3.2.12.1 Main components of a generator


The main components of an electric generator can be broadly classified as follows;

1. Engine
The engine is the source of the input mechanical energy to the generator. The size of the engine
is directly proportional to the maximum power output the generator can supply.
2. Alternator
The alternator, also known as the ‘genhead’, is the part of the generator that produces the electrical
output from the mechanical input supplied by the engine. It contains an assembly of stationary and
moving parts encased in a housing. The components work together to cause relative movement
between the magnetic and electric fields, which in turn generates electricty.

3. Fuel System

The fuel tank usually has sufficient capacity to keep the generator operational for 6 to 8 hours on
an average. In the case of small generator units, the fuel tank is a part of the generator’s skid base
or is mounted on top of the generator frame.

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4. Cooling Systems

Continuous usage of the generator causes its various components to get heated up. It is essential
to have a cooling and ventilation system to withdraw heat produced in the process.

5. Lubricating System

Since the generator comprises moving parts in its engine, it requires lubrication to ensure durability
and smooth operations for a long period of time. The generator’s engine is lubricated by oil stored
in a pump. You should check the level of lubricating oil every 8 hours of generator operation. You
should also check for any leakages of lubricant and change the lubricating oil every 500 hours of
generator operation.

6. Battery Charger

The start function of a generator is battery-operated. The battery charger keeps the generator
battery charged by supplying it with a precise float voltage. If the float voltage is very low, the
battery will remain undercharged. If the float voltage is very high, it will shorten the life of the
battery.

7. Control Panel

This is the user interface of the generator and contains provisions for electrical outlets and controls.
The following article provides further details regarding the generator control panel. Different
manufacturers have varied features to offer in the control panels of their units. Some of these are
mentioned below.

(a) Electric start and shut-down – Auto start control panels automatically start the generator
during a power outage, monitor the generator while in operation, and automatically shut
down the unit when no longer required.
(b) Other controls – Phase selector switch, frequency switch, and engine control switch
(manual mode, auto mode) among others.

8. Main Assembly / Frame

All generators, portable or stationary, have customized housings that provide a structural base
support. The frame also allows for the generated to be earthed for safety.

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3.2.13 LCD (liquid crystal display)


A liquid crystal display (LCD) is a thin, flat panel used for electronically displaying information
such as text, images and moving pictures. Its uses include monitor for computers, televisions,
instrument panels gamin device etc. using polarization of light to display objects. A typical liquid
crystal producing degree shift in the polarization of the light passing through when there is no
electric field present. When a voltage is applied, an electric field is produced in the liquid, affecting
the orientation of the molecules. This causes the polarization shift to be reduced. The LCD is used
to display message for operator on the major objectives of this project like:

• Oil and Fuel levels


• Actual Temperature value
• A message whether an intruder is detected or not.
• A message whether a fire flame is detected or not.

Figure 3.18 LCD internal working principle

Liquid crystal material emit no light of their own. For illumination of light-backlight and reflective
method used.

Reflective: it uses external light reflected by reflector behind the display. Example: watch,
calculator, this is achieved by combining a reflector with rear polarizer.

Backlight: light source is from a back light, and viewed from the front. Example: computer display
built in fluorescent tubes above, besides and sometimes behind the LCD.

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3.2.13.1 LCD pin description for interfacing with Arduino


Pin 1 (VSS): is a ground pin and it is certainly needed that this pin should be grounded for LCD
to work properly.

VEE and VDD: are given +5 volts normally. However, VEE may have a potentiometer voltage
divider network to get the contrast adjusted. But VDD is always at +5V.

RS, R/W and E: These three pins are numbered 4, 5 and 6 as shown above. RS is used to make the
selection between data and command register. For RS=0, command register is selected and for
RS=1 data register is selected. R/W gives us the choice between writing and reading. If set
(R/W=1) reading is enabled. R/W=0 when writing.

D0-D7: The 8-bit data pins, D0-D7, are used to send information to the LCD or read the contents
of LCD's internal register.

Figure 3.19 LCD and pin configuration

3.2.14 Arduino kit


Arduino is an open-source platform used for building electronics projects. Arduino consists of
both a physical programmable circuit board (often referred to as a microcontroller) and a piece of
software, or IDE (Integrated Development Environment) that runs on your computer, used to write
and upload computer code to the physical board.

