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AS 4773.

1—2010
(Incorporating Amendment No. 1)
AS 4773.1—2010

Australian Standard®
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Masonry in small buildings

Part 1: Design
This Australian Standard® was prepared by Committee BD-004, Masonry Structures. It was
approved on behalf of the Council of Standards Australia on 9 September 2010.
This Standard was published on 8 November 2010.

The following are represented on Committee BD-004:

• Association of Consulting Engineers Australia


• Australasian Slag Association
• Australian Building Codes Board
• Australian Institute of Building Surveyors
• Building Designers Association of Australia
• CSIRO Manufacturing & Materials Technology

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Cement Concrete & Aggregates Australia—Cement


• Think Brick Australia
• Concrete Masonry Association of Australia
• Engineers Australia
• Housing Industry Association
• Masonry Contractors Association of NSW
• Master Builders Australia
• NSW Department of Commerce
• University of Newcastle

This Standard was issued in draft form for comment as DR 06422.

Standards Australia wishes to acknowledge the participation of the expert individuals that
contributed to the development of this Standard through their representation on the
Committee and through the public comment period.

Keeping Standards up-to-date


Australian Standards® are living documents that reflect progress in science, technology and
systems. To maintain their currency, all Standards are periodically reviewed, and new editions
are published. Between editions, amendments may be issued.

Standards may also be withdrawn. It is important that readers assure themselves they are
using a current Standard, which should include any amendments that may have been
published since the Standard was published.

Detailed information about Australian Standards, drafts, amendments and new projects can
be found by visiting www.standards.org.au

Standards Australia welcomes suggestions for improvements, and encourages readers to


notify us immediately of any apparent inaccuracies or ambiguities. Contact us via email at
mail@standards.org.au, or write to Standards Australia, GPO Box 476, Sydney, NSW 2001.
AS 4773.1—2010
(Incorporating Amendment No. 1)

Australian Standard®
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Masonry in small buildings

Part 1: Design

First published as AS 3700—2001.


AS 3700—2001 superseded, in part, and designated AS 4773.1—2010.
Reissued incorporating Amendment No. 1 (September 2011).

COPYRIGHT
© Standards Australia Limited
All rights are reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or copied in any form or by
any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, without the written
permission of the publisher, unless otherwise permitted under the Copyright Act 1968.
Published by SAI Global Limited under licence from Standards Australia Limited, GPO Box
476, Sydney, NSW 2001, Australia
ISBN 978 0 7337 9696 8
AS 4773.1—2010 2

PREFACE
This Standard was prepared by the Standards Australia Committee BD-004, Masonry
Structures, to supersede, in part, AS 3700—2001, Masonry structures.
This Standard incorporates Amendment No. 1 (September 2011). The changes required by
the Amendment are indicated in the text by a marginal bar and amendment number against
the clause, note, table, figure or part thereof affected.
The objective of this Standard is to provide minimum requirements for the design of
unreinforced and reinforced masonry, including built-in components, for use in small
buildings such as houses and garages. This Standard is intended for the use of designers and
specifiers of small buildings and is intended as a companion document to AS 4773.2,
Masonry in small buildings, Part 2: Construction.
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The Committee acknowledges valuable assistance given by organizations and individuals


experienced in various aspects of design and construction of masonry.
Statements expressed in mandatory terms in notes to tables and figures are deemed to be
requirements of this Standard.
The terms ‘normative’ and ‘informative’ have been used in this Standard to define the
application of the appendix to which they apply. A ‘normative’ appendix is an integral part
of a Standard, whereas an ‘informative’ appendix is only for information and guidance.
3 AS 4773.1—2010

CONTENTS

Page

SECTION 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL


1.1 SCOPE ......................................................................................................................... 6
1.2 GENERAL LIMITATIONS ......................................................................................... 6
1.3 NORMATIVE REFERENCES .................................................................................... 9
1.4 MINIMUM INFORMATION TO BE PROVIDED ON DOCUMENTS ...................... 9
1.5 DEFINITIONS........................................................................................................... 10

SECTION 2 DESIGN CRITERIA


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2.1 SCOPE OF SECTION ............................................................................................... 14


2.2 AIM ........................................................................................................................... 14
2.3 PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS ....................................................................... 14
2.4 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS...................................................................................... 14
2.5 SERVICEABILITY, STRENGTH AND STABILITY .............................................. 15
2.6 OTHER DESIGN REQUIREMENTS ........................................................................ 16

SECTION 3 MATERIALS
3.1 SCOPE OF SECTION ............................................................................................... 18
3.2 MASONRY UNITS ................................................................................................... 18
3.3 MORTAR AND GROUT .......................................................................................... 18
3.4 BUILT-IN COMPONENTS ....................................................................................... 19
3.5 REINFORCEMENT .................................................................................................. 19

SECTION 4 DURABILITY
4.1 SCOPE OF SECTION ............................................................................................... 20
4.2 MATERIAL SELECTION......................................................................................... 20
4.3 EXPOSURE ENVIRONMENTS ............................................................................... 20
4.4 ELEMENT LOCATIONS .......................................................................................... 22

SECTION 5 FIRE RESISTANCE


5.1 SCOPE OF SECTION ............................................................................................... 24
5.2 GENERAL CRITERIA .............................................................................................. 24
5.3 DESIGN PERFORMANCE CRITERIA .................................................................... 24

SECTION 6 WALL DESIGN


6.1 SCOPE OF SECTION ............................................................................................... 26
6.2 GENERAL CRITERIA .............................................................................................. 26
6.3 VERTICAL SUPPORTS ........................................................................................... 26
6.4 HORIZONTAL SUPPORTS...................................................................................... 26
6.5 LOAD WIDTH .......................................................................................................... 28
6.6 DESIGN FOR UPLIFT .............................................................................................. 28
6.7 PIERS ........................................................................................................................ 34
6.8 MULLIONS ............................................................................................................... 37
AS 4773.1—2010 4

Page

SECTION 7 MASONRY VENEER WALLS


7.1 SCOPE OF SECTION ............................................................................................... 43
7.2 GENERAL CRITERIA .............................................................................................. 43
7.3 WALL TIES .............................................................................................................. 43

SECTION 8 CAVITY MASONRY WALLS


8.1 SCOPE OF SECTION ............................................................................................... 45
8.2 EXTERNAL WALLS ................................................................................................ 45
8.3 INTERNAL WALLS ................................................................................................. 45
8.4 WALL TIES .............................................................................................................. 48

SECTION 9 SINGLE-LEAF UNREINFORCED MASONRY WALLS


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9.1 SCOPE OF SECTION ............................................................................................... 51


9.2 EXTERNAL WALLS ................................................................................................ 51
9.3 INTERNAL WALLS ................................................................................................. 55

SECTION 10 REINFORCED MASONRY WALLS


10.1 SCOPE OF SECTION ............................................................................................... 56
10.2 GENERAL CRITERIA .............................................................................................. 56
10.3 STARTER BARS ...................................................................................................... 56
10.4 BOND BEAMS ......................................................................................................... 57
10.5 VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT .............................................................................. 61

SECTION 11 BRACING
11.1 SCOPE OF SECTION ............................................................................................... 64
11.2 LOCATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF BRACING ................................................. 64
11.3 BRACING CAPACITIES OF WALLS AND PIERS ................................................. 64
11.4 SUBFLOOR BRACING ............................................................................................ 67

SECTION 12 LINTELS
12.1 SCOPE OF SECTION ............................................................................................... 68
12.2 DESIGN CRITERIA.................................................................................................. 68
12.3 STEEL LINTELS ...................................................................................................... 69
12.4 REINFORCED MASONRY LINTELS ..................................................................... 71

SECTION 13 CONTROL JOINTS


13.1 SCOPE OF SECTION ............................................................................................... 73
13.2 GENERAL CRITERIA .............................................................................................. 73
13.3 ARTICULATION JOINTS ........................................................................................ 73
13.4 CONTRACTION JOINTS ......................................................................................... 74
13.5 EXPANSION JOINTS ............................................................................................... 75
13.6 DETAILS................................................................................................................... 75

SECTION 14 DETAILING
14.1 SCOPE OF SECTION ............................................................................................... 76
14.2 MORTAR JOINTS .................................................................................................... 76
14.3 UNREINFORCED WALL CONNECTIONS ............................................................ 76
14.4 REINFORCED WALL CONNECTIONS .................................................................. 76
14.5 SLIP JOINTS ............................................................................................................. 77
14.6 ISOLATED SUBFLOOR PIERS ............................................................................... 77
14.7 ARCHES ................................................................................................................... 79
14.8 RESISTANCE TO MOISTURE PENETRATION..................................................... 80
14.9 PARAPETS, CHIMNEYS AND CANTILEVERS .................................................... 81
5 AS 4773.1—2010

Page

APPENDICES
A BASIS OF DESIGN................................................................................................... 82
B SPACING OF BRACING WALLS ........................................................................... 87
C DEEMED-TO-SATISFY DURABILITY CLASSIFICATION .................................. 90
D REINFORCED MASONRY LINTEL TABLES ........................................................ 92

BIBLIOGRAPHY ................................................................................................................... 102


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AS 4773.1—2010 6

STANDARDS AUSTRALIA

Australian Standard
Masonry in small buildings

Part 1: Design

S E C T I O N 1 S C O P E A N D G E N E R A L

1.1 SCOPE
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This Standard specifies requirements for the design and specification of masonry in
buildings of Class 1 and Class 10a, as defined by the BCA, and complying with the
following:
(a) Leaf thickness of 90 mm or greater.
(b) The tops of all walls are laterally supported by a roof or floor structure acting as a
diaphragm with the exception of parapets, chimneys and cantilevers in accordance
with Clause 14.9 and fin walls in accordance with Table 9.1.
(c) Walls are supported on concrete slabs or footings complying with AS 2870 or
suspended slabs complying with AS 3600.
(d) The geometric limitations of Clause 1.2.3.
(e) Masonry is constructed and detailed in accordance with AS 4773.2.
The Scope of this Standard does not cover the following:
(i) Acoustics and energy efficiency.
(ii) Design of attachments such as basketball hoops, satellite dishes and shade structures
and similar attachments.
(iii) Structures required to be designed for earthquake actions in accordance with
AS 1170.4.
NOTES:
1 For acoustic and energy efficiency requirements, see the BCA.
2 For applications outside the scope of this Standard, the masonry should be designed in
accordance with AS 3700.
3 Refer to Appendix A for the basis of design and assumptions used in the preparation of this
Standard.

1.2 GENERAL LIMITATIONS


1.2.1 Materials
This Standard covers buildings constructed from clay, concrete or calcium silicate masonry
units complying with AS/NZS 4455.1.
NOTES:
1 The properties required for these units are defined in Clause 3.2.
2 This Standard does not cover masonry constructed from AAC units.

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7 AS 4773.1—2010

1.2.2 Loading
Wind classifications and loads derived from AS 4055 are required for the use of the Tables
in this Standard.
NOTES:
1 For wind loads on structures outside the limitations of Clause 1.2.3, AS/NZS 1170.2 should
be used in conjunction with AS 3700.
2 The loads specified in AS 4055 include the appropriate combinations of permanent and wind
actions.
1.2.3 Limitations for building geometry
For the purpose of this Standard, the following limitations apply (see Figure 1.1):
(a) The distance from ground level to the underside of eaves shall not exceed 6.0 m. The
distance from ground level to the highest point of the roof, neglecting chimneys, shall
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not exceed 8.5 m; and the height of each storey, measured as floor to ceiling at
external walls shall not exceed 3.0 m.
(b) The width (W), including roofed verandas but excluding eaves, shall not exceed
16.0 m, and the length (l) shall not exceed five times the width.
(c) The roof pitch shall not exceed 35°.
(d) Eaves width shall not exceed 900 mm.
(e) The building shall include a continuous ceiling that acts as a diaphragm.
NOTES:
1 Atria exceeding these dimensions are outside the scope of this Standard.
2 Where the geometry lies outside the limitations of this Section, the design may be carried out
in accordance with AS 3700.

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AS 4773.1—2010 8
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DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETRES

FIGURE 1.1 BUILDING GEOMETRY

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9 AS 4773.1—2010

1.3 NORMATIVE REFERENCES


The following are the normative documents referenced in this Standard.
NOTE: Documents referenced for informative purposes are listed in the Bibliography.
AS
1397 Steel sheet and strip—Hot-dipped zinc-coated or aluminium/zinc-coated
1449 Wrought alloy steels—Stainless and heat-resisting steel plate, sheet and strip
1684 Residential timber framed construction (series)
2870 Residential slabs and footings—Construction
3600 Concrete structures
3700 Masonry structures
4055 Wind loads for housing
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4773 Masonry in small buildings


4773.2 Part 2: Construction
AS/NZS
2699 Built-in components for masonry construction
2699.1 Part 1: Wall ties
2699.2 Part 2: Connectors and accessories
2699.3 Part 3: Lintels and shelf angles (durability requirements)
4455 Masonry units, pavers, flags and segmental retaining wall units
4455.1 Part 1: Masonry units
4456 Masonry units and segmental pavers and flags
4456.4 Method 4: Determining compressive strength of masonry units
4534 Zinc and zinc/aluminium-alloy coatings on steel wire
4600 Cold-formed steel structures
4671 Steel reinforcing materials
4680 Hot-dip galvanized (zinc) coatings on fabricated ferrous articles
BCA Building Code of Australia
NASH Standard for Residential and Low-rise Steel Framing
Part 1: Design criteria

1.4 MINIMUM INFORMATION TO BE PROVIDED ON DOCUMENTS


The following minimum information shall be shown on the drawings or in the
specifications:
(a) Site information:
(i) Site address.
(ii) Wind classification in accordance with AS 4055.
(iii) Soil classification in accordance with AS 2870.
(iv) Exposure environment (see Clause 4.4).
(b) Masonry units:
(i) Type (e.g., clay, concrete, calcium silicate).
(ii) Category (e.g., cored, solid, hollow, horizontally cored).

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AS 4773.1—2010 10

(iii) Work sizes, including the face shell width for hollow units.
(iv) Characteristic unconfined compressive strength ( f uc′ ) .
(v) Salt attack resistance grade.
(vi) Coefficient of expansion or drying contraction, as appropriate.
(vii) Mortar joint finish and depth of raking (if any).
(c) Mortar class or mix proportions.
(d) Grout characteristics (if used):
(i) Compressive strength ( f c′ ) .
(ii) Cement content.
(iii) Maximum aggregate size.
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(iv) Workability and site mix proportions (if applicable).


(e) Wall tie and accessory classes for strength and durability.
(f) Reinforcement grade (if used).
(g) Masonry bond pattern.
(h) Principal dimensions of the masonry, including the positions of supports, piers,
openings, length of returns and all features affecting the strength and stability of the
structure.
(i) Positions and details (including where appropriate, dimensions, durability rating, and
material types) of the following:
(i) Subfloor or cavity ventilation.
(ii) Termite barriers.
(iii) Damp-proof courses.
(iv) Flashings.
(v) Slip materials.
(vi) Control joints.
(vii) Lintels.
(viii) Roof anchorage.
(ix) Reinforcement.
(x) Bracing walls.
(xi) Connectors.
(j) Requirement for the construction to be in accordance with AS 4773.2.

1.5 DEFINITIONS
For the purposes of this Standard, the definitions below apply.
1.5.1 Characteristic compressive strength
The unconfined compressive strength exceeded by 95% of the masonry units.
1.5.2 Damp-proof course (DPC)
A barrier of impermeable material laid in the foundation walls of a building near the ground
to prevent moisture or dampness from rising into the building.

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11 AS 4773.1—2010

1.5.3 Horizontal support


A structural member or system resisting the horizontal out-of-plane component of loads
applied to masonry.
1.5.4 Masonry unit
A preformed component intended for use in bonded masonry construction. The term
includes the following:
(a) Solid unit A unit without cores but which may contain recesses (commonly called
frogs) not greater than 10% of gross volume and intended to be laid with full bed
joints.
(b) Cored unit A unit with cores intended to be laid with its cores vertical and with full
bed joints.
(c) Hollow unit A unit with cores intended to be laid with its cores vertical and with
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face-shell-bedded joints.
(d) Horizontally cored units A unit with cores intended to be laid with its cores
horizontally and with full bed joints.
1.5.5 Wall chasing
Recess cut into an existing wall to accommodate services.
1.5.6 Wall height
Height as defined in Figure 1.2.
1.5.7 Wall panel length
The clear distance between lateral supports or the distance between the support and a free
edge, where lateral supports provide resistance to lateral movement.
NOTE: See Figure 1.3 for the relevant case.

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AS 4773.1—2010 12
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NOTES:
1 Battens and ceiling lining should be ignored in defining the underside of the roof framing.
2 Wall height is taken from the top of the slab with or without rebate (as shown).
FIGURE 1.2 DESIGN WALL HEIGHT

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13 AS 4773.1—2010
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FIGURE 1.3 DESIGN WALL PANEL LENGTH

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AS 4773.1—2010 14

S E C T I O N 2 D E S I G N C R I T E R I A

2.1 SCOPE OF SECTION


This Section sets out general design criteria for masonry. Particular requirements for
structural design are set out in Sections 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10.

2.2 AIM
The aim of design is to provide a structure that is durable, fire resistant, serviceable, and
has adequate strength and stability while serving its intended function and satisfying other
relevant requirements such as resistance to water penetration and robustness.

