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10 methods and their purpose/Application

The following are some methods and their purposes or application that we have learned in our
Undergraduate program.

Electromagnetic induction (EM), as the name implies, uses the principle of induction to measure
the electrical conductivity of the subsurface. Unlike conventional resistivity techniques, no
ground contact is required. This eliminates direct electrical coupling problems and allows much
more rapid data acquisition. Because EM instruments provide rapid and easy data collection, they
are often employed as the reconnaissance tools, used to identify anomalies for greater detailing.
There are two categories for which electromagnetic field, and time domain measures decay time
of an electromagnetic pulse induced by a transmitter.

The magnetic method involves the measurement of the earth's magnetic field intensity. Typically
the total magnetic field and/or vertical magnetic gradient is measured. Measurements of the
horizontal or vertical component or horizontal gradient of the magnetic field may also be made.

The magnetic method is typically used to:

— Locate abandoned steel well casings, buried tanks, pipes and metallic debris
— Map old waste sites and landfill boundaries
— Map basement faults and basic igneous intrusive
— Investigate archaeological sites

The gravity method is a non-destructive geophysical technique that measures differences in the
earth’s gravitational field at specific locations.

It has found numerous applications in engineering, environmental and geothermal studies

including locating voids, faults, buried stream valleys, water table levels and geothermal heat
sources. The success of the gravity method depends on the different earth materials having
different bulk densities (mass) that produce variations.
Electrical methods aim to map the electrical resistivity structure of the subsurface. Electrical
resistivity (inverse of electrical conductivity) is a measure of the ability for electrical current to
flow and depends on parameters such as rock type, porosity and permeability, fluid type and
saturation, and temperature. The SI unit of measure for resistivity is the ohm meter.

Reflection seismology (or seismic reflection) is a method of exploration geophysics that uses the
principles of seismology to estimate the properties of the Earth's subsurface from
reflected seismic waves.

 Measurement of seismic wave travel time is one of the most common geophysical
 Seismic exploration is divide into reelection and refraction surveys depending on whether
the predominant portion of seismic wave’s travel horizontal or vertical.

All resistivity methods employ an artificial source of current, which is introduced into the ground
through point electrodes or long line contacts; the latter arrangement is rarely used nowadays.
The procedure is to measure potentials at other electrodes in the vicinity of the current flow.
Because the current is measured as well, it is possible to determine an effective or apparent
resistivity of the subsurface


Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is used to pinpoint the location of buried objects and to map
out stratigraphy. It provides a cross-sectional measurement of the shallow subsurface and unlike
conventional metal detectors, radar can locate both metal and nonmetal objects. The data is
collected along profiles and the results can be displayed in realtime with an attached computer
display unit. This leads to easy and fast interpretation in the field. Further interpretation of the
data can be performed later back in the office if needed.
The borehole gravity meter or gravimeter responds to variations in density. Modern
instruments sense a rock volume that is approximately the same as that investigated by
deep resistivity tools. Unlike the shallower-sensing density log, the borehole gravimeter is
insensitive to wellbore conditions such as rugosity and the presence of casing. Its principal
applications are:

 Through-casing time-lapse monitoring of saturations/fluid contacts in gas reservoirs

 Downhole calibration of surface geophysical mapping of geological structures


Well logging, also known as borehole logging is the practice of making a detailed record (a well
log) of the geologic formations penetrated by a borehole. The log may be based either on visual
inspection of samples brought to the surface (geological logs) or on physical measurements made
by instruments lowered into the hole (geophysical logs). Some types of geophysical well logs can
be done during any phase of a well's history: drilling, completing, producing, or abandoning. Well
logging is performed in boreholes drilled for the oil and
gas, groundwater, mineral and geothermal exploration, as well as part of environmental
and geotechnical studies.

Magnetometry can detect buried ferrous objects such as underground tanks and drums, or
geologic structures such as igneous dikes, that cause local disturbances in the earth's magnetic

 The shape of these magnetic "anomalies" indicates the location and approximate burial
depth of the anomaly sources
 Can be hampered by above-ground metal objects and overhead power lines which
interfere with data collection