The Arduino platform has become quite popular with people just starting out with electronics, with
ATMEGA 328 data sheet based board. Unlike most previous programmable circuit boards, the
Arduino does not need a separate piece of hardware (called a programmer) in order to load new
code onto the board, It simply use a USB cable. Additionally, the Arduino IDE uses a simplified

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version of C languages, making it easier to learn to program. Finally, Arduino provides a standard
form factor that breaks out the functions of the micro-controller into a more accessible package.

Figure 3.20 Arduino-Uno and pin configurations

3.2.14.1 Power (USB) and pin configuration


Every Arduino board needs a way to be connected to a power source. The Arduino UNO can be
powered from a USB cable coming from your computer or a wall power supplies. It’s not allowed
to use a power supply greater than 20 Volts as you will overpower and thereby destroy the Arduino.
The recommended voltage for most Arduino models is between 6 and 12 Volts. The pins on your
Arduino are the places where it will connect wires to construct a circuit probably in conjunction
with a breadboard and some wire. They usually have black plastic ‘headers’ that allow you to just
plug a wire right into the board. The Arduino has several different kinds of pins, each of which is
labeled on the board and used for different functions.

GND (3): Short for ‘Ground’. There are several GND pins on the Arduino, any of which can be
used to ground the circuit.

5V (4) & 3.3V (5): As we might guess, the 5V pin supplies 5 volts of power, and the 3.3V pin
supplies 3.3 volts of power. Most of the simple components used with the Arduino run happily
off of 5 or 3.3 volts.

Analog (6): The area of pins under the ‘Analog In’ label (A0 through A5 on the UNO) are
Analog In pins. These pins can read the signal from an analog sensor (like a temperature sensor)
and convert it into a digital value that we can read.

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Digital (7): Across from the analog pins are the digital pins (0 through 13 on the UNO). These
pins can be used for both digital input (like telling if a button is pushed) and digital output (like
powering an LED).

PWM (8): the digital pins (3, 5, 6, 9, 10, and 11 on the UNO). These pins act as normal digital
pins, but it can also be used for something called Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM).

AREF (Stands for Analog Reference) (9): Most of the time you can leave this pin alone. It is
sometimes used to set an external reference voltage (between 0 and 5 Volts) as the upper limit
for the analog input pins.

3.3 Flow chart of the project


The flowchart gives a diagram representation of the program algorithm. The system flowchart is
designed as shown below. If there is power absence from this supply, the generator is
automatically started and gives power so that there will be available power. Once it starts its
sensors must be checked continuously because when temperature will be ≥55°c due to the
fault and SMS text will be sent to the authorized person‟s mobile. When the generator works
for a long period of time, the temperature will be high and causes damage so there should be
some mechanism to cool. Two action must be done first SMS text is sent and 12V dc fan
motor will be switched ON. When the oil level is also below 40cm and the fuel level is below
40cm SMS text will be sent.

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start
Turn on the generator

start
Turn on the generator

Read Fuel Level Read Oil Level startRead Read PIR sensor Read Flame
Turn onTemperature
the generator Sensor

Read Fuel Level Read Oil Level Read PIR sensor


Turn on theRead
generator Read Flame
Temperature Sensor
Read Fuel Level Read Oil Level Read PIR sensor

Intruder Read Flame


IsRead
Temp
Fuel Detected
>= 55?
Temperature Sensor
Read Fuel Level
level<40? Read Oil Level Read PIR?sensor

IsRead
Temp Read Flame
Fuel Intruder
Oil Level >= 55?
Temperature Sensor
level<40? Detected
<25? Flame
Fun ON ? Detected
Is Temp ?
Fuel
Oil Level >= 55?
level<40? Fun ON Intruder
<25?
Detected Figure
Read Temp ? 3.21
Is Temp
Fuel
Oil Level >=Fun
55?ON Flow
level<40?
<25? chart of
Read Temp Intruder the
Fun ON Detected
projectFl
End ? ame
Oil Level
<25? Read Temp Detected
?
End Is Temp
>=Temp
Read 55?
Notification through Figure
SMS, light alarm, sound End 3.21 Flow
chart of
alarm and display. Is Temp the
>= 55? project
End
Fun OFF
Notification through
SMS, light alarm, sound Is Temp
alarm and display. >= 55?
Fun OFF
Flame
Detected
FigureIs3.21
TempFlow chart of the project ?
Notification through Fun OFF 46
>= 55?
SMS, light alarm, soundStream
Communication
alarm and display.
Figure
Fun OFF
3.21
ASTU JUNE 2018