2.3 PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS


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2.3.1 Durability
A masonry member and its components, properly maintained, shall have a low probability
of deterioration throughout its intended life taking into account the exposure environment.
NOTE: The appropriate level of maintenance will depend on the exposure conditions, the nature
of the construction and particularly any applied protective coatings.
2.3.2 Serviceability
A masonry member or structure shall have a low probability of failure to remain serviceable
and fit for the purpose for which it was constructed throughout its intended life.
2.3.3 Strength
A masonry member or structure shall have a low probability of structural failure when
subjected to the loads that can reasonably be expected throughout its intended life.
2.3.4 Stability
A masonry member or structure shall have a low probability of instability when subjected to
the loads that can reasonably be expected throughout its intended life.
2.3.5 Fire resistance
A masonry member or structure shall have a fire resistance so that the member can, for the
required period, perform its structural function and if necessary prevent the spread of fire.
2.3.6 Other requirement
A masonry member or structure shall have a low probability of failing to meet any other
appropriate design requirement (e.g., resistance to water penetration) throughout its
intended life.

2.4 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS


2.4.1 Design for durability
A masonry member or structure designed for durability in accordance with Section 4 is
deemed to meet the requirements of Clause 2.3.1.
2.4.2 Design for serviceability
A masonry member or structure designed for serviceability as set out in Clauses 2.5.1
and 2.5.2, in accordance with Sections 6, 7, 8 or 9, as appropriate, is deemed to meet the
requirements of Clause 2.3.2.

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15 AS 4773.1—2010

2.4.3 Design for strength


A masonry member or structure designed for strength as set out in Clauses 2.5.1 and 2.5.3,
in accordance with Sections 6, 7, 8, 9 or 10, as appropriate, is deemed to meet the
requirements of Clause 2.3.3.
2.4.4 Design for stability
A masonry member or structure designed for stability as set out in Clauses 2.5.1 and 2.5.4,
in accordance with Sections 6, 7, 8, 9 or 10, as appropriate, is deemed to meet the
requirements of Clause 2.3.4.
2.4.5 Design for fire resistance
A masonry member or structure designed for fire resistance in accordance with Section 5 is
deemed to meet the requirements of Clause 2.3.5.
2.4.6 Design for other requirements
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A masonry member or structure designed for other requirements as set out in Clause 2.6,
and in accordance with Sections 11, 12, 13 and 14 is deemed to meet the requirements of
Clause 2.3.6.

2.5 SERVICEABILITY, STRENGTH AND STABILITY


2.5.1 General
Design for serviceability, strength and stability shall—
(a) be in accordance with accepted principles of mechanics;
(b) provide for all loads and forces to be transferred through the structure to the
foundation;
(c) provide for compatibility between each masonry member and the structural members
giving vertical and, where required, lateral support to that masonry member; and
(d) be based on the material properties of the masonry in accordance with Section 3.
2.5.2 Design for serviceability
A masonry member or structure shall be designed to allow movements to be controlled or
isolated so that damage to the masonry, the building and its components is avoided and the
structural and other requirements are satisfied.
The movements to be allowed for shall include the following:
(a) The expansion characteristics of clay masonry and the shrinkage characteristics of
concrete masonry and calcium silicate masonry.
(b) Thermal movements.
(c) Deflections, shortening, shrinkage, creep and similar deformations in adjacent or
associated materials.
(d) Foundation movements.
(e) Deformation due to construction loads or construction sequences.
If subjected to design loads or design building movement, masonry shall experience no
damage, a low incidence of damage category 1 or an occasional incidence of damage
category 2. The classification of damage with reference to walls is given in Table 2.1.
Masonry is deemed to meet this performance requirement if it complies with this Standard
and AS 4055 for the appropriate wind class and is constructed on concrete footings and/or
concrete slabs complying with AS 2870 for the appropriate site classes nominated therein.

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AS 4773.1—2010 16

TABLE 2.1
CLASSIFICATION OF DAMAGE WITH REFERENCE TO WALLS

Approximate crack width Damage


Description of typical damage and required repair
limit (see Note 3) category
Hairline cracks <0.1 mm 0
Fine cracks that do not need repair <1 mm 1
Cracks noticeable but easily filled <5 mm 2
Doors and windows stick slightly
Cracks can be repaired and possibly a small amount of wall 5 mm to 15 mm 3
will need to be replaced. Doors and windows stick. Service (or a number of cracks 3 mm
pipes can fracture. Weather tightness often impaired or more in one group)
Extensive repair work involving breaking out and replacing 15 mm to 25 mm 4
sections of walls, especially over doors and windows. Window but also depends on number
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and door frames distort. Walls lean or bulge noticeably, some of cracks
loss of bearing in beams. Service pipes disrupted
NOTES:
1 This Table (including notes) is reproduced from AS 2870.
2 Crack width is the main factor by which damage to walls is categorized. The width may be
supplemented by other factors, including serviceability, in assessing category of damage.
3 In assessing the degree of damage, account shall be taken of the location in the building or structure
where damage occurs, and the function of the building or structure.
4 Where the cracking occurs in easily repaired plasterboard or similar clad-framed partitions, the crack
width limits may be increased by 50% for each damage category.
5 Local deviation of slope, from the horizontal or vertical, of more than 1/100 will normally be clearly
visible. Overall deviations in excess of 1/150 are undesirable.
6 Account should be taken of the past history of damage in order to assess whether it is stable or likely
to increase.

2.5.3 Design for strength


A masonry member or structure shall be designed to prevent failure under the loads as
specified in AS 4055, as appropriate.
NOTE: The loads specified in AS 4055 include the appropriate combinations of permanent and
wind actions.
2.5.4 Design for stability
The structure (as a whole) and its parts shall be designed to prevent instability due to
overturning, uplift and sliding under the loads specified in AS 4055, as appropriate.
NOTE: The loads specified in AS 4055 include the appropriate combinations of permanent and
wind actions.

2.6 OTHER DESIGN REQUIREMENTS


2.6.1 General
Requirements such as resistance to water penetration and any special performance
requirements shall be considered where relevant and, if significant, be taken into account in
the design of the structure in accordance with appropriate engineering principles and this
Standard.
2.6.2 Design for prevention of water penetration
When moisture penetration is required to be prevented, a masonry member or structure shall
be designed, constructed and protected against passage of moisture in accordance with
Clause 14.8.

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17 AS 4773.1—2010

2.6.3 Thermal insulation


Where it is required by regulations to limit thermal transmission through a wall, the wall
shall be of appropriate materials and construction.
2.6.4 Sound insulation
Where it is required by regulations to achieve specific acoustic performance, the wall and
sound insulation shall be of appropriate materials and construction.
NOTE: Deemed-to-satisfy and alternative solutions are provided in the BCA and by
manufacturers.
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AS 4773.1—2010 18

S E C T I O N 3 M A T E R I A L S

3.1 SCOPE OF SECTION


This Section sets out the requirements for materials of masonry units, mortar, grout, damp-
proof courses, flashings, built-in components and reinforcement.

3.2 MASONRY UNITS


3.2.1 General
All masonry units shall be fired clay, concrete or calcium silicate units complying with
AS/NZS 4455.1.
The salt attack resistance grade of masonry units shall comply with the durability
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requirements of Section 4.
3.2.2 Unreinforced loadbearing masonry
For unreinforced loadbearing masonry, the units shall have a minimum characteristic
unconfined compressive strength as follows:
(a) 5 MPa for solid or cored units.
(b) 10 MPa for hollow units.
3.2.3 Unreinforced non-loadbearing masonry
For unreinforced non-loadbearing masonry, the units shall have a minimum characteristic
unconfined compressive strength as follows:
(a) 3 MPa for solid or cored units.
(b) 10 MPa for hollow units.
(c) 2.5 MPa for horizontally cored units.
3.2.4 Reinforced masonry
For reinforced masonry, the units shall have a minimum characteristic unconfined
compressive strength of 15 MPa.

3.3 MORTAR AND GROUT


3.3.1 Mortar composition
Mortar shall consist of a mixture of cement, sand and water, with the addition of lime and
admixtures (if specified). The mixes shall be as shown in Table 3.1 and selected in
accordance with the durability requirements of Section 4.
For reinforced masonry, the mortar class shall be either M3 or M4.

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19 AS 4773.1—2010

TABLE 3.1
MORTAR MIXES
Mix proportions by volume Mortar suitability
Mortar
class Cement Masonry Building Water Fired Calcium
Sand Concrete
(GB/GP) cement lime thickener clay silicate
M2 1 0 2 9 No  × ×
M3 1 0 1 6 Optional   ×
1 0 0 5 Yes   
0 1 0 4 Yes   ×
M4 1 0 0.5 4.5 Optional   ×
1 0 0 4 Yes   
1 0 0–0.25 3 Optional   ×
0 1 0 3 Yes   ×
LEGEND:
 satisfactory
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× Unsatisfactory
Type GP—general purpose portland cement.
Type GB—general purpose blended cement.
NOTES:
1 Mortar mixes are designated by the proportions of their ingredients following an initial letter, the chief
cementing agent being given as unity (e.g., C 1:L 0.5:S 4.5 or C 1:S3).
2 Volumes refer to materials in the dense-packed condition.
3 The water thickener referred to in this Table is cellulose based. The particular cellulose-based product
used is to be specifically suited for this application and used in accordance with the manufacturer’s or
supplier’s instructions. For further information, refer to AS 4773.2.

3.3.2 Grout composition


Grout shall consist of a mixture of cement, sand, and aggregate (screened gravel or crushed
rock). A mortar mix to which water has been added (slurry) shall not be used as a substitute
for grout.
Site-mixed grout shall consist of the following mix proportion, by volume:
1 part cement : 2 parts sand : 4 parts aggregate.
For reinforced masonry, the grout shall have a compressive strength of at least 20 MPa with
at least 300 kg of cement per cubic metre.

3.4 BUILT-IN COMPONENTS


3.4.1 Wall ties
Wall ties shall comply with AS/NZS 2699.1 and the durability requirements of Section 4.
3.4.2 Connectors and accessories
Built-in connectors, bolts and fixings shall comply with AS/NZS 2699.2 and the durability
requirements of Section 4.
3.4.3 Lintels
All lintels shall comply with the durability requirements of Section 4.
Steel lintels shall be manufactured from steel having yield strength not less than 250 MPa.
3.4.4 Mullions
All mullions shall comply with the durability requirements of Section 4.
Steel mullions shall be manufactured from steel having yield strength not less than
250 MPa.

3.5 REINFORCEMENT
Reinforcement shall be Grade 500N in accordance with AS/NZS 4671.

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AS 4773.1—2010 20

S E C T I O N 4 D U R A B I L I T Y

4.1 SCOPE OF SECTION


This Section sets out the durability requirements for masonry materials, accessories and
built-in items for a range of defined exposure environments.

4.2 MATERIAL SELECTION


Masonry materials, accessories and built-in items shall be selected and combined to satisfy
the durability requirements of Table 4.1 for the relevant exposure environment in
accordance with Clause 4.3 and location in accordance with Clause 4.4.
In the application of Table 4.1, ‘built-in components’ includes anchors, connectors, ties,
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straps, bolts and fixings, bedjoint mesh and reinforcement that does not rely on grout cover
for protection. Where grout is required to provide protection to steel reinforcement in
grouted cavities and cores, the steel shall be surrounded by grout complying with
Clause 3.3.2 to provide a cover, measured from the face of the grout to the surface of the
reinforcement in accordance with Table 4.1. Horizontal reinforcement in reinforced hollow
unit masonry may be supported on the webs of recessed-web hollow units, provided the
reinforcement is completely surrounded by grout except where it is in contact with the
masonry units. Where recessed web, flush-ended hollow blocks are used, the reinforcement
shall be supported clear of the webs to permit the covers required by Table 4.1 to be
achieved at all positions along the reinforcement, including within perpend joints.

4.3 EXPOSURE ENVIRONMENTS


4.3.1 Severe marine
Areas up to 100 m from a non-surf coast and up to 1 km from a surf coast shall both be
regarded as severe marine environments. The distances specified are from the mean high-
water mark.

© Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


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www.standards.org.au

TABLE 4.1
DURABILITY REQUIREMENTS
Masonry units salt Built-in Reinforcement
Exposure attack resistance components cover
Location grade Mortar class durability class mm
environment
(see Note 1) (see Note 2) (see Note 3)
Clay units M2 R1 5
Normal Protected Concrete or calcium
M3 R1 5
Interior silicate units
Subject to non-saline wetting and drying General purpose M3 R3 15
Subject to saline wetting and drying Exposure M4 R4 25

Exterior-coated—waterproof coating, above a DPC and Clay units M2 R1 5


All protected by roof, eave or coping, with properly flashed Protected Concrete or calcium
junctions M3 R1 5
silicate units
Clay units M2 R2 15
Protected from water ingress by an
Protected Concrete or calcium
Below a DPC or impermeable membrane

21
M3 R2 15
in contact with the silicate units
ground Non-aggressive soils General purpose M3 R3 15
Aggressive soils Exposure M4 R4 25
Clay units M2 R1 5
Mild Exterior Protected Concrete or calcium
M3 R1 5
silicate units
Clay units M2 R1 5
Moderate Exterior Protected Concrete or calcium
M3 R1 5
silicate units
Industrial Exterior Exposure M4 R4 25
© Standards Australia

Marine
Exterior General purpose M3 R3 15
(see Note 4)

AS 4773.1—2010
Severe marine
Exterior Exposure M4 R4 25
(see Note 5)
Special
Exterior (see Note 6) (see Note 6) R5 (see Note 6)
(see Note 6)
AS 4773.1—2010 22

NOTES TO TABLE 4.1:


1 Means for determining salt attack resistance grades for masonry units are given in AS/NZS 4455.1.
2 Durability classes shown in Appendix C shall be deemed to satisfy this requirement for all built-in
components except lintels. For durability classes of lintels, refer to AS/NZS 2699.3.
3 Cover requirements shall be satisfied where grout cover is relied upon to provide durability protection
otherwise use the durability class in column five of Table 4.1 above.
4 All external elements in contact with freshwater or subject to non-saline wetting and drying shall be
treated as for a marine environment.
5 All external elements in contact with saline or contaminated water or subject to saline wetting and drying
shall be treated as for a severe marine environment.
6 Requirements for especially aggressive environments depend on the nature of the corrosive agents and
cannot be defined. Units, mortars, covers or coatings shown by test, or known by experience, to be
resistant to the particular corrosive agent shall be used.
7 M2 mortar is not permitted for concrete and calcium silicate masonry. There are also limitations on the
constituents of M3 and M4 mortars for calcium silicate masonry (refer to Table 3.1).

4.3.2 Marine
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Areas from 100 m to 1 km from a non-surf coast and 1 km to 10 km from a surf coast shall
both be regarded as marine environments. The distances specified are from the mean high-
water mark.
NOTE: Sheltered bays such as Port Phillip Bay and Sydney Harbour are considered to be non-surf
coast.
4.3.3 Industrial
Industrial environments are those within 1 km of industrial areas producing significant
acidic pollution. The only areas within this category are around major industrial complexes.
NOTE: There are only a few such regions in Australia; for example, around Port Pirie.
4.3.4 Moderate
Moderate environments include areas with light industrial pollution or very light marine
influence, or both.
NOTE: Typical areas are suburbs of cities on sheltered bays such as Melbourne, Adelaide and
Hobart (except those areas near the coast) and most inland cities.
4.3.5 Mild
Environments remote from the coast, industrial activity and the tropics shall be regarded as
mild environments.
NOTE: Sparsely settled regions such as outback Australia are typical examples, but the category
also includes rural communities other than those on the coast.

4.4 ELEMENT LOCATIONS


For the application of Table 4.1, the following locations shall be used:
(a) Interior locations:
(i) Elements that are above a damp-proof course and enclosed within the building
except during construction.
(ii) The masonry units and mortar in the inner leaf of a cavity wall.
(b) Exterior locations:
(i) The exposed leaf of a cavity or veneer wall.
(ii) The cavity space in an exposed cavity or veneer wall.
(iii) Wall ties in a cavity or veneer wall.
(iv) Roof tie-down straps in a cavity or veneer wall.
(v) Lintels embedded in either leaf of a cavity wall.

© Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


23 AS 4773.1—2010

Exterior coated locations are those that are protected by a weather-resistant coating in
accordance with Clause 14.8.1. In addition to the coating, these elements shall have
properly flashed junctions with other building elements.
An impermeable membrane for protection of locations below a damp-proof course or in
contact with the ground shall be a continuous waterproof sheet membrane such as that used
for protection of slabs on the ground. Painted water-resistant systems are not adequate for
this purpose.
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AS 4773.1—2010 24

S E C T I O N 5 F I R E R E S I S T A N C E

5.1 SCOPE OF SECTION


This Section sets out general criteria for fire resistance of a masonry wall to fulfil its
required functions (loadbearing and/or separating function) for a specified fire exposure, for
a specified time.
The fire resistance levels (FRL) for structural adequacy, integrity and insulation (expressed
in that order) for structures, parts and elements of construction are specified by the relevant
Authority.
NOTE: In some situations, the structural adequacy may not apply.
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5.2 GENERAL CRITERIA


For panel walls that are to provide fire resistance where edge isolation is necessary, special
consideration shall be given to the edge detail.
Where movement joints or edge clearances are required for walls designed to resist fire,
they shall be filled with a non-combustible material that allows the movement joint to
function.

5.3 DESIGN PERFORMANCE CRITERIA


5.3.1 General
Fire-resisting masonry walls shall be designed to have a fire resistance period (FRP) for
each of structural adequacy, integrity and insulation not less than the required fire
resistance level (FRL).
5.3.2 External walls
Where external walls are required to have a FRL the following shall apply:
(a) Veneer walls, where the frame is isolated from the fire source by the masonry, are
deemed to have a fire resistance of 60/60/60.
(b) For cavity walls, the loadbearing leaf shall comply with Table 5.1. There are no
requirements for non-loadbearing leaf.
(c) Single leaf walls shall comply with Table 5.1.
5.3.3 Internal walls
Where an internal wall is required to have a FRL of 60/60/60, it shall be proportioned in
accordance with Table 5.1.
5.3.4 Floors providing lateral support to walls
Top supports for a fire-rated wall shall be—
(a) a floor with an FRL equal to or greater than the wall on at least one side; or
(b) non-fire-rated floors attached independently on both sides.

© Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


25 AS 4773.1—2010

TABLE 5.1
MAXIMUM WALL HEIGHT TO SATISFY FRL

Maximum height of wall


between supports, mm
(see Note 1)
Wall type
Required FRL
60/60/60
90 mm clay solid or cored units 2 700
90 mm concrete solid, cored or hollow units with over 45% basalt 2 700
110 mm concrete solid, cored or hollow units with under 45% basalt 2 640
110 mm concrete solid, cored or hollow units with over 45% basalt 3 300
110 mm clay solid or cored units 3 300
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150 mm clay solid or cored units 4 500


140 mm hollow units 3 540
140 mm hollow units (core filled) 3 540
190 mm concrete hollow units 4 810
140 mm vertically reinforced 4 500
(see Note 2)
190 mm vertically reinforced 5 300
(see Note 2)
NOTES:
1 The height is measured floor to floor or floor to ceiling where the floor or ceiling is attached
and provides lateral support (see Figure 1.2).
2 Reinforced vertically with not less than N12 bars at 2.0 m centres.
3 The wall heights shall also satisfy the requirements given in Tables 9.1 and 9.3.

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AS 4773.1—2010 26

S E C T I O N 6 W A L L D E S I G N

6.1 SCOPE OF SECTION


This Section sets out general design criteria for masonry members and structures, including
joints, bonding and tying, connections and lintels.

6.2 GENERAL CRITERIA


Walls shall be designed to comply with Section 7, 8, 9 or 10, as appropriate. Where
horizontally cored units are used, consideration shall be given in design to the influence of
chasing for services on the wall panel load capacity.
NOTE: Provision of alternative means for running services that minimize the need to chase is
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recommended.
Design for bracing capacity shall be carried out in accordance with Section 11.

6.3 VERTICAL SUPPORTS


Where vertical supports are required, the following vertical supports are deemed to be
adequate:
(a) Cross-walls or masonry returns of length at least 600 mm and properly bonded or tied
to the supported wall.
(b) Reinforced piers or reinforced cores of hollow blockwork in accordance with
Clause 6.7.2.
(c) Steel or timber framing that has been designed to withstand horizontal loadings in
accordance with AS/NZS 4600 and AS 1684.2, AS 1684.3 and AS 1684.4.
(d) Steel mullions designed in accordance with Clause 6.8.
An untied wall joint shall be regarded as a free end.

6.4 HORIZONTAL SUPPORTS


Except for parapets, chimneys and cantilevers in accordance with Clause 14.9 and fin walls
in accordance with Table 9.1, all masonry walls shall be supported at both top and bottom
by horizontal supports.
The following horizontal supports are deemed to be adequate:
(a) Concrete roof or floor slabs complying with AS 3600 or AS 2870, as appropriate,
with or without a slip joint.
(b) Timber floors and roof structures complying with AS 1684 (series).
(c) Steel floor and roof structures complying with AS/NZS 4600.
(d) Steel floor and roof structures complying with NASH.
(e) Cornices securely attached to the ceiling structure in accordance with Figure 6.1.

© Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


27 AS 4773.1—2010
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NOTE: Cornices are attached to ceiling and not to walls.

FIGURE 6.1 CORNICE DETAILS PROVIDING LATERAL SUPPORT


FOR INTERNAL WALLS

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AS 4773.1—2010 28

6.5 LOAD WIDTH


The load width (A) required for selection of connections in accordance with Clause 6.6 and
lintels in accordance with Clauses 12.3 and 12.4 shall be determined in accordance with
Figure 6.2.
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NOTE: Circles indicate the wall containing the connection or lintel.

FIGURE 6.2 DETERMINATION OF LOAD WIDTH

6.6 DESIGN FOR UPLIFT


Roofs shall be connected to masonry walls to resist the net uplift pressures given in
Section 4 of AS 4055.
The connections given in Table 6.1 and Table 6.2 and shown in Figures 6.3 and 6.4 are
deemed to satisfy this requirement, provided the load width (A) is in accordance with
Clause 6.5.
For unreinforced masonry in wind classes greater than N3 (including all cyclonic wind
classes), the roof shall be independently tied to the footing with tie-down rods.

© Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


29 AS 4773.1—2010

TABLE 6.1(A)
ROOF CONNECTIONS FOR TILED ROOF
Wall Maximum load width (A), m, for wind class Connection
Connection thickness capacity
mm N1 N2 N3 N4 N5 N6 kN
Galvanized strap 30 × 0.8 mm
embedded 600 mm down wall
90 8.9 8.9 5.8 n/a n/a n/a 6.5
at maximum 1200 mm
spacings [see Figure 6.3(a)]
Galvanized strap 30 × 0.8 mm
embedded 600 mm down wall
90 8.9 8.9 6.8 n/a n/a n/a 3.8
at maximum 600 mm spacings
[see Figure 6.3(a)]
Galvanized strap 30 × 0.8 mm
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embedded 900 mm down wall


90 8.9 8.9 7.3 n/a n/a n/a 4.1
at maximum 600 mm spacings
[see Figure 6.3(a)]
Galvanized strap 30 × 0.8 mm
attached to bar 600 mm down
90 8.9 8.9 7.8 n/a n/a n/a 4.3
wall at maximum 600 mm
spacings [see Figure 6.3(b)]
Galvanized strap 30 × 0.8 mm
attached to bar 900 mm down
90 8.9 8.9 8.8 n/a n/a n/a 4.9
wall at maximum 600 mm
spacings [see Figure 6.3(b)]
Galvanized strap 30 × 0.8 mm
embedded 600 mm down wall
110 8.9 8.9 5.8 n/a n/a n/a 6.5
at maximum 1200 mm
spacings [see Figure 6.3(a)]
Galvanized strap 30 × 0.8 mm
embedded 600 mm down wall
110 8.9 8.9 8.3 n/a n/a n/a 4.6
at maximum 600 mm spacings
[see Figure 6.3(a)]
Galvanized strap 30 × 0.8 mm
embedded 900 mm down wall
110 8.9 8.9 8.9 n/a n/a n/a 5.0
at maximum 600 mm spacings
[see Figure 6.3(a)]
Galvanized strap 30 × 0.8 mm
attached to bar 600 mm down
110 8.9 8.9 8.9 n/a n/a n/a 5.3
wall at maximum 600 mm
spacings [see Figure 6.3(b)]
Galvanized strap 30 × 0.8 mm
attached to bar 900 mm down
110 8.9 8.9 8.9 n/a n/a n/a 6.0
wall at maximum 600 mm
spacings [see Figure 6.3(b)]
LEGEND
n/a = not appropriate.
NOTE: Strap size 25 × 1.0 mm may be substituted for 30 × 0.8 mm.

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AS 4773.1—2010 30

TABLE 6.1(B)
ROOF CONNECTIONS FOR SHEET ROOF
Wall Maximum load width (A), m, for wind class Connection
Connection thickness capacity
mm N1 N2 N3 N4 N5 N6 kN
Galvanized strap 30 × 0.8 mm
embedded 600 mm down wall
90 8.9 7.3 4.1 n/a n/a n/a 6.5
at maximum 1200 mm
spacings [see Figure 6.3(a)]
Galvanized strap 30 × 0.8 mm
embedded 600 mm down wall
90 8.9 8.5 4.8 n/a n/a n/a 3.8
at maximum 600 mm spacings
[see Figure 6.3(a)]
Galvanized strap 30 × 0.8 mm
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embedded 900 mm down wall


90 8.9 8.9 5.1 n/a n/a n/a 4.1
at maximum 600 mm spacings
[see Figure 6.3(a)]
Galvanized strap 30 × 0.8 mm
attached to bar 600 mm down
90 8.9 8.9 5.4 n/a n/a n/a 4.3
wall at maximum 600 mm
spacings [see Figure 6.3(b)]
Galvanized strap 30 × 0.8 mm
attached to bar 900 mm down
90 8.9 8.9 6.1 n/a n/a n/a 4.9
wall at maximum 600 mm
spacings [see Figure 6.3(b)]
Galvanized strap 30 × 0.8 mm
embedded 600 mm down wall
110 8.9 7.3 4.1 n/a n/a n/a 6.5
at maximum 1200 mm
spacings [see Figure 6.3(a)]
Galvanized strap 30 × 0.8 mm
embedded 600 mm down wall
110 8.9 8.9 5.8 n/a n/a n/a 4.6
at maximum 600 mm spacings
[see Figure 6.3(a)]
Galvanized strap 30 × 0.8 mm
embedded 900 mm down wall
110 8.9 8.9 6.2 n/a n/a n/a 5.0
at maximum 600 mm spacings
[see Figure 6.3(a)]
Galvanized strap 30 × 0.8 mm
attached to bar 600 mm down
110 8.9 8.9 6.7 n/a n/a n/a 5.3
wall at maximum 600 mm
spacings [see Figure 6.3(b)]
Galvanized strap 30 × 0.8 mm
attached to bar 900 mm down
110 8.9 8.9 7.5 n/a n/a n/a 6.0
wall at maximum 600 mm
spacings [see Figure 6.3(b)]
LEGEND
n/a = not appropriate.
NOTE: Strap size 25 × 1.0 mm may be substituted for 30 × 0.8 mm.

© Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


31 AS 4773.1—2010

TABLE 6.2
REINFORCED MASONRY TIE-DOWNS
Design Maximum load width (A), m, for wind class
Wall anchorage
thickness capacity, N4, N5, N6,
mm ( ϕ P) N1 N2 N3
C1 C2 C3
C4
kN per cleat
Tiled roof
Two courses reinforced, with ‘long 190 30.7 8.9 8.9 8.9 8.9 8.8 5.6 4.0
fishtail cleats’ [see Figure 6.4(a)]
Two courses reinforced, with ‘long 140 23.3 8.9 8.9 8.9 8.9 6.7 4.3 3.0
fishtail cleats’ [see Figure 6.4(a)]
Two courses reinforced, with W8 190 22.0 8.9 8.9 8.9 8.9 6.3 4.0 2.9
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stirrups at maximum 200 mm


centres [see Figure 6.4(b)]
Two courses reinforced, with W8 140 13.0 8.9 8.9 8.9 6.2 3.7 2.4 1.7
stirrups at maximum 200 mm
centres [see Figure 6.4(b)]
Two courses reinforced, with no 190 13.1 8.9 8.9 8.9 6.3 3.8 2.4 1.7
deep anchorage [see Figure 6.4(c)]
two courses reinforced, with no 140 11.3 8.9 8.9 8.9 5.4 3.3 2.1 1.5
deep anchorage [see Figure 6.4(c)]
Sheet roof
Two courses reinforced, with ‘long 190 30.7 8.9 8.9 8.9 8.9 7.8 5.2 3.8
fishtail cleats’ [see Figure 6.4(a)]
Two courses reinforced, with ‘long 140 23.3 8.9 8.9 8.9 8.9 5.9 3.9 2.9
fishtail cleats’ [see Figure 6.4(a)]
Two courses reinforced, with W8 190 22.0 8.9 8.9 8.9 8.6 5.6 3.7 2.7
stirrups at maximum 200 mm
centres [see Figure 6.4(b)]
Two courses reinforced, with W8 140 13.0 8.9 8.9 8.1 5.1 3.3 2.2 1.6
stirrups at maximum 200 mm
centres [see Figure 6.4(b)]
Two courses reinforced, with no 190 13.1 8.9 8.9 8.2 5.1 3.3 2.2 1.6
deep anchorage [see Figure 6.4(c)]
Two courses reinforced, with no 140 11.3 8.9 8.9 7.1 4.4 2.9 1.9 1.4
deep anchorage [see Figure 6.4(c)]

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AS 4773.1—2010 32
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DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETRES

FIGURE 6.3 TYPICAL ROOF CONNECTIONS FOR UNREINFORCED MASONRY

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33 AS 4773.1—2010
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DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETRES

FIGURE 6.4 TYPICAL ROOF CONNECTIONS FOR REINFORCED MASONRY

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AS 4773.1—2010 34

6.7 PIERS
6.7.1 Unreinforced piers
6.7.1.1 Engaged piers
Engaged unreinforced piers shall be proportioned in accordance with Clause 9.2.2.
6.7.1.2 Isolated subfloor piers
Isolated unreinforced piers shall be proportioned in accordance with Clause 14.6.
6.7.2 Reinforced piers
6.7.2.1 Engaged piers
Reinforced piers used to support walls against wind actions, where the lengths of the wall
panels exceed the values in Clause 9.2, shall be spaced along the wall, at the edge of
openings and between adjacent openings. The spacing, size and reinforcement shall be
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selected in accordance with Tables 6.3 to 6.5.


The pocket containing the reinforcement shall be either—
(a) filled with mortar, provided the reinforcement is positively attached to the top plate
and the footing; or
(b) grouted.
NOTE: Durability requirements for reinforcement are set out in Section 4.
6.7.2.2 Isolated subfloor piers
Isolated reinforced piers shall be proportioned in accordance with Clause 14.6.

© Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


35 AS 4773.1—2010

TABLE 6.3
SPACING OF REINFORCED PIERS ALONG A WALL
Maximum pier spacing, (S)
m
Details
Wind N12 N16
category reinforcement reinforcement
mm Wall height, m Wall height, m
2.4 2.7 3.0 2.4 2.7 3.0
N1 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0
N2 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0
N3 3.0 2.4 1.8 3.0 2.4 1.8
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N4 1.8 1.5 1.2 1.8 1.5 1.2


N5 1.5 — — 1.5 — —
C1 2.4 1.8 1.2 2.4 1.8 1.2
C2 1.5 — — 1.5 — —
C3 — — — — — —
N1 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0
N2 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0
N3 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0
N4 3.0 2.4 1.8 3.0 3.0 2.4
N5 1.8 1.8 1.2 3.0 2.4 1.8
C1 3.0 2.4 2.1 3.0 3.0 3.0
C2 2.1 1.8 1.2 3.0 2.4 1.8
C3 1.5 1.2 — 1.8 1.8 1.2
N1 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0
N2 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0
N3 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0
N4 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0
N5 2.4 1.8 1.8 3.0 3.0 3.0
C1 3.0 3.0 2.4 3.0 3.0 3.0
C2 3.0 2.4 1.8 3.0 3.0 3.0
C3 1.8 1.2 1.2 3.0 2.4 1.8

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AS 4773.1—2010 36

TABLE 6.4
REINFORCED PIERS AT EDGE OF OPENINGS

Maximum supported width, (W)


m
Details
Wind N12 N16
category reinforcement reinforcement
mm Wall height, m Wall height, m
2.4 2.7 3.0 2.4 2.7 3.0
N1 5.4 5.4 5.4 5.4 5.4 5.4
N2 5.4 4.5 3.0 5.4 4.5 3.0
N3 3.0 2.4 1.8 3.0 2.4 1.8
N4 1.8 1.5 1.2 1.8 1.5 1.2
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N5 1.2 — — 1.2 — —
C1 1.8 1.5 1.5 1.8 1.5 1.5
C2 1.2 — — 1.2 — —
C3 — — — — — —

N1 5.4 5.4 5.4 5.4 5.4 5.4


N2 5.4 5.4 5.4 5.4 5.4 5.4
N3 5.4 4.2 2.4 5.4 5.4 4.8
N4 3.0 2.4 1.8 4.8 3.0 2.4
N5 2.4 1.2 1.2 2.4 1.8 1.5
C1 3.6 3.0 1.8 5.4 3.0 2.4
C2 2.4 1.5 1.5 3.0 1.8 1.8
C3 1.5 1.2 — 1.8 1.2 1.2

N1 5.4 5.4 5.4 5.4 5.4 5.4


N2 5.4 5.4 5.4 5.4 5.4 5.4
N3 5.4 5.4 5.4 5.4 5.4 5.4
N4 4.8 3.0 2.4 5.4 5.4 5.4
N5 3.0 2.4 1.5 5.4 4.2 2.4
C1 5.4 3.6 3.0 5.4 5.4 5.4
C2 2.4 1.8 1.8 5.4 4.2 3.0
C3 1.8 1.8 1.2 3.6 2.4 2.4

© Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


37 AS 4773.1—2010

TABLE 6.5
REINFORCED PIERS BETWEEN OPENINGS

Maximum supported width, (W)


m
Details
Wind N12 N16
category reinforcement reinforcement
mm Wall height, m Wall height, m
2.4 2.7 3.0 2.4 2.7 3.0
N1 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0
N2 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0
N3 6.0 4.7 3.8 6.0 4.7 3.8
N4 4.0 3.1 2.4 4.0 3.1 2.4
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N5 2.7 — — 2.7 — —
C1 4.4 3.4 2.7 4.4 3.4 2.7
C2 2.7 — — 2.9 — —
C3 — — — — — —
N1 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0
N2 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0
N3 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0
N4 6.0 4.8 3.8 6.0 6.0 5.1
N5 4.2 3.2 2.6 5.6 4.3 3.4
C1 6.0 5.3 4.2 6.0 6.0 5.6
C2 4.5 3.5 2.7 6.0 4.6 3.7
C3 3.0 2.3 — 4.0 3.1 2.5
N1 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0
N2 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0
N3 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0
N4 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0
N5 5.3 4.1 3.2 6.0 6.0 5.7
C1 6.0 6.0 5.4 6.0 6.0 6.0
C2 5.7 4.4 3.5 6.0 6.0 6.0
C3 3.8 3.0 2.3 6.0 5.2 4.1

6.8 MULLIONS
6.8.1 General
Mullions used to support walls against wind actions, where the lengths of the wall panel
exceed the values in Clause 9.2, shall be spaced along the wall, at the edge of openings and
between adjacent openings. The spacing and size of mullions shall be selected in
accordance with Tables 6.6 to 6.10.
The mullions shall be placed behind a single leaf or in the cavity of a cavity wall as shown
in Figure 6.5 for ‘rectangular hollow sections (RHS)’.
Vertical DPC shall be used between the external skin and the mullion to prevent moisture
penetration.
NOTE: Durability requirements for reinforcement are set out in Section 4.

www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia


AS 4773.1—2010 38
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FIGURE 6.5 TYPICAL ARRANGEMENT OF RHS MULLIONS IN A CAVITY WALL

6.8.2 Walls without openings


Spacing of mullions along walls without openings shall be in accordance with Table 6.6.

