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SOCIAL ISSUES

Table of Contents
3.1.1. Samagra Shiksha - Integrated School
1. WOMEN AND CHILD RELATED ISSUES __ 3 Programme _____________________________ 18
1.1. Harassment of Women at Workplace __ 3 3.1.2. The RTE Amendment Act 2019 ________ 18
3.1.3. Program for International Student
1.2. National Database on Sexual Offenders 3 Assessment (PISA) _______________________ 19
3.1.4. Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (KGBV) 19
1.3. Adultery __________________________ 4
3.1.5. Operation Digital Board ______________ 19
1.4. Section 498a of IPC _________________ 4 3.1.6. ASER Annual Education Report ________ 20
3.1.7. Performance Grading Index (PGI) ______ 20
1.5. Paternity Leave ____________________ 4 3.1.8. Happy Schools Project _______________ 21
1.6. The Protection of Children from Sexual 3.1.9. Bharatiya Shiksha Board _____________ 21
Offences (POCSO) Act, 2012______________ 5 3.2. Higher Education __________________ 21
1.7. Draft Child Protection Policy__________ 5 3.2.1. Draft Higher Education Commission of India
(HECI) Bill, 2018 _________________________ 21
1.8. PCPNDT Act 1994___________________ 6 3.2.2. Institutions of Eminence _____________ 22
3.2.3. The Global Initiative on Academic Network
1.9. Adoption in India___________________ 6
(GIAN) Course ___________________________ 22
1.10. Regulating Child Marriage __________ 7 3.2.4. All India Survey on Higher Education
(AISHE) ________________________________ 22
1.11. New Division for Women Safety______ 7 3.2.5. Revitalising Infrastructure and Systems in
1.12. Recent Initiatives Under Nirbhaya Fund 8 Education (RISE) By 2022 __________________ 23
1.12.1. One Stop Centres __________________ 8 3.2.6. National Testing Agency (NTA) ________ 23
1.12.2. Safe City Project ___________________ 8 3.2.7. Consortium for Academic and Research
1.12.3. Mahila Police Volunteer _____________ 8 Ethics _________________________________ 24
3.2.8. Bhasha Sangam Program _____________ 24
2. OTHER VULNERABLE SECTIONS________ 9
4. HEALTH, NUTRITION AND SANITATION 25
2.1. Study on Transgenders ______________ 9
4.1. Health___________________________ 25
2.2. Manual Scavenging _________________ 9 4.1.1. National Health Profile-2018 __________ 25
4.1.2. National Health Resource Repository
2.3. Pradhan Mantri Jan Vikas Karyakaram
(NHRR) ________________________________ 25
(PMJVK) ____________________________ 10 4.1.3. Integrated Health Information Platform _ 26
2.4. Census 2021 to Collect OBC Data _____ 11 4.1.4. National Health Stack _______________ 26
4.1.5. Ayushman Bharat - Pradhan Mantri Jan
2.5. The Trafficking of Persons (Prevention, Arogya Yojana___________________________ 26
Protection and Rehabilitation) Bill, 2018 __ 11 4.1.6. National Health Authority (NHA) _______ 27
4.1.7. Janaushadhi Suvidha - Oxo-Biodegradable
2.6. Prevalence of Bonded Labour in India _ 12
Sanitary Napkin _________________________ 28
2.7. All India Pension Adalat ____________ 13 4.1.8. Scheme for Pharmacovigilance of AYUSH
Drugs __________________________________ 28
2.8. National Trust ____________________ 13 4.1.9. National Action Plan for Drug Demand
2.9. Development and Welfare Board for Reduction (2018-2023) ___________________ 29
Denotified, Nomadic and Semi-Nomadic 4.1.10. WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco30
Communities ________________________ 13 4.1.11. 71st Assembly of WHO _____________ 30
4.1.12. WHO Releases New Global Classification
2.10. Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups in of Diseases _____________________________ 31
Andaman and Nicobar _________________ 14 4.1.13. Delhi Declaration on Digital Health ____ 31
4.1.14. Astana Declaration _________________ 31
2.11. Eklavya Model Residential Schools __ 15 4.1.15. Partners Forum 2018 _______________ 31
2.12. Van Dhan Vikas Kendras ___________ 16 4.1.16. 2nd World Integrated Medicine Forum
2019 __________________________________ 32
3. EDUCATION ______________________ 18
4.2. Nutrition ________________________ 32
3.1. Primary & Secondary Education ______ 18 4.2.1. Guidelines for Severe Acute Malnutrition 32
4.2.2. Poshan Abhiyaan ___________________ 33
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DELHI | JAIPUR | PUNE | HYDERABAD | AHMEDABAD | LUCKNOW 8468022022
4.2.3. Mid-Day Meal Scheme ______________ 34 5.2. Dubai Declaration’ Adopted to Measure
4.2.4. ASHA, ANM and Anganwadi Workers __ 34 Progress of SDGs ________________________ 38
4.2.5. Important Reports in News___________ 35 5.3. World Summit on Accreditation _________ 39
5.4. UN Global Media Compact _____________ 39
4.3. Sanitation _______________________ 36 5.5. South-East Asia Regulatory Network _____ 39
4.3.1. Swachh Survekshan 2019 ____________ 36
5.6. Web-Wonder Women Campaign ________ 39
4.3.2. Darwaza Band Campaign ____________ 37
5.7. Women's Global Development and Prosperity
4.3.3. Swachhata Hi Seva Campaign _________ 37 (W-GDP) Initiative _______________________ 39
5. MISCELLANEOUS __________________ 38 5.8. Good Samaritan Law __________________ 39
5.1. SDG India Index - Baseline Report 2018 __ 38 5.9. Reports and Indexes __________________ 40

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1. WOMEN AND CHILD RELATED ISSUES
Additional Information
1.1. HARASSMENT OF WOMEN AT Criticism of the Act
WORKPLACE • The Act does not cover the agricultural workers
and armed forces.
Why in news? • It is not a gender-neutral legislation and protects
The Ministry of Corporate Affairs has amended only women from sexual harassment at workplace.
the Companies (Accounts) Rules, 2014 and has SHe-Box
• It seeks to ensure effective implementation of the
made the disclosure of compliance (under the
Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace
Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace Act) (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act, 2013.
mandatory in the Annual Reports of Private • Once a complaint is submitted to the portal, it will
companies. be directly sent to the ICC/LCC of the concerned
The Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace authority having jurisdiction to take action into the
(Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act, 2013 matter.
• It seeks to protect women from sexual • Both, Ministry of Women & Child Development
Ministry as well as complainant, can monitor the
harassment at their place of work. The Act
progress of inquiry.
defines sexual harassment at the workplace
• Users of SHe-Box also have the option of
and creates a mechanism for redressal of interacting with Ministry of WCD through this
complaints. portal, with an assured time-bound response.
• The definition of “aggrieved woman,” who
will get protection under the Act, is extremely 1.2. NATIONAL DATABASE ON
wide to cover all women, irrespective of their
age or employment status and whether in the
SEXUAL OFFENDERS
organized or unorganized sectors, public or Why in News?
private, and covers clients, customers and
domestic workers as well. India recently became the ninth country in the
• The Act covers concepts of quid pro quo world to launch a National Database on Sexual
harassment and hostile work environment as Offenders (NDSO). It was rolled out by the
forms of sexual harassment if they occur in Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) along with
connection with an act or behaviour of sexual Ministry of Women and Child Development.
harassment. Features of NDSO
• An internal complaint committee (ICC) is
mandatory in every private or public • Contains details of around 4.5 lakh people
organisation that has 10 or more employees. convicted of various sexual offences: It will
• The Internal Complaints Committee has been include names and aliases, address,
given powers of a civil court for summoning, photograph, identifiers including PAN and
discovery and production of documents etc. AADHAAR, criminal history, fingerprints and
• Each Internal Committee requires palm prints among others of the people
membership from an NGO or association convicted under charges of rape, Protection
committed to the cause of women. of Children from Sexual Offences Act (POCSO)
and of “eve-teasing”, from 2005 onwards.
• A ‘Local Complaints Committee’ is required to
be constituted in every district by the • Maintained by National Crime Records
respective State government (which will Bureau (under Ministry of Home Affairs): It
receive complaints from organizations having will also track regular updation of records by
less than 10 workers or if the complaint is the State Police.
against the employer himself). • Accessible only to Law Enforcement
o An additional ‘Local Complaints Agencies: for the purpose of investigation and
Committee’ shall also be constituted at monitoring cases of sexual offences and
the block level to address complaints in employee verification.
situations where the complainant does • Would not compromise any individual’s
not have recourse to an Internal privacy: will have details of persons above 18
Complaints Committee or where the years of age and appeals against a conviction
complaint is against the employer himself. will have to be updated by state prisons. An
• It also provides safeguards against false or accused can be tracked until an acquittal on
malicious charges. appeal.

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• Help keep track of released convicts who extend to three years and shall also be liable
have moved from one place to another. to fine.
About online portal–cybercrime.gov.in • The offence is non-bailable.
• Another portal – cybercrime.gov.in was launched
by the government to receive complaints from 1.5. PATERNITY LEAVE
citizens on objectionable online content related to
child pornography, child sexual abuse material, and Why in News?
sexually explicit material such as rape and gang
As per the recent DoPT notification, male
rape.
personnel in the central government who are
single parents to dependent children can now
1.3. ADULTERY avail of child care leave (CCL) of a total 730 days
Why in News? during their entire period of service, a provision
that till now applied only to women employees.
The Supreme Court unanimously struck down
Section 497 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC) that More on News
makes adultery a punishable offence. • Child Care Leave was introduced by the 6th
Court’s Stand Pay Commission.
• Current move comes after the
• SC held that the law was unconstitutional and th
recommendation of the 7 Pay Commission.
fell afoul of Article 21 (Right to life and
A single male government employee has been
personal liberty) and Article 14 (Right to
defined as “an unmarried or widower or
equality). It destroys and deprives women of
divorcee government servant”.
dignity and offends sexual freedom of
women. Paternity Leave in India
• Mere adultery can't be a crime unless it • In Government Sector: The Central
attracts the scope of Section 306 (abetment Government in 1999, by notification under
to suicide) of the IPC. It can be ground for civil Central Civil Services (Leave) Rule 551 (A)
issues including dissolution of marriage but it made provisions for paternity leave –
cannot be a criminal offence. o for a male Central Government employee
• The apex court also declared Section 198(1) (including an apprentice and probationer)
and 198(2) of the CrPC, which allows a o with less than two surviving children
husband to bring charges against the man o for a period of 15 days to take care of his
with whom his wife committed adultery, wife and new born child.
unconstitutional. • In private sector: There isn’t any such law that
mandates private sectors to provide the
1.4. SECTION 498A OF IPC paternity leaves to its employees. Some of the
major MNCs have already taken steps through
Why in News? their HR policies such as Microsoft (12 weeks),
The Supreme Court restored an immediate arrest Infosys (5 days), Facebook (17 weeks), TCS (15
provision in the Section 498A of IPC. days).
Background Related Information
Maternity Benefit (Amendment) Act, 2017
• The Supreme Court last year ordered that • It provides for full paid absence from work for a
‘family welfare committees’ to be set up in period of 26 weeks (earlier 12 weeks) to take care
districts and these committees were of the child.
supposed to act as a vanguard against misuse • The Act is applicable to all establishments
of the anti-dowry harassment provision of employing 10 or more women.
Section 498-A. • For women who are expecting after having 2
• Supreme Court in its latest verdict held that children, the duration of paid maternity leave shall
such panels had no place under the be 12 weeks.
• Maternity leave of 12 weeks to be available to
established criminal procedural law and they
mothers adopting a child below the age of three
were beyond the Criminal Procedure Code. months from the date of adoption as well as to the
Section 498A IPC “commissioning mothers”.
• The Act makes it mandatory for employers to
• It says - Whoever, being the husband or the educate women about the maternity benefits
relative of the husband of a woman, subjects available to them at the time of their appointment.
such woman to cruelty shall be punishable • Any establishment which has 50 or more
with imprisonment for a term which may employees shall have the facility of creche.