CHAPTER FOUR
RESULT ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Result analysis
The overall system contains the sensors listed in the previous chapters with their circuitry as input.
temperature sensor, fuel level sensor, oil level sensor, fault detector relay, PIR sensor and flame
sensor are used as input. whereas the liquid crystal display, to display the parameters, GSM modem
(virtual terminal for simulation), DC fan, light notification and sound notification are used as
output. the GSM modem used in the proteus software is not fully functional as the real physical
device due to some limitations so that an equivalent component is used to receive the transmitted
information from the Arduino i.e. virtual terminal. The fuel level and oil level sensors used in both
simulation and hardware are not actual sensors rather potentiometers are used for level sensing on
the simulation because there is no library for level sensing in the software. Due to some software
simulation limitations we have divided our system into two named as generator monitoring system
1 and generator monitoring system 2 using two different arduino unos. The simulation limitations
are:

• Limited number of pins on arduino uno board.


• Since arduino mega have more pins we want to use it but it doesn’t have a properly
functional library on the proteus software.
• Since ardunio boards compile a single loop at a time except the arduino due, which don’t
have a library on the proteus, the code execution time is very large causing an observable
delay.
• CPU overload.

4.1.1 First condition


The first condition is observed using the temperature sensor. When the temperature is above 55
degrees centigrade, there will be some results which are going to be observed and this results are
listed below:

• The yellow led will glow as a light notification.


• The speaker will make some sound.

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• The fan motor will run.


• The message “Temperature is HIGH” will be displayed on a virtual screen
as an equivalent for GSM module.
• The actual value of the temperature sensed by the sensor will be displayed
on the LCD.

Figure 4.1 Temperature result

4.1.2 Second condition


The second condition is observed using the two potentiometers which acts as a fuel and oil level
sensors. When the fuel and oil level are below 40 cm, there will be some results which are going
to be observed and this results are listed below:

• The red led will glow as a light notification.


• The speaker will make some sound.
• The message “fuel is LOW” and “oil is LOW” will be displayed on a virtual
screen as an equivalent for GSM module.

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• The actual level of the fuel and oil sensed will be displayed on the LCD.

Figure 4.2 Fuel and Oil level sensing

4.1.3 Third condition


The third condition is observed using the PIR sensor. When intrusion is detected by the PIR sensor,
there will be some results which are going to be observed and this results are listed below:

• The red led will glow as a light notification.


• The speaker will sound.
• The message “Intruder Detected” will be displayed on a virtual screen as an
equivalent for GSM module.
• “Intruder Detected” will be displayed on the LCD.

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Figure 4.3 Intruder Detection System

4.1.4 Fourth condition


The third condition is observed using the flame sensor. When fire is detected by the flame sensor,
there will be some results which are going to be observed and this results are listed below:

• The blue led will glow as a light notification.


• The speaker will sound.
• The message “Fire Detected” will be displayed on a virtual screen as an
equivalent for GSM module.
• “Fire Detected” will be displayed on the LCD.

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Figure 4.4 Flame sensing system

4.2 Discussion
In present days, many industries are facing major problems in power failure due to a lot of reasons.
it’s because they have no proper idea about when the generator is available for the absence of
power from the EEPCO. Even after they need to wait until the field is properly monitored. This is
also observed in ASTU (Adama Science and Technology University) some time. Our monitoring
system is designed and tested with a hardware prototype successfully to overcome this issues.