TABLE 6.6
SPACING OF MULLIONS ALONG WALLS
Maximum spacing
Details
along wall (S), m
Wind
mm category Height of wall, m
2.4 2.7 3.0
N1 — — —
N2 — — —
N3 3.0 3.0 2.4
N4 3.0 2.2 1.6
N5 2.2 1.5 1.1
C1 3.0 2.4 1.8
C2 2.4 1.6 1.2
C3 1.5 1.1 0.8

© Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


39 AS 4773.1—2010

6.8.3 Walls with single openings


6.8.3.1 Mullions oriented parallel to the opening
The maximum supported width (W) for mullions oriented parallel to the opening in a wall
with single opening, as shown in Figure 6.6, shall be in accordance with Table 6.7.
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DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETRES

FIGURE 6.6 TYPICAL ARRANGEMENT OF RHS MULLIONS IN A CAVITY WALL


ORIENTED PARALLEL TO OPENING

TABLE 6.7
MAXIMUM SUPPORTED WIDTH FOR MULLIONS
ORIENTED PARALLEL TO OPENING
Maximum supported width (W), m
Wind category Height of wall, m
2.4 2.7 3.0
N1 5.4 5.4 5.4
N2 5.4 5.4 4.4
N3 5.4 3.6 2.4
N4 3.4 2.4 1.8
N5 2.2 1.6 1.1
C1 4.0 2.5 1.8
C2 2.4 1.7 1.2
C3 1.6 1.2 0.9

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AS 4773.1—2010 40

6.8.3.2 Mullions oriented perpendicular to the opening


The maximum supported width (W) for mullions oriented perpendicular to the opening in a
wall with single opening, as shown in Figure 6.7, shall be in accordance with Table 6.8.
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DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETRES

FIGURE 6.7 TYPICAL ARRANGEMENT OF RHS MULLIONS IN A CAVITY WALL


ORIENTED PERPENDICULAR TO OPENING

TABLE 6.8
MAXIMUM SUPPORTED WIDTH FOR MULLIONS
ORIENTED PERPENDICULAR TO OPENING

Maximum supported width (W), m


Wind category Height of wall, m
2.4 2.7 3.0
N1 5.4 5.4 5.4
N2 5.4 5.4 5.4
N3 5.4 5.4 5.4
N4 5.4 5.4 5.4
N5 5.4 5.4 4.8
C1 5.4 5.4 5.4
C2 5.4 5.4 5.4
C3 5.4 5.4 3.6

© Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


41 AS 4773.1—2010

6.8.4 Walls with double openings


6.8.4.1 Mullions oriented parallel to the opening
The maximum supported width (W) for mullions oriented parallel to the opening in a wall
with double openings, as shown in Figure 6.8, shall be in accordance with Table 6.9.
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DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETRES

FIGURE 6.8 TYPICAL ARRANGEMENT OF RHS MULLIONS BETWEEN DOUBLE


OPENINGS IN A CAVITY WALL ORIENTED PARALLEL TO THE OPENINGS

TABLE 6.9
MAXIMUM SUPPORTED WIDTH FOR MULLIONS
BETWEEN DOUBLE OPENINGS ORIENTED
PARALLEL TO THE OPENINGS
Maximum supported width (W), m
Wind category Height of wall, m
2.4 2.7 3.0
N1 6.0 6.0 6.0
N2 6.0 6.0 6.0
N3 6.0 6.0 4.9
N4 5.4 4.6 3.4
N5 4.4 3.2 2.3
C1 6.0 4.8 3.6
C2 4.7 3.4 2.4
C3 3.3 2.4 1.7

www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia


AS 4773.1—2010 42

6.8.4.2 Mullions oriented perpendicular to the opening


The maximum supported width (W) for mullions oriented perpendicular to the opening in a
wall with double openings, as shown in Figure 6.9, shall be in accordance with Table 6.10.

DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETRES
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FIGURE 6.9 TYPICAL ARRANGEMENT OF RHS MULLIONS BETWEEN DOUBLE


OPENINGS IN A CAVITY WALL ORIENTED PERPENDICULAR TO THE OPENINGS

TABLE 6.10
MAXIMUM SUPPORTED WIDTH FOR MULLIONS
BETWEEN DOUBLE OPENINGS ORIENTED
PERPENDICULAR TO THE OPENINGS

Maximum supported width (W), m


Wind category Height of wall, m
2.4 2.7 3.0
N1 6.0 6.0 6.0
N2 6.0 6.0 6.0
N3 6.0 6.0 6.0
N4 6.0 6.0 6.0
N5 6.0 6.0 6.0
C1 6.0 6.0 6.0
C2 6.0 6.0 6.0
C3 6.0 6.0 6.0

© Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


43 AS 4773.1—2010

S E C T I O N 7 M A S O N R Y V E N E E R W AL L S

7.1 SCOPE OF SECTION


This Section sets out specific requirements for masonry veneer walls consisting of a
masonry leaf attached to a supporting frame.

7.2 GENERAL CRITERIA


The frame and associated shear walls of masonry veneer walls shall be designed in
accordance with the appropriate Standards for resistance to lateral and/or racking wind
forces and earthquake loads.
NOTE: Relevant Standard may include AS 1684, AS/NZS 4600 and NASH.
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7.3 WALL TIES


Each masonry veneer leaf shall be connected to its supporting frame by wall ties spaced at
no more than 600 mm centres vertically.
Wall ties shall be selected and spaced horizontally in accordance with Table 7.1 and
Figure 7.1.

TABLE 7.1
REQUIRED DUTY RATINGS FOR TYPE A VENEER TIES
Wall height, mm

Wind 2400 2700 3000


category Horizontal spacing, mm
450 600 450 600 450 600
N1 L L L L L L
N2 L L L L L L
N3 L L L M L M
N4 M M M M M M
N5 M H M H H H
N6 H H H H H H
C1 L L L M L M
C2 M M M M M M
C3 M H M H H H
C4 H H H H H H
LEGEND:
L = light duty
M = medium duty
H = heavy duty
NOTES:
1 The values in this Table are independent of vertical spacing but 600 mm is the
maximum spacing permitted (see Clause 7.3).
2 The required tie ratings are based on the load capacities given in AS/NZS 2699.1
(see also Appendix A).

www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia


AS 4773.1—2010 44
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DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETRES

FIGURE 7.1 VENEER TIE LOCATIONS

© Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


45 AS 4773.1—2010

S E C T I O N 8 C A V I T Y M A S O N R Y W AL L S

8.1 SCOPE OF SECTION


This Section sets out specific requirements for cavity masonry walls consisting of two
masonry leaves separated by a cavity and tied together by wall ties.

8.2 EXTERNAL WALLS


All panels of external cavity masonry shall be interconnected and each panel shall have at
least one vertical support. An untied control joint shall be regarded as a free end except
where it is located within 300 mm of a support and contains expansion ties at a maximum of
400 mm centres.
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Cavity walls of unreinforced masonry subject to wind loads shall have design panel lengths
not exceeding those given in Table 8.1. For an opening greater than 600 mm in height, the
edges of the opening shall be treated as free ends. Openings smaller than 600 mm in height
may be ignored when using Table 8.1.
Where wall panel lengths exceed the values given in Table 8.1, mullions may be used for
lateral support, in accordance with Clause 6.8.

8.3 INTERNAL WALLS


Internal cavity masonry walls with support on at least one vertical edge shall be
dimensioned in accordance with Table 8.1. For an opening greater than 600 mm in height,
the edges of the opening shall be treated as free ends. Openings smaller than 600 mm in
height may be ignored when using Table 8.1.
Internal cavity masonry walls vertically spanning one way between horizontal supports in
accordance with Clause 6.4 shall be dimensioned in accordance with Table 8.2.

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AS 4773.1—2010
© Standards Australia

TABLE 8.1
MAXIMUM PANEL LENGTHS (mm) FOR UNREINFORCED CAVITY WALLS
Wall Wind class
Wall thickness, mm
height Edge conditions
(see Note 1) N1 N2 N3 N4 N5 N6 C1 C2 C3 C4
mm
2400 Panel supported on 90/90 14 600 10 700 7 200 5 150 3 800 3 050 5 600 4 050 3 050 2 350
4 sides with no opening
90/110 15 300 11 250 7 600 5 425 4 025 3 225 5 900 4 275 3 225 2 475
110/110 16 000 11 800 8 000 5 700 4 250 3 400 6 200 4 500 3 400 2 600
110/110 raked
15 100 11 200 7 550 5 450 4 050 3 250 5 850 4 300 3 250 2 500
(see Note 3)
Panel supported on 90/90 6 650 4 750 3 000 1 975 950 425 2 200 1 425 425 *
4 sides with an opening
90/110 7 025 5 025 3 200 2 125 1 050 500 2 350 1 513 500 *
(see Note 3)
110/110 7 400 5 300 3 400 2 275 1 150 575 2 500 1 600 575 *
110/110 raked
6 950 5 000 3 175 2 125 950 500 2 325 1 225 500 *

46
(see Note 3)
Panel with a free end or 90/90 7 300 5 350 3 600 2 600 1 900 1 550 2 800 2 050 1 550 1 100
control joint
90/110 7 650 5 625 3 800 2 725 2 000 1 625 2 950 2 150 1 625 1 150
110/110 8 000 5 900 4 000 2 850 2 100 1 700 3 100 2 250 1 700 1 200
110/110 raked
7 550 5 600 3 750 2 750 2 050 1 600 2 900 2 150 1 600 1 100
(see Note 3)
3000 Panel supported on 90/90 12 100 9 000 6 200 4 550 3 450 2 550 4 850 3 650 2 550 2 000
4 sides with no opening
90/110 12 700 9 500 6 550 4 825 3 600 2 725 5 150 3 875 2 725 2 150
110/110 13 300 10 000 6 900 5 100 3 750 2 900 5 450 4 100 2 900 2 300
110/110 raked
12 600 9 450 6 550 4 850 3 500 2 750 5 200 3 850 2 750 2 200
(see Note 3)
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(continued)
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www.standards.org.au

TABLE 8.1 (continued)

Wall Wind class


Wall thickness, mm
height Edge conditions
(see Note 1) N1 N2 N3 N4 N5 N6 C1 C2 C3 C4
mm
Panel supported on 90/90 5 450 3 900 2 500 1 400 525 * 1 825 625 * *
4 sides with an opening
90/110 5 750 4 150 2 675 1 500 613 * 1 975 725 * *
(see Note 3)
110/110 6 050 4 400 2 850 1 600 700 425 2 125 825 425 *
110/110 raked
5 700 4 125 2 675 1 350 625 * 1 750 725 * *
(see Note 3)
Panel with a free end or 90/90 6 050 4 500 3 100 2 250 1 700 1 150 2 450 1 850 1 150 850
control joint
90/110 6 325 4 750 3 275 2 400 1 750 1 225 2 575 1 925 1 200 900
110/110 6 600 5 000 3 450 2 550 1 800 1 300 2 700 2 000 1 250 950
110/110 raked
6 300 4 700 3 300 2 450 1 650 1 200 2 600 1 850 1 200 900
(see Note 3)

47
LEGEND:
* = Not applicable
NOTES:
1 Leaf thicknesses for inner and outer leaves are shown separately. The values for walls with 90/110 leaf thickness do not depend on which is the external leaf and have been
interpolated between the values for 90/90 and 110/110.
2 The values in this Table are based on the assumptions that all perpends are filled.
3 Unless otherwise specified, joints may be raked or tooled to a maximum depth of 5 mm. Values shown in the Table for raked joints apply to raking depths greater than 5 mm
and less than or equal to 10 mm.
4 Linear interpolation is allowed for wall heights between 2400 mm and 3000 mm.
© Standards Australia

AS 4773.1—2010
AS 4773.1—2010 48

TABLE 8.2
MAXIMUM WALL HEIGHTS
FOR CAVITY INTERNAL WALLS
millimetres
Wall thickness Height
90/90 Solid, cored or horizontally cored 3 400
90/110 Solid, cored or horizontally cored 3 850
110/110 Solid, cored or horizontally cored 4 250
140/140 Solid, cored or horizontally cored 5 500
90/90 Hollow 3 350
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140/140 Hollow 5 000

8.4 WALL TIES


The outer leaf of a cavity masonry wall shall be connected to its supporting inner leaf by
wall ties spaced at no more than 600 mm centres vertically.
Wall ties shall be selected and spaced horizontally in accordance with Table 8.3 and
Figure 8.1.

© Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


49 AS 4773.1—2010

TABLE 8.3
REQUIRED DUTY RATINGS FOR TYPE A CAVITY TIES
(ANY WALL HEIGHT)
Vertical spacing 600 mm
Wind category Horizontal spacing, mm
300 450 600
N1 L L L
N2 L L M
N3 L M M
N4 M M H
N5 M H H
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N6 H H H
C1 L M M
C2 M M H
C3 M H H
C4 H H H
Vertical spacing 450 mm
Horizontal spacing, mm
300 450 600
N1 L L L
N2 L L L
N3 L L M
N4 L M M
N5 M M H
N6 M H H
C1 L L M
C2 L M M
C3 M M H
C4 M H H
LEGEND:
L = light duty
M = medium duty
H = heavy duty
NOTES:
1 The required ratings are based on veneer with a stiff backup (i.e., only
the inner leaf supported by the structure).
2 Required tie ratings are based on the load capacities given in
AS/NZS 2699.1 (see also Appendix A).

www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia


AS 4773.1—2010 50
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DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETRES

FIGURE 8.1 CAVITY TIE LOCATIONS

© Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


51 AS 4773.1—2010

S E C T I O N 9 S I N G L E - L E A F U N R E I N F O R C E D
M A S O N R Y W AL L S

9.1 SCOPE OF SECTION


This Section sets out specific requirements for single-leaf unreinforced masonry walls.
NOTE: Additional requirements for resistance to water penetration might apply (see
Clause 14.8.1).

9.2 EXTERNAL WALLS


9.2.1 External walls without engaged piers
Single-leaf unreinforced masonry walls without engaged piers subject to wind loads shall
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have at least one vertical edge supported and panel lengths not exceeding those given in
Tables 9.1(A) and 9.1(B).
Linear interpolation is permitted between wall heights of 2400 mm and 3000 mm.
For an opening greater than 600 mm in height, the edges of the opening shall be treated as
free ends. Openings smaller than 600 mm in height may be ignored when using Table 9.1.
Where wall panel lengths exceed the values given in Tables 9.1(A) and 9.1(B), reinforced
piers in accordance with Clause 6.7.2 or mullions in accordance with Clause 6.8 shall be
used to provide lateral support.

