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Stephanie Altenhof.


1a. Open channel flow velocity varies through a channel and is related to the force of friction. When
water contacts the sides/bottom of a channel, it’s velocity decreases from friction. Velocity is highest in
the middle, at the top, furthest away from sides of channel. Therefore, average flow velocity is
calculated in the middle of a stream and is in relation to cross-sectional area. So, average flow velocity =
Q (discharge)/A (cross-sectional area)

2a. Porosity is the number of and size of pore spaces (interstices) in rock/soil. Effective porosity includes
only the interstices which are interconnected. Therefore, overall porosity is greater than effective

3a. Perennial Streamflow: Year-round precipitation and thus, year-round baseflow (slow processes
which recharge a stream, like groundwater recharge) with peaks of quickflow (quick processes which
feed a stream, like precipitation).

Ephemeral Streamflow: No baseflow, only includes some peaks of quickflow. Intermittent periods of

Seasonal Streamflow: May or may not have baseflow, dependant on the stream. Characterized by
seasonal quickflow from snowpack melt.

4a. Hydraulic conductivity is a measure of the soil’s ability to move water through it per unit of time, and
is therefore related to permeability. Whereas porosity is the amount of and size of pore spaces.
Hydraulic conductivity is less than porosity because some water will remain in pore spaces due to
capillary action (attraction to sides of pores).

5a. Capillary action is the force between water molecules and the sides of a container (in this context,
soil). When water is moving through soil, it moves through pore spaces with less air due to capillary
action. Because water is attracted to the sides of a container, it will move faster and more efficiently in
this way. Conversely, water in a larger pore space that is more air-filled is still attracted to the sides of
the walls, but won’t fill the space in the middle of the pore.

Horton Hypothesis Hewlett Hypothesis

Environment Arid/Semi-Arid Regions Humid and forested areas
Primary Infiltration Capacity (subsurface’s Rising water table
Mechanism capacity to hold water)
How excess During a rainfall event, if rainfall All precipitation is infiltrated into the
flow is intensity is > infiltration capacity of subsurface
produced the soil (water saturates voids), excess This causes a rise in the water table, and
water flows over surface and is when it rises to the subsurface, this
termed overland flow overland flow is termed saturated excess
Conversely, if rainfall intensity is < overland flow
infiltration capacity, no overland flow
Environments Arid/Semi-Arid regions, agricultural Not applicable in Arid/Semi-arid regions,
Applicable lands agricultural lands.
Is applicable in moister conditions, like
the humid and forested areas studied
Conclusions If rainfall intensity is high, overland Because all precipitation is infiltrated,
flow occurs to feed stream stream is recharged through groundwater
If rainfall intensity is moderate, When the water table rises from this,
overland flow will only occur once saturated excess overland flow will feed
infiltration capacity = 0 stream
If rainfall intensity is low, overland
flow will not occur and stream is
recharged through groundwater

7a. A: Peakflow occurs quickly but peak isn’t very high. Then peakflow recession occurs more slowly
until return to baseflow. Feeder streams may be smaller and within a relatively larger basin so that it
takes stream longer to return to baseflow. Slopes within the basin may be relatively small, contributing
to a slower quickflow recession. The precipitation may not have been as intense as B.

B: Peakflow doesn’t begin as quick as A, but increases rapidly and peak is high. It then also decreases
rapidly until the stream returns to baseflow. This may be due to feeder streams feeding within a
relatively small basin. Slopes may be larger, which contributes to the rapid increase in quickflow.
Precipitation was likely intense, contributing to the relatively high peak.

8b. Subsidence occurs when a non-elastic aquifer is over-pumped or experiences water loss. This is due
to the combination of a drying overburden and removal of water pressure. The loss of opposing forces
causes the overlying soil to depress. So when subsidence occurs in coastal cities: sea levels are rising due
to climate change, and the proximate land is sinking, therefore, the subsidence phenomenon is
exacerbated. Effects include damage to buildings and infrastructure, inability of aquifer to recharge, and
flooding can occur where it previously would not. One city which this has affected is Tokyo.