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which provides for death penalty for
1.6. THE PROTECTION OF aggravated sexual assault on children,
CHILDREN FROM SEXUAL making it gender neutral and introducing
OFFENCES (POCSO) ACT, 2012 provisions against child pornography and for
enhancing punishment for certain offences.
Why in news? Related Information
The Supreme Court recently directed all high POCSO e-box
courts in the country to constitute judges’ • It is a National Commission for Protection of Child
committees to monitor cases pending under the Rights (NCPCR) initiative to help children report
POCSO Act and set up special child-friendly courts such crimes directly to the Commission.
for trials. • The online complaint management system enables
easy reporting and timely action against the
About POCSO Act
offenders under the POCSO Act, 2012.
• The Act defines a child as any person below National Commission for the Protection of Child Rights
eighteen years of age and regards the best • This statutory body at the National and State level
interests and well-being of the child as being has been set up under the Commission for
of paramount importance at every stage, to Protection of Child Rights Act 2005.
ensure the healthy physical, emotional, • It is under the control of the Ministry of Women &
intellectual and social development of the Child Development, set up in 2007.
child. • It consists of one Chairman and Six other member
• It defines different forms of sexual abuse, (out of which atleast two are woman having
including penetrative and non-penetrative experience in Child Psychology, Education etc.).
assault, as well as sexual harassment and
pornography, and deems a sexual assault to 1.7. DRAFT CHILD PROTECTION
be “aggravated” under certain circumstances, POLICY
such as when the abused child is mentally ill or
when the abuse is committed by a person in a Why in News?
position of trust or authority vis-à-vis the Recently, Ministry of Women and Child
child, like a family member, police officer, Development has released Draft Child Protection
teacher, or doctor. Policy.
• The Act also makes it mandatory to report Highlight of the draft Policy
such cases. It makes it the legal duty of a
• It’s a first policy dedicated to the protection
person aware of the offence to report the
of children, which until now was only a part of
sexual abuse. In case he fails to do so, the
the broader National Child Policy, 2013.
person can be punished with six months’
• Aim: It aims at providing a safe and conducive
imprisonment or fine.
environment for all children through the
• Each district shall designate a Sessions Court
prevention and response to child abuse,
to be a Special Court. It shall be established
exploitation and neglect.
by the state government in consultation with
the Chief Justice of the High Court. The Court National Child Policy 2013
shall, as far as possible, complete the trial
• It recognizes a child to be a person below the
within one year. The trial shall be held in
age of 18 yrs.
camera and in the presence of the child’s
• It recognizes that children are not a
parents or any person trusted by the child.
homogenous group and require different
• The National Commission for Protection of
responses.
Child Rights/ State Commission for
• It aims to give a social safety net to family to
Protection of Child Rights is mandated to
help nurture child.
monitor the implementation of the Act.
• It says that every child has universal,
• It also provides for relief and rehabilitation of
inalienable and indivisible human rights.
the child, as soon as the complaint is made.
• It has four priority areas:
The Special Juvenile Police Unit or the local
o Survival, health and nutrition
police are also required to report the matter
o Education and development
to the Child Welfare Committee within 24
o Child Protection
hours of recording the complaint, for long
o Child Participation
term rehabilitation of the child.
• National Action Plan for Children (NPAC),
• Recently the government has introduced in
2016 links the 2013 Policy to actionable
Lok Sabha amendments to the POCSO Act,
strategies under its priority areas.
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Related Information Related News
Integrated Child Protection Scheme • Ireland passed a Bill (popularly called Savita Law)
• It has been introduced to bridge the gaps in to legalise abortion following a referendum.
previous schemes & their implementation and to
provide safe and secure environment for overall 1.9. ADOPTION IN INDIA
development of children in difficult circumstances,
by the Ministry of Women and Child Why in news?
Development.
• There is a provision for opening up of ‘Open The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of
Shelters’ for children in the need of care and Children) Amendment Bill, 2018 seeks to empower
protection, including the street children, in urban the District Magistrate, instead of the court, to
and semi-urban areas, activities of which includes issue adoption orders to ensure timely processing
access to vocational training, recreation, bridge of adoption cases.
education, etc.
• It provides for setting up of District Child Adoption Rules in India:
Protection Societies (DCPS) by the State • Juvenile Justice (JJ) Act, 2015 has provisions
Governments/ UT Administrations in every district
for adoption of orphaned, abandoned and
of the State responsibility of which includes
identifying families and children at risk to prevent surrendered (OAS) children and also adoption
destitution of children. of children by relatives.
• It provides financial resources to States/UT • All adoptions under the Act must proceed as
Administrations for the effective implementation per the Adoption Regulations framed by
of the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Central Adoption Resource agency (CARA)
Children) Act, 2000. and notified by the Central Government.
• The Act mandates the State Government for
1.8. PCPNDT ACT 1994 recognizing one or more institutions or
organizations in each district as a Specialized
Why in news?
Adoption Agency (SAA) for the rehabilitation
Data released by the Union health ministry has of orphan, abandoned and surrendered
revealed that Haryana has the maximum number children through adoption and non-
of sex determination tests in the country. institutional care.
About the Act
Adoption Regulations as notified in 2017
• The main purpose of enacting the Pre-
Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic • Intercountry and intra-country adoption
Techniques (PCPNDT) Act, 1994 has been to: procedures (including adoption by relatives)
o Ban the use of sex selection techniques have been defined clearly.
before or after conception • CARA will report and facilitate all adoptions
o Prevent the misuse of pre-natal diagnostic under the JJ Act, 2015 through Child Adoption
techniques for sex selective abortions Resource Information & Guidance System
o Regulate such techniques (CARINGS).
• Under this law, all centres which have any • For safeguards, CARA would maintain
equipment which can potentially detect sex of adoption records and ensure post-adoption
foetus pre-conception or pre-natal have to be follow up.
registered with the appropriate authorities. • Currently only biological parents or adoptive
• It prohibits advertisements in relation to such parents are recognized leaving out the step
techniques for detection or determination of parent of any legal responsibility. The
sex. regulation:
• The Act and Rules deal elaborately with the o Defines the step parent legally.
maintenance and preservation of proper o Allows birth certificate of the adopted
records. child to have their name in it.
• The Appropriate Authorities are empowered • District Child protection Unit (DCPU) will
with the powers of Civil Court for search, maintain a panel of professionally qualified or
seizure and sealing the machines, equipments trained social workers.
and records of the violators of law including Eligibility criteria for prospective adoptive
sealing of premises and commissioning of parents (PAPs)
witnesses.
• The prospective adoptive parents shall be
• It was amended in 2003 to improve regulation
physically, mentally and emotionally stable,
of technology capable of sex selection.
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financially capable and shall not have any life- outset. Currently, child marriages are valid, but
threatening medical condition. can be annulled on request.
• Any prospective adoptive parents,
The Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006
irrespective of his marital status and whether
or not he has biological son or daughter, can • It defines child, child marriage, minor, etc.
adopt a child subject to following, namely: and declares all the marriages void, after or
o the consent of both the spouses for the even before the passing of the act at the
adoption shall be required, in case of a option of the contracting party who was a
married couple; child at the time of the marriage, in which
o a single female can adopt a child of any one of the two parties is a minor.
gender; • The district court shall have the power to add
o a single male shall not be eligible to adopt to, modify or revoke any order made for
a girl child; maintenance and custody of child, and if
• No child shall be given in adoption to a couple there is any change in the circumstances at
unless they have at least two years of stable any time during the pendency of the petition
marital relationship. and even after the final disposal of the
Central Adoption Resource Authority (CARA) petition.
• It is a statutory body (under JJ Act) of Ministry of • It lays down punishment for an adult male
Women & Child Development. It functions as the marrying a minor or someone who promotes
nodal body for adoption of Indian children and is or solemnizes such a marriage.
mandated to monitor and regulate in-country and
• Notwithstanding anything contained in the
inter-country adoptions.
Code of Criminal Procedure, an offence
• CARA is designated as the Central Authority to
deal with inter-country adoptions in accordance punishable under this Act shall be cognizable
with the provisions of the Hague Convention on and non-bailable.
Inter-country Adoption, 1993, ratified by India in • The State Government shall, by notification,
2003. appoint for the whole State, or part of state,
• CARA primarily deals with adoption of orphan, an officer or officers to be known as the Child
abandoned and surrendered children through its Marriage Prohibition Officer having
associated /recognised adoption agencies. jurisdiction over the area or areas specified in
Child Adoption Resource Information & Guidance the notification.
System (CARINGS)
• Other laws that may provide protection to a
• It is an e-governance measure to facilitate child
adoption.
child bride include the Juvenile Justice (Care
• It is a centralized data bank of adoptable children and Protection of Children) Act, 2000, the
and PAPs. Domestic Violence Act, 2005, and the
Related Information Protection of Children from Sexual Offences
Hague Adoption Convention Act, 2012.
• The Hague Convention of 1993 on Protection of
Children and Co-operation in Respect of 1.11. NEW DIVISION FOR WOMEN
Intercountry Adoption (Hague Adoption
Convention) protects children and their families
SAFETY
against the risks of illegal, irregular, premature or
Why in news?
ill-prepared adoptions abroad.
• The Convention operates through a system of
Recently, Ministry of Home Affairs has created a
national Central Authorities and reinforces the UN new division to address issues related to women
Convention on the Rights of the Child (Art. 21) to safety in comprehensive manner in coordination
uphold the best interest of children. with relevant Ministries/ Departments and State
• It also seeks to prevent the abduction, the sale of, Governments.
or traffic in children. About the Division
• This new Division will also deal with
1.10. REGULATING CHILD o Crimes against SCs &STs.
MARRIAGE o Crimes against children, elderly persons.
o Anti-trafficking Cell.
Why in news? • Matters relating to
o Prison legislation and prison Reforms
The Centre is moving ahead with a proposal to
o All schemes under NIRBHAYA fund.
amend an existing law so as to make all future
o Crime and Criminal Tracking & Network
child marriages in the country invalid from the
System (CCTNS)

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o National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB)
Related Information
• Further, the division would focus to enhance
National Mission for Empowerment of Women
capacity of the existing administrative,
• It is an initiative of the Government of India (GOI)
investigative, prosecution and judicial with a view to empower women socially,
machinery, along with appropriate measures economically and educationally by securing
for rehabilitation of victims and bringing convergence of schemes/programmes of different
attitudinal changes in the society. Ministries/Departments as well as effective
Nirbhaya Fund implementation of various social laws concerning
• It is a dedicated fund set up by Ministry of Finance, women.
in 2013, for implementation of initiatives aimed at • In this endeavour, the Mission seeks to utilise
enhancing the safety and security for women in existing structural arrangements of participating
the country. Ministries, wherever available, and make use of
• It is a non-lapsable corpus fund. Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) as far as
• Ministry of Women and Child Development is the possible.
nodal Ministry to appraise schemes under Nirbhaya • It has a National Mission Authority (NMA) at the
Fund and also to review and monitor the progress apex level under the Chairmanship of the Prime
of sanctioned Schemes in conjunction with the line Minister, which is meant to provide policy
Ministries/Departments. direction to the Mission and enable convergence
• Central Victim Compensation Fund has been across ministries.
created under Nirbhaya, which is a corpus fund to
support States/UTs for their Victim Compensation 1.12.2. SAFE CITY PROJECT
Scheme. This helps in ensuring adequate and
timely support for women survivors of crime and • Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) has
violence. approved a Safe City project for Lucknow at a
total cost of Rs.194.44 crore under the
1.12. RECENT INITIATIVES UNDER Nirbhaya Fund Scheme.
NIRBHAYA FUND • This approval is a part of MHA’s plans to
implement Safe City projects in 8 selected
cities, namely, Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata,
1.12.1. ONE STOP CENTRES
Chennai, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad
Ministry of Women and Child Development has and Lucknow under Nirbhaya Fund with the
approved 100 additional One Stop Centres. purpose of strengthening safety and security
of women in public places.
One Stop Centre (OSC) Scheme
• The project is implemented with collaboration
• It is a sub-scheme under National Mission for of the Ministry of Women and Child
Empowerment of Women being run by Development, Ministry of Urban
Ministry of Women & Child Development. Development, Ministry of Electronic and
• It is aimed at supporting women affected by Information Technology, respective
violence in private and public spaces, within municipal and police commissioners of the
the family, community and at the workplace. cities besides civil society organizations.
• Establishment of OSCs was one of the key
components of Nirbhaya Fund. Every OSC is 1.12.3. MAHILA POLICE VOLUNTEER
integrated with newly operational Women's • The Ministry of Women and Child
Helpline (181). Development in collaboration with the
Services Offered by OSC Ministry of Home Affairs has envisaged
• Emergency response and rescue services.
engagement of Mahila Police Volunteers
• Medical Assistance to women affected by
(MPVs) in the States/UTs who will act as a link
Violence.
• Skilled counsellor to provide Socio-Psychological
between police and community and help
Support/ Counselling. women in distress.
• Assistance to women in lodging FIR. • Haryana is the first state to adopt this
• Temporary shelter to aggrieved women. initiative.
• Legal Aid and Counselling. • For implementing the initiative of Mahila
• Video Conferencing to facilitate speedy and hassle- Police Volunteer, fund will be released out of
free police and court proceedings. Nirbhaya Fund to the States.

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2. OTHER VULNERABLE SECTIONS
in Relation to Issues of Sexual Orientation and
2.1. STUDY ON TRANSGENDERS Gender Identity’ should be applied as a matter of
national law.
Why in news?
• These were published as the outcome of an
National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) for international meeting of human rights groups in
the first time did a study on the conditions of Yogyakarta, Indonesia, in November 2006.
transgenders in India.
2.2. MANUAL SCAVENGING
Findings of the study
Why in news?
• The total population of transgenders
according to 2011 census is 4.8 lakhs. However Recent deaths of manual scavengers in Delhi
various other estimates suggest there are 50 highlights how the practice of manual scavenging
to 60 lakh transgenders in India, but most persists.
keep it a secret to avoid discrimination. Manual Scavenging: Related constitutional and
International provisions:
Efforts taken to improve the situation of
transgenders in India • Sanitation is a State subject.
• National Legal Services Authority versus • The Constitution of India, in conformity with
Union of India: The Supreme Court of India the international position, abolishes
legalized the presence of transgender people untouchability (Art. 17) and prohibits caste-
in 2014, and allowed the legal creation of a based discrimination (Art. 15).
“third gender” category. • Under the Constitution human dignity is an
o The judgement also called for affirmative inalienable right which is part of the
action in education, primary health care, fundamental right to life under Art. 21.
and that transgenders be identified as • It is a universally recognized right, endorsed
beneficiaries of social welfare schemes. by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
• Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) by way of Articles 1, 22 and 23.
Bill, 2016 defined a transgender person and Current law on Manual Scavenging
prohibited discrimination against them.
o Offences like compelling a transgender • The Parliament has enacted the ‘Prohibition
person to beg, denial of access to a public of Employment as Manual Scavengers and
place, physical and sexual abuse, etc. their Rehabilitation Act 2013’.
would attract up to two years’ • It intends to:
imprisonment and a fine. o Eliminate the insanitary latrines.
o It directs Central government to o Prohibit Employment as Manual
constitute a National Council for Scavengers, Hazardous manual cleaning
Transgender headed by the Union of sewers and septic tanks.
Minister of Social Justice and o Survey of Manual Scavengers and their
Empowerment. rehabilitation.
• Important steps taken by states: • The Act thus prohibits dry latrines and all
o Tamil Nadu established a transgender kinds of manual cleaning of excrement as
welfare board in 2008 (West Bengal, well as cleaning gutters, sewers, and septic
Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh and Karnataka tanks without protective gear.
have also established the board). • Under section 8 of this Act, a person violating
o Kerala brought the ‘State Policy for this will be punishable with imprisonment for
Transgenders in Kerala 2015’ to provide up to two years or a fine of up to I2 lakh or
the “right to live with dignity.” It was the both. For any subsequent violations, the
first state to have a transgender policy. imprisonment may extend up to five years
o Odisha is the first state to give and the fine can go up to I5 lakh or both.
transgender people social welfare • The Act also has following provisions for the
benefits. rehabilitation of the identified manual
Related information scavengers
Yogyakarta principles o An initial one-time cash assistance
• Supreme Court has held that the 'Yogyakarta o Scholarship to the children of manual
Principles on the Application of International Law scavenger
9
o Allotment of residential plot and financial Amenities and Socio-economic
assistance for house construction of a parameters were taken up as MCTs. Now,
ready built house the Towns which were found backward in
o Training in a livelihood skill with payment either or both criteria have been taken up
of stipend of at least Rs 3000 per month as MCT.
o Provision for subsidy, along with o Now the population criteria for selection
concessional loans, to at least one adult of cluster of villages has been lowered to
member of the family. 25% population of minority community
• Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment (which was earlier at least 50%).
is responsible for rehabilitation of manual • Funding of the scheme would be from
scavengers and it implements the ‘Self budgetary provision of the Ministry of
Employment Scheme for Rehabilitation of Minority Affairs. The recurring/maintenance
Manual Scavengers’ (SRMS). expenses will be borne by the State
Related information Government/UTs/Organization.
• Bandicoot- India’s first ‘manhole cleaning robot’ is o 80% would be earmarked for projects
an exoskeleton robot which cleans manholes related to education, health and skill
without the need for humans to enter the pit. development.
o 33 to 40% would be specifically allocated
2.3. PRADHAN MANTRI JAN for women centric projects.
VIKAS KARYAKARAM (PMJVK) • The PMJVK would now cover five more
States/UTs namely Himachal Pradesh, Tamil
Why in news? Nadu, Nagaland, Goa and Pondicherry (total
The Multi-sectoral Development Programme 32 States/UTs).
(MsDP) under Ministry of Minority Affairs has been o Minority Concentration Areas of 61
restructured and renamed as Pradhan Mantri Jan districts out of 115 Aspirational districts
Vikas Karyakram (PMJVK). have been covered under PMJVK.
o Unit area of implementation has been
MsDP further broadened by including Minority
• It has been identified as one of the Core of the Core Concentration Districts Headquarters in
Schemes under National Development Agenda of
addition to the minority concentration
NITI Aayog.
Blocks, Minority Concentration Towns and
• The programme was launched in the year 2008-09
in 90 identified Minority Concentration Districts cluster of minority concentration villages.
(MCDs) having at least 25% minority population. • The area to be covered under PMJVK would
• It was designed to address the developmental be 57% more (308 districts) as compared to
gaps/deficits in identified backward minority the existing MsDP (196 districts).
concentration areas by topping up of existing • Monitoring Mechanism:
Centrally Sponsored Schemes of various Central o An online module along with geo-tagging
ministries/departments without any change in the has been included.
norms, guidelines and the funding pattern.
o All implementing agencies are to be
• The projects considered are additional class rooms,
brought under Public Finance
laboratories, school buildings, hostels, toilets,
buildings for Polytechnics, ITIs, Community Health
Management System (PFMS) and its
Centres, Primary Health Centres / Sub-centres, effective use ensured to monitor fund
Anganwadi Centres, Rural Housing etc. utilization has been made in PMJVK.
• It also provides for taking up innovative projects Transformation of Aspirational Districts
which are not covered by any of the existing CSS of • It aims to quickly and effectively transform the
various ministries and these are funded in the ratio chosen 115 districts, with at least one from 28
of 60:40 (90:10 for NE and Hilly States) between states (excluding Goa).
the Centre and States. • The broad contours of the programme are
PMJVK or Restructured MsDP Convergence (of Central & State Schemes),
Collaboration (of Central, State level 'Prabhari'
• The criteria for identification of Minority Officers & District Collectors), and Competition
Concentration Towns (MCTs) and Cluster of (among districts driven by a mass Movement).
Villages has been rationalised and is based on • The states would be the main drivers of this
2011 census. programme while NITI Aayog will anchor it.
o Earlier only those Towns which were • The Key Performance Indicators chosen to
found backward in terms of both in Basic monitor the progress of districts are to be district
specific.