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AS 4773.1—2010
© Standards Australia

TABLE 9.1(A)
MAXIMUM PANEL LENGTHS (mm)—SINGLE-LEAF UNREINFORCED WALLS 2400 mm IN HEIGHT
Wind class
Edge conditions Wall thickness
N1 N2 N3 N4 N5 N6 C1 C2 C3 C4
Panel supported on 4 edges with 90 solid/cored 7 750 5 850 4 100 3 050 2 150 1 650 3 250 2 350 1 650 1 350
no opening
110 solid/cored 8 600 6 450 4 550 3 400 2 400 1 900 3 650 2 600 1 900 1 550
140 solid/cored/hollow 11 500 8 600 5 900 4 300 3 300 2 500 4 650 3 500 2 500 2 000
190 hollow 18 700 13 300 9 100 6 500 4 600 3 600 7 000 4 900 3 600 2 900
230 solid 21 200 15 200 10 500 7 500 5 400 4 300 8 200 5 800 4 300 3 450
Panel supported on 4 edges with 90 solid/cored 3 250 2 200 1 425 400 * * 500 * * *
an opening (see Note 1) 110 solid/cored 3 600 2 500 1 600 550 * * 700 * * *
140 solid/cored/hollow 5 050 3 500 2 350 1 350 550 * 1 700 625 * *
190 hollow 8 750 6 000 3 950 2 650 1 700 1 200 2 950 1 900 1 200 *
230 solid 10 000 7 000 4 650 3 150 2 100 1 300 3 500 2 300 1 300 700

52
Panel supported on three edges 90 solid/cored 3 850 2 900 2 050 1 500 1 000 700 1 600 1 100 700 550
with a free end or control joint 110 solid/cored 4 300 3 200 2 250 1 700 1 100 800 1 800 1 200 800 600
140 solid/cored/hollow 5 700 4 300 2 950 2 150 1 600 1 150 2 300 1 750 1 150 850
190 hollow 9 400 6 700 4 500 3 300 2 300 1 800 3 500 2 500 1 800 1 450
230 solid 10 600 7 600 5 250 3 750 2 700 2 100 4 050 2 900 2 150 1 750
Panel supported on the base and 90 solid/cored 2 400 1 600 1 100 800 550 * 850 600 * *
one vertical edge 110 solid/cored 2 600 1 700 1 200 900 650 550 950 700 550 *
140 solid/cored hollow 3 700 2 400 1 700 1 200 850 700 1 300 950 700 550
190 hollow 5 300 3 900 2 900 2 100 1 300 1 000 2 300 1 400 1 000 750
230 solid 6 100 4 600 3 450 2 300 1 600 1 300 2 500 1 700 1 300 1 000
LEGEND:
* = not applicable
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NOTES:
1 For walls with openings, the panel length given is from the wall support to the edge of the opening (see Figure 1.3(b)).
2 The values in this table are based on the assumption that mortar bed joints are finished flush or tooled to a depth not exceeding 3 mm.
3 Where the length of a wall panel between a support and an opening exceeds the value in the Table, the edge at the opening shall be provided with a vertical support.
4 Linear interpolation is allowed for wall heights between 2400 mm and 3000 mm.
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www.standards.org.au

TABLE 9.1(B)
MAXIMUM PANEL LENGTHS (mm)—SINGLE-LEAF UNREINFORCED WALLS 3000 mm IN HEIGHT
Wind class
Edge conditions Wall thickness
N1 N2 N3 N4 N5 N6 C1 C2 C3 C4
Panel supported on 4 edges with 90 solid/cored 6 600 5 100 3 700 2 550 1 850 1 500 2 750 2 000 1 500 1 250
no opening
110 solid/cored 7 350 5 650 4 100 2 900 2 150 1 750 3 100 2 300 1 750 1 450
140 solid/cored/hollow 9 700 7 300 5 200 3 850 2 800 2 300 4 200 3 000 2 300 1 850
190 hollow 15 300 11 000 7 700 5 500 4 000 3 300 6 000 4 300 3 300 2 500
230 solid 17 500 12 600 8 900 6 500 4 800 3 900 7 000 5 100 3 900 3 100
Panel supported on 4 edges with 90 solid/cored 2 700 1 850 650 * * * * * * *
an opening (see Note 1) 110 solid/cored 3 100 2 150 850 425 * * 500 * * *
140 solid/cored/hollow 4 200 2 950 1 800 800 425 * 950 475 * *
190 hollow 7 050 4 900 3 250 2 150 1 100 550 2 400 1 550 550 *
230 solid 8 100 5 700 3 850 2 650 1 450 850 2 900 1 750 850 550
Panel supported on three edges 90 solid/cored 3 300 2 550 1 850 1 150 800 600 1 300 850 600 450

53
with a free end or control joint 110 solid/cored 3 650 2 850 2 050 1 250 900 700 1 400 950 700 550
140 solid/cored/hollow 4 850 3 700 2 600 1 900 1 200 950 2 100 1 350 900 700
190 hollow 7 700 5 500 3 800 2 800 2 000 1 600 3 000 2 200 1 600 1 200
230 solid 8 700 6 300 4 400 3 200 2 400 1 900 3 500 2 600 1 900 1 300
Panel supported on the base and 90 solid/cored 2 000 1 400 1 000 700 500 * 750 500 * *
one vertical edge 110 solid/cored 2 000 1 400 1 100 800 600 500 850 650 500 *
140 solid/cored hollow 2 900 2 000 1 400 1 050 800 650 1 150 850 650 550
190 hollow 4 600 3 500 2 350 1 600 1 100 850 1 700 1 200 850 650
230 solid 5 400 4 200 2 700 1 900 1 400 1 150 2 100 1 500 1 150 900
LEGEND:
* = not applicable
NOTES:
© Standards Australia

1 For walls with openings, the panel length given is from the wall support to the edge of the opening (see Figure 1.3(b)).
2 The values in this table are based on the assumption that mortar bed joints are finished flush or tooled to a depth not exceeding 3 mm.

AS 4773.1—2010
3 Where the length of a wall panel between a support and an opening exceeds the value in the Table, the edge at the opening shall be provided with a vertical support.
4 Linear interpolation is allowed for wall heights between 2400 mm and 3000 mm.
AS 4773.1—2010 54

9.2.2 External walls with engaged piers


External unreinforced single-leaf masonry walls with engaged piers complying with
Figure 9.1 and Table 9.2 are deemed to satisfy the requirements of this Standard.

TABLE 9.2
PIER SPACINGS FOR ONE-WAY SPANNING WALLS

Wall Pier Pier Spacing (S) mm for wind class


thickness thickness width N2 N3
(T) (A) (B) N1 N2 with tie-down with tie-down
mm mm mm (see Note 1) (see Note 1)
Wall height 2400 mm
90 190 290 1 000 600 1 900 ∗
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90 290 190 1 700 1 200 8 000 3 300


90 290 290 2 600 1 800 12 300 5 000
110 230 230 1 320 840 4 200 1 200
110 230 350 2 040 1 320 6 360 1 920
110 350 230 3 240 2 160 23 640 8 400
110 350 350 4 920 3 360 36 000 9 600
Wall height 2700 mm
90 190 290 700 500 1 000 ∗
90 290 190 1 300 900 5 100 2 000
90 290 290 2 000 1 400 7 800 3 100
110 230 230 960 600 2 160 720
110 230 350 1 440 960 3 360 1 080
110 350 230 2 520 1 680 13 440 5 400
110 350 350 3 840 2 520 20 640 8 160
Wall height 3000 mm
90 190 290 600 400 600 ∗
90 290 190 1 000 700 3 400 1 200
90 290 290 1 600 1 100 5 200 1 900
110 230 230 720 480 1 320 *
110 230 350 1 080 720 2 040 *
110 350 230 1 920 1 320 8 760 3 600
110 350 350 3 000 2 040 13 320 5 520
LEGEND:
* = not applicable
NOTES:
1 Piers with tie-downs shall include one full-height N10, N12 or M10 reinforcing bar tied to the footing
and positively attached to the top plate (in accordance with Clause 6.7.2).
2 This Table applies to walls with no openings. For piers at the edge of major openings, such as garage
doors, see Clause 6.7.2.

© Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


55 AS 4773.1—2010
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FIGURE 9.1 ENGAGED PIERS IN EXTERNAL SINGLE-LEAF WALLS

9.3 INTERNAL WALLS


Internal single-leaf masonry walls shall be at least supported at the top in accordance with
Clause 6.4 and shall be dimensioned in accordance with Table 9.3.

TABLE 9.3
MAXIMUM WALL HEIGHTS
FOR SINGLE-LEAF INTERNAL WALLS
millimetres
Wall thickness Height
90 2400
110 3000
140 3800
190 5200

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AS 4773.1—2010 56

S E C T I O N 1 0 R E I N F O R C E D M A S O N R Y
W AL L S

10.1 SCOPE OF SECTION


This Section sets out specific requirements for masonry walls reinforced to resist wind
actions.
NOTE: Additional requirements for resistance to water penetration might apply for single-leaf
reinforced masonry walls (see Clause 14.8.1).

10.2 GENERAL CRITERIA


A1
Masonry walls reinforced to resist wind actions shall have a thickness of 140 mm or
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190 mm and shall be reinforced with N12 or N16 bars in grouted cores in accordance with
Clauses 10.3 to 10.5.
NOTE: A typical arrangement of reinforcement is shown in Figure 10.1.
Steel reinforcement shall be detailed in accordance with the relevant requirements of
AS 3600.
NOTE: Where an N16 bar is required, 2 N12 bars may be substituted.

FIGURE 10.1 TYPICAL REINFORCEMENT LAYOUT

10.3 STARTER BARS


Starter bars shall be provided and shall extend from the footing or slab 450 mm into the
wall and shall be of the same size and location as the main vertical reinforcement (see
Figure 10.2).

© Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


57 AS 4773.1—2010
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DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETRES

FIGURE 10.2 STARTER BAR DETAILS

10.4 BOND BEAMS


Bond beams shall be provided in the following locations:
(a) At the tops of all reinforced walls (see Figure 10.3(A)).
(b) Where the wall supports a floor, at an intermediate level (see Figure 10.3(B)).
(c) Under all windows with a width of 1500 mm or greater.
Bond beams shall have a minimum depth and reinforcement in accordance with Table 10.1.

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AS 4773.1—2010 58

TABLE 10.1
MINIMUM DEPTH AND REINFORCEMENT REQUIREMENTS
FOR BOND BEAMS

Maximum load width (A)


Depth, mm
Wind category Reinforcement mm
(see Figure 10.3(A))
(see Figure 6.2)
N1, N2 1-N16 or 2-N12 190 9000
2-N12 390 9000
2-N12 590 9000
N3 2-N12 190 9000
2-N12 390 9000
2-N12 590 9000
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N4, C1 2-N12 190 5000


2-N12 390 9000
2-N12 590 9000
N5 2-N12 190 —
2-N12 390 7000
2-N12 590 9000
N6 2-N12 190 —
2-N12 390 5000
2-N12 590 9000
C2 2-N12 190 3500
2-N12 390 9000
2-N12 590 9000
C3 2-N12 190 —
2-N12 390 5000
2-N12 590 9000
C4 2-N12 190 —
2-N12 390 —
2-N12 590 7000

© Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


59 AS 4773.1—2010
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DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETRES

FIGURE 10.3(A) DETAILS—BOND BEAM

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AS 4773.1—2010 60
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DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETRES

FIGURE 10.3(B) DETAILS—BOND BEAM

© Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


61 AS 4773.1—2010

10.5 VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT


Vertical reinforcement shall be placed centrally in the vertical cores and located at corners,
at both sides of openings and spaced along the wall between these locations in accordance
with Tables 10.2 to 10.5.
The main wall reinforcement, inserted after laying of units is completed, shall be long
enough to fully overlap the starter bars. The wall reinforcement shall also be hooked or
cogged at the top end and engaged with the bond beam reinforcement.
NOTE: Tables 10.2 to 10.5 have been generated for 140 mm walls. The Tables give practical
values but are considered conservative for 190 mm walls.

TABLE 10.2
MAXIMUM WIDTH OF OPENINGS
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Maximum width of
Edge reinforcement details opening, W1, m
Wind
category Wall height, m
mm 2.4 2.5 2.7 3.0 3.6
N1 and N2 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.3 3.6
N3 5.2 4.9 4.2 3.4 2.3
N4 and C1 3.5 3.2 2.7 2.2 1.4
N5 and C2 2.4 2.2 1.6 1.4 —
N6 and C3 1.7 1.5 1.3 1.0 —
N1 and N2 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5
N3 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 4.2
N4 and C1 5.5 5.5 5.2 4.1 2.7
N5 and C2 4.5 4.1 3.4 2.7 1.5
N6 and C3 3.2 2.9 2.4 1.9 1.1
N1 and N2 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5
N3 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5
N4 and C1 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.1 3.5
N5 and C2 5.5 5.5 4.5 3.2 2.2
N6 and C3 4.2 3.8 3.1 2.4 1.5

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AS 4773.1—2010 62

TABLE 10.3
REINFORCEMENT ADJACENT TO OPENINGS
Max. opening + bar
Edge reinforcement details spacing, W1 + S1, m
Wind
category Wall height, m
mm 2.4 2.5 2.7 3.0 3.6
N1 and N2 7.4 7.4 6.8 5.5 3.8
N3 5.5 5.1 4.4 3.5 2.4
N4 and C1 3.7 3.4 2.9 2.3 1.5
N5 and C2 2.5 2.3 2.0 1.6 —
N6 and C3 1.8 1.7 1.4 1.2 —
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N1 and N2 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.2


N3 7.4 7.4 7.4 6.5 4.4
N4 and C1 6.8 6.3 5.3 4.3 2.9
N5 and C2 4.6 4.3 3.6 2.9 1.9
N6 and C3 3.3 3.0 2.6 2.0 1.3
N1 and N2 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.4
N3 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.4 5.8
N4 and C1 7.4 7.4 7.0 5.6 3.7
N5 and C2 6.1 5.6 4.7 3.7 2.4
N6 and C3 4.3 3.9 3.3 2.6 1.5

TABLE 10.4
REINFORCEMENT SPACED ALONG WALL
Max. sum of bar spacings,
Reinforcement details S1 + S2, m
Wind
category Wall height, m
mm 2.4 2.5 2.7 3.0 3.6
N1 and N2 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0
N3 4.0 4.0 4.0 3.8 2.6
N4 and C1 4.0 3.6 3.0 2.5 1.8
N5 and C2 2.8 2.6 2.2 1.8 1.2
N6 and C3 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.3 —

© Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


63 AS 4773.1—2010

TABLE 10.5
SELECTION OF PIER REINFORCEMENT
Maximum sum of
Pier details openings, W1 + W2, m
Wind
category Pier height, m
mm 2.4 2.5 2.7 3.0 3.6
N1 and N2 9.1 8.4 7.1 5.6 3.7

N3 5.7 5.2 4.4 3.4 —

N4 and C1 3.6 3.3 2.7 — —


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N5 and C2 2.3 — — — —

N6 and C3 — — — — —

N1 and N2 10.8 10.8 10.8 8.7 5.8

N3 8.8 8.0 6.8 5.3 3.5

N4 and C1 5.7 5.2 4.3 3.3 —

N5 and C2 3.7 3.5 2.8 — —

N6 and C3 2.6 — — — —

N1 and N2 10.8 10.8 10.8 10.8 10.8

N3 10.8 10.8 10.8 10.8 10.8

N4 and C1 10.8 10.8 10.8 10.8 9.0

N5 and C2 10.8 10.8 10.8 9.0 6.0

N6 and C3 10.5 9.6 8.1 6.4 4.2

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AS 4773.1—2010 64

S E C T I O N 1 1 B R A C I N G

11.1 SCOPE OF SECTION


Bracing capacity shall be provided by any combination of the following:
(a) Masonry bracing walls in accordance with Clause 11.3.
(b) Timber-framed bracing walls in accordance with AS 1684.
(c) Steel-framed bracing walls in accordance with AS/NZS 4600.
(d) Steel-framed bracing walls in accordance with NASH.
The total bracing capacity of walls and piers shall be at least equal to the total racking force
as determined from AS 4055 Section 5.
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11.2 LOCATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF BRACING


Bracing shall be provided in both orthogonal directions of the building. In each direction
the bracing walls shall be approximately evenly distributed across the building. Preference
shall be given to using external walls as bracing walls. Where interior walls are used, they
shall be attached to external walls or shall be securely connected to the ceiling diaphragm
or roof structure.
Where bracing walls abut external walls, they shall be detailed in accordance with
Clause 14.3 and Clause 14.4, as appropriate.
Bracing walls shall be spaced to ensure that the ceiling or roof diaphragm can adequately
distribute horizontal forces between the bracing walls.
NOTE: Guidance on maximum spacings of bracing walls is given in Appendix B.

11.3 BRACING CAPACITIES OF WALLS AND PIERS


The total bracing capacity of masonry walls and piers shall be calculated as the sum of the
bracing capacities of individual walls and isolated piers.
The bracing capacities of individual walls and isolated piers are given in Tables 11.1(A)
and 11.1(B), respectively.

© Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


65 AS 4773.1—2010

A1 TABLE 11.1(A)
BRACING CAPACITIES (kN) OF UNREINFORCED MASONRY WALLS
UP TO 3.0 m HIGH
Unreinforced walls bonded into returns
Unreinforced walls not bonded or
or restrained by a storey above
Wall restrained from above
(see Notes 2 and 3)
length
(m) Wall thickness (mm) Wall thickness (mm)
90 110 140 190 90 110 140 190
0.4 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 7.6 9.2 12 16
0.6 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.5 11 14 18 24
0.8 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.8 15 19 24 32
1.0 0.8 0.9 0.9 1.3 19 23 29 40
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1.2 1.1 1.3 1.3 1.8 23 28 35 48


1.8 2.4 3.0 3.0 4.1 34 42 53 72
2.4 4.3 5.3 5.3 7.2 45 55 71 96
3.0 6.8 8.3 8.3 11 57 69 88 120
4.0 12 15 15 20 76 92 118 160
5.0 19 23 23 31 95 116 147 200
6.0 27 33 33 45 113 139 176 239
7.0 37 45 45 62 132 162 206 279
8.0 48 59 59 80 151 185 235 319
9.0 61 75 75 102 170 208 265 359
10.0 75 92 93 126 189 231 294 399
NOTES:
1 The shear connections to the structure above shall be detailed to resist the applied shear force
and spaced at not more than 1200 mm centres.
2 Bonded to returns means in accordance with Clause 14.3.
3 Restrained by a storey above assumes that the wall supports a full building storey comprising a
concrete slab, not a timber floor or roof structure alone.

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AS 4773.1—2010 66

TABLE 11.1(B)
BRACING CAPACITY—
MASONRY WALLS UP TO 3.0 m HIGH
REINFORCED WITH A TIE-DOWN
Wall reinforced with tie-down
(see Note 2)

Wall length Tie-down diameter Tie-down diameter


mm 12 mm 16 mm
Bracing capacities, kN
90 110 140 190
400 2.4 2.6 3.8 4.1
600 4.3 4.5 7.0 7.3
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800 6.2 6.5 10 11


1 000 8.3 8.7 14 14
1 200 10 11 17 18
1 800 17 18 28 29
2 400 25 27 39 41
3 000 33 36 51 55
4 000 48 54 73 79
5 000 65 74 97 106
6 000 85 97 122 135
7 000 106 123 150 168
8 000 129 151 180 202
9 000 154 183 211 240
10 000 181 216 245 280
NOTES:
1 The shear connections to the structure above shall be
detailed to resist the applied shear force and spaced at not
more than 1200 mm centres.
2 Reinforced with a tie-down means that the wall contains at
least two vertical reinforcing bars in accordance with
Clause 10.5. At least one bar shall be located no more than
100 mm from each end of the wall.