Our generator monitoring system has been developed by integrated features of all the hardware
components used. Presence of every parameters futurity has been reasoned out and placed
carefully, thus contributing to the best monitoring of the generator unit. The system has been tested
to function automatically. The level sensors measure the fuel and oil level of the generator. If the
fuel and oil level is found to be below the desired level, the level sensor sends the signal to the

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arduino board which triggers the output to authorized person through the notification systems we
design which are the light notification, the sound notification and the SMS message through a
GSM mobile network using GSM module and temperature sensor measures the temperature of the
generator. If the temperature is found to above the desired value, the temperature sensor sends
signal to the arduino board which triggers message to authorized person through the notification
system discussed earlier and the fun motor turns on to cool the generator. if an intruder reaches the
area where the generator is located weather it a human or animal it will be detected by the intruder
detection system we design, when such a scenario happens the PIR sensor sends a signal which
will be processed by the arduino board which then triggers message to authorized person throough
the notification systems we have. the last case to discuss is the fire detection mechanism, when a
sudden fire happens to the generator and the area around the generator it will be detected by the
flame sensor then this sensor sends a signal which will be processed by the arduino board which
then triggers message to authorized person through our notification systems.

When the desired fuel and oil level is reached, the system halts on its own failure, the temperature
sensed less than the threshold value and if there is no intruder or a fire we can say the functionality
of the entire system is tested and it is said to be fully functional. The SMS notification system
works on areas with a GSM mobile network at least since it is a minimum possible mobile network
type.

As a case analysis we can point out the time by which one of our campus generator was burnt by
some intruders. If there was a generator monitoring system like we design, first of all the intruder
by itself will be detected, secondly the fire will also be detected and the generator operators or an
assigned person will be notified by our notification systems.

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CHAPTER FIVE
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Conclusion
A generator operator can take a lot of the worry and management overhead of his task away by
implementing monitoring solutions that will alert him when maintenance is due, or something just
not quite right. It allows a greater degree of freedom to an individual and the organization that own
the generator for the management via the notification system developed.

In particular the suggested system will be a powerful, flexible and secure tool that will offer this
service at any time, and from anywhere with the constraints of the technologies being applied. The
embedded controllers are capable of sensing and monitoring the various parameter of generator in
normal and abnormal condition. This proposed system provides the immediate solution for
catastrophic failure of generator using GSM communication. The embedded controller offers a
wide scope of application in the field of remote digital controllers in the diesel generator in
university.

5.2 Recommendations
Any work and investigation on Generator protection is very advantageous and challenging. Based
on the present time, it can be observed that the number of industries is increasing rapidly which
means the need of a backup generator is also increasing. Therefore, demands on electricity will be
high and these will lead to demands of highly sophisticated protection devices, which will be
incorporated in generator protection schemes.
Based on the work done in this project which protecting Generator using Arduino kit, some
improvements need to be made in the future work. It was noticed that use of oil and fuel may not
give exact value since the float may not turn the angular potentiometer at the required position.
Therefore, these sensors should be substituted by another smart sensors to get accurate reading of
oil and fuel level of the generator like ultrasonic method of liquid measurement.
In this project, the generator will be automatically turned OFF if its parameter i.e. oil and fuel level
are out of the predefined limit so that the generator may not be exposed to any damage but this

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causes power brake for a short period of time. Instead of doing this another mechanism should be
designed to fill oil and fuel whenever they are lower than the minimum limit.
The notification through SMS message is feasible only is the authorized person is around a GSM
mobile network coverage area if not it is impossible to communicate with him so, it is
recommended that the monitoring system works with some internet support or if the system
become IOT it will be better.
A limited number of parameters are monitored in our project but we recommend that if the number
of parameters to be monitored increase it is better to know more about the generator remotely, like
the engine speed, the humidity, the working hour etc.

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LIST OF REFERENCES

1. S. Boopathi, M. Jagadeeshraja, L. Manivannan, M. Dhanasu, “smart generator monitoring


system in industry using microcontroller”, American journal of electrical power and energy
systems, June 3,2015.
2. Mallikarjun Sarsamba “The Load Monitoring and Protection on Electricity Power lines
using GSM Network” International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science
and Software Engineering, Volume 3, Issue 9, September 2013 ISSN: 2277 128X
3. K. S. Ahn “Digital Controller of a Diesel Generator using an Embedded System”
International Journal of Information Processing Systems, vol.2, no. 3, (2006).
4. Website: www.PowerTelematics.com
5. http://supremesols.com
6. http://www.akcp.com
7. https://www.monicoinc.com
8. https://www.wikipedia.com
9. https://www.google.com

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Appendix A
Components Description