10
• 5 sectors identified to monitor the progress are- responsibility will be taken up by the local
Health & Nutrition, Education, Agriculture and police station.
Water Resources, Basic Infrastructure and • Protection and rehabilitation: It requires the
Financial Inclusion and Skill Formation. central or state government to set up
• The programme includes appointment of Central
Protection Homes. These would provide
and State Government Officers at the level of
shelter, food, counselling, and medical
Additional/Joint Secretary as the “Prabhari” and
Nodal Officers. These officers are to act as a bridge services to victims.
between centre, state and district. • Designated courts will be established in each
district to provide time-bound (within an
2.4. CENSUS 2021 TO COLLECT year) judgement. The bill also provides
penalties for various offences.
OBC DATA
Other Steps taken to combat human trafficking
Why in news?
• India ratified the United Nations Convention
Census 2021 will for the first time collect data on Against Transnational Organised Crimes,
Other Backward Classes (OBC). 2000, including its Protocol to Prevent,
About Census of India Suppress and Punish Trafficking in person.
• The Government of India applies the Criminal
• The responsibility of conducting the decennial Law (Amendment) Act 2013, as well as Section
Census rests with the Office of the Registrar 370 and 370A IPC provides stringent
General and Census Commissioner, India punishment for human trafficking; trafficking
under Ministry of Home Affairs. of children for exploitation in any form
• The Census Act was enacted in 1948 to including physical exploitation; or any form of
provide for the scheme of conducting sexual exploitation, slavery, servitude or the
population census with duties and forced removal of organs.
responsibilities of census officers. • Ujjawala scheme for prevention of trafficking
• For the first time Census was conducted in and rescue, rehabilitation, re-integration and
1872. repatriation of victims of trafficking.
• The 2011 Census collected information in 29 • Apart from this, there many other laws and
categories that included a separate column provisions that protect people from
for Scheduled Caste/Scheduled Tribes. exploitation, like-
o Article 23 (1) of Indian Constitution
2.5. THE TRAFFICKING OF prohibits Trafficking in Human and forced
PERSONS (PREVENTION, labour
PROTECTION AND o The Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act,
1956 for prevention of trafficking for
REHABILITATION) BILL, 2018 commercial sexual exploitation
o Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act,
Why in news?
1976
Lok Sabha passed the Trafficking of Persons Related news
(Prevention, Protection and Rehabilitation) Bill, • Recently the UN Office on Drugs and Crime
2018. (UNODC) has released 'Global Report on
Salient Features of the Anti-trafficking Bill, 2018 Trafficking in Persons 2018'.
• As per the Report, Women and girls make up most
• A National Anti-Trafficking Bureau (NATB) trafficking victims worldwide: Almost three-
will be established for coordinating, quarters of them are trafficked for sexual
monitoring and surveillance of trafficking exploitation, and 35 per cent (women and girls) are
cases. It will also deal with crimes having inter- trafficked for forced labour. Children now account
state ramifications. for 30 per cent of those being trafficked.
• Anti-Trafficking Relief and Rehabilitation About UNODC: It was established in 1997 through a
Committees to be established at the national, merger between the United Nations Drug Control
Programme and the Centre for International Crime
state, and district levels.
Prevention.
• Anti-Trafficking Units: ATUs will deal with the
• UNODC relies on voluntary contributions, mainly
prevention, rescue, and protection of victims from Governments, for 90 per cent of its budget.
and witnesses, and for the investigation and • It created United Nations Convention against
prosecution of trafficking offences. In Transnational Organized Crime (entered into force
districts where an ATU is not functional, this 2003-04), which have supported international law’s

11
ability to combat human trafficking. It was ratified o The financial assistance for rehabilitation
by India in 2011. Its two related protocols are- is 100% funded by the Central
o United Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, Government.
and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially o It also provides for financial assistance to
Women and Children
the States for conducting survey of
o United Nations Protocol against the
Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea, and Air,
bonded labourers.
• In support of enforcing these instruments, the o The release of rehabilitation assistance
UNODC established the United Nations Global has been linked with conviction of the
Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking (UN-GIFT) in accused.
2007. o It provides for creation of a Bonded
Additional tools of international law that include Labour Rehabilitation Fund at District
segments against the trafficking of persons include level by each State at the disposal of the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948); District Magistrate for extending
International Covenants on Civil and Political Rights immediate help to the released bonded
(1966); the United Nations Convention for the
labourers.
Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the
Related Information
Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others (1949) and
• India is a founder member of the International
Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of
Labour Organization (ILO), which came into
Discrimination against Women (1979).
existence in 1919 as part of the Treaty of Versailles
that ended World War I.
2.6. PREVALENCE OF BONDED • Conventions and Recommendations: ILO sets
LABOUR IN INDIA International labour standards in the form of
conventions and recommendations.
Why in news? o Conventions are legally binding international
treaties that may be ratified by member states
In the last week of December 2018, while recommendations serve as non-binding
52 trafficked labourers had been rescued from a guidelines.
ginger farm in Karnataka. • Fundamental conventions: The ILO's Governing
Body has identified eight conventions as
Bonded Labour
"fundamental" or Core. These principles are also
According to the ILO Forced Labour Convention, covered in the ILO's Declaration on Fundamental
1930, forced or compulsory labour is "all work or Principles and Rights at Work (1998).
service which is exacted from any person under • India has now ratified 6 out of 8 core ILO
the threat of a penalty and for which the person conventions.
has not offered himself or herself voluntarily.". • The six core ILO conventions ratified by India are:
o Forced labour convention
Safeguards and measures taken to combat o Abolition of Forced Labour convention
prevalence of bonded labour o Equal Remuneration convention
o Discrimination (Employment and Occupation)
• Constitutional Safeguards: Under the Art 23 it convention relating to removing
provides to eradicate any form of bonded discrimination between men and women in
labour system. employment and occupation.
• Legal Provisions include Bonded Labour o The Minimum Age Convention
System (Abolition) Act, 1976 which abolishes o The Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention
bonded labour system throughout the • Two core ILO conventions which are yet to be
country, Minimum Wages Act (1948), Contract ratified by India are:
o Freedom of Association and Protection of the
Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act, 1970,
Right to Organise Convention
Child Labour (Prohibition & Regulation) Act o Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining
and IPC (Section 370). Convention
Central Sector Scheme for Rehabilitation of • India is a signatory to the International Labor
Organization’s 189th convention, known as the
Bonded Labourer, 2016
Convention on Domestic Workers, but has not
• It is the revamped version of Centrally ratified it yet.
Sponsored Plan Scheme for Rehabilitation of
Bonded Labour (1978). The salient features of
the scheme are as under:
o It provides financial assistance to people
rescued from ostensible sexual
exploitation.
12
the National Trust can hold office for a
2.7. ALL INDIA PENSION ADALAT term of three years from the date of their
Why in news? appointment or until their successors are
appointed, whichever is longer.
The ‘All India Pension Adalat’ was organised by ✓ The Bill amends this provision to fix
the Department of Pension & Pensioners’ Welfare, the tenure of the Chairperson and
Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and members of the Board to three years.
Pensions, Government of India. ✓ Further, the Bill states that the central
About Pension Adalats government will initiate the process
for appointment of the Chairperson
The Pension Adalats are being convened with the or any member of the Board, at least
objective of on-the-spot redressal of pensioners’ six months prior to the expiry of his
grievances within legal framework by bringing on tenure.
a common table the aggrieved pensioner, the o Resignation of Chairperson: The Act
concerned department, the bank or Central states that if the Chairperson or members
Government Health Scheme (CGHS) of the Board resign, they will continue in
representative. office until the appointment of their
Other Initiatives for Pensioners successor is made by the central
government.
• Grievance Portal for the Central Government ✓ The Bill amends this to allow the
pensioners called CPENGRAMS (Centralized Chairperson or members of the Board
Pensioners Grievance Redress And to hold office till their resignation is
Monitoring System) accepted by the central government.
• Bhavishya- an online Pension Sanction & About National Trust
Payment Tracking System • National Trust is a statutory body of the
• Sankalp- to provide a platform for the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment,
pensioners to access opportunities available Government of India.
for useful interventions in the society. It also • The objectives of the National Trust are:
facilitates the Organizations working in these o to enable and empower persons with
areas to select appropriate skill and expertise disability to live as independently and as
from the available pool of volunteers. fully as possible within and as close to
• Anubhav- A platform for retirees to share their community as possible;
experience of working with the Government. o to facilitate the realisation of equal
This facility provides a sense of fulfilment and opportunities, protection of rights and full
satisfaction to the retirees and also create a participation of persons with disability;
data base of useful suggestion and o to extend support to its registered
information. organisations to provide need-based
• Jeevan Praman: It is a biometric enabled services; and
Digital Life Certificate for Pensioners o to evolve procedures for appointments of
Scheme. Pensioners of Central Government, guardians and trustees for persons with
State Government or any other Government disabilities.
organization can take benefit of this facility.
2.9. DEVELOPMENT AND
2.8. NATIONAL TRUST WELFARE BOARD FOR
Why in news? DENOTIFIED, NOMADIC AND
Parliament recently passed the National Trust for SEMI-NOMADIC COMMUNITIES
Welfare of Persons with Autism, Cerebral Palsy, Why in news?
Mental Retardation and Multiple Disabilities The Union Cabinet has given its approval for
(Amendment) Bill, 2018 to amend the tenure of constitution of Development and Welfare Board
the Chairperson and members of the Board of the for Denotified, Nomadic and Semi-nomadic
National Trust. Communities (DNCs).
More on news Details
• The Amendments:
o Tenure of the Board: Under the Act, the • During the British colonial rule, if the local
Chairperson and members of the Board of government had reason to believe that a gang

13
or a tribe had “addicted to systematic
commission of non-bailable offences”, then it
2.10. PARTICULARLY
was registered as criminal tribe under the VULNERABLE TRIBAL GROUPS IN
Criminal Tribes Act, 1871. ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR
• Next came the Criminal Tribes Act (CTA),
1924. Under this act, the local government Why in news?
may establish reformatory schools and The Central government is planning to reimpose
separate criminal tribe children from their Restricted Area Permit (RAP) in the North
parents and guardians and place them in such Sentinel Island where an American was killed by
schools. members of the Sentinelese tribe.
• Nomadic Tribes and Denotified Tribes both
are the ones that were regarded as criminal More on news
tribes under CTA. Most Denotified Tribes are • Due to security reasons, certain areas have
spread across the Scheduled Castes (SC), been declared as Protected Area/Restricted
Scheduled Tribes (ST) and Other Backward Areas where no foreigner can enter or stay
Classes (OBC) categories. without obtaining permit from the competent
• After the Ananthsayanam Ayyangar authorities.
Committee (gave a comprehensive report on • Under the Foreigners (Restricted) Areas
how CTA worked throughout India), the CTA Order, 1963, parts of Sikkim and entire
was repealed in August 1949 and former Andaman & Nicobar Islands have been
“criminal tribes” were denotified in 1952, declared as `Restricted’ Areas.
when the Act was replaced with the Habitual • Under the Foreigners (Protected Areas)
Offenders Act, 1952 of Government of India. Order, 1958, all areas falling between the
• In 2002, Justice Venkatchaliah Commission ‘Inner line’ and the International Border of the
recommended for strengthening the State have been declared as ‘Protected
programmes for economic and educational Areas’.
development of De-Notified Tribes (DNTs). It • Currently Protected Areas are located in- all of
also recommended constituting a special Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim, parts of
commission to look into the needs and Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir,
grievances of the DNTs. Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland, Rajasthan and
• Consequently, a National Commission for Uttarakhand.
Denotified Nomadic and Semi-Nomadic • The North Sentinel island is one of 29 islands
Tribes was constituted in 2005 under the for which government had relaxed the RAP in
chairmanship of Balkrishna Sidke Renke, to order to promote tourism and boost
study the socio-economic conditions of these employment opportunities.
groups.
• Another National Commission for Denotified
Nomadic and Semi-Nomadic Tribes chaired by
Bhiku Ramji Idate was constituted in 2015 for
a three-year period. It submitted its report viz
“Voices of the Denotified, Nomadic & Semi-
Nomadic Tribes” in 2018.
• In consonance with the recommendations of
Idate Commission, the Union cabinet has
approved a permanent Development and
Welfare Board under the Societies
Registration Act, 1860 under the aegis of
Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment.
• Various challenges faced by DNT include:
social discrimination, economic hardships,
declining populations and lack of census data,
large scale exclusions etc.

14
Tribes of Andaman & Nicobar o A small population
o Relatively physically isolated
• There are 6 aboriginal tribes in Andaman & o Primitive Social institutions
Nicobar Islands belonging to two broad o Absence of written language
groups of Negrito and Mongoloid. Except o Relatively simple technology and a slower rate
Nicobarese (Mongoloid), the rest 5 are of change
recognized as Particularly Vulnerable Tribal o Their livelihood depends on food gathering,
Groups (PVTGs) i.e. Sentinelese (Negrito), Non-Timber Forest Produce, hunting, livestock
rearing, shifting cultivation and artisan works.
Great Andamanese (Negrito), Ongs (Negrito),
Efforts to protect PVTGs
Jarawas (Negrito) and Shom Pens • The ANTRI (Andaman and Nicobar Tribal Research
(Mongoloid). and Training Institute) has been set up with an
• Sentinelese: They the only remaining tribe in objective of formulation of policies for tribal
the Andamans to still maintain their isolation integration and protection of PVTGs.
from the rest of the world and live like hunter • The A&N (Protection of Aboriginal Tribes)
gatherers. Regulation, 1956 provides protection to the
o They are connected to the Jarawa on the aboriginal tribes by declaring their traditional areas
basis of physical, as well as linguistic as reserves and prohibited entry of all persons
except those with authorisation.
similarities.
• With regard to Sentinelese tribes, the A&N
o Both Sentinelese men and women do not
Administration has adopted an ‘eyes-on and hands-
wear cloths. off’ policy to ensure that no poachers enter into
• Great Andamanese: The great Andamanese is the island.
a collective term used for 10 different tribes • The Ministry of Tribal Affairs is implementing the
that lived in most of the large islands in the “Development of PVTGs” scheme which covers
Andaman. the 75 identified PVTGs among Scheduled Tribes in
o They are also known for their brave various states/UTs.
History where they fought with bows and • Recently, Odisha government in partnership with
arrows with the English men who tried to UNICEF India has launched "Jiban Sampark" to
occupy their land (The Battle of generate awareness about the development and
welfare initiatives of state government among the
Aberdeen).
Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups of the state.
o Today most tribes are extinct and their
cultural and linguistic identities largely
2.11. EKLAVYA MODEL
been lost. (e.g. their members now speak
mostly Hindi). RESIDENTIAL SCHOOLS
• Jarawa: Jarawas continue to be hunting and
Why in news?
gathering nomadic tribe and are often hostile
to outsiders. Recently Government approved revamping of
o Men fish with bows and arrows in the 'Eklavya Model Residential Schools' set up for
coastal waters while women catch fish Tribal students.
with basket. Eklavya Model Residential Schools (EMRS)
• Onge: They are hunting and gathering tribe • Ministry of Tribal Affairs is implementing
settled at Dugong Creek and South Bay on Eklavya Model Residential Schools (EMRS) in
Little Andaman Island. tribal areas.
• Shompen: The Shompens are primarily • EMRS are set up in States/UTs with grants
hunter-gatherers and also practise a little bit under Article 275(1) of the Constitution of
of horticulture and pig rearing. India.
• Nicobarese: They are largest of tribes and are • Management of each EMRS is under a
primarily horticulturalists. committee which include, among others,
About Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs) reputed local NGOs involved with education.
• In 1973, the Dhebar Commission created Primitive
Tribal Groups (PTGs) as a separate category, who Objectives of EMRS
are less developed among the tribal groups. They
• Provide quality middle and high-level
were later renamed as PVTG.
• States/UTs submit proposals to the Central
education to Scheduled Tribe (ST) students in
Ministry of Tribal Welfare for identification of remote areas.
PVTGs. • Enable them to avail of reservation in high and
• Some basic characteristics of PVTGs are: professional educational courses and in jobs in
o Mostly homogenous government and public and private sectors.