TABLE 11.2
BRACING CAPACITY (kN)—ISOLATED MASONRY PIERS
WITH REINFORCEMENT

Pier size Pier height, mm


Reinforcement
mm 600 1200 1800 2400 3000 3600
1 @ 12 mm 4.8 2.4 1.6 1.2 1.0 0.8
190 × 190
1 @ 16 mm 4.8 2.4 1.6 1.2 1.0 0.8
4 @ 12 mm 19.6 13.5 9.0 6.7 5.4 4.5
290 × 290
4 @ 16 mm 22.0 19.7 13.1 9.8 7.9 6.6
4 @ 12 mm 30.9 19.0 12.7 9.5 7.6 6.3
390 × 390
4 @ 16 mm 35.5 32.8 21.8 16.4 13.1 10.9

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67 AS 4773.1—2010

11.4 SUBFLOOR BRACING


11.4.1 General
Subfloor structures shall provide resistance to racking loads from wind and earthquake
actions and shall transfer all loads to the footings and foundations.
Subfloor structures in accordance with Clauses 6.7.1.2, 11.3 and 6.7.2.2 are deemed to
satisfy this requirement.
11.4.2 Capacities
Masonry walls used to transfer racking forces within the subfloor region shall be not less
than 90 mm thick.
Table 11.1 gives the bracing capacities of masonry walls with or without restraint from
above. The bracing capacity of unreinforced subfloor masonry where there are no walls
above, for example, under veranda roofs, decks or similar structures, shall be based on
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walls not bonded or restrained from above.


The total length of unreinforced masonry bracing walls on each side of the building at the
perimeter shall be determined using Table 11.1, and shall be not less than 3000 mm. Panels
of unreinforced masonry whose length is less than 900 mm shall not be included in this
determination.

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AS 4773.1—2010 68

S E C T I O N 1 2 L I N T E L S

12.1 SCOPE OF SECTION


Except in the case of arches complying with Clause 14.7, brickwork over openings shall be
provided with additional support. For openings up to 600 mm width, masonry may bear
directly on a timber window head. For openings up to 900 mm width, masonry may be
supported by a steel frame. In other cases, the masonry shall be supported by one of the
following:
(a) Steel lintel in accordance with Clause 12.3.
(b) Reinforced masonry lintel in accordance with Clause 12.4.
(c) Reinforced concrete member complying with AS 3600 and in accordance with
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Clause 12.2.
(d) Other proprietary lintels in accordance with Clause 12.2.
NOTE: Where proprietary designs are relied upon, the user should check that the design
methods and criteria used to justify the design are appropriate to the situation.

12.2 DESIGN CRITERIA


Lintels shall be designed and detailed to support the applied loads without excessive
deflection or cracking.
Lintels complying with Clause 12.3 or Clause 12.4 are deemed to satisfy this requirement.
NOTE: Examples of lintel load types are shown in Figure 12.1.

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69 AS 4773.1—2010
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FIGURE 12.1 EXAMPLES OF LINTEL LOAD TYPES

12.3 STEEL LINTELS


Where steel lintels are selected from common sections, they shall be in accordance with
Table 12.1 for load width ‘A’ up to 6.6 m [including eaves overhang (see Figure 6.2)] for
roof loads and up to 3.0 m for floor loads.
Lintels shall be wide enough to provide adequate support to the walling above and masonry
shall not overhang the lintel width by more than 25 mm. A lintel shall extend beyond the
opening at each end by at least the bearing lengths shown in Table 12.2.
Where steel unequal angle lintels are used, the longer leg of the angle shall be vertical. Any
gap between the vertical leg of a steel angle lintel and the masonry shall be packed with
mortar (see Figure 12.2).
NOTES:
1 Steel lintels in Table 12.1 are designed for loads that act vertically downwards only and may
not be suitable for uplift or earthquake loads.
2 Durability requirements are set out in Section 4.

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AS 4773.1—2010 70

The type of load supported by a lintel shall be determined as one of the following types:

Load type Description


A Masonry only, up to 600 mm in height
B Masonry up to 600 mm in height and a tiled roof
C Masonry up to 600 mm in height and a metal roof
D Masonry of at least 2100 mm height and a timber floor
E Masonry greater than 600 mm in height

The minimum thickness of a single-leaf wall for use of a lintel supporting load type D shall
be 140 mm and there shall be at least one storey height above the floor level.
Typical situations are shown in Figure 12.1.
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TABLE 12.1
MAXIMUM OPENING WIDTHS FOR COMMON STEEL LINTELS (mm)
Load type (see Figure 12.1)
A B C D E
Steel section
Masonry only
Masonry only
Tiled roof Sheet roof Timber floor (more than
(up to 600 mm)
600 mm)
75 × 8 FMS 700 700 700 700 700
100 × 10 × FMS 900 900 900 900 900
90 × 90 × 6EA 3000 1950 2200 2050 2650
90 × 90 × 8EA 3200 2050 2350 2200 2800
100 × 100 × 6EA 3350 2100 2400 2250 2900
100 × 100 × 8EA 3600 2250 2550 2400 3040
150 × 90 × 8UA 4200 3000 3450 3150 3850
150 UB 14.0 4200 3400 3840 3500 4150
150 UB 18.0 4200 3650 4000 3700 4200
180 UB 22.2 4200 4000 4200 4050 4200
NOTES:
1 Only common steel sections are shown. For all proprietary lintels, including cold-rolled steel,
see Clause 12.1(d).
2 This Table is based on the lintel being propped for at least seven days.

TABLE 12.2
MINIMUM BEARING LENGTHS FOR LINTELS

Minimum bearing length, mm


Opening, m
(see Figure 12.2)
Up to 1.0 100
Over 1.0 150

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71 AS 4773.1—2010
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FIGURE 12.2 INSTALLATION OF LINTELS

12.4 REINFORCED MASONRY LINTELS


Reinforced masonry lintels selected in accordance with Table 12.3 for the types shown in
A1
Figure 12.3 are deemed to be suitable for resisting wind uplift in buildings with a load
width ‘A’ up to 6.6 m.
For other cases, including support of floors, lintels shall comply with Appendix D.
NOTES:
1 The values in Table 12.3 only apply if the reinforcements are in the locations shown in
Figure 12.3.
2 Durability requirements are set out in Section 4.

TABLE 12.3
REINFORCEMENT REQUIREMENTS FOR REINFORCED
MASONRY LINTELS RESISTING WIND UPLIFT
Size of top and bottom reinforcement
Wind Lintel depth
Lintel type Opening width, mm
category mm
900 1200 1800 2400 3000
N1, N2 1 290 N12 N16 N16 N16 —
2 390 N12 N12 N12 N16 N16
3 590 N12 N12 N12 N12 N16
N3 1 290 N12 N16 N16 N16 —
2 390 N12 N12 N16 N16 N16
3 590 N12 N12 N12 N12 N16
N4, C1 1 290 N16 N16 N16 N16 —
2 390 N16 N16 N16 N16 N16
3 590 N16 N16 N16 N16 N16
N5, C2 1 290 N16 N16 N16 — —
2 390 N16 N16 N16 N16 —
3 590 N16 N16 N16 N16 N16

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AS 4773.1—2010 72
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NOTE: For required bar size see Table 12.3.

DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETRES

FIGURE 12.3 REINFORCED MASONRY LINTEL DETAILS AND TYPE

© Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


73 AS 4773.1—2010

S E C T I O N 1 3 C O N T R O L J O I N T S

13.1 SCOPE OF SECTION


This Section sets out the criteria for continuous movement joints used in masonry walls to
minimize the development of stresses due to differential movement. A control joint may
perform one or more of the following functions:
(a) Articulation joint.
(b) Contraction joint.
(c) Expansion joint.
NOTE: These provisions do not apply to structures in mine subsidence areas.
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13.2 GENERAL CRITERIA


Control joints shall be used in masonry construction to reduce cracking or distress of
masonry caused by contraction or expansion of the masonry units, or by footing movement
or other structural movement.
In masonry construction that relies on the continuity of bond beams, control joints shall not
continue through bond beams.
NOTES:
1 For propriety lintels, if a control joint passes through or close to a lintel, a check should be
made to ensure that the manufacturer’s load tables are not invalidated.
2 Articulation joints may be used as contraction or expansion joints. Where the control joint is
a combined articulation and expansion joint, the joint width should accommodate movement
from both articulation and expansion.
3 Thermal movement effects are included in the provisions for contraction and expansion joints.

13.3 ARTICULATION JOINTS


Articulation joints are not required for A and S site classes or for reinforced masonry
designed in accordance with this Standard.
Where the slabs and footings are designed in accordance with AS 2870 for articulated
masonry, articulation joints shall be provided in masonry walls in accordance with the
following locations:
(a) In straight, continuous walls having no openings, at centres not more than the values
given in Table 13.1.
(b) Where the height of the wall changes abruptly by more than 20% of its lesser height,
at the position of change in height.
(c) Where openings more than 900 × 900 mm occur, at not more than 5000 mm centres.
(d) Where walls change thickness.
NOTE: Engaged piers are not considered to be a change of thickness. Chases that have less
than 75% of the leaf thickness remaining are considered to be changes of thickness.
(e) At control or construction joints in footings or slabs.
(f) At a distance from all corners not greater than 4500 mm and not less than 470 mm for
cavity walls or 230 mm for veneer walls.
Articulation joints shall be vertical, not toothed, full-height of the masonry, and free of
mortar.

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AS 4773.1—2010 74

TABLE 13.1
SPACING OF ARTICULATION JOINTS FOR
UNREINFORCED MASONRY WALLS

Joint spacing, m
Site class Masonry wall construction
(see Note) and surface finish Up to 4 m high 4 m to 8.5 m high 4 m to 8.5 m high
for 10 mm joints for 10 mm joints for 15 mm joints

M, M-D External face finish masonry 6.0 4.2 6.0


External rendered and/or 5.5 3.9 5.5
painted masonry
Internal face finish or sheeted 6.0 4.2 6.0
masonry
Internal rendered and/or 5.5 3.9 5.5
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painted masonry
H1, H1-D External face finished masonry 5.5 3.9 5.5
External rendered and/or 5.0 3.5 5.0
painted masonry
Internal face finish or sheeted 5.5 3.9 5.5
masonry
Internal rendered and/or 5.0 3.5 5.0
painted masonry
H2, H2-D External face finished masonry 5.0 3.5 5.0
External rendered and/or 4.5 3.2 4.5
painted masonry
Internal face finish or sheeted 5.0 3.5 5.0
masonry
Internal rendered and/or 4.5 3.2 4.5
painted masonry
NOTE: Site class as defined in AS 2870. For further information and guidance on site classification, see
AS 2870.

13.4 CONTRACTION JOINTS


Contraction joints shall be placed in unreinforced concrete masonry or calcium silicate
masonry in accordance with the following locations:
(a) In straight, continuous walls having no openings, at centres not more than the values
given in Table 13.2.
(b) Where the height of the wall changes abruptly by more than 20% of its lesser height,
at the position of change in height.
(c) Where walls change thickness.
NOTE: Engaged piers are not considered to be a change of thickness. Chases that have less
than 75% of the leaf thickness remaining are considered to be changes of thickness.
(d) At control or construction joints in footings or slabs.
(e) At junctions of walls constructed of different masonry materials.
Contraction joints shall be vertical, not toothed, and shall extend to the full height of the
masonry. Contraction joints may be omitted below the DPC if there is not more than
600 mm of masonry below the DPC at the position of the joint.

© Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


75 AS 4773.1—2010

TABLE 13.2
SPACING OF CONTRACTION JOINTS
FOR UNREINFORCED MASONRY WALLS
Masonry wall construction
Maximum joint spacing, m
and surface finish
External masonry that is face finish,
7.0
rendered and/or painted
Internal masonry that is face finish or
6.0
sheeted
Internal masonry that is rendered and/or
5.0
painted
External masonry with openings more than
5.0
900 mm in height
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13.5 EXPANSION JOINTS


Expansion joints shall be placed in clay masonry walls of continuous lengths of 12 m or
more. Expansion joints shall be placed in clay masonry at the following locations:
(a) In straight, continuous walls having no openings, at centres not more than the values
given in Table 13.3.
(b) Where the height of the wall changes abruptly by more than 20% of its lesser height,
at the position of change in height.
(c) Where walls change thickness.
NOTE: Engaged piers are not considered to be a change of thickness. Chases that have less
than 75% of the leaf thickness remaining are considered to be changes of thickness.
(d) At control or construction joints in footings or slabs.
(e) At a distance from all corners not greater than 4500 mm and as close to the corner as
practical.
(f) At junctions of walls constructed of different masonry materials.
Expansion joints shall be vertical, not toothed, free of mortar and shall extend to the full
height of the masonry. Expansion joints may be omitted below the DPC if there is not more
than 600 mm of masonry below the DPC at the position of the joint.

TABLE 13.3
SPACING OF EXPANSION JOINTS
FOR CLAY MASONRY WALLS

Masonry wall construction


Maximum joint spacing, m
and surface finish
External masonry with 10 mm nominal
8.0
width of expansion joint
External masonry with 15 mm nominal
12.0
width of expansion joint
For masonry units with a characteristic
*
expansion greater than 1.8 mm/m
* Design methods are given in industry publications

13.6 DETAILS
Control joints shall be constructed in accordance with AS 4773.2.

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AS 4773.1—2010 76

S E C T I O N 1 4 D E T AI L I N G

14.1 SCOPE OF SECTION


This Section specifies criteria for the detailing of masonry walls.

14.2 MORTAR JOINTS


The nominal thickness of mortar joints shall be 10 mm.
NOTE: A construction tolerance of ±3 mm is typical (see AS 4773.2).
For joints in the external faces of walls constructed with hollow unit, ungrouted masonry
shall not be raked. In other masonry, the depth of raking, if any, shall be not closer than
5 mm to any perforation in cored unit masonry or 20 mm in grouted hollow unit masonry.
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The maximum depth of raking shall be 10 mm.


Single-leaf masonry and masonry in marine environments, requiring mortar classes M3 and
M4 in accordance with the durability requirements of Table 4.1, shall have tooled mortar
joints.

14.3 UNREINFORCED WALL CONNECTIONS


Intersecting unreinforced walls shall be connected in accordance with Figure 14.1. Where
bonded connections are used, every fourth course shall be engaged.

FIGURE 14.1 DETAILS OF INTERSECTIONS AT UNREINFORCED WALLS

14.4 REINFORCED WALL CONNECTIONS


Intersecting reinforced walls shall be connected in accordance with Figure 14.2.
At the intersection of reinforced walls, the bond beam shall be continuous through the
intersection.

© Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


77 AS 4773.1—2010
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FIGURE 14.2 TYING AT INTERSECTIONS OF REINFORCED WALLS

14.5 SLIP JOINTS


Where a concrete slab is supported by an unreinforced masonry wall, a slip joint shall be
provided to allow for differential movement such as brick growth and concrete shrinkage.
Two layers of DPC are deemed to provide a suitable slip joint.

14.6 ISOLATED SUBFLOOR PIERS


Where perimeter subfloor bracing walls totalling at least 3 m in length are provided on each
side of the building, isolated subfloor piers shall be in accordance with Figure 14.3 or
Figure 14.4, as appropriate.
NOTE: Rectangular houses require perimeter bracing walls on four sides. ‘L’ shaped house
require perimeter bracing walls on six sides.
Where no perimeter walls are used, the design of isolated subfloor piers is outside the scope
of this Standard.

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AS 4773.1—2010 78
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NOTES:
1 Floor connections details omitted for clarity.
2 Where the height of an unreinforced isolated pier is greater than 1500 mm, the maximum height of the
230 × 230 mm section shall be 1200 mm.
3 DPC is shown for diagrammatic purposes only.
4 For brick or block piers, the last course of brickwork or block work is to run perpendicular to the floor
support bearers.

DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETRES

FIGURE 14.3 UNREINFORCED MASONRY ISOLATED PIERS

© Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


79 AS 4773.1—2010
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NOTE: Floor connection details omitted for clarity.

DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETRES

FIGURE 14.4 REINFORCED MASONRY ISOLATED PIERS

14.7 ARCHES
For all masonry, where arches are used, they shall be provided with end support capable of
resisting the horizontal reactions. Continuous masonry buttresses on each side of the arch,
having a length equal to the height of the arch at the support, are deemed to provide
adequate resistance (see Figure 14.5), provided they are seated on a common footing.
For unreinforced masonry arches—
(a) the rise above the points of support shall be not less than a quarter of the span; and
(b) the minimum height of masonry above the arch shall be 300 mm,
as shown in Figure 14.5.

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AS 4773.1—2010 80
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FIGURE 14.5 ARCH DIMENSIONS

14.8 RESISTANCE TO MOISTURE PENETRATION


14.8.1 Weather-resistant coatings
Where a habitable room has an external wall of single-leaf masonry that is not sheltered
from the rain, the single-leaf masonry wall shall be protected on the outside face with a
suitable weather-resistant coating (see Note 1).
NOTES:
1 For guidance on suitable weather-resistant coatings, see AS/NZS 2311.
2 The satisfactory performance of a weather-resistant coating requires a good standard of
workmanship for the masonry and regular maintenance.
3 The weather-resistant coating is also applicable to durability protection of masonry units in
some situations (see Clause 4.4).
To ensure satisfactory performance of a weather-resistant coating, all mortar joints shall be
tooled, or the surface to be coated shall be bagged or rendered.
The following weather-resistant coating systems are deemed to be satisfactory:
(a) Three coats of 100% acrylic-based exterior quality paint. The first coat shall be
worked thoroughly into the texture of the masonry by brush to ensure complete
coverage of all voids and irregularities (see Note 1).
(b) A first coat of waterproof cement paint worked into the surface, over-coated with two
coats of 100% acrylic based paint (see Note 1 of Item (d)).
(c) If the masonry texture and jointing are to be obscured, render with a proprietary
cement-based high-build waterproof render, followed by an elastomeric acrylic
polymer coating.
(d) For reinforced masonry that is protected by a weatherproof overhang of not less than
1500 mm, clear water repellent coating.
NOTES:
1 For guidance on the painting of buildings, see AS/NZS 2311.
2 Regular maintenance of the coating, in accordance with the manufacturer’s
recommendations, is necessary to maintain the integrity of the weatherproofing.

