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In this research paper we will talk about what is fog computing is and
advantage and disadvantage. How fog computing making our life safe and
easy day by day. And its uses in our daily life and in real life applications

Fog Computing
Fog computing is a decentralized computing infrastructure in which data,
compute, storageand applications are located somewhere between the data
source and the cloud. Like edge computing, fog computing brings the
advantages and power of the cloud closer to where data is created and acted

How fog computing works

While edge devices and sensors are where data is generated and collected,
they don't have the compute and storage resources to perform advanced
analytics and machine-learningtasks. Though cloud servers have the power to
do these, they are often too far away to process the data and respond in a
timely manner. In addition, having all endpoints connecting to and sending
raw data to the cloud over the internet can have privacy, security and legal
implications, especially when dealing with sensitive data subject to regulations
in different countries.
It is important to note that fog networking complements -- not replaces -- cloud
computing; fogging allows for short-term analytics at the edge, and the cloud
performs resource-intensive, longer-term analytics. Popular fog computing
applications include smart grid, smart city, smart buildings, vehicle networks
and software-defined networks.
Advantages and disadvantages
Fog computing has a number of advantages. By adding the capability to
process data closer to where it is created, fog computing seeks to create a
network with lower latency, and with less data to upload, it increases the
efficiency at which it can be processed.
There is also the benefit that data can still be processed with fog computing in
a situation of no bandwidth availability. Fog computing provides an
intermediary between these IoT devices and the cloud computing
infrastructure that they connect to, as it is able to analyze and process data
closer to where it is coming from, filtering what gets uploaded up to the cloud.
A downside of cloud computing is that all this computing over the network
relies heavily on data transport. While broadband internet access has
generally improved over the last decade, there are still challenges with
accessibility, peak congestion, lower speeds on mobile 3G and 4G cellular
networks, as well as occasions of limited internet availability whether
underground, off the grid or on an airplane.
This lack of consistent access leads to situations where data is being created
at a rate that exceeds how fast the network can move it for analysis. This also
leads to concerns over the security of this data created, which is becoming
increasingly common as Internet of Things devices become more

Uses of Fog Computing

Greater Business Agility

By utilizing the right set of tools, developers can seamlessly develop fog
applications and deploy them whenever needed. Fog applications drive the
machine to function in a way according to customers need.

Better Security

Fog nodes can be protected using the same controls, procedures, and policy
you use in other areas of IT environment.

Deeper Insights with Privacy Control

The sensitive data can be analyzed locally instead of sending it to the cloud
for analysis. The IT team can keep track and control the devices that collect,
analyze and store data.

Reduced Operation Cost

Fog computing can save network bandwidth by processing selected data

locally, instead of sending it to the cloud for analysis.

Applications of Fog Computing

Fog Computing works best in a cloud-based control environment to offer

control and deeper insight across a range of nodes. These include wind
energy, transportation, smart cities, surveillance and smart buildings. Let’s
have a look at some of the real-life examples where and how fog computing
can be helpful.

Fog Computing in Smart Cities

Large cities face a number of challenges including public safety, sanitation,

traffic congestion, high-energy utilization and municipal services. The solution
to these challenges lies in a single IoT network by installing a network of fog

The major issues in establishing smart cities are the shortage of broadband
bandwidth and connectivity. Modern cities have multiple cellular networks and
ample coverage. These networks have the capacity and peak bandwidth limits
that is not enough to meet the needs of the existing customers. However,
deploying fog computing architecture, allows fog nodes to offer local storage
and processing. Hence, optimizing the network usage.
Smart cities also strive hard with safety and security issues. To address this
issue, time-critical performance requires advanced real-time analytics. The
network may transmit traffic and data along with life-critical systems. Fog
computing resolves security issues, data encryption, and distributed analytics

Uses of Fog Computing in Smart Buildings

Commercial buildings are equipped with several sensors to inspect various
building operations such as parking space occupancy, temperature and
keycard readers. Data from these sensors must be watches to find what
actions are required; like, triggering a fire alarm if smoke is sensed.

Fog computing permits free local operations for the optimized control function.
Not only a single floor but also individual room can have its own fog node,
allowing emergency monitoring and response functions, climate control,
lighting control and supplementing the limited capacity of computers and
smart devices.

Fog Computing in Visual Security

Video cameras are used in public places, parking lots and residential areas to
enhance safety and security. The bandwidth of visual data collected over a
large-scale network makes it impossible to carry the data to the clod and
collect real-time insights.

For instance a busy shopping mall with thousands of people moving around
simultaneously. Real-time monitoring and discovery of irregularities carry strict
low latency requirements on surveillance systems.

However, fog computing helps in real time, latency sensitive distributed

surveillance systems that uphold privacy. With the help of fog architecture,
video processing is logically divided between fog nodes located with the cloud
and the cameras. It helps in real time tracking, anomaly detection, and