Table A. 1: Arduino UNO

Microcontroller ATmega328
Operating Voltage 5V
Input Voltage (recommended) 7-9V
Input Voltage (limits) 6-20V
Digital I/O Pins 14 (of which 6 provide PWM output)
Analog Input Pins 6
DC Current per I/O Pin 40 mA
DC Current for 3.3V Pin 50 mA
32 KB (ATmega328) (0.5 KB used by
Flash Memory
bootloader)
SRAM 2 KB (ATmega328)
EEPROM 1 KB (ATmega328)
Clock Speed 16 MHz

Table A. 2: LM 35
No pins Description
1 +5v Input voltage
2 output Output voltage
3 GND Ground

Table A.3: PIR Sensor


No pins Description
1 +5v Input voltage
2 output Output voltage
3 GND Ground

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Table A.4: Bluetooth Module(HC-05)


No pins Description
1 VCC Input voltage
2 GND Ground
3 TXD UART_TXD, Bluetooth serial
signal sending PIN
4 RXD UART_RXD, Bluetooth serial
signal receiving PIN

5 KEY Mode switch input

Table A.5: Flame Sensor


No pins Description
1 +5v Input voltage
2 output Output voltage
3 GND Ground

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Appendix B
Simulation Root Sheets
Table B.1: Root Sheet for system 1

Table B.2: Root Sheet for system 2

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Appendix C
Hardware prototype
Hardware prototype

Figure C.1 Hardware prototype

Fuel level, Oil level and temperature sensing circuits.

Figure C.2 Fuel level, Oil level and temperature sensing circuits

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Displaying temperature, oil level and fuel level sensing values on LCD

Figure C.3 Displaying temperature, oil level and fuel level sensing values on LCD

Light and sound notification

Figure C.4 Light and sound notification

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Appendix D
Simulation Code
Code for system 1
#include <LiquidCrystal.h>

#include <SoftwareSerial.h>

SoftwareSerial SIM900(7, 8);

// initialize the library with the numbers of the interface pins

LiquidCrystal lcd(12,11,10,9,6,5);

//declare variables

int LED_RED = 13;

int LED_YELLOW = 8;

int LED_GREEN = 4;

int Buzzer = 2;

float fuelOut;

float OL;

float fuel;

float oil;

float D;

int pir= A3;

int tempPin=A1;

int fan = 3; // the pin where fan is

int fuelPin=A2;

int oilPin=A4;

int overload=7;

int val=0;

float treshold=4.3;

String textForSMS;

char incoming_char=0;

int temp;

int tempMin = 55; // the temperature to start the fan

int tempMax = 100; // the maximum temperature when fan is at 100%

int fanSpeed;

void setup(){

// set up the LCD's number of columns and rows:

pinMode(13, OUTPUT);

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lcd.begin(20, 4);

lcd.print("T=");

lcd.setCursor(0, 1);

lcd.print("F=");

lcd.setCursor(9, 0);

lcd.print("O=");

lcd.setCursor(9, 1);

Serial.begin(9600);

SIM900.begin(9600);

analogReference(DEFAULT);

pinMode(0,OUTPUT);

pinMode(2,OUTPUT);

pinMode(3,OUTPUT);

pinMode(4,OUTPUT);

pinMode(A1,INPUT);

pinMode(A2,INPUT);

pinMode(A4,INPUT);

pinMode(7,INPUT);

pinMode(pir,INPUT);

void loop()

if((digitalRead(pir)==HIGH)){

Serial.println("Something Detected");

lcd.setCursor(0,2);

lcd.print("Something Detected");

digitalWrite(LED_RED, HIGH);

digitalWrite(Buzzer, HIGH);

if((digitalRead(pir)==LOW)){

lcd.setCursor(0,2);

lcd.print(" ");

digitalWrite(LED_RED, LOW);

digitalWrite(Buzzer, LOW);

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val=digitalRead(overload);

int mytemp [5];

float avrtemp=0;

for (int i=0; i<= 4; i++)

mytemp [i]=analogRead(tempPin);

delay(10);

avrtemp=(mytemp [0]+mytemp [1]+mytemp [2]+mytemp [3]+mytemp [4])/5;

temp = (5*avrtemp*100)/1023;

if(temp < tempMin) { // if temp is lower than minimum temp

fanSpeed = 0; // fan is not spinning

digitalWrite(3, LOW);

digitalWrite(LED_YELLOW, LOW);

if(temp >= tempMin) { // if temperature is higher than minimum temp

fanSpeed = map(temp, tempMin, tempMax, 32, 255); // the actual speed of fan

digitalWrite(3,HIGH);

analogWrite(fan, fanSpeed); // spin the fan at the fanSpeed speed

Serial.print(" , ");

delay(10);