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81 AS 4773.1—2010

Where protection from moisture penetration is required in single-leaf masonry, moisture


shall be prevented from entering the masonry around the windows by waterproofing the
window reveals and sills and post-fitting the windows.
14.8.2 Damp-proof courses
Damp-proof courses (DPCs) shall be provided to protect all masonry against rising ground
water. The DPC shall be placed as low as possible in the wall and in no case higher than the
finished floor level.
The position of the DPC shall be not less than—
(a) 150 mm above the adjacent finished ground level;
(b) 100 mm above sandy well-drained areas that extend to the full depth of the footing
system;
(c) 75 mm above the finished paved or concreted area; or
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(d) 50 mm above finished paved or concreted area and protected from the direct effect of
the weather by a carport, veranda or similar structures.
NOTE: Cavity flashing can also act as a DPC to prevent the upward or downward passage of
moisture within masonry.

14.9 PARAPETS, CHIMNEYS AND CANTILEVERS


In wind categories N1, N2 and N3, the ratio of height to overall thickness for parapets,
chimneys and freestanding walls built of unreinforced masonry shall not exceed 3:1 and the
height shall not exceed 600 mm.
NOTE: In higher wind categories, or where the height exceeds these limits, the design of
parapets, chimneys and cantilevers is outside the scope of this Standard.

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AS 4773.1—2010 82

APPENDIX A
BASIS OF DESIGN
(Informative)

A1 SCOPE
This Appendix sets out the basis upon which the design details and tables in this Standard
have been prepared.
For buildings that are beyond the scope of this Standard, it may be appropriate for some or
all of the same principles, in association with other referenced Standards, to be adopted by a
competent designer.
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This Standard applies to the use of clay, concrete and calcium silicate masonry units. If
other units are to be used, the masonry will need to be designed and detailed in accordance
with AS 3700.

A2 IMPOSED ACTIONS
Where floor-imposed actions have been used to calculate limits on member sizes, a value of
1.5 kPa has been adopted. Where the floor-imposed action exceeds 1.5 kPa, such as where
masonry supports a balcony, allowance for the extra load should be made.
Where a roof-imposed action has been used to calculate limits on member sizes, a value of
0.25 kPa has been adopted (see also Paragraphs A7 and A10).

A3 WIND LOADS
A3.1 General
For the design of masonry members or steel mullions for horizontal load, the following
criteria have been applied:
(a) A deflection limit of span/150 or 20 mm, whichever is the lesser, for serviceability
wind loads in accordance with AS 4055.
(b) Ultimate strength design based on the requirements of AS 3700 for ultimate wind
loads calculated in accordance with AS 4055 and as set out in Paragraph A3.2.
A3.2 Wind loads
The pressure coefficients used for walls are in accordance with AS 4055, as set out in
Table A1.

TABLE A1
PRESSURE COEFFICIENTS

Factored external Internal pressure Net pressure


Wind categories
pressure coefficient coefficient coefficient
+0.7 −0.3 +1.0
N1 to N6
−0.65 +0.2 −0.85
–0.65 +0.7 −1.35
C1 to C4
+0.7 −0.65 +1.35

Masonry wall panels, supports and mullions are designed for the net pressure coefficient.

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83 AS 4773.1—2010

Cavity and veneer ties are designed for the external pressure or suction coefficient only
(i.e., 0.7 causing compression and 0.65 causing tension). In all cases, because of the relative
tie strengths in tension and compression (see AS/NZS 2699.1), the wind producing tension
in the tie governs.
The resulting net lateral pressures (rounded) used in this Standard to design wall panels,
supports, connections, mullions and ties are shown in Table A2.

TABLE A2
LATERAL PRESSURES
Lateral pressure
Lateral net
for designing wall Lateral external
pressure in
Wind panels, supports, pressure used for
accordance with Tie force
category connections and the design of ties
AS 4055
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mullions
kPa kPa kPa
N1 0.69 0.7 −0.5 Tension
N2 0.96 1.0 −0.7 Tension
N3 1.50 1.5 −1.1 Tension
N4 2.23 2.2 −1.6 Tension
N5 3.29 3.3 −2.3 Tension
N6 4.44 4.4 −3.1 Tension
C1 –2.03 –2.0 –1.3 Tension
C2 –3.01 –3.0 –2.0 Tension
C3 –4.44 –4.4 –2.9 Tension
C4 –5.99 –6.0 –3.9 Tension

A4 MATERIALS
The design characteristic yield strength of steel reinforcement has been taken as 500 MPa.

A5 LATERAL LOAD CAPACITIES OF MASONRY WALLS


Unless otherwise indicated, the capacities of masonry walls subjected to out-of-plane wind
or earthquake loads have been calculated in accordance with Clause 7.4.4 of AS 3700, using
the following assumptions:
(a) ′ = 0.2 MPa and f ut′ = 0.8 MPa .
Masonry strength f mt
(b) Capacity reduction factor 0.7, based on reduced consequences of failure.
(c) All panels have partial rotational restraint at the sides (Rf1 = Rf2 = 0.5).
(d) The opening width used to calculate the values in Table 8.1 and Table 9.1 is
1200 mm. For openings greater than 1200 mm, it is assumed that the load imposed on
the wall by the door or window is equivalent to a 600 mm strip and that the centre of
the door or window spans vertically and does not exert any additional load on the free
edges of the adjacent masonry.
(e) The masonry units used for calculations are of the following types and work sizes:
(i) 230 × 76 × 110, solid or cored.
(ii) 230 × 76 × 140, solid or cored.
(iii) 290 × 119 × 90, solid or cored.
(iv) 390 × 190 × 190, hollow.
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AS 4773.1—2010 84

(v) 390 × 190 × 140, hollow.


Wall capacity tables apply also for units of greater heights (e.g., 230 × 119 × 110,
290 × 162 × 90).
For hollow units, 25 mm face shells have been assumed.
The capacities of one-way spanning masonry walls have been calculated using a modified
analysis method that assumes averaging of the strengths of three adjacent joints, leading to
′ = 0.28 MPa .
an equivalent f mt
NOTE: For the background to this method, see Lawrence, S., ‘The Use of Characteristic Strengths
in Masonry Design’ Australian Journal of Structural Engineering, V7, N3, 2007.
The capacities of internal masonry walls have been calculated for a nominal serviceability
loading of 0.4 kPa.
The capacities of one-way spanning walls with engaged piers (Table 9.2) have been
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calculated for the worst case of wind pressure producing tension in the pier, excepting the
cases with tie-downs, where the opposite direction of loading has been taken.

A6 REINFORCED MASONRY
Unless otherwise indicated, the capacities of reinforced masonry members have been
calculated in accordance with Section 8 of AS 3700, using the following assumptions:
(a) Capacity reduction factor 0.75.
(b) The vertical bending moment (M), in vertically reinforced walls with starter bars
anchored to concrete slabs complying with AS 2870, is determined by—
wH 2
M=
10
where
w = applied pressure
H = wall height as defined in Figure 1.2

A7 ROOF CONNECTIONS
The values in Table 6.1 for unreinforced masonry have been based on a direct tensile
′ = 0.1 MPa and a capacity reduction factor of 0.6. The strap
strength for the masonry of f mt
strength has been based on a design characteristic yield strength of 300 MPa, with a
capacity reduction factor of 0.9 and no reduction in area for nails.
The values in Table 6.2 for reinforced masonry are based on tests conducted by the James
Cook University Cyclone Testing Station and available from the Concrete Masonry
Association of Australia (reference TS 636).

A8 WALL TIES
The design of wall ties given in Table 7.1 and Table 8.3 is based on the average strength of
the ties in tension, using loads derived from the pressures shown in Table A2.
NOTE: For the background to this method, see Lawrence, S., ‘The Use of Characteristic Strengths
in Masonry Design’ Australian Journal of Structural Engineering, V7, N3, 2007.

A9 BRACING
Bracing capacities in Table 11.1(A) are based on the following assumptions:
(a) Walls that are not bonded into returns or restrained from above are limited by
overturning against self-weight only.
© Standards Australia www.standards.org.au
85 AS 4773.1—2010

(b) Walls that are bonded into returns or restrained from above are limited by sliding at
the base. Restraint from above has been assumed equivalent to a uniform compressive
stress of 0.2 MPa on the top of the bracing wall.
Bracing capacities in Table 11.1(B) are based on the following assumptions:
(i) Wall capacity is limited by overturning. No restraint from above has been assumed
and the overturning capacity has been calculated by considering the reinforced
section in bending.
(ii) The restoring moment is calculated by considering only the reinforcing bars in the
tensile zone and the compression stress block, which is based on a compression stress
of 0.85 times f m′ and a depth of 0.85 the distance to the neutral axis. A capacity
reduction factor of 0.75 has been applied.

A10 LINTELS
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Steel lintel designs given in Clause 12.3 have been calculated for vertical downward loads
only and are not applicable where a net uplift force is present. Deflection limits under
serviceability load of span/360 or 10 mm, whichever is the lesser, have been used.
The load combination factors given in AS/NZS 1170.0 were applied to the following
unfactored loads:
(a) Tiled roof dead load 0.9 kPa.
(b) Sheet roof dead load 0.4 kPa.
(c) Roof live load 0.25 kPa.
(d) Timber floor dead load 0.5 kPa.
(e) Floor live load 1.5 kPa.
For the load types shown in Clause 12.2, the following limits apply to masonry heights
above the lintel:
(i) For load type A, the maximum permitted height of masonry over the lintel is 600 mm.
Beyond that limit, engineering design is required or see type E.
(ii) For load types B and C, the minimum permitted height of masonry over the lintel is
600 mm. Beyond that limit, engineering design is required.
(iii) For load type D, the minimum permitted height of masonry over the lintel is 600 mm
to the point of application of the floor load. Below that limit, engineering design is
required. The total height of masonry above the lintel has been taken as at least
2100 mm.
(iv) For load type E, the height of masonry over the lintel is unlimited.
The limits for common steel lintels given in Table 12.1 are based on the assumption that the
lintel is propped during construction of the masonry above and for a period of at least
7 days after. The characteristic yield strength of the steel has been taken as 250 MPa. No
composite action between the lintel and the masonry above has been assumed. Table 12.1 is
intended for new construction only and should not be used for sizing lintels to be inserted
into openings made in existing buildings. Where a control joint passes through or adjacent
to the masonry above the lintel, the Table should not be relied upon.
The reinforced masonry lintel designs given in Clause 12.3 have been calculated for the net
uplift forces in AS 4055. For conditions outside those covered by Table 12.3, the designs in
Appendix D may be used.

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AS 4773.1—2010 86

The reinforced masonry lintel tables in Appendix D are based on the practical consideration
that the loading will usually be from trusses or similar roof or floor supports, at uniform
centres, bearing on and tied down to the lintel. Hence, the tables are for point loads at
900 mm centres acting in both upward and downward directions. They take into
consideration both shear and bending and allowance has been made for the self-weight of
the lintel.
Where the depth of masonry, including the lintel and the height of masonry in running bond
above the lintel, is at least equal to the span of the lintel and there is sufficient length of
wall adjacent to the opening to act as a buttress, then the lintel will act as an arch and loads
on the masonry may be ignored.
The long-term elastic modulus has been taken as 1000 f m′ . The design properties and
strength reduction factors are in accordance with AS 3700. Design is based on a maximum
deflection under serviceability loads of span/360 or 10mm, whichever is the lesser.
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87 AS 4773.1—2010

APPENDIX B
SPACING OF BRACING WALLS
(Informative)
Table B1 shows maximum bracing wall spacings applicable for single storey or upper
storeys of houses, derived from AS 1684.3.
Linear interpolation is permitted.

TABLE B.1(A)
MAXIMUM BRACING-WALL SPACING—SINGLE STOREY
OR UPPER STOREY FOR WIND CATEGORY N1
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metres
Width of Roof pitch, degrees
building
m 0 5 10 15 17.5 20 25 30 35

≤4 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 8.9


5 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0
6 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0
7 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0
8 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0
9 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0
10 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0
11 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0
12 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0
13 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0
14 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0
15 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0
16 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0

TABLE B.1(B)
MAXIMUM BRACING-WALL SPACING—SINGLE STOREY
OR UPPER STOREY FOR WIND CATEGORY N2
metres
Width of Roof pitch, degrees
building
m 0 5 10 15 17.5 20 25 30 35

≤4 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 7.8 6.7 6.4


5 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 7.7 7.2
6 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 8.6 7.9
7 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 8.5
8 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 8.8
9 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0
10 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0
11 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0
12 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0
13 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0
14 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0
15 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0
16 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0

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AS 4773.1—2010 88

TABLE B.1(C)
MAXIMUM BRACING-WALL SPACING—SINGLE STOREY OR
UPPER STOREY FOR WIND CATEGORIES N3 AND C1
metres
Width of Roof pitch, degrees
building
m 0 5 10 15 17.5 20 25 30 35

≤4 5.9 6.6 7.4 7.5 7.0 6.4 5.1 4.4 4.2


5 7.4 8.3 9.0 9.0 8.6 7.9 6.0 5.0 4.7
6 8.9 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 8.8 6.7 5.6 5.1
7 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 7.1 6.1 5.5
8 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 7.6 6.7 5.7
9 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 7.9 7.2 5.9
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10 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 8.4 7.9 6.2


11 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 8.7 7.9 6.4
12 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 7.9 6.6
13 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 8.1 6.6
14 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 8.3 6.7
15 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 8.4 6.8
16 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 8.6 6.9

TABLE B.1(D)
MAXIMUM BRACING-WALL SPACING—SINGLE STOREY OR
UPPER STOREY FOR WIND CATEGORIES N4 AND C2
metres
Width of Roof pitch, degrees
building
m 0 5 10 15 17.5 20 25 30 35

≤4 3.9 4.3 4.9 5.0 7.0 4.3 3.4 2.9 2.8


5 4.9 5.5 6.1 6.2 8.6 5.2 4.0 3.3 3.1
6 5.9 6.6 7.3 7.4 9.0 5.8 4.4 3.7 3.4
7 6.9 7.9 8.6 8.3 9.0 6.3 4.7 4.0 3.7
8 7.9 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 6.7 5.0 4.4 3.8
9 8.8 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 7.1 5.2 4.8 3.9
10 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 7.4 5.5 5.2 4.1
11 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 7.7 5.8 5.2 4.2
12 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 7.9 5.9 5.2 4.3
13 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 8.1 6.1 5.3 4.3
14 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 8.2 6.1 5.5 4.4
15 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 8.5 6.3 5.5 4.5
16 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 8.6 6.5 5.7 4.6

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89 AS 4773.1—2010

TABLE B.1(E)
MAXIMUM BRACING-WALL SPACING—SINGLE STOREY OR
UPPER STOREY FOR WIND CATEGORIES N5 AND C3
metres
Width of Roof pitch, degrees
building
m 0 5 10 15 17.5 20 25 30 35

≤4 2.7 3.0 3.4 3.5 3.2 3.0 2.3 2.0 1.9


5 3.4 3.8 4.3 4.4 4.0 3.6 2.8 2.3 2.2
6 4.1 4.6 5.1 5.1 4.6 4.1 3.1 2.6 2.4
7 4.8 5.5 6.0 5.8 5.0 4.4 3.3 2.8 2.6
8 5.5 6.3 6.7 6.5 5.4 4.7 3.5 3.1 2.6
9 6.2 7.1 7.6 7.2 5.9 5.0 3.7 3.3 2.7
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10 6.8 7.9 8.3 7.8 5.1 5.1 3.9 3.6 2.9


11 7.5 8.7 9.0 8.4 5.3 5.3 4.0 3.6 2.9
12 8.2 9.0 9.0 8.6 5.5 5.5 4.1 3.7 3.0
13 8.9 9.0 9.0 8.9 5.7 5.7 4.3 3.7 3.0
14 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 5.7 5.7 4.3 3.8 3.1
15 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 5.9 5.9 4.4 3.9 3.1
16 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 7.4 6.0 4.6 4.0 3.2

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AS 4773.1—2010 90

APPENDIX C
DEEMED-TO-SATISFY DURABILITY CLASSIFICATION
(Normative)
Bare connectors and accessories or connectors and accessories with metallic coating and in
accordance with Table C1 (for sheet) or Table C2 (for wire) are deemed to meet the
durability criteria of Section 4.
NOTES:
1 Galvanized steel wire employed for the manufacture of masonry wall ties is normally
supplied to a tensile strength specification of 550 MPa max.
2 Wall tie feedstock, appropriately coloured for durability classification identification, may be
available from materials suppliers.
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TABLE C1
DURABILITY CLASSIFICATION FOR CONNECTORS AND ACCESSORIES
MANUFACTURED FROM STEEL SHEET

Durability
Material requirements
classification
R0, R1, R2 (a) Connectors and accessories manufactured from galvanized steel sheet complying with
AS 1397 and with a galvanized coating of at least grade Z600
(b) Connectors and accessories galvanized after manufacture from bare steel sheet and
complying with AS/NZS 4680 except that the coating mass shall be at least 300 g/m 2
on each side
R3 Connectors and accessories galvanized after manufacture from bare steel sheet and
complying with AS/NZS 4680 except that the coating mass shall be at least 470 g/m 2 on
each side
R4 Stainless steel grade AS 1449/316 or AS 1449/316L (UNS S31600 or S31603 respectively)
(see Table C2 Note 1)
NOTE: See Table C2 Notes 2 and 5.