15
• Construction of infrastructure that provides
2.12. VAN DHAN VIKAS KENDRAS
education, physical, environmental and
cultural needs of student life. Why in news?
Coverage of Scheme Ministry of Tribal Affairs proposed to expand Van
• As per existing guidelines at least one EMRS is Dhan Vikas Kendras in Tribal Districts across the
to be set up in each Integrated Tribal country.
Development Agency (ITDA)/ Integrated Van Dhan Scheme (Van Dhan Vikas Karyakram)
Tribal Development Project (ITDP) having 50%
ST population in the area. • It is primarily a component under the
• As per the budget 2018-19, every block with Mechanism for Marketing of Minor Forest
more than 50% ST population and at least Produce (MFP) through Minimum Support
20,000 tribal persons, will have an Eklavya Price (MSP) & Development of Value Chain.
Model Residential School by the year 2022. • It is an initiative targeting livelihood
Status of Tribal Education in India generation for tribals by harnessing the
• Low Literacy Level: According to census 2011 wealth of forest i.e. Van Dhan. The
literacy rate for STs is 59% compared to national programme aims to tap into traditional
average of 73%. knowledge & skill sets of tribals by adding
• Interstate disparity: Wide Interstate disparity technology & IT to upgrade it at each stage
exists across the states e.g. in Mizoram and and to convert into a viable economic activity.
Lakshadweep STs literacy is more than 91% • Under the Van Dhan Scheme, TRIFED will
whereas in Andhra Pradesh it is 49.2%. In fact, in facilitate establishment of MFP-led multi-
most of the north eastern states like Meghalaya,
purpose Van Dhan Vikas Kendras, a cluster of
Mizoram and Nagaland, STs are at par with the
general population. 10 SHGs comprising of 30 tribal MFP gatherers
• Gender disparity: Literacy level among ST men is at each, in the tribal areas.
68.5% but for women it is still below 50% • Each Kendra would act as common facility
Other facts on tribal communities centres for procurement cum value addition
• According to 2011 census, the tribal population in to locally available MFPs and skill-based
India is over 104 million which is spread across 705 handicraft. Training and technical support is
tribes and accounts for 8.6% of country’s provided by TRIFED.
population. • The scheme is being implemented through
• Numerically M.P. has highest tribal population
Ministry of Tribal Affairs as Nodal
(15mn) followed by Maharashtra (10mn), Odisha
Department at the Central Level and TRIFED
and Rajasthan.
• Majority of tribals live in rural areas.
as Nodal Agency at the National Level.
• Sex ratio among tribals is 990/1000 as compared to • At State level, the State Nodal Agency for
national average of 933/1000. MFPs and the District collectors are envisaged
• Livelihood status - 40.6% of tribals live below to play a pivot role in scheme implementation
poverty line vis-a-vis 20.5% non tribals. at grassroot level.
Constitutional provisions for Tribal education • Locally the Kendras are proposed to be
• Article 46 of Indian constitution lays down that, managed by a Managing Committee (an SHG)
the state shall promote, with special care, the consisting of representatives of Van Dhan
educational and economic interests of weaker SHGs in the cluster.
sections of the people, and in particular, of the
• It aims at convergence of various schemes
scheduled caste and scheduled tribes.
• Article 29(1) provides distinct languages script or and initiatives of other Central/State level
culture. This article has special significance for departments/ agency/ institutions.
scheduled tribes. • Besides, partnership models with Banks/
• Article 15(4) empowers the state to make any PSUs/ private sector shall also be explored for
special provision for the advancement of any their active participation and financial
socially and educationally backward classes of assistance under CSR funds.
citizen or for SCs or STs. • The first multipurpose “Van Dhan Vikas
• Article 275(1) provides Grants in-Aids to states Kendra” on pilot basis is being run in
(having scheduled tribes) covered under fifth and
Bijapur district of Chhattisgarh for providing
six schedules of the constitution.
skill upgradation and capacity building
• Article 350A states that state shall provide
adequate facilities for instruction in mother-tongue training and setting up of primary processing
at the primary stage of education. and value addition facility.

16
About TRIFED
• The Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development Federation of India (TRIFED) came into existence in 1987. It is a
national-level apex organization functioning under the administrative control of Ministry of Tribal Affairs, Govt. of
India.
• The ultimate objective of TRIFED is socio-economic development of tribal people in the country by way of
marketing development of the tribal products on which the lives of tribals depends heavily.
Minor Forest Produce (MFP)
• MFP, also known as Non Timber Forest Produce (NTFP), is a major source of livelihood and provides nutrition,
medicinal needs and cash income to a large number of STs who live in and around forests.
• The Mechanism for Marketing of Minor Forest Produce through Minimum Support Price & Development of Value
chain for MFP scheme is designed as a social safety net for improvement of livelihood of MFP gatherers by
providing them fair price for the MFPs they collect.
o The Ministry of Tribal Affairs will be the nodal Ministry for implementation and monitoring of the scheme. The
Minimum Support Price would be determined by the Ministry with technical help of TRIFED.
o The responsibility of purchasing MFP on MSP will be with State designated agencies.
o The scheme supports primary value addition as well as provides for supply chain infrastructure like cold
storage, warehouses etc.
o The scheme is applicable in all States.

17
3. EDUCATION
consultancy services in all areas of
3.1. PRIMARY & SECONDARY education and human resource
EDUCATION development, both within India and
overseas.
3.1.1. SAMAGRA SHIKSHA - • States are expected to bring a single Plan for
INTEGRATED SCHOOL PROGRAMME the entire school education sector.
• The fund sharing pattern for the scheme
Why in news? between Centre and States is 90:10 for the 8
The Government of India has launched Samagra North-Eastern States and 3 Himalayan States
Shiksha - An Integrated Scheme for school and 60:40 for all other States and Union
education. Territories with Legislature. It is 100% centrally
About the Programme sponsored for Union Territories without
• It is an overarching programme for the school Legislature.
education sector which envisages the ‘school’ • Some of the interventions proposed under
as a continuum from pre-school, primary, the scheme include:
upper primary, secondary to senior secondary o Universal Access including Infrastructure
levels Development and Retention;
• It subsumes the three erstwhile centrally o Gender and Equity, Inclusive Education
sponsored schemes i.e. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan and Quality;
(SSA), Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan o Financial support for Teacher Salary;
(RMSA) and Teacher Education (TE). o Digital initiatives;
• The major objectives of the Scheme are o RTE Entitlements including uniforms,
o Provision of quality education and textbooks etc.;
enhancing learning outcomes of students; o Pre-school Education, Vocational
o Bridging Social and Gender Gaps in Education and Sports and Physical
School Education; Education;
o Ensuring equity and inclusion at all levels o Strengthening of Teacher Education and
of school education; Training;
o Ensuring minimum standards in schooling • In interventions under the scheme,
provisions; preference would be given to Educationally
o Promoting vocationalisation of education; Backward Blocks (EBBs), LWEs affected
o Support States in implementation of districts, Special Focus Districts (SFDs), Border
Right of Children to Free and Compulsory areas and the 115 Aspirational districts.
Education (RTE) Act, 2009;
o Strengthening and up-gradation of 3.1.2. THE RTE AMENDMENT ACT 2019
SCERTs/State Institutes of Education and
DIET as nodal agencies for teacher Why in News?
training. The President has given assent to The Right of
• It will be implemented as a Centrally Children to Free and Compulsory Education
Sponsored Scheme by the Centre through a (Amendment) Act, 2019 to abolish the ‘No-
single State Implementation Society (SIS) at Detention’ policy in schools.
the State/UT level. Details
• At the National level, there would be a • The 86th Constitution Amendment Act, 2002
Governing Council headed by Minister of requires the State to provide free and
Human Resource Development and a Project compulsory elementary education to all
Approval Board (PAB) headed by Secretary, children. The Right of Children to Free and
Department of School Education and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009 seeks
Literacy. to give effect to this Amendment under which
• The Department will be assisted by a all children between the ages of 6 and 14
Technical Support Group (TSG) at Educational years have the right to elementary education
Consultants of India Limited (EdCIL). (class 1-8) in a neighborhood school.
o EdCIL is a Mini Ratna Category-1 CPSE • The Section 30 (1) of the RTE Act states that a
under Ministry of Human Resource child cannot be detained in any class till the
Development offering management and completion of elementary education.
18
• In recent years, two expert committees-Geeta provide outcomes of learning and not
Bhukkal (2014) and TSR Subramanian (2016)- outcomes of schooling.
reviewed the no-detention provision in the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and
RTE Act and recommended it be removed or Development (OECD)
be discontinued in a phased manner. • It is an intergovernmental economic organisation
• As per the amended Act, regular examination which aims to promote policies that will improve
the economic and social well-being of people
will be held in Classes 5 and 8 and if a child
around the world.
fails there is a provision to give his/her
• It has 36 member countries and was founded in
additional opportunity to take a re- 1960 by 18 European nations plus the United States
examination within two months. and Canada.
o If s/he fails again in the re-examination, • India is not a member of OECD.
the relevant Central or State Government
may decide to allow schools to detain the 3.1.4. KASTURBA GANDHI BALIKA
child. VIDYALAYA (KGBV)
o But, no child shall be expelled from a
school till the completion of elementary Why in News?
education. A recent Supaul incident of sexual harassment
reveals the problems with KGBV administration in
3.1.3. PROGRAM FOR INTERNATIONAL country.
STUDENT ASSESSMENT (PISA) About the Scheme
Why in news? • Objective: KGBV scheme under Sarva Shiksha
Government of India has decided that India will Abhiyan (SSA) provides residential
participate in the Programme for International elementary educational facilities at upper
Students Assessment (PISA) to be conducted by primary level to girls belonging to Scheduled
the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Castes, Scheduled Tribes, Other Backward
Development (OECD) in 2021. Classes, minority communities and families
below the poverty line in Educationally
More on News
Backward Blocks.
• India had stayed away from the assessment • Present Status: There are 3703 KGBVs, out of
when it was ranked dismally low- 72nd among which 3697 KGBVs are operational, enrolling
74 countries in 2009. India, subsequently, 3.78 lakh girls.
chose to not participate in the 2012 and 2015 • Convergence with other Scheme: Under the
cycle. newly launched Integrated Scheme of School
• Government-run Kendriya Vidyalayas, Education-Samagra Shiksha, provision has
Navodaya Vidyalayas and schools in been made to upgrade the existing KGBVs at
Chandigarh will participate in the test. upper primary level to upto senior secondary
About PISA level in convergence with the erstwhile Girls
• It is an international assessment that Hostel Scheme.
measures 15 years old students’ reading,
mathematics, science literacy and even 3.1.5. OPERATION DIGITAL BOARD
innovative subjects like collaborative problem
Why in News?
solving and money literacy every three years.
• By design, PISA emphasizes functional skills Recently, Ministry of Human Resource
that students have acquired as they near the Development launched Operation Digital Board
end of compulsory schooling. It is (ODB).
a competency-based assessment and not About Operation Digital Board
content-based assessment. • It aims to set up one digital and interactive
• It was first conducted in 2000 and is board per classroom in government and
coordinated by Organisation for Economic government-aided schools by 2022.
Cooperation and Development (OECD). • It will be introduced in schools from class 9th
• It assesses students in 80 countries and onwards as well as in higher education
education system and helps to understand the institutions.
education system and how it can be • It aims to make the learning as well as the
improved. teaching process interactive and popularize
• The result is shown not individually but it flipped learning as a pedagogical approach.
shows a national mean score. Its goal is to
19
• It will work on emerging technologies • Decrease in out of School girls in the age
including Machine Learning (ML), Artificial group 11 to 16.
Intelligence (AI) and Data Analytics and • Stable Private School enrolment indicating
provide ‘Intelligent Tutoring’ to students overall trust in public schooling.
based on their personal requirements. • Improvement in school infrastructure in
• University Grants Commission (UGC) will be terms of girls’ toilet, boundary walls and
the implementing agency of ODB for higher playground
education institutions. • The Early Childhood (0-8 yrs) Education: At
Flipped Learning age 3, two-thirds of children were enrolled in
• It is a pedagogical approach in which the some form of preschool. Enrolment patterns
conventional notion of classroom-based learning is only stabilize at age 8 when over 90% of
inverted, so that students are introduced to the
children are enrolled in primary school.
learning material before class, with classroom time
then being used to deepen understanding through Areas of Concern
discussion with peers and problem-solving • Equity in Learning – State-wise Disparities:
activities. While learning levels are up in most states in
Other digital initiatives for Education Std III and Std V, wide disparity exists in
• SWAYAM: A Web portal where Massive Open
learning levels in the same grade.
Online Courses (MOOCs) will be available free of
cost on all kinds of subjects with a provision of • Only Marginal Improvement in Reading
certificate / credit-transfer. Abilities of Class V and Class VIII students who
• Swayam Prabha: It is a group of 32 DTH channels can read Class II text.
devoted to telecasting of high-quality educational • No Improvement in Mathematical Ability
programmes on 24X7 basis using the GSAT-15 such as subtraction etc.
satellite. • Gender-gap in mathematical ability: The
• Diksha: National Digital Infrastructure for Proportion of girls who can read atleast a Std
Teachers portal, to help teachers to create training II text is very similar to that of boys at 77%,
content, profile, in-class resources, assessment
although girls outperform boys in many
aids, news and announcement and connect with
states. But in basic arithmetic, boys seem to
teacher community.
hold a substantial advantage.
3.1.6. ASER ANNUAL EDUCATION Difference between ASER and NAS (National
REPORT Achievement Survey)
Why in News? ASER Survey NAS Survey
Recently, 13th Annual Status of Education Report It is a household survey It is a school-based survey.
(ASER) by Pratham NGO was published which conducted since 2005.
threw light on status of primary education in rural One-on-one oral It is a pen-paper test.
assessments.
India.
Aimed at representative It takes into account the
Additional Information on ASER Report
sample of all children children enrolled in
• In 2017, it conducted the first alternate-year design
(whether in school or out government and
known as ASER ‘Beyond Basics’, focusing on youth
of school). government aided schools.
in the 14 to 18 age group in 28 districts across India.
It focuses on It looks at wider variety of
• In 2018, ASER returns once again to the ‘basic’ foundational skills such skills.
model.
as reading and math.
About ASER 2018 Survey: The report covers three It is limited to rural areas It is conducted throughout
major aspects of status of education of the country. the country in both rural
• School enrollment and attendance among and urban areas.
children aged 3-16 years. It is a citizen-led survey It is conducted by NCERT
• Basic reading and math abilities among (conducted by under Ministry of Human
PRATHAM). Resource Development.
children aged 5-16 years.
• School infrastructure with sports 3.1.7. PERFORMANCE GRADING INDEX
infrastructure
(PGI)
Key Findings of the Report
Positive Takeaways Why in news?
• Increased school Enrolment: It has now The Ministry of Human Resource Development
crossed 97% with the proportion of children in (MHRD) has introduced the Performance Grading
this age segment who are out of school falling Index or PGI to assess the quality of school
below 3% for the first time. education offered by all states.