Advanced instrumentation, such as continuously-recording "walking" magnetometers,

enable Geophysical Applications to conduct more thorough magnetic surveys than can be
achieved using conventional instrumentation.
Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT)
It is an advanced geophysics method used to determine the sub surface’s resistivity distribution
by making measurements on the ground surface. ERT data are rapidly collected with an
automated multi-electrode resistivity meter. ERT profiles consist of a modeled cross-sectional (2-
D) plot of resistivity (Ω·m) versus depth. ERT interpretations, supported by borehole data or
alternate geophysical data, accurately represent the geometry and lithology and/or hydrology
and/or petrology of subsurface geologic formations.ERT measures resistivity. Resistivity,
measured in Ω·m, is the mathematical inverse of conductivity. It is a bulk physical property of
materials that describes how difficult it is to pass an electrical current through the material.
Resistivity measurements can be made with either an alternating current (AC) or a direct current
(DC). As resistivity measurements are frequency dependent, care must be taken when comparing
resistivity values collected using different techniques. Clay materials, metallic oxides, and sulfide
minerals are the only common sedimentary materials that can carry significant electrical current
through the material itself. As such, the resistivity of most near surface sedimentary materials is
primarily controlled by the quantity and chemistry of the pore fluids within the material. Any
particular material can have a broad range of resistivity responses that is dependent on the level
of saturation, the concentration of ions, the presence of organic fluids (such as non-aqueous
phase liquids, NAPLs), faulting, jointing, weathering, etc. The general principles that ERT is based
on have been in use by geophysicists for almost a century. Recent advances to field equipment
and data processing procedures have made rapid 2D surveys routine and 3D surveys possible.
Old-style 1D resistivity surveys are still common and are useful on many occasions, but encounter
interpretation problems in areas of complex 2D or 3D geology.
Difference between Research methods and
Research techniques
A method would consist in the steps followed to approach a situation. A strategy would consist
in the devices used to make the method attain a specific end. A technique is a way of
accomplishing a task. A strategy is a plan designed for a specific outcome.

Research method
A particular procedure for accomplishing or approaching something, especially a systematic or
established one, a procedure, technique, or way of doing something, especially in accordance
with a definite plan.

A wide range of research methods are used in psychology. These methods vary by the sources
of information that are drawn on, how that information is sampled, and the types of
instruments that are used in data collection. Methods also vary by whether they collect
qualitative data, quantitative data or both.

Research techniques
A way of carrying out a particular task, especially the execution or performance of an
artistic work or a scientific procedure. All research needs a lot of techniques and
dedication from the researcher’s part. Identify all resources which you are familiar that
may provide information assemble your list of resources and begin systematically
exploring them
— Primary Research - Primary Research involves collecting of information that does not
exist, yet. It involves gaining extensive knowledge that can be shared and put to proper

— Secondary Research - On the other side is the Secondary Research where in, existing
data is revised and a summary or a collation is presented.
Difference between Research methods and
Research methodology
Pertains to all those methods, which a researcher employs to undertake research process, to
solve the given problem. The techniques and procedure that are applied during the course of
studying research problem are known as the research method

As its name suggest is the study of methods, so as to solve the research problem. It is the
science of learning the way research should be performed systematically.

Key Differences between Research Method and Research Methodology

 The research method is defined as the procedure or technique applied by the

researcher to undertake research. On the other hand, research methodology is a system
of methods, used scientifically for solving the research problem.
 The research method is nothing but the behavior or tool, employed in selecting and
building research technique. Conversely, research methodology implies the science of
analyzing, the manner in which research is conducted appropriately.

 The research method is concerned with carrying out experiment, test, surveys,
interviews, etc. As against this, research methodology is concerned with learning various
techniques which can be employed in the performance of experiment, test or survey.

 Research method covers various investigation techniques. Unlike, research

methodology, which consists of complete approach aligned towards the attainment of

 Research method intends to discover the solution to the problem at hand. In contrast,
research methodology aspires to apply appropriate procedures, with a view to
ascertaining solutions.

Write at least 20 questions in your subject the investigation of which forms basic
research. Then point out how many of them have already been solved and how
many were found in applications?

I. The universe began with a huge explosion?

This is the best theory that we have as to how the universe began: a point of infinite
density at the beginning of the universe began to expand and created the galaxies, planets,
and stars that we see — still in motion — today. People call this "the Big Bang," though it's
not technically an explosion.
II. Why ozone is depleting?
The answer to this question is that due to excessive emission of carbon dioxide the ozone
is depleting.

III. What is the cure for Obesity?

This issue has been one of the major issue of human life which is not solved Many doctor
has a different perspective for every single human being due to which its difficult to find
out the major cause and every human body has a different act as compared to the other
human body.
IV. Lasers work by focusing sound waves?
Lasers concentrate light waves, not sound waves.