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91 AS 4773.1—2010

TABLE C2
DURABILITY CLASSIFICATION FOR CONNECTORS AND ACCESSORIES
MANUFACTURED FROM STEEL WIRE (OR BAR)
Durability
Material requirements
classification
R0, R1, R2, (a) Connectors and accessories manufactured from galvanized steel wire (or bar) shall
R3 comply with AS/NZS 4534, except that the galvanized coating mass shall be at least
470 g/m 2
(b) Connectors and accessories galvanized after manufacture from bare steel wire (or bar)
and complying with AS/NZS 4680 except that the coating mass shall be at least
470 g/m 2
R4 Stainless steel grade AS 1449/316 or AS 1449/316L (UNS S31600 or S31603 respectively)
NOTES:
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1 A chemical procedure is described in Appendix E of AS/NZS 2699.2 for the identification of grade
AS 1449/316 or AS 1449/316L stainless steel.
2 Hot-dip-galvanized coatings may not be suitable for the manufacture of some connectors or accessories.
For these components electrodeposited zinc coatings may be employed in such cases, the zinc coatings
shall meet all other requirements of AS/NZS 2699.2.
3 Galvanized steel wire employed for the manufacture of connectors and accessories is normally supplied
to a tensile strength specification of 550 MPa max.
4 Feedstock for connectors and accessories, appropriately coloured for durability classification
identification, may be available from materials suppliers.

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AS 4773.1—2010 92

APPENDIX D
REINFORCED MASONRY LINTEL TABLES
(Normative)

D1 MASONRY PROPERTIES
The design tables given in this Appendix (Tables D1 to D4) are based on masonry
components with the following properties:
(a) Masonry units having a characteristic unconfined compressive strength ( f uc′ ) , for
units with face-shell bed, of 15 MPa when tested in accordance with AS 4456.4.
(b) Mortar is of type M3 (or type M4 if required for durability), that is, either a C1:L1:S6
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mix or a C1:S5 mix plus methyl cellulose water thickener or equivalent.


(c) Grout shall have a characteristic cylinder compressive strength ( f c′ ) of 20.0 MPa (see
Clause 3.3.2).
(d) ( )
Reinforcement is to be N-grade with a yield strength f sy′ of 500 MPa.

(e) Stirrups are N10 at 200 mm centres.

D2 LINTEL CAPACITY
The Tables are given for both simply supported (Tables D1 and D3) and continuous
(Tables D2 and D4) lintels as detailed in Figure D1. The Tables in this Appendix do not
apply where the bottom reinforcement continues straight through from the adjacent wall.
Capacity tables are given for the full range of thicknesses and depths shown in Figure D2.
The tables cover bar sizes N12, N16 and N20 for one and two bars, where two can fit (i.e.,
190 mm wide lintels).
NOTE: Linear interpolation of load capacity for other opening sizes is permitted.

© Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


93 AS 4773.1—2010
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FIGURE D1 REINFORCEMENT ANCHORAGE DETAILS FOR SIMPLY-SUPPORTED


AND CONTINUOUS LINTELS

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AS 4773.1—2010

© Standards Australia
94

DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETRES

FIGURE D2 CONSTRUCTION DETAILS OF LINTELS COVERED BY THE DESIGN TABLES

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95 AS 4773.1—2010

D3 DESIGN TABLES
Design tables are provided to cover the following:
(a) Table D1: 15 MPa block, single bars, simply supported lintel.
(b) Table D2: 15 MPa block, single bars, continuous lintel.
(c) Table D3: 15 MPa block, double bars, simply supported lintel.
(d) Table D4: 15 MPa block, double bars, continuous lintel.
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AS 4773.1—2010
© Standards Australia

TABLE D1
15 MPa BLOCKS, SINGLE BARS, SIMPLY SUPPORTED LINTEL
Load capacity (kN/m) in downward direction Load capacity (kN/m) in upward direction
Block Lintel
thickness depth Bar details Opening size, m Opening size, m
mm mm
0.9 1.2 1.8 2.4 3.0 3.6 4.2 4.8 5.4 0.9 1.2 1.8 2.4 3.0 3.6 4.2 4.8 5.4
140 190 1 N12 only 6 5 4 2 1 1 0 0 0 6 5 3 2 2 1 1 1 1
1 N16 only 7 6 4 2 1 1 0 0 0 7 6 3 2 2 1 1 1 1
1 N20 only 8 7 3 2 1 1 0 0 0 8 6 3 2 2 1 1 1 1
290 1 N12 T&B 27 17 9 5 3 2 1 1 0 30 21 12 8 6 4 4 3 2
1 N16 T&B 31 20 10 6 4 2 2 1 1 48 33 19 12 9 7 5 3 2
1 N20 T&B 29 19 9 5 3 2 1 1 1 49 34 19 12 9 7 5 3 2
390 1 N12 T&B 45 29 15 9 5 4 2 2 1 46 32 18 12 8 6 5 4 4
1 N16 T&B 74 48 25 15 10 7 5 3 2 70 54 30 20 14 10 8 7 5

96
1 N20 T&B 78 51 26 16 10 7 5 4 3 72 62 39 25 18 13 10 7 5
490 1 N12 T&B 63 41 21 12 8 5 3 2 2 61 42 24 16 11 9 7 6 5
1 N16 T&B 108 70 36 22 14 10 7 5 4 91 72 41 26 19 14 11 9 7
1 N20 T&B 128 99 51 31 21 15 11 8 6 93 80 59 38 27 20 16 13 9
590 1 N12 T&B 81 52 27 16 10 7 5 3 2 76 53 30 20 14 11 8 7 6
1 N16 T&B 141 92 48 29 19 13 9 7 5 111 91 51 33 23 18 14 11 9
1 N20 T&B 199 133 70 42 28 20 15 11 8 113 97 75 49 34 25 20 16 13
(continued)
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TABLE D1 (continued)

Load capacity (kN/m) in downward direction Load capacity (kN/m) in upward direction
Block Lintel
thickness depth Bar details Opening size, m Opening size, m
mm mm
0.9 1.2 1.8 2.4 3.0 3.6 4.2 4.8 5.4 0.9 1.2 1.8 2.4 3.0 3.6 4.2 4.8 5.4
190 190 1 N12 only 7 6 4 3 1 1 0 0 0 7 6 4 3 2 2 2 1 1
1 N16 only 9 7 5 3 2 1 0 0 0 8 7 4 3 2 2 2 1 1
1 N20 only 10 9 5 3 1 1 0 0 0 10 8 5 3 2 2 2 1 1
290 1 N12 T&B 27 17 9 5 3 2 1 0 0 32 22 13 8 6 5 4 3 3
1 N16 T&B 43 28 13 8 5 3 2 1 1 53 37 21 14 10 7 6 4 3
1 N20 T&B 40 25 14 7 5 3 2 1 1 55 46 26 17 12 9 6 4 3
390 1 N12 T&B 45 29 15 8 5 3 2 1 1 47 32 19 12 9 7 6 5 4
1 N16 T&B 77 50 26 15 10 7 5 3 2 75 56 32 21 15 11 9 7 6
1 N20 T&B 85 68 36 21 14 10 7 5 4 77 66 46 30 21 16 12 9 6

97
490 1 N12 T&B 63 41 20 12 7 5 3 2 1 62 43 25 16 12 9 7 6 5
1 N16 T&B 111 72 37 22 14 10 7 5 3 97 75 42 28 20 15 12 10 8
1 N20 T&B 137 105 54 33 22 15 11 8 6 99 85 62 40 28 21 17 14 11
590 1 N12 T&B 81 52 26 15 10 6 4 2 1 78 54 31 20 15 11 9 8 7
1 N16 T&B 144 93 48 29 19 13 9 6 5 119 94 53 34 24 18 15 12 10
1 N20 T&B 212 138 72 44 29 20 15 11 8 121 104 79 51 36 27 21 17 14
© Standards Australia

AS 4773.1—2010
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AS 4773.1—2010
© Standards Australia

TABLE D2
15 MPa BLOCKS, SINGLE BARS, CONTINUOUS LINTEL
Load capacity (kN/m) in downward direction Load capacity (kN/m) in upward direction
Block Lintel
thickness depth Bar details Opening size, m Opening size, m
mm mm
0.9 1.2 1.8 2.4 3.0 3.6 4.2 4.8 5.4 0.9 1.2 1.8 2.4 3.0 3.6 4.2 4.8 5.4
140 190 1 N12 only 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 0 0 6 5 4 3 2 2 1 1 1
1 N16 only 7 6 4 3 2 1 1 0 0 7 6 4 3 2 2 1 1 1
1 N20 only 8 7 4 2 1 1 1 0 0 8 7 4 3 2 2 1 1 1
290 1 N12 T&B 34 22 11 6 4 3 2 1 1 38 26 15 10 7 5 4 3 3
1 N16 T&B 40 26 13 8 5 3 2 2 1 49 41 23 15 11 8 6 5 4
1 N20 T&B 37 34 12 7 5 3 2 1 1 51 42 24 15 11 8 6 5 4
390 1 N12 T&B 56 36 19 11 7 5 3 2 2 57 39 22 14 10 8 6 5 4
1 N16 T&B 80 61 31 19 13 9 6 5 3 70 60 37 24 17 13 10 8 7

98
1 N20 T&B 80 64 33 20 13 9 7 5 4 72 62 48 32 22 17 13 10 9
490 1 N12 T&B 79 51 26 16 10 7 5 3 2 76 52 30 19 14 10 8 7 6
1 N16 T&B 129 88 46 28 18 13 9 7 5 91 78 51 33 23 17 13 11 9
1 N20 T&B 128 100 65 40 26 19 14 10 8 93 80 62 47 33 25 19 15 13
590 1 N12 T&B 102 66 34 20 13 9 6 4 3 95 65 37 24 17 13 10 8 7
1 N16 T&B 177 115 60 36 24 17 12 9 7 111 96 64 41 29 22 17 14 11
1 N20 T&B 199 148 88 54 36 25 19 14 11 113 97 76 60 42 31 24 20 16
(continued)
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TABLE D2 (continued)

Load capacity (kN/m) in downward direction Load capacity (kN/m) in upward direction
Block Lintel
thickness depth Bar details Opening size, m Opening size, m
mm mm
0.9 1.2 1.8 2.4 3.0 3.6 4.2 4.8 5.4 0.9 1.2 1.8 2.4 3.0 3.6 4.2 4.8 5.4
190 190 1 N12 only 7 6 4 3 2 1 1 0 0 7 6 5 4 2 2 2 2 1
1 N16 only 9 7 5 4 2 1 1 0 0 8 7 5 4 3 2 2 2 1
1 N20 only 10 9 6 3 2 1 1 0 0 10 9 6 4 3 2 2 2 1
290 1 N12 T&B 34 22 11 6 4 2 1 1 0 39 26 15 10 7 6 5 4 3
1 N16 T&B 47 35 18 10 7 4 3 2 1 53 45 26 17 12 9 7 6 5
1 N20 T&B 47 22 16 10 6 4 3 2 1 55 47 32 21 15 11 9 7 6
390 1 N12 T&B 57 37 19 11 7 4 3 2 1 58 40 23 15 11 8 7 6 5
1 N16 T&B 85 63 33 19 13 9 6 4 3 75 64 39 25 18 14 11 9 7
1 N20 T&B 85 68 45 27 16 13 9 7 5 77 66 52 37 26 19 15 12 10

99
490 1 N12 T&B 80 51 26 15 10 6 4 3 2 77 53 30 20 14 11 9 7 6
1 N16 T&B 138 90 47 28 18 13 9 7 5 97 84 52 34 24 18 14 12 10
1 N20 T&B 137 106 69 42 28 19 14 11 8 99 85 67 50 35 26 20 16 14
590 1 N12 T&B 99 65 33 19 12 8 6 4 2 96 66 38 25 18 14 11 9 8
1 N16 T&B 175 114 59 36 24 16 12 9 6 119 103 65 43 30 23 18 14 12
1 N20 T&B 212 158 88 54 36 25 19 14 11 121 104 82 63 44 33 26 21 17
© Standards Australia

AS 4773.1—2010
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AS 4773.1—2010
© Standards Australia

TABLE D3
15 MPa BLOCKS, DOUBLE BARS, SIMPLY SUPPORTED LINTEL
Load capacity (kN/m) in downward direction Load capacity (kN/m) in upward direction
Block Lintel
thickness depth Bar details Opening size, m Opening size, m
mm mm
0.9 1.2 1.8 2.4 3.0 3.6 4.2 4.8 5.4 0.9 1.2 1.8 2.4 3.0 3.6 4.2 4.8 5.4
190 190 2 N12 only 9 8 5 3 2 1 0 0 0 9 7 4 3 2 2 2 1 1
2 N16 only 12 10 5 3 2 1 0 0 0 10 8 4 3 2 2 2 1 1
2 N20 only 12 10 5 3 1 1 0 0 0 11 8 5 3 2 2 2 1 1
290 2 N12 T&B 46 30 15 9 6 4 2 2 1 53 39 22 15 10 8 6 4 3
2 N16 T&B 43 28 14 8 5 3 2 1 1 56 45 25 17 12 9 6 4 3
2 N20 T&B 40 25 13 7 5 3 2 1 1 59 46 26 17 12 9 6 4 3
390 2 N12 T&B 86 56 29 17 11 8 5 4 3 75 60 34 22 16 12 9 8 6
2 N16 T&B 89 72 38 23 15 10 7 5 4 78 67 52 34 24 18 14 9 6
2 N20 T&B 91 69 36 21 14 10 7 5 4 82 70 43 34 24 18 14 9 6

100
490 2 N12 T&B 123 80 41 25 16 11 8 6 4 97 81 46 30 21 16 13 10 9
2 N16 T&B 143 111 69 42 28 20 14 11 8 100 86 67 49 35 26 20 16 12
2 N20 T&B 144 112 70 42 28 20 14 11 8 104 89 70 57 41 31 24 17 12
590 2 N12 T&B 159 104 54 32 21 14 10 7 5 119 101 57 37 26 20 16 13 11
2 N16 T&B 221 163 92 56 37 26 19 14 11 122 105 82 63 44 33 26 21 17
2 N20 T&B 222 165 108 70 47 33 25 19 15 126 108 85 70 59 46 36 29 20
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TABLE D4
15 MPa BLOCKS, DOUBLE BARS, CONTINUOUS LINTEL
Load capacity (kN/m) in downward direction Load capacity (kN/m) in upward direction
Block Lintel
thickness depth Bar details Opening size, m Opening size, m
mm mm
0.9 1.2 1.8 2.4 3.0 3.6 4.2 4.8 5.4 0.9 1.2 1.8 2.4 3.0 3.6 4.2 4.8 5.4
190 190 2 N12 only 9 8 6 4 2 1 1 0 0 9 7 5 4 3 2 2 2 1
2 N16 only 12 10 6 4 2 1 1 0 0 10 9 5 4 3 2 2 2 1
2 N20 only 12 10 6 3 2 1 1 0 0 11 9 6 4 3 2 2 2 1
290 2 N12 T&B 49 37 19 11 7 5 3 2 2 53 45 28 28 13 10 8 6 5
2 N16 T&B 50 35 18 10 7 4 3 2 1 56 48 32 20 15 11 9 7 6
2 N20 T&B 50 32 16 10 6 4 3 2 1 59 51 32 21 15 11 9 7 6
390 2 N12 T&B 88 71 36 22 14 10 7 5 4 75 64 42 27 19 15 11 9 8
2 N16 T&B 89 72 47 29 19 13 10 7 5 78 67 52 42 30 22 17 14 12
2 N20 T&B 91 73 45 27 18 13 9 7 5 82 70 55 43 30 22 17 14 12

101
490 2 N12 T&B 142 100 52 31 21 14 10 8 6 97 83 57 37 26 20 15 12 10
2 N16 T&B 143 111 76 53 35 25 18 14 11 100 86 67 55 43 32 25 20 17
2 N20 T&B 144 112 77 54 36 25 19 14 11 104 89 70 57 49 38 29 23 19
590 2 N12 T&B 200 130 68 41 27 19 14 10 8 119 103 71 46 33 24 19 15 13
2 N16 T&B 221 163 107 71 47 34 25 19 15 122 105 82 68 55 41 32 25 21
2 N20 T&B 222 165 108 80 60 42 32 24 19 126 108 85 70 59 52 44 35 29
© Standards Australia

AS 4773.1—2010
AS 4773.1—2010 102

BIBLIOGRAPHY
AS
1170 Structural design actions
1170.4 Part 4: Earthquake actions
AS/NZS
1170 Structural design actions
1170.0 Part 0: General principles
1170.2 Part 2: Wind actions
2311 Guide to the painting of buildings
Lawrence, S., ‘The Use of Characteristic Strengths in Masonry Design’ Australian Journal
of Structural Engineering, V7, N3, 2007.
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103 AS 4773.1—2010

AMENDMENT CONTROL SHEET

AS 4773.1—2010

Amendment No. 1 (2010)

CORRECTION
SUMMARY: This Amendment applies to Clauses 10.2 and 12.4, and Table 11.1(A).
Published on 8 September 2011.
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AS 4773.1—2010
104

NOTES
Standards Australia
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