20
About PGI 3.1.9. BHARATIYA SHIKSHA BOARD
• The Index will grade States and UTS thus
Why in news?
allowing for more than one State/UT to
Ministry Human Resource Development has given
occupy the same grade, and therefore all 36
its approval for the setting up of country’s first
States and UTS to ultimately reach the highest
national school board for Vedic education-
level.
Bhartiya Shiksha Board (BSB).
• It has been conceptualised as a tool to
About the Board
encourage States and UTS to adopt certain
• Its objective is to standardise Vedic education
practices like online recruitment and transfer
through drafting syllabus, conducting
of Teachers, electronic attendance of
examinations and issuing certificates.
Students & Teachers etc.
• BSB will also be assigned the responsibility of
• It has 70 indicators divided into two
evolving new kinds of schools that offer a
categories viz Outcomes and Governance
blend of Vedic and modern education apart
processes.
from affiliating traditional pathshalas.
o The first category is divided into four
• The board will be setup as per the model bye
domains viz. Learning outcomes, Access
laws framed by Maharshi Sandipani Rashtriya
outcomes, Infrastructure and Facilities
Vedavidya Pratishthan, an autonomous body
and Equity outcomes.
under the Ministry of Human Resource
o The second category covers attendance,
Development.
teacher adequacy, administrative
• MSRVP was set to develop and propagate
adequacy, training, accountability and
oral studies of the Vedas.
transparency.
o It currently affiliates 450 institutions of
3.1.8. HAPPY SCHOOLS PROJECT traditional learning like pathshalas and
guru-shishya parampara yojana across
Why in news? the country.
Recently, Happy School Project was launched by o Although this organisation has been
UNESCO with the involvement of UNESCO conducting Class X and XII examinations,
Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Education for Peace its certificates are not considered
and Sustainable Development (MGIEPS) in India. equivalent to mainstream levels of
education by several institutions.
About the Project
• It was launched in 2014 with the aim of 3.2. HIGHER EDUCATION
promoting learner well-being and holistic
development in school. 3.2.1. DRAFT HIGHER EDUCATION
• It aims to bring happiness and the quality of COMMISSION OF INDIA (HECI) BILL,
education together by calling for education 2018
systems to shift away from traditional
measures and to instead embrace a diversity Why in news?
of talents and intelligences by recognizing • The Ministry of Human Resource and
values, strengths and competences that Development (MHRD) has prepared a HECI
contribute to enhancing happiness. (Repeal of University Grants Commission Act)
• The Project framework consists of 22 criteria Bill 2018 and has placed it in public domain for
for a happy school under three categories – comments and suggestions.
People, Place and Process. • The Bill repeals the University Grants
Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Education for Peace and Commission Act, 1956 and establishes the
Sustainable Development Higher Education Commission of India (HECI).
• It is the first UNESCO specialized education University Grants Commission (UGC)
institute in India, and the first Category 1 institute • It came into existence on 28th December, 1953 and
in the Asia-Pacific region. became a statutory Organization in 1956.
• Its role will be to support member governments, • It has the unique distinction of being the only
provide advocacy, commission research and grant-giving agency in the country which has been
enhance capacity building. vested with two responsibilities: that of providing
• It will also act as a clearing house for Education for funds and that of coordination, determination and
Sustainable Development (ESD) and Peace maintenance of standards in institutions of higher
Education. education.

21
3.2.2. INSTITUTIONS OF EMINENCE o fix and charge fees from foreign students
without restriction;
Why in news? o flexibility of course structure in terms of
number of credit hours and years to take
The Ministry of Human Resource Development
a degree;
(HRD) has granted Institution of Eminence (IoE)
o complete flexibility in fixing of curriculum
status to six institutions, three public — IIT Delhi,
and syllabus, etc.
IIT Bombay and IISc Bangalore – and three private
— BITS Pilani, Manipal University, and the yet-to- • World Class Institutions: They will get more
open Jio University. opportunity to scale up their operations with
more skills and quality improvement so that
Background they become World Class Institutions in the
• None of the Indian universities had found a field of education.
place in World University (top 100) Rankings • World Ranking: It is expected that the above
in 2017. Thus, in budget 2016, the government selected Institutions will come up in top 500
had committed to empower Higher of the world ranking in 10 years and in top 100
Educational Institutions to help them become of the world ranking eventually overtime.
world class teaching and research institutions.
3.2.3. THE GLOBAL INITIATIVE ON
• In this context, the government had formed
an Empowered Expert Committee (EEC)
ACADEMIC NETWORK (GIAN) COURSE
chaired by N. Gopalaswami to recommend 20 Why in news?
institutions as Institutions of Eminence.
Second GIAN Course on ‘Urban Analytics:
What is IOE?
Evaluating and Measuring Sustainability of Cities’
• IOE is a tag given to institutions which was released recently.
o are either among Top 50 in the National
institution Ranking Framework (in their About GIAN (Ministry of Human Resource
category) or among Top 500 in Development)
internationally recognised rankings like • GIAN in Higher Education aims at tapping the
the Times Higher Education World talent pool of scientists and entrepreneurs
University Rankings; internationally to encourage their
o have a good mix of foreign and domestic engagement with the institutes of Higher
students as well as faculty; Education in India
o have international standard infrastructure • It would help to augment the country's
and are multi-disciplinary in their existing academic resources, accelerate the
approach. pace of quality reform, and elevate India's
National Institution Ranking Framework scientific and technological capacity to global
• This framework outlines a methodology to rank excellence.
institutions across the country, launched in 2015.
• The initiative provides participation of foreign
• The parameters broadly cover “Teaching, Learning
faculty as Distinguished / Adjunct / Visiting
and Resources,” “Research and Professional
Practices,” “Graduation Outcomes,” “Outreach
faculty / Professors of Practice, etc. in
and Inclusivity,” and “Perception”. delivering Short or Semester-long Courses in
IITs, IIMs, Central Universities, IISc Bangalore,
Benefits of declaration as IoE
IISERs, NITs and IIITs and subsequently cover
• Financial Assistance: financial assistance up to good State Universities.
Rs. 1000 Crore over the period of five years. • These lectures would be made available later
• Autonomy: These Institutions shall be to the students across the country through
provided with greater autonomy to: the SWAYAM and the National Digital
o admit foreign students up to 30% of Library.
admitted students;
o recruit foreign faculty upto 25% of faculty 3.2.4. ALL INDIA SURVEY ON HIGHER
strength; EDUCATION (AISHE)
o offer online courses upto 20% of its
programmes; Why in news?
o enter into academic collaboration with Recently the results of All India Survey on Higher
top 500 in the world ranking Institutions Education (AISHE), 2017-18 were released.
without permission of UGC;

22
About AISHE avoid all cost/time over-runs, moving from
the block-grant mode to project-mode for
• Ministry of Human Resource Development
all infrastructure projects.
(MHRD) initiated an AISHE in the year 2010-11
o To cater to the requirements of the
to build a robust database and to assess the
Kendriya Vidyalayas and Navodaya
correct picture of higher Education in the
Vidyalayas, and medical institutions like
country.
AIIMSs in a faster time frame.
• The main objectives of the survey were to –
• Higher Education Financing Agency (HEFA)
o identify & capture all the institutions of
has been tasked to mobilise Rs. 1,00,000 crore
higher learning in the country
for this initiative.
o collect the data from all the higher
• As per this initiative, the scope of institutions
education institutions on various aspects
to be funded through HEFA has been
of higher education
enlarged to encompass School Education and
• Indicators of educational development such
Medical Education institutions, apart from
as Institution Density, Gross Enrolment Ratio,
Higher Education.
Pupil-teacher ratio, Gender Parity Index, Per
Student Expenditure is also calculated from About HEFA
the data collected through AISHE. • HEFA was setup in 2017 by the Central
• The survey is now an annual exercise. Government as a Non-Profit, Non-Banking
Data is being collected on following broad items Financing Company (NBFC) for mobilising
• Institution’s Basic Details extra-budgetary resources (funds from the
• Teacher’s Details market using market-based instruments) for
• Details of Non-Teaching Staff building crucial infrastructure in the higher
• Programme conducted under various educational institutions under Central
Faculties/Schools & departments/Centres Government.
• Students enrolled in these Programme
• The total authorized equity capital of HEFA
• Examination result of terminal year of each
has been raised to Rs.10,000 crore.
Programme
• Financial Information such as Receipt and • HEFA is a joint venture of Ministry of Human
Expenditure under various heads Resource Development (MHRD) and Canara
• Availability of Infrastructure Bank with an agreed equity participation in
• Scholarships, Loans & Accreditation the ratio of 91% and 9% respectively.
• Mission of HEFA: To provide timely finance at
3.2.5. REVITALISING INFRASTRUCTURE competitive interest rates for capital assets
AND SYSTEMS IN EDUCATION (RISE) creation in India’s educational institutions and
BY 2022 supplement it with grants by channelizing CSR
funds from the corporate and donations from
Why in news? others.
• The Government approved an initiative
named “Revitalising Infrastructure and 3.2.6. NATIONAL TESTING AGENCY
Systems in Education (RISE) by 2022” (NTA)
About RISE by 2022 initiative Why in news?
• Its objectives include: NTA decided to hold NEET, JEE Mains twice a year
o Qualitatively upgrade the research and from 2019.
academic infrastructure in India to global About NTA
best standards by 2022.
o Make India into an education hub by • It has been established as a premier,
making available high-quality research specialist, autonomous and self-sustained
infrastructure in Indian higher educational testing organization to conduct entrance
institutions. examinations for admission/ fellowship in
o To allow access of HEFA funding to higher educational institutions.
institutions like Central Universities, • It is a registered society under the Societies
AIIMS, IISERs and newly created Institutes Registration Act, 1860.
of National Importance, without creating • The major examinations to be conducted by
any additional burden to the students. NTA include University Grant Commission-NET
o To bring greater accountability and speed Eligibility (UGC-NET), JEE (Main), CMAT, GPAT
in execution of infrastructure projects and and NEET.

23
• All the examinations of NTA were mandated UGC and the Members of the Consortium at
to be conducted twice a year for the benefit their respective websites.
of students.
• It will be chaired by an eminent educationist 3.2.8. BHASHA SANGAM PROGRAM
appointed by MHRD. Why in News?
• The objectives of the NTA, inter-alia, are
The Department of School Education & Literacy
conducting efficient, transparent tests
under MHRD has initiated Bhasha Sangam
designed in a scientific manner for assessing
Program – as part of ‘Ek Bharat Shrestha Bharat’.
competence of students. It will train subject
matter experts and prepare test items in About the Program
collaboration with psychometricians to ensure • Its objectives are:
that the tests are well balanced. o To enhance linguistic tolerance and
respect, and promote national
3.2.7. CONSORTIUM FOR ACADEMIC integration.
AND RESEARCH ETHICS o To introduce school students to all the 22
Indian Languages of Schedule VIII of the
Why in news?
Constitution of India.
University Grants Commission (UGC) has decided • This will be run by the State/UT Department
to set up Consortium for Academic and Research of School Education.
Ethics (CARE) to refine and strengthen research • This initiative is not mandatory and there
publication. would be no formal testing of any kind.
More on news Ek Bharat Shreshtha Bharat
• The good quality Research Journals in • Launched on 31st Oct, 2015 on 140th Anniversary of
Sardar Patel, this program intends to enhance
disciplines under Social Sciences, Humanities,
interaction between people of different
Languages, Arts, Culture, Indian Knowledge
States/UTs.
Systems etc., will be maintained by CARE and • Under this, there is a pairing of States/UTs for one
referred to as ‘CARE Reference List of Quality year, during which they will exchange and connect
Journals’. people through culture, tourism, language,
• This will be used for all academic purposes. education, trade etc.
The ‘CARE Reference List of Quality Journals’
will be regularly updated and published by the

24
4. HEALTH, NUTRITION AND SANITATION
to 2011-13. MMR is highest for Assam (300 per
4.1. HEALTH 1, 00,000 live births) and lowest for Kerala
(61) in 2011-13.
4.1.1. NATIONAL HEALTH PROFILE- • Infant mortality rate (IMR) has declined
2018 considerably i.e. 37 in 2015; however, there is
Why in News? a huge gap between IMR of rural (41 per 1000
live births) and urban (25 per 1000 live
Government has released the National Health
births).
Profile (NHP).
• Health Finances: India spends only 1.02% of its
About National Health Profile GDP (2015-16) as public expenditure on
• Objective of this annual publication is to health. However, per capita public
create a database of health information of expenditure on health in nominal terms has
India which is comprehensive, up-to-date and gone up.
easily accessible to all stakeholders in the o Out of total persons covered under
healthcare sector. insurance, 79% were covered by public
• National Health Profile covers- Demographic insurance companies, with the remaining
information, Socio-economic information, being covered by private insurance
Health status, Health finance indicators, companies.
Comprehensive information on health Important Terms Used –
infrastructure and human resources in • Natural Growth Rate – It refers to the difference
health. between the number of live births and the
number of deaths occurring in a year, divided by
• It is prepared by Central Bureau of Health
the mid-year population of that year, multiplied by
Intelligence. a factor (usually 1,000). This measure of the
Central Bureau of Health Intelligence (CBHI) population change excludes the effects of
• Established in 1961 by the Act of Parliament on the migration.
recommendation of Mudaliar committee, it is the • Total Fertility Rate - It refers to total number of
Health Intelligence Wing under Directorate General children born or likely to be born to a woman in
of Health Services, Ministry of Health & Family her life time if she were subject to the prevailing
Welfare (MoHFW). rate of age-specific fertility in the population.
• Its vision is to have “A strong Health Management o TFR of about 2.1 children per woman is called
Information System in entire country”. Replacement-level fertility. This value
The Objectives of CBHI are: represents the level of fertility at which a
• To collect, analyze & disseminate Health Sector population exactly replaces itself from one
related data of the country for evidence-based generation to the next.
policy decisions, planning and research activities. • Maternal mortality rate - Number of registered
• To identify & disseminate innovative practices for maternal deaths due to birth- or pregnancy-
Health Sector Reforms. related complications per 100,000 registered live
• To develop Human Resources for scientifically births
maintaining medical records in both Government & • Infant Mortality Rate - number of deaths per 1,000
private medical Institutes in India. live births of children under one year of age.
• To function as collaborating centre (CC) for WHO
Family of International Classification in India & 4.1.2. NATIONAL HEALTH RESOURCE
South-East Asian Region countries.
REPOSITORY (NHRR)
Key Findings
Why in news?
• Estimated birth rate, death rate and natural
growth rate are showing a declining trend. Government has recently launched National
• Total Fertility Rate –in 12 States has fallen Health Resource Repository (NHRR).
below two children per woman and 9 States
About NHRR
have reached replacements levels of 2.1 and
above. Delhi, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal • It is the first ever registry in India of
have lowest fertility. Fertility is declining authentic, standardised and updated geo-
rapidly, including among the poor and spatial data of all public and private
illiterate. healthcare resources which inter-alia
• The Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) has includes, hospitals, diagnostic labs, doctors
shown a decrease of 11 points during 2010-12 and pharmacies, etc.