V. What is the cure for the cancer?

The answer to this question is not yet known. The community of doctors are working on
the cure for this disease all over the world. There are different stage es of this disease. It
can be controlled in the early stages but is uncontrolled in the late stages.

VI. Why birds arrange them in > shape while moving in groups?
The answer to this question is that they arrange them in this shape to minimize the air
resistance so that they can fly easily.
The application of this fact is found in our daily life. We make to shapes of our racing cars
and aero planes to minimize the air resistance.

VII. Why smoke always move upward in the atmosphere?

The solution to this problem is that the smoke is less dense than air (atmosphere). As we
know that the less dense material tends to move upward or tends to rise upward above
more dense material.
This fact is also used in the applications like colourful smokes are usually used by military
to mark the locations. They put the smoke box in an area and when this smoke rises in the
atmosphere then they came to know about the location of particular company.
VIII. How long does it take for the Earth to go around the Sun?
It is calculated, about one year.

IX. How magma moves upwards?

The answer to this question is that as the material from subduction are reached at several
depth and as it is converted into magma it become less denser so due to the convection
cells the magma is forced to move upward through week zones.
This fact is found in applications similar to the wind belts

X. Why is sound produced when water is heated?

The answer to this question is that the lower temperature causes the vapor to re condense
into liquid and the bubbles collapse, making a noise. When the water is uniformly hot and
the bubbles make it to the top gradually louder, as bubble production increases, until the
water is so uniformly hot that the bubbles make it to the top without popping.
XI. All radioactivity is man-made?
There's tons of radiation in space, and small amounts of natural radiation are present in
soil, water, and vegetation.
XII. Why it is difficult to walk on loose sand?
The answer to this question is that the sands are unconsolidated which are unable to give
us a reasonable reaction force to walk so we find a difficulty in walking on sands that are

XIII. Do aliens exist in the world or in galaxy?

The answer to this question is not yet known. But scientists are working on this aspect to
investigate the existence of aliens.

XIV. What is precipitation and how it occurs?

Precipitation is the movement of water droplets from atmosphere to ground surface. It
happens when the warmer air carries water vapours and become cold. When enough
water vapours are carried by the air so it cannot carry more so precipitation occurs in the
form of rain.
In the modern world the artificial rain is produced by inserting sodium crystals in the

XV. Why the job market is down all over the world?
The work on this issue is going on for decades but this issue is never solved or can be
solved, Its due to the increase in population of the world due to this it’s been almost
impossible for this issue to be solved.

XVI. Why is every single petroleum reservoir different from another?

The work on this question has been completed, because of the difference between the
pressure, temperature and difference between the organic matter in a certain region.

XVII. Why are there diseases in human life?

The research had been completed, its due to the change in atmosphere and due to the
change in weather.

XVIII. Why does human height change with respect to time?

The research has been completed on this issue, its due to the growth of cells and in the
human body due the increase in growth the structure of the human body changes.

XIX. Why The center of the Earth is very hot.

Scientists have estimated that Earth's core is probably more than 10,000 degrees
Fahrenheit— close to the temperature on the surface of the Sun.
XX. The continents on which we live have been moving their locations for millions of
years and will continue to move in the future?
Plate tectonics describes how the "plates" that form Earth's outermost layer are constantly
moving — but they're moving very slowly. Most move less than a couple inches per year,
according to Pacific Northwest Seismic Network.

.Difference between theory and experiment?

A plausible or scientifically acceptable general principle or body of principles offered to
explain phenomena.
A theory is a contemplative and rational type of abstract or generalizing thinking, or the
results of such thinking. Depending on the context, the results might, for example, include
generalized explanations of how nature works. The word has its roots in ancient Greek,
but in modern use it has taken on several related meanings.
For example, no new evidence will demonstrate that the Earth does not orbit around the
sun (heliocentric theory), or that living things are not made of cells (cell theory), that
matter is not composed of atoms, or that the surface of the Earth is not divided into solid
plates that have moved over geological timescales.

An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis.
Experiments provide insight into cause-and-effect by demonstrating what outcome occurs
when a particular factor is manipulated. Experiments vary greatly in goal and scale, but
always rely on repeatable procedure and logical analysis of the results. There also exists
natural experimental studies.
A child may carry out basic experiments to understand gravity, while teams of scientists
may take years of systematic investigation to advance their understanding of a
phenomenon. Experiments and other types of hands-on activities are very important to
student learning in the science classroom. Experiments can raise test scores and help a
student become more engaged and interested in the material they are learning, especially
when used over time. Experiments can vary from personal and informal natural
comparisons (e.g. tasting a range of chocolates to find a favourite), to highly controlled
(e.g. tests requiring complex apparatus overseen by many scientists that hope to discover
information about subatomic particles). Uses of experiments vary considerably between
the natural and human sciences.
.Importance of theory in basic and applied research?