Serial.println("Temperature is HIGH ");

digitalWrite(LED_YELLOW, HIGH);

digitalWrite(Buzzer, HIGH);

delay(10);

else {

// digitalWrite(LED_YELLOW, LOW);

digitalWrite(Buzzer, LOW);

int myfuel [5];

float avrfuel=0;

for (int i=0; i<= 4; i++)

myfuel [i]=analogRead(fuelPin);

delay(10);

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avrfuel=(myfuel [0]+myfuel [1]+myfuel [2]+myfuel [3]+myfuel [4])/5;

OL = analogRead(oilPin);

fuelOut=(5*avrfuel*46)/1023;

oil=(5*OL*15)/1023;

// print result to lcd display

lcd.setCursor(2, 0);

lcd.print(temp,1);

lcd.print("C");

lcd.setCursor(2, 1);

lcd.print(fuelOut,1);

lcd.print("cm");

lcd.setCursor(11, 0);

lcd.print(oil,1);

lcd.print("cm");

// sleep...

delay(10);

SIM900.print("AT+CMGF=1\r");

delay(10);

SIM900.print("AT+CMGS=\"+251918513810\"\r");

delay(10);

if(fuelOut<40){

Serial.println("fuel is LOW ");

digitalWrite(2,HIGH);

delay(10);

else{

digitalWrite(2,LOW);

if(oil <40){

Serial.print(" , ");

delay(10);

Serial.println("Oil is LOW");

delay(10);

if(val==HIGH){

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Serial.println("Generator Working Properly");

digitalWrite(LED_GREEN, HIGH);

if(val==LOW){

Serial.println("Fault Happened On The Generator");

digitalWrite(LED_GREEN, LOW);

Code for system 2


#include <LiquidCrystal.h>

#include <SoftwareSerial.h>

LiquidCrystal lcd(12,11,10,9,6,5);

int relay= 2;

int pir= A1;

int flame = 8;

int LED_RED = 13;

int LED_BLUE = 7;

int SOUND = 3;

char str[2],i;

void setup() {

// put your setup code here, to run once:

Serial.begin(9600);

pinMode(pir,INPUT);

pinMode(flame,INPUT);

pinMode(relay,INPUT);

pinMode(13,OUTPUT);

pinMode(7,OUTPUT);

pinMode(3,OUTPUT);

lcd.begin(16, 2);

void loop() {

// put your main code here, to run repeatedly:

if((digitalRead(pir)==HIGH)){

Serial.println("Intruder Detected");

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lcd.setCursor(0,0);

lcd.print("Intruder Detected");

digitalWrite(LED_RED, HIGH);

digitalWrite(SOUND, HIGH);

delay(50);

if((digitalRead(pir)==LOW)) {

lcd.setCursor(0,0);

lcd.print(" ");

digitalWrite(LED_RED, LOW);

digitalWrite(SOUND, LOW);

delay(50);

if((digitalRead(flame)==HIGH)){

Serial.println("Fire Detected");

lcd.setCursor(0,1);

lcd.print("Fire Detected");

digitalWrite(LED_BLUE, HIGH);

digitalWrite(SOUND, HIGH);

delay(100);

if((digitalRead(flame)==LOW)){

lcd.setCursor(0,1);

lcd.print(" ");

digitalWrite(LED_BLUE, LOW);

digitalWrite(SOUND, LOW);

while(Serial.available())

char ch=Serial.read();

str[i++]=ch;

if(str[i-1]=='a')

Serial.println("Generator stoped");

lcd.setCursor(0,0);

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lcd.print("Generator stoped");

digitalWrite(relay,LOW);

i=0;

delay(100);

if(str[i-1]=='c')

Serial.println("Generator started");

lcd.setCursor(0,0);

lcd.print("Generator started");

digitalWrite(relay,HIGH);

i=0;

delay(100);

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