25
• NHRR is conceptualised by CBHI. ISRO is the • Integrated Disease Surveillance Project
project technology partner for providing (IDSP): aims to strengthen/maintain
data security. decentralized laboratory-based IT enabled
• Under the Collection of Statistics Act 2008, disease surveillance system for epidemic
healthcare establishments such as hospitals, prone diseases to monitor disease trends and
doctors, clinics, diagnostic labs, pharmacies to detect and respond to outbreaks in early
and nursing homes would be enumerated rising phase through trained Rapid Response
under this census. Team (RRTs).
• It aims to strengthen evidence-based • IDSP as a segment of IHIP intends to receive
decision making and develop a platform for person-level data from health facilities across
citizens and provider-centric services by all States and Union Territories on all health
secured Information Technology (IT)- events.
enabled repository of India’s healthcare Related information
resources. National Health Portal (NHP)
• It shall enable advanced research towards • The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare
(MoHFW), has set up the National Health Portal in
ongoing & forthcoming healthcare
December 2014 in pursuance to the decisions of
challenges arising from other determinants
the National Knowledge Commission, to provide
of health like – disease, environment etc. healthcare related information to the citizens of
• It shall also enhance the coordination India and to serve as a single point of access for
between central and state government for consolidated health information.
optimization of health resources, and • This portal serves as a single point of access for
decentralize the decision making at district consolidated and authentic information and
and state level. resources on the health sector to a wide spectrum
• It shall promote convergence between of users such as academicians, citizens, students,
healthcare professionals and researchers.
similar programmes by providing
interoperability.
4.1.4. NATIONAL HEALTH STACK
4.1.3. INTEGRATED HEALTH Why in news?
INFORMATION PLATFORM NITI Aayog has unveiled the blueprint of National
Health Stack (NHS), a shared digital healthcare
Why in news?
infrastructure.
Government recently soft-launched the About NHS
Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme • It is a collection of cloud-based services.
(IDSP) segment of Integrated Health Information • Scope:
Platform (IHIP) in seven states viz. Uttar Pradesh, o Induction of Private Hospitals and Private
Himachal Pradesh, Odisha, Karnataka, Telangana, Practitioners into the Primary and
Kerala and Andhra Pradesh. Secondary healthcare ecosystem;
Integrated Health Information Platform o Focus on Non-Communicable Diseases
• IHIP is a web-enabled near-real-time (NCD); Disease Surveillance; Health
electronic information system to enable the Schemes Management Systems; Nutrition
creation of standards compliant Electronic Management; School Health Schemes;
Health Records (EHRs) of the citizens on a Emergency Management; e-Learning
pan-India basis. Platform for health, Telehealth, Tele-
• Key features of IHIP radiology; Diagnostic Equipment; Health
o Real time data reporting (along through Call Centre(s) etc.
mobile application); accessible at all levels • It will be India's first futuristic
(from villages, states and central level) nationally shared digital healthcare
o Advanced data modelling & analytical infrastructure usable by both the Centre and
tools states across public and private sectors.
o GIS enabled Graphical representation of 4.1.5. AYUSHMAN BHARAT - PRADHAN
data into integrated dashboard
o Role & hierarchy-based feedback & alert
MANTRI JAN AROGYA YOJANA
mechanisms Why in news?
o Geo-tagging of reporting health facilities Prime Minister recently launched the world’s
o Scope for data integration with other largest state funded health insurance scheme,
health programs
26
Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PMJAY), at o It allows enough flexibility to states in
Ranchi, Jharkhand. terms of packages, procedures, scheme
Details design, entitlements as well as other
Initially announced in the General Budget 2018-19, guidelines while ensuring that key
it has two components - benefits of portability and fraud detection
• Health and Wellness Centre: As envisioned in are ensured at a national level.
the National Health Policy, 2017, 1.5 lakh o The States will have the option of
centres will provide comprehensive health implementing this scheme through a
care, including for non-communicable Trust model or Insurance Company based
diseases and maternal and child health model, though the Trust model will be
services. These centres will also provide free preferred.
essential drugs and diagnostic services. o For giving policy directions and fostering
• National Health Protection Scheme (Pradhan coordination between Centre and States,
Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana): covers over 10 it is proposed to set up Ayushman Bharat
crore poor and vulnerable families National Health Protection Mission
(approximately 50 crore beneficiaries) Council (AB-NHPMC) at apex level Chaired
providing coverage upto 5 lakh rupees per by Union Health and Family Welfare
family per year for secondary and tertiary care Minister.
hospitalization. • Fraud detection and Data privacy: NHA
Features of the Scheme Information Security Policy & Data Privacy
Policy are being institutionalized to provide
• Beneficiary Identification: PMJAY primarily
adequate guidance and set of controls on the
targets the poor, deprived rural families and
secure handling of Beneficiaries Personal Data
identified occupational category of urban
& Sensitive Personal Data in compliance with
workers’ families as per the latest Socio-
all laws and regulations applicable. It is the
Economic Caste Census (SECC) data for both
first healthcare scheme with Privacy policy.
rural and urban areas as well as the active
• Pradhan Mantri Aarogya Mitra (PMAM): The
families under the Rashtriya Swasthya Bima
scheme is creating a cadre of certified
Yojana (RSBY). There is no cap on family size
frontline health service professionals called
and age as well as restriction on pre-existing
Pradhan Mantri Aarogya Mitras (PMAMs)
conditions.
who will be primary point of facilitation for
• Hospitalization cover from inpatient care to
the beneficiaries to avail treatment at the
post hospitalization care: The Yojana will
hospital and thus, act as a support system to
provide a coverage up to Rs. 5,00,000 per
streamline health service delivery.
family per year, for secondary and tertiary
o NSDC will skill them in terms of behavior,
care hospitalization through a network of
knowledge and presentation.
Empanelled Health Care Providers (EHCP). The
o NSDC will use its network of PM Kaushal
services will include 1350 procedures covering
Kendra (PMKK) under PM Kaushal Vikas
pre and post hospitalization, diagnostics,
Yojana (PMKVY).
medicines etc.
o They will also be certified by Health Care
• Universality: One unique feature of the Sector Skill Council (non-statutory body
PMJAY is its national portability once fully for health sector under NSDC).
operational. The beneficiaries will be able to
move across borders and access services 4.1.6. NATIONAL HEALTH AUTHORITY
across the country through the provider (NHA)
network seamlessly. The beneficiaries will not
need a special card. Their Aadhaar numbers Why in news?
will suffice. The Union Cabinet has approved the restructuring
• Implementation agency: The National Health of existing National Health Agency as "National
Agency (NHA) will provide overall vision and Health Authority".
stewardship for design, roll-out, More on news
implementation and management of Pradhan • It has now been made an attached office to
Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PM-JAY) in alliance Ministry of Health & Family Welfare for
with state governments. This has been better implementation of Ayushman Bharat-
renamed as National Health Authority. Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PM-JAY).
• Alliance with the States: The Scheme is • The Cabinet also approved a proposal to
principle based rather than rule based - upgrade the post of the NHA CEO to that of a
27
Secretary to the Government of India. Now • The implementing agency for the scheme is
the CEO will have- Bureau of Pharma PSU of India
o Full financial powers (Till now, all funds o It was established in 2008 comprising all
released by the NHA were done through the Pharma CPSUs under the Department
the Ministry of Health). of Pharmaceuticals.
o Complete administrative control of the o It brings about effective collaboration and
NHA. cooperation in furthering the working and
• The existing multi-tier decision making resources of these organizations.
structure has been replaced with the Related information
Governing Board: The Ujjwala Sanitary Napkins initiative
o It will be chaired by the Minister for • It is an initiative by three oil marketing companies –
Health and Family Welfare IOCL, BPCL and HPCL (under Petroleum and
Natural Gas Ministry) – was launched in Odisha.
o Its members will include NITI Aayog CEO
• The Ujjwala pads will be made of virgin wood pulp
and NHA CEO.
sheet, non-woven white sheet and a gel sheet
o Due representation has been provided to which are all biodegradable in nature.
domain experts and the states shall also Menstrual Hygiene for Adolescent girls Schemes
be represented on the Board on • It is under Ministry of Health and Family Welfare
rotational basis. • Under the scheme, funds are provided to
o The board will meet at least once in three States/UTs through National Health Mission for
months. decentralized procurement of sanitary napkins
The Union Cabinet took this step through an packs for provision primarily to rural adolescent
executive order, thus taking the Pradhan Mantri girls at subsidized rates as per proposals received
Jan Arogya Yojana (PM-JAY) out of the ambit of from the States and UTs in their Programme
Implementation Plans.
the Ministry of Health whose role will now be
• This scheme encompasses provision of funds to
limited to acting as the nodal ministry for NHA in
ASHAs to hold monthly meeting with adolescents
parliamentary matters, like the presentation of to discuss issues related to menstrual hygiene.
annual reports. Related facts
• According to the National Family Health Survey 4,
4.1.7. JANAUSHADHI SUVIDHA - OXO- about 58% of women aged between 15 to 24 years
BIODEGRADABLE SANITARY NAPKIN use locally prepared napkins, sanitary napkins and
tampons.
Why in news? • Further, about 78% women in urban areas use
Government launched the ‘JANAUSHADHI hygienic methods of protection during menstrual
SUVIDHA’ – Oxo-biodegradable Sanitary Napkin – period; only 48% women in rural areas have access
under the Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Janaushadhi to clean sanitary napkins.
Pariyojana (PMBJP).
Details 4.1.8. SCHEME FOR
• The affordable sanitary napkins (at Rs. 2.50 PHARMACOVIGILANCE OF AYUSH
per pad) will now become available at DRUGS
Janaushadhi Kendras. This will go a long way
in making the basic hygiene requirement aid Why in news?
for women affordable for the Ministry of AYUSH has introduced new Central
underprivileged sections. Sector scheme for promoting pharmacovigilance
• Jan Aushadhi Suvidha comes with a special of AYUSH Drugs.
additive, which makes it biodegradable when
About pharmacovigilance
it comes in contact with oxygen after being
• It is defined as the science and activities relating to
discarded, thus ensuring ‘Swachhta, the detection, assessment, understanding and
Swasthya and Suvidha’ for the prevention of adverse effects or any other drug-
underprivileged Women of India. related problem.
About Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Janaushadhi Related News
• Ministry of AYUSH recently launched e-AUSHADHI
Pariyojana (PMBJP)
portal for Online Licensing System of AYUSH
• It is a campaign launched by the Department Medicine.
of Pharmaceuticals, to provide quality • It will provide real time information of the licensed
medicines at affordable prices to the masses manufactures and their products, cancelled and
through special kendra’s known as spurious drugs and contact details of the
concerned authority for specific grievances.
Janaaushadhi Kendra.
28
About the scheme Golden Crescent
• It is the second major area of illicit opium
• Objective: To develop the culture of production in Asia spanning across three nations;
documenting adverse effects & undertake Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan.
safety monitoring of AYUSH drugs. • It is located at the crossroads of Central, South and
• It will undertake surveillance of misleading Western Asia.
advertisements appearing in the print and
About NAPDDR
electronic media.
• All India Institute of Ayurveda, an • Objectives: It aims to employ a multi-pronged
autonomous body under the Ministry of strategy such as
AYUSH, has been designated as National o Preventive Education, awareness
Pharmacovigilance Centre for coordinating generation, counseling, de-addiction,
various activities of the initiative. treatment and rehabilitation of affected
• Representatives of Central Drug Standards individuals and their families.
Control Organisation as the national drug o Training and capacity-building of service
regulatory authority and the Indian providers through collaborative efforts of
Pharmacopoeia Commission being the WHO the Centre, state and NGOs.
Collaborating Centre for Pharmacovigilance in • Administrative Mechanism
the country are associated in the initiative as o Coordination with implementing
mentor and guide. agencies for controlling sale of sedatives,
About Central Drug Standards Control Organisation painkillers and muscle relaxant drugs, and
(CDSCO) checking online sale of drugs by stringent
• It is the national drug regulatory authority under monitoring by cyber cell.
Directorate General of Health Services, Ministry of
o A multi ministerial steering committee
Health & Family Welfare.
with representatives from Ministries of
• It is responsible for approval of New Drugs,
Clinical Trials in the country and laying down the Social Justice, Health, Home Affairs,
standards for Drugs. Human Resource Development and skill.
• It exercises control over the quality of imported • Initiatives to be taken
drugs and coordination of the activities of State o Holding awareness generation
Drug Control Organisations. programmes at educational institutes,
• It provides expert advice with a view of bringing workplaces and for police functionaries,
about the uniformity in the enforcement of the etc.
Drugs and Cosmetics Act. o Increasing community participation and
About Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission
public cooperation in the reduction of
• It is an autonomous institution under the Ministry
demand by involving local bodies and
of Health & Family Welfare.
• It is dedicated for setting of standards for drugs,
other local groups like Mahila Mandals,
pharmaceuticals and healthcare devices/ self-help groups etc. is also planned.
technologies etc. o Modules for re-treatment, ongoing
• It also provides Reference Substances and treatment and post-treatment of addicts
Training. of different categories and age groups
While CDSCO has sole responsibility for Periodic Safety and database on substance use.
Update Reports, Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission
(IPC) is in charge of co-ordinating Adverse Drug
Reports (ADRs).

4.1.9. NATIONAL ACTION PLAN FOR


DRUG DEMAND REDUCTION (2018-
2023)
Why in news?
Recently Ministry of Social Justice and
Empowerment unveiled National Action Plan for
Drug Demand Reduction (NAPDDR).
Asia's two principal areas of illicit opium production Legal/ Constitutional Framework for Drugs Control
Golden Triangle • Article 47 of the Constitution directs the State shall
• It is the region between the borders of Myanmar, to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of
Laos, and Thailand. living of its people and to improve public health. It

29
asks for prohibition of the consumption drinks generations from the devastating health,
and drugs which are injurious to health. social, environmental and economic
• United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in consequences of tobacco consumption and
Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances exposure to tobacco smoke.
o It provides comprehensive measures against
• The convention recommends large pictorial
drug trafficking, including provisions against
money laundering.
health warnings.
o It provides for international cooperation • India is a party to WHO FCTC. India, for the
through, for example, extradition of drug first time, hosted the 7th session of COP
traffickers, controlled deliveries and transfer meeting of FCTC.
of proceedings. Related News
• The Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances The Supreme Court ruled that the tobacco products will
Act, 1985 (NDPS Act) continue to carry pictorial warning covering 85 per cent
o Essentially, the Act deals with supply of the packaging space.
reduction activities. It prohibits a person to • The Union Health Ministry notified the new health
produce/manufacture/cultivate, possess, sell, warnings in its gazetted notification in April’2018
purchase, transport, store, and/or consume under the Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products
any narcotic drug or psychotropic substance. (Packaging and Labelling) Amendment Rules, 2014
o Certain provisions for health care for drug (COTPA) for a mandatory display of 85% of the
dependent individuals also exists. It pictorial warning on both sides of tobacco
authorizes Central Government to take product packages all over India.
necessary measures for identification, • The image must be printed with “Tobacco Causes
treatment, aftercare, rehabilitation of addicts Cancer” wordings along with quit line number- a
and preventive education. dedicated toll-free number for free support and
o It gives the Central Government the power to guidance for the tobacco users.
establish, maintain and regulate treatment
centres. 4.1.11. 71ST ASSEMBLY OF WHO
o It permits supply of “drugs” to registered
addicts, and use of these substances for Why in news?
medicinal and scientific purposes. The World Health Organization’s 71st World
o There is no provision for compulsory Health Assembly was recently held.
treatment of addicts under this Act.
o As a follow up to the act, Narcotics Control Highlights of the assembly
Bureau (NCB) was constituted and • The meet’s primary focus this year was universal
empowered to coordinate all activities for health coverage.
administration and enforcement of the Act. • It has developed a new strategic plan for the
o The death penalty was introduced in the Act in next five years to help the world achieve the
1989, to deter narco-terrorism. Sustainable Development Goals – with a
o The law also provides a mandatory minimum
particular focus on SDG3- ensuring healthy
sentence of 10 years for offences involving
lives and promoting wellbeing for all at all
commercial quantities of drugs. This
determination assumes that people found ages by 2030.
with commercial quantities of drugs are drug • It sets three targets to ensure that by 2023
traffickers. o 1 billion more people benefit from
universal health coverage;
4.1.10. WHO FRAMEWORK o 1 billion more people are better protected
CONVENTION ON TOBACCO from health emergencies; and
o 1 billion more people enjoy better health
Why in News? and wellbeing.
Cabinet has given approval for India to accede to • WHO estimates that achieving this “triple
the Protocol under WHO Framework convention billion” target could save 29 million lives.
on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) to eliminate • Digital health resolution initiated by India
unlawful trade in tobacco products. was adopted as its first resolution on digital
Background health.
• The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco • The Assembly also adopted a resolution to
Control (WHO FCTC) is the first international help countries tackle snake bites.
public health treaty negotiated under the World Health Assembly
• It is the decision-making body of WHO, attended
auspices of the WHO.
by delegations from all WHO Member States and
• The objective of this Convention and its focuses on a specific health agenda prepared by
protocols is to protect present and future the Executive Board.

30
• The main functions of the World Health Assembly • It promotes and supports a standardized
are to determine the policies of the Organization, approach to the collection, analysis and sharing
appoint the Director-General, supervise financial of AMR data at a global level by encouraging and
policies, and review and approve the proposed facilitating the establishment of national AMR
programme budget. surveillance systems that are capable of
• It is held annually in Geneva, Switzerland. monitoring AMR trends and producing reliable
and comparable data.
4.1.12. WHO RELEASES NEW GLOBAL
CLASSIFICATION OF DISEASES 4.1.13. DELHI DECLARATION ON
DIGITAL HEALTH
Why in News?
Why in news?
Recently, WHO released its 11th edition of
International Classification of Diseases (ICD- 11). Recently, the Delhi Declaration on digital health
for sustainable development was adopted at the
About ICD 4th Global Digital Health Partnership Summit.
• It is the bedrock for health statistics. It maps More about declaration
the human condition from birth to death: any
injury or disease we encounter in life − and • It called for WHO’s leadership in digital
anything we might die of − is coded. health.
• Not only that, the ICD also captures factors • It committed to accelerate and implement the
influencing health, or external causes of appropriate digital health interventions to
mortality and morbidity, providing a holistic improve health of the population at national
look at every aspect of life that can affect and sub-national levels by 2023.
health. • The Global Digital Health Partnership Summit
• The ICD serves as a foundation for identifying was hosted by the Ministry of Health and
global health trends and is used by health Family Welfare in collaboration with World
insurers whose reimbursements depend on Health Organization (WHO) and the Global
ICD coding. Digital Health Partnership (GDHP).
• Some significant features of ICD-11 which will o The Global Digital Health Partnership
be presented at the World Health Assembly in (GDHP) is a collaboration of governments
May 2019 for adoption include: and territories, government agencies and
o It includes more codes and closely WHO, to support the effective
reflects the progress in medicine and implementation of digital health services.
advances in scientific understanding. For
eg: the codes relating to antimicrobial 4.1.14. ASTANA DECLARATION
resistance in the new ICD are more closely Why in news?
aligned with the Global Antimicrobial
Recently, Global Conference on Primary Health
Resistance Surveillance System (GLASS).
Care by UNICEF and World Health Organisation
o It better captures data regarding
(WHO), has concluded with Astana Deceleration
healthcare safety.
in Kazakhstan. All the 192-member countries of
o It also uses for the first time an electronic
the United Nations, including India, signed the
and user-friendly format.
Astana Declaration.
o Inclusion of new chapters, including ones
on traditional medicine and sexual More on news
health. • It is the global commitment to strengthen
o Addition of gaming disorder to the Primary Health Care.
section on addictive disorders. • This declaration reaffirms the historic 1978
About Global Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Declaration of Alma-Ata. Alma-Ata
System (GLASS) Declaration was the first declaration which
• Launched in October 2015, it is being developed to identified Primary Health Care as a key to the
support the global action plan on antimicrobial attainment of the goal of Health for All.
resistance.
• It is aimed at supporting global surveillance and 4.1.15. PARTNERS FORUM 2018
research in order to strengthen the evidence base
on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and help Why in news?
informed decision-making and drive national,
regional, and global actions. The fourth Partners’ Forum was recently held in
New Delhi.
31
Details Severe Acute Malnutrition
• It was hosted by the Government of India, in • SAM is the most extreme and visible form of
association with the Partnership for undernutrition. Its face is a child – frail and
Maternal, Newborn and Child Health skeletal – who requires urgent treatment to
(PMNCH). survive.
• The PMNCH is an alliance of more than 1000 • As per the National Family Health Survey-4
organizations in 192 countries from the (2015-16), 7.5% children under 5 years of age
sexual, reproductive, maternal, newborn, have severe acute malnutrition in the country.
child and adolescent health communities, as About the guidelines
well as health influencing sectors. • The measures are part of the community-
• It was launched in September 2005 to based health management of children
accelerate efforts to reduce child and suffering from SAM. The government had, till
maternal mortality, improve adolescent, now, only put in place guidelines for the
child, newborn and maternal health. hospitalisation of severely wasted children
• Its Secretariat is hosted at the World Health who develop medical complications.
Organization in Geneva, Switzerland. • The guidelines outline the role of anganwadi
• The PMNCH Partners' Forum serves as a workers and auxillary nurse midwives
regular global platform to consolidate and (ANMs) in identifying severely wasted
increase members’ commitment to the children, segregating those with oedema or
objectives of The Partnership and maintains medical complications and sending them to
and reinforces high level political the nearest health facility or nutrition
commitment. rehabilitation centres.
• This is the second time India is hosting the • Anganwadi workers have to provide modified
Partners’ Forum (earlier in 2012). morning snacks, hot cooked meals and take
home ration for SAM children. It is also
4.1.16. 2ND WORLD INTEGRATED suggested that local self-help groups,
MEDICINE FORUM 2019 mothers or village committees be engaged for
the preparation of these meals.
Why in news? National Technical Board on Nutrition (NTBN)
nd
Recently the 2 World Integrated Medicine Forum • It has been constituted under the chairmanship of
2019 on the ‘Regulation of Homeopathic Medical Dr. Vinod Paul, member of NITI Aayog, under
Products; Advancing global collaboration’ was Ministry of Women and Child Development to
organized in Goa. make technical recommendations on policy
relevant issues on Nutrition.
More on news • NTBN shall meet once in three months to review
• The mission of the World Integrated Medicine technical recommendations on policy relevant
issues in nutrition. The Board for their day-to-day
Forum is to further develop evidence based
work shall be serviced by the concerned divisions
Traditional and Integrated Systems of Medicine
of NITI Aayog.
by promoting public-private co-operation.
• Role of Board is advisory and important terms of
• It was organised by Central Council for Research reference include-
in Homoeopathy (CCRH), Ministry of AYUSH, o Advise the states/UTs on preventive measures
Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia Convention of (including behaviour change) and
the United States (HPCUS), Pharmacopoeia management of SAM children.
Commission for Indian Medicine and o To coordinate the collation, synthesis of
Homoeopathy and Central Drugs Standard existing scientific and operational research,
Control Organization (CDSCO). identify research gaps and make technical
recommendations for the research agenda.
4.2. NUTRITION o To provide technical guidance on the design of
nutrition surveys proposed by States/UTs,
4.2.1. GUIDELINES FOR SEVERE ACUTE other sectors and institutions and their
coherence with ongoing National Health and
MALNUTRITION other surveys.
o Formulation of India specific growth indicators
Why in news?
including stunting.
The National Technical Board on Nutrition (NTBN)
has approved guidelines proposed by Ministry of About NFHS
Women and Child Development for severe acute • The 2015-16 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4)
is the fourth in a series of national surveys; earlier
malnutrition (SAM).
32
National Family Health Surveys were carried out in across districts, using data from the National
1992-93 (NFHS-1), 1998-99 (NFHS-2) and 2005-06 Family Health Survey 4 (2015-2016).
(NFHS-3). • According to it, high‐stunting districts are heavily
• All National Family Health Surveys have been clustered in the northern and central states of
conducted under the stewardship of the Ministry India. They are home to 80% of the stunted
of Health and Family Welfare, with the children in India. In comparison, all the southern
International Institute for Population Sciences, states put together account for about 13% of the
Mumbai, serving as the nodal agency. stunted children in India.
• NFHS-4 funding was provided by the Government • About International Food Policy Research Institute
of India, the United States Agency for International o It was established in 1975 to provide research-
Development (USAID), the United Kingdom based policy solutions that sustainably reduce
Department for International Development (DFID), poverty and end hunger and malnutrition in
the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, UNICEF, the developing countries.
United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), and the o It is a research center of CGIAR (Consultative
MacArthur Foundation. Group on International Agricultural Research),
a worldwide partnership engaged in
Other Important findings of National Family
agricultural research for development.
Health Survey-4 (not for remembering, only
o Its releases Global Food Policy Report
indicative) annually.
Indicators NFHS-4 (2015-16) NFHS-3
(2005- 4.2.2. POSHAN ABHIYAAN
06)
Urban Rural Total Total Why in news?
Infant mortality rate 29 46 41 57 POSHAN Abhiyaan (PM’s Overarching Scheme for
(IMR)
Under-five mortality 34 56 50 74
Holistic Nourishment) was formally launched by
rate (U5MR) the Prime Minister from Jhunjhunu, Rajasthan.
Current Use of Family 57.2 51.7 53.5 56.3 Details
Planning Methods
(currently married
• POSHAN Abhiyaan aims to reduce mal-
women age 15–49 nutrition from the Country in a phased
years) manner, through the life cycle concept, by
Mothers who had full 31.1 16.7 21.0 11.6 adopting a synergised and result oriented
antenatal care (%) approach.
Institutional births (%) 88.7 75.1 78.9 38.7 • Implementation strategy and targets: It
Children age 12-23 63.9 61.3 62.0 43.5
would be based on intense monitoring and
months fully
immunized (BCG, Convergence Action Plan right upto the grass
measles, and 3 doses root level. NNM will be rolled out in three
each of polio and DPT) phases from 2017-18 to 2019-20.
(%) • NNM targets to reduce stunting,
Under- five Stunted 31.0 41.2 38.4 48.0 undernutrition, anemia (among young
(height-for-age) (%)
children, women and adolescent girls) and
Under- five Wasted 20.0 21.5 21.0 19.8
(weight-for-height) (%) reduce low birth weight by 2%, 2%, 3% and 2%
Under- five Severely 7.5 7.4 7.5 6.4 per annum respectively. Although the target
Wasted (weight-for- to reduce Stunting is atleast 2% p.a., Mission
height) (%) would strive to achieve reduction in Stunting
Under- five 29.1 38.3 35.8 42.5 from 38.4% (NFHS-4) to 25% by 2022 (Mission
Underweight (weight- 25 by 2022).
for-age) (%)
All women age 15-49 50.8 54.3 53.1 55.3
• One of the key activities of Abhiyaan is
years who are implementation of ICDS-Common Application
anaemic (%) Software. Anganwadi workers feed the
Under- five Anaemic 56.0 59.5 58.6 69.4 information regarding the services delivered,
Children (6-59 through the mobile devices installed with
months) (%) ICDS-CAS application.
Related News The POSHAN Abhiyaan, as an apex body, will monitor,
• Recently, a research ‘Understanding the supervise, fix targets and guide the nutrition related
geographical burden of stunting in India’ was interventions across the Ministries.
published by the International Food Policy The proposal consists of
Research Institute (IFPRI). It has tried to • Mapping of various Schemes contributing towards
understand the geographical burden of stunting addressing malnutrition

33
• Introducing a very robust convergence mechanism o Repair of kitchen-cum stores: Assistance
• ICT based Real Time Monitoring system for the kitchen-cum-stores constructed
• Incentivizing Anganwadi Workers (AWWs) for ten years ago on sharing basis between
using IT based tools Center and States.
• Social Audits o Fortification of food items in a systematic
• Setting-up Nutrition Resource Centres, involving manner through Food Corporation of
masses through Jan Andolan for their participation
India (FCI) starting with rice Kitchen
on nutrition through various activities, among
others.
gardens in each school will be
• An Executive Committee has been set up under encouraged.
the Chairpersonship of Secretary, Ministry of • Delegation of power of implementing the
Women & Child Development to provide policy scheme with minor modifications from the
support and guidance to States/ UTs under existing guidelines to District Level Committee
POSHAN Abhiyaan from time to time. Chaired by the District Magistrate.
• A National Council on India’s Nutrition Challenges • Other norms include:
has also been set up under the Chairpersonship of o Use of Pulses from buffer stock -The
Vice Chairman, NITI Aayog for policy direction,
States and UTs may procure pulses as per
review, effective coordination and convergence
their local taste for the Mid-Day Meal
between Ministries which have a sectoral
responsibility for the challenge of nutrition. from the Central buffer stock created by
• September 2018 has been celebrated as the the Government of India.
Rashtriya Poshan Maah across the Country. o Monitoring of attendance – All States and
UTs are required to ensure that daily data
4.2.3. MID-DAY MEAL SCHEME from 100% schools is uploaded through
Automated Monitoring System (AMS).
Why in news? o Menu under MDM - States and UTs are
Recently Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs required to adopt ways to develop a
has approved the revision of norms under Mid- menu that reflects local taste and local
Day Meal (MDM) Scheme. produce that is different on different
About the Scheme days.
• It envisages to provide cooked mid-day meal o Tithi Bhojan: to encourage people from
with 450 calories and 12 g of protein to every the community to celebrate important
child at primary level and 700 calories and 20 g days such as child birth, marriage,
of protein at upper primary level. birthdays etc. by contributing to the MDM
• It also involves providing nutritional support Scheme. Tithi Bhojan is not a substitute
to children of elementary stage in drought- to MDM but it supplements or
affected area during summer vacation. compliments MDM.
• It is a Centrally-Sponsored Scheme and the o Usage of Jails, Temples, Gurudwaras etc.
cost of the MDMS is shared between the for MDM- All States and UTs are being
central and state governments. advised to involve community and other
o The central government provides free agencies such as Jails, Temples,
food grains to the states. Gurudwaras etc. in the Mid Day Meal
o The cost of cooking, infrastructure Scheme.
development, transportation of food
4.2.4. ASHA, ANM AND ANGANWADI
grains and payment of honorarium to
cooks and helpers is shared by the centre WORKERS
with the state governments. The central Why in news?
government provides a greater share of
funds. • The Prime Minister announced the doubling
o The contribution of state governments of routine incentives given by the Union
differs from state to state. Government to ASHA workers. In addition, all
ASHA workers and their helpers would be
Recent revised norms
provided free insurance cover under Pradhan
• Annual increase in Cooking cost linked to
Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana and Prime
Inflation Index to offset the impact of
Minister Suraksha Bima Yojana.
inflation on the food items under Mid Day
• Prime Minister also announced significant
Meal Scheme.
increase in the honorarium given to
• Two new components have also been
Anganwadi workers (AWWs).
approved
34
India has three cadres of Community Health
Workers.
• Auxiliary Nurse-Midwife (ANM) – they
manage immunization and Maternal and Child
Healthcare programs. They are based out of
sub-centers, the lowest facility in the rural
public health care system.
• Anganwadi Worker (AWW) – they manage
nutritional supplementation at anganwadi
centers for young children, adolescent girls,
and lactating women. They also help with
promotion of healthy behaviors and
mobilization of the community for improved
water and sanitation, participation in
immunization activities and other special
health activities.
• Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA)-
they encourage women to seek Ante-Natal
Checkup and give birth in health centers,
assist the ANM with health events such as
immunization days, and provide basic first aid
and medical supplies such as ORS,
contraceptive pills and iron folic acid tablets.
o ASHA workers are to be based in their
villages, and they refer people to their
local primary health center and
community health center.
• The ANM cadre is the most well-educated and
oldest cadre among the village-level health
workers, having been established in the
1960s. The AWW is also well-established in the • The State of Food Security and Nutrition in
domain of childcare and nutrition, having the World - This is an annual report jointly
been part of the health care system since the prepared by the Food and Agriculture
mid-1970s. The ASHA is an entirely new cadre, Organization (FAO), the International Fund
launched in 2005 by the National Rural Health for Agricultural Development (IFAD), the
Mission. As the new and often younger United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the
addition, ASHAs are monitored and supported World Food Programme (WFP) and the World
by the ANM and AWW. Health Organization (WHO).
o It seeks to inform on progress towards
4.2.5. IMPORTANT REPORTS IN NEWS ending hunger, achieving food security
and improving nutrition and to provide in-
• Global Hunger Index 2018- It is a tool designed depth analysis on key challenges for
to comprehensively measure and track achieving this goal in the context of the
hunger at global, regional, and national levels. 2030 Agenda for Sustainable
It was published jointly by Welthungerhilfe Development.
and Concern Worldwide. o One of the measures used by the report -
o India has been ranked at 103 out of 119 Food Insecurity Experience Scale (FIES),
countries in the GHI 2018, with hunger which is a new tool (introduced in 2017)
levels in the country categorised as based on direct interviews to measure
“serious”. India’s ranking has dropped people's ability to access food.
three places from 2017. o 2018 report confirms a rise in world
o Apart from child wasting, India has shown hunger: the number of people who suffer
improvement in three of the indicators. from hunger has been growing over the
past three years, returning to levels from
almost a decade ago.