Theory and basic research:

Theories is at the heart of the scientific process. In simplest terms, observations of a
phenomenon lead to an educated guess about what is causing it or how it works.
Experiments or other forms of research then test this guess or hypothesis. If these guesses
are confirmed, a theory emerges. If it’s a powerful one, it will both explain, telling you why
something is happening in such-and-such a way, and predict, telling you what should
happen next. Theories may be abandoned or modified as researchers learn from both
their successes and their failures.
Basic research, on the other hand, is successful when it discovers new phenomena or new
Ideas of general interest. The general scientific interest is judged in the first instance by
the Discipline in question. But in the long run the promotion of other scientific disciplines
is Essential, and in the last instance the improvement of our general world picture is
decisive. The aim of basic research is theoretical, to improve general understanding. It has
no specific Aim outside of this. But it is, of course, not accidental that improved
understanding of the World increases our ability to act rationally and efficiently. It
improves our grasp of what the World is like and is thus also a basis for developing
efficient technologies. Some degree of Realism with respect to scientific theories is
inherent in basic research in this sense.

Theory and applied research:

Coming up with theories is at the heart of the scientific process. In simplest terms,
observations of a phenomenon lead to an educated guess about what is causing it or how it
works. Experiments or other forms of research then test this guess or hypothesis. If these
guesses are confirmed, a theory emerges. If it’s a powerful one, it will both explain, telling
you why something is happening in such-and-such a way, and predict, telling you what
should happen next. Theories may be abandoned or modified as researchers learn from
both their successes and their failures.
Applied research is a form a non-systematic involving the practical application of science.
It accesses and uses some part of the research communities, accumulated theories,
knowledge, methods, and techniques, for a specific, often state-, business-, or client-driven
purpose. Applied research is contrasted with pure research (basic research) in discussion
about research ideals, methodologies, programs, and projects.[1] Applied research deals
with solving practical problems and generally employs empirical methodologies. Because
applied research resides in the messy real world, strict research protocols may need to be
relaxed. For example, it may be impossible to use a random sample. Thus, transparency in
the methodology is crucial.
Explain the importance of inter-disciplinary research?

Inter Disciplinary Research:

Interdisciplinary research (IDR) is a mode of research by teams or individuals that
integrates information, data, techniques, tools, perspectives, concepts, and/or theories
from two or more disciplines or bodies of specialized knowledge to advance fundamental
understanding or to solve problems whose solutions are beyond the scope of a single
discipline or area of research practice.
· Inter disciplinarians focus on problem or questions that are too complex to be
answered satisfactorily by any one discipline [Some Inter disciplinarians may be guided by
a search for a particular policy or technology requiring input from different perspectives.
Others may search for insights into what a concept means across different realms·.
Inter disciplinarians draw upon the insights of specialized research. Specialized research
is performed by communities of scholars who share a set of guiding questions, concepts,
theories, and methods. Inter disciplinarians evaluate the results of specialized research
Inter disciplinarians utilize multiple theories and methods. They are conscious that all
theories, methods, and disciplines are useful for some purposes but also have weaknesses.
· Inter disciplinarians appreciate that each discipline is characterized by an (evolving)
‘disciplinary perspective’ or way of looking at the world. We should nevertheless be
careful of stereotypes, for members of that discipline will deviate from disciplinary
perspective to varying degrees
· Inter disciplinarians integrate the best elements of disciplinary insights in order to
generate a more comprehensive (and often more nuanced) appreciation of the issue at
hand. (This may come in the form of a new understanding, new product, or new meaning.)
As we shall see below, inter disciplinarians often stress ‘integration’ as the defining
element of inter disciplinarily.
Part of understanding your discipline involves understanding how it relates to other
disciplines. This results in several immediate benefits to your research.
Importance Of Inter Disciplinary Research:
Through interdisciplinary Research we can :
• Discover the value of integrating the study of various academic disciplines suited to
their life-long interests.
• Learn creative solutions to some of today's most challenging problems.
• Become inter disciplinary thinkers who analytically and creatively embraces new
• Develop collaboration skills while working with others who have different
• Are prepared for graduate and professional study, and for careers in new and
emerging fields