35
• Global Nutrition Report - It came into Swachh Survekshan 2019
existence following the first Nutrition for • This fourth edition Swachh Survekshan 2019
Growth Initiative Summit (N4G) in 2013 as a aims to increase the coverage of the ranking
mechanism for tracking the commitments exercise to all cities under Swachh Bharat
made by 100 stakeholders spanning Mission-Urban. (Swachh Survekshan 2018
governments, aid donors, civil society, the UN ranked 4,203 Cities.) The Quality Council of
and businesses. India (QCI) is responsible for carrying out the
o It has observed that India is facing a major assessment.
malnutrition crisis as it is the country with • The distinctive features of the survey include
the highest number of ‘stunted’ and encouraging large-scale citizen participation,
‘wasted’ children in the world. ensuring sustainability of initiatives taken
towards garbage free and open defecation
4.3. SANITATION free cities, providing credible outcomes which
would be validated by third party certification
4.3.1. SWACHH SURVEKSHAN 2019 etc.
• Data will be collected from 4 broad sources –
Why in news? ‘Service Level Progress’, Direct Observation,
• Ministry of Housing & Urban Affairs recently Citizens Feedback and Certification (newly
launched Swachh Survekshan 2019, SBM introduced). Certification will be done on two
ODF+ and SBM ODF++ Protocols and web- different components-
based citizen engagement platform Swachh o Star Rating of Garbage Free Cities (20%
Manch. weightage of marks)- It includes
• Results of Swachh Survekshan 2019 have been components such as cleanliness of drains
announce recently. & water bodies, plastic waste
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (Urban) management, managing construction &
• The Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban) aims at demolition waste, etc. which are critical
o elimination of open defecation drivers for achieving garbage free cities.
o eradication of manual scavenging o Open Defecation Free Protocols (5%
o modern and scientific municipal solid waste weightage)
management Quality Council of India
o to effect behavioural change regarding • It was set up jointly by the Government of India
healthy sanitation practices and the Indian Industry represented by the three
o generate awareness about sanitation and its premier industry associations i.e. Associated
linkage with public health Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India
o capacity augmentation of Urban Local Bodies (ASSOCHAM), Confederation of Indian Industry
and (CII) and Federation of Indian Chambers of
o to create an enabling environment for private Commerce and Industry (FICCI).
sector participation in capital and operation • It aims to establish and operate national
and maintenance expenditure. accreditation structure and promote quality
• At the core of this mission lie six components: through National Quality Campaign.
o Individual household toilets (IHHL); • It is governed by a Council of 38 members with
o Community toilets; equal representations of government, industry
o Public toilets; and consumers.
o Municipal Solid Waste Management; • Chairman of QCI is appointed by the Prime
o Information and Educating Communication Minister on recommendation of the industry to the
(IEC) and Public Awareness; government.
o Capacity Building • The Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion,
Results of Swachh Survekshan 2019 Ministry of Commerce & Industry, is the nodal
• Indore was adjudged India’s cleanest city for the ministry for QCI.
third straight year. The second and third positions SBM ODF+ and ODF++ Protocol
in the category were grabbed by Ambikapur in • The original ODF protocol, issued in March
Chhattisgarh and Mysore in Karnataka. 2016, said, “A city/ward is notified as ODF
• While the New Delhi Municipal Council area was city/ward if, at any point of the day, not a
given the ‘Cleanest Small City’ award,
single person is found defecating in the open.
Uttarakhand’s Gauchar was adjudged the ‘Best
Ganga Town’ in the central government survey.
With 18 states / UTs and 3,223 cities declared
The ‘Cleanest Big City’ award has been bagged by ODF. The ODF+ and ODF++ protocols are the
Ahmedabad, while Raipur is the ‘Fastest Moving next step for the SBM-U and aim to ensure
Big City’. sustainability in sanitation outcomes.
36
• The ODF+ protocol says that a city, ward or bring about a behavioral change in men who
work circle could be declared ODF+ if, “at any have toilets but are not using them.
point of the day, not a single person is found • In part 2 of the campaign it aims to further
defecating and/or urinating in the open, and promote the use of toilets and to sustain the
all community and public toilets are functional open defecation free status of villages across
and well-maintained.” India.
• The ODF++ protocol adds the condition that • World Bank is supporting the ongoing part
“faecal sludge/septage and sewage is safely two of the Darwaza Band campaign.
managed and treated, with no discharging
and/or dumping of untreated faecal 4.3.3. SWACHHATA HI SEVA
sludge/septage and sewage in drains, water CAMPAIGN
bodies or open areas.”
• Thus, the SBM ODF+ protocol focuses on Why in news?
sustaining community/ public toilet usage by Recently, Swachhata Hi Seva (SHS) Campaign was
ensuring their functionality, cleanliness and launched.
maintenance while SBM ODF++ will focus on
About the Campaign
achieving sanitation sustainability by
addressing complete sanitation value chain, • It is the second edition of the campaign
including safe containment, processing and launched in 2017, which aims at accelerating
disposal of faecal sludge and septage. the vision for a Clean India.
Swachh Manch web portal • Objectives of SHS
o Accelerate the momentum of Swachh
• It is a web-based platform which aims to bring Bharat in the run-up to its 4th anniversary.
together every stakeholder contributing to o Re-energise the Swachh Bharat Jan
the Swachh Bharat Mission under a common Andolan and lay down the foundation of
platform. It will allow stakeholders to sustainability.
create/invite/participate in volunteering o Reinforce the concept of “Sanitation as
opportunities around neighborhoods. everyone’s business”.
• It will enable uploads of pictorial evidence of o Commence Mahatma Gandhi’s 150th birth
citizens and organizations participating in the year celebrations with a nationwide
initiatives, as well as record the number of campaign.
hours volunteered, as acknowledgement of • It also aims at engaging sharamdan activities
citizens’/organisations’ efforts and with huge community mobilisation through
contributions to the cause of ‘swachhata’. grassroot swachhata champions such as
• The Swachh Manch will also be integrated woman sarpanches, students, film celebrities,
with the existing Swachhata App to act as a sports persons etc.
citizens’ grievance redressal platform. • The Campaign also aims to engage with media
Including Public Urination in New Protocol - This is the which has been playing crucial role in creating
first time that the Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban) is awareness about the Swachh Bharat Mission.
officially including the elimination of public urination in
Related News
its agenda.
Swachh Shakti-2019 Programme
• It is a convention of Women Sarpanches, aimed at
4.3.2. DARWAZA BAND CAMPAIGN
empowering the women, which was held in
Why in news? Kurukshetra.
• It aims to bring in to focus the leadership role
Ministry of Drinking Water and sanitation has played by rural women in Swachh Bharat Mission.
launched part two of the nation-wide campaign • It is being organized by the Ministry of Drinking
called Darwaza Band to promote toilet use and Water and Sanitation in association with the
freedom from open defecation. Government of Haryana.
More on news • The Swachh Shakti program was first held in 2017
at Gandhinagar, Gujarat.
• It is promoted under the aegis of Swachh
Bharat Mission (Grameen) and envisages to

37
5. MISCELLANEOUS
• SDGs were born at the United Nations Conference on
5.1. SDG INDIA INDEX - BASELINE
Sustainable Development in Rio de Janeiro in 2012.
REPORT 2018 o GOAL 1: No Poverty
o GOAL 2: Zero Hunger
NITI Aayog recently came up with the SDG India o GOAL 3: Good Health and Well-being
Index- Baseline report 2018. o GOAL 4: Quality Education
SDG India Index o GOAL 5: Gender Equality
o GOAL 6: Clean Water and Sanitation
• NITI Aayog has developed the SDG India Index in o GOAL 7: Affordable and Clean Energy
collaboration with the Ministry of Statistics & o GOAL 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth
Programme Implementation (MoSPI), Global o GOAL 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure
Green Growth Institute and United Nations in o GOAL 10: Reduced Inequality
India. o GOAL 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities
• The SDG India Index tracks progress of all o GOAL 12: Responsible Consumption and
States and UTs on 62 Priority Indicators Production
selected by NITI Aayog, which in turn is guided o GOAL 13: Climate Action
o GOAL 14: Life Below Water
by MoSPI’s National Indicator Framework and
o GOAL 15: Life on Land
based on multiple-round consultations with o GOAL 16: Peace and Justice Strong Institutions
Union Ministries/Departments and States/UTs. o GOAL 17: Partnerships to achieve the Goal
• It measures their progress on the outcomes of
the interventions and schemes of the 5.2. DUBAI DECLARATION’ ADOPTED
Government of India. TO MEASURE PROGRESS OF SDGS
• SDG India Index spans across 13 out of 17 SDGs
(excluding Goals 12, 13, 14 and 17). At the conclusion of the UN World Data forum, 2018,
• A composite score has been computed between ‘Dubai Declaration’ was adopted.
the range of 0-100 for each State and UT. About the Declaration
• If a State/UT achieves a score of 100, it signifies • It is hard to measure the actual progress of the
that it has achieved the 2030 national targets. SDGs due to lack of data for two-thirds of the
• Classification Criteria based on SDG India indicators. Only 0.3% of aid goes to the
Index Score is as follows: development of statistical systems.
o Aspirant: 0-49 • Recognizing this, Dubai Declaration was
o Performer: 50-64 adopted which detailed measures to boost
o Front Runner: 65-99 funding for data and statistical analysis for
o Achiever: 100 monitoring and speeding up progress towards
• Kerala and Himachal Pradesh are the top the 2030 SDGs.
performers among states with a score of 69. • Aimed towards mobilizing domestic and
Chandigarh leads the UTs with a score of 68. international funds and activating more
• According to the SDG India Index, the nation as effective data partnerships, this Declaration
a whole has a score of 58, showing the country supports the implementation of the Cape Town
has reached a little beyond the halfway mark in Global Action Plan for Sustainable Development
meeting the SDGs. Data.
• The Index can be useful to States/UTs in
About Cape Town Global Action Plan for
assessing their starting point on the SDGs.
Sustainable Development Data
Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI)
• Informally launched at the 1st UN World Data
• It is a treaty-based international, inter-governmental
Forum and was adopted by the UN Statistical
organization dedicated to supporting and promoting
strong, inclusive and sustainable economic growth in Commission in March 2017.
developing countries and emerging economies. • Intended to provide a framework for discussion
• India is not yet a member country of the GGGI but is on, and planning and implementation of
recognised as a partner. statistical capacity building necessary to achieve
the 2030 Agenda.
Sustainable Development Goals About UN World Data Forum
• In 2015, the General Assembly adopted the 2030
Agenda for Sustainable Development that includes 17 • It was created after recommendation of a report
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). titled ‘A World That Counts’ by UN Statistical
• These seek to build upon Millennium Development Commission.
Goals (MDGs). MDGs were a set of eight goals set by • The first United Nations World Data Forum was
the UN in 2000.
hosted from 15 to 18 January 2017 in Cape Town.
38
• It is meant for intensifying cooperation between (ISP) Gateway for SEARN developed by Centre
professional groups (IT Experts, Geospatial for Development of Advanced Computing
Information Managers, Data Scientists etc. as (CDAC).
well as civil society stakeholders. • SEARN was launched by the WHO South-East
• In India the review process is led by NITI Aayog, Asia Region member countries to enhance
Research and Information system, a think tank information sharing, collaboration and
attached with Ministry of External Affairs and convergence of medical product regulatory
the Ministry of Statistics and Programme practices across the Region to guarantee access
Implementation. They prepare the Voluntary to high-quality medical products.
National Review (VRN) Report. o It is led by a steering group of which India is
a permanent member.
5.3. WORLD SUMMIT ON
5.6. WEB-WONDER WOMEN
ACCREDITATION
CAMPAIGN
Why in news?
• The Ministry of Women and Child Development
The World Summit on Accreditation (WOSA-2018)
has launched an online campaign, ‘#www: Web-
was held New Delhi, which provides platform to
Wonder Women’.
stakeholders to share their knowledge and
• The Campaign aims to discover and celebrate
information on accreditation.
the exceptional achievements of women, who
About WOSA
have been driving positive agenda of social
• It is a biennial summit organized by National
change via social media. It will recognize and
Board of Accreditation (NBA).
acknowledge the efforts of these meritorious
• The theme of WOSA 2018 is “Challenges and
women.
Opportunities in Outcome Based
• Indian-origin women, working or settled
Accreditation”.
anywhere in the world, are eligible for
About NBA
nomination. The shortlisted entries will be open
• It is an autonomous organisation under Ministry
for public voting on Twitter and the finalists will
of Human Resource Development.
be selected by a specialized panel of judges.
• It was initially established under AICTE (All India
Council of Technical Education) act, in 1994. 5.7. WOMEN'S GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT
• It is engaged in quality assurance of programs AND PROSPERITY (W-GDP) INITIATIVE
offered by professional and technical
institutions in India through accreditation. • The White House has launched the W-GPD
• It has been accorded Permanent Signatory Initiative, a government project led by Ivanka
Status of Washington Accord since 2014. Trump.
• It aims to coordinate current programs and
5.4. UN GLOBAL MEDIA COMPACT develop new ones to assist women in areas
such as job training, financial support, and
Why in News? legal or regulatory reforms.
Recently more than 30 organizations from across • Its goal is to reach 50 million women in the
the world including India's Ministry of Information developing world by 2025.
and Broadcasting have come together to form a • The effort will draw on public and private
global media compact. resources, with the U.S. Agency for
More about the compact International Development -initially setting up a
• It is an initiative of the United Nations, in USD 50 million fund.
collaboration with the UN Foundation.
• It is aimed at advancing awareness and ensuring 5.8. GOOD SAMARITAN LAW
accountability in the Governments regarding • Karnataka became the first state in the country
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to be with a Good Samaritan law in place
achieved by 2030.
More on news
• It seeks to inspire organisations around the
world to create content partnerships with the • The legislation aims to give protection to good
UN and leverage their resources and creative Samaritans and ensure immediate medical
talent to advance the Goals. assistance for road accident victims within the
'golden hour' and encourage people to offer
5.5. SOUTH-EAST ASIA REGULATORY first aid to victims without fear of harassment in
NETWORK the hands of police and investigations.
• In medical terminology, the 'golden hour' is the
• Union Minister of Health and Family Welfare first hour after a traumatic injury when
launched the Information Sharing Platform emergency treatment is very crucial.
39
Global • The report is titled Migrations,
5.9. REPORTS AND INDEXES Education Displacement and Education and
Report/Indexes Details Monitoring discusses impact of migration on
Global Peace • It is a measure of global Report 2019 by education.
Index, 2018 by peacefulness. UNESCO • India is home to some of the
the Institute • It uses 23 indicators under three world’s largest internal population
for Economics thematic domains – movements alongside China.
and Peace o The level of Societal Safety The Global • The 2018 Global Slavery Index
and Security Slavery Index provides a country by country
o The extent of on-going 2018 by the ranking based on 3 key indicators:
Domestic and International Walk Free number of people in modern
conflicts Foundation slavery, governments response to
o The degree of Militarisation modern slavery, and the factors
• India has been ranked 136 out of that make people vulnerable.
163 in 2018. • This is the 4th edition with others
• Iceland remained the most being 2013, 2014, and 2016.
peaceful country while Syria the Global Gender • It was introduced in 2006 as a
least peaceful country Gap Report framework for capturing the
Global • It is an annual index which ranks 2018 by World magnitude of gender-based
Liveability global cities according to their Economic disparities and tracking the
Index 2018 by living conditions. Forum progress overtime.
The Economist • It is based on 30 indicators • The Report benchmarks 149
Intelligence covering five broad categories– countries on their progress towards
Unit stability (25%), healthcare (20%), gender parity across four thematic
culture and environment (25%), dimensions: Economic Participation
education (10%) and infrastructure and Opportunity, Educational
(20%) and uses New York as a Attainment, Health and Survival,
baseline to measure each city and Political Empowerment.
• While Damascus (Syria) is the least • In 2018, India recorded
liveable city, Vienna has come at improvements in wage equality for
the top of the 2018 list similar work and fully closed its
• Delhi and Mumbai are the only two tertiary education gap for the first
cities from India to feature on the time, but progress lags on health
Global Liveability Index which and and survival, remaining the world’s
they have been ranked 112 and 117 least improved country on this sub-
respectively. index over the past decade.
Global Wage • It is an annual publication of ILO
Report 2018-19 which focuses on different aspects
by of labour wages and its impact on
International equitable growth and social justice.
Labor • Findings of Global Wage Report
Organization 2018-19
o Real global wage growth in
2017 (1.8%) fell to its lowest
growth rate since 2008
o High income countries have
lower wage inequality than
low- and mid-income countries.
E.g. Sweden has the lowest
wage inequality.
o India has the highest average
real wage growth (5.5%) in
South Asia in 2008-17.
o India and Pakistan had the
highest gender pay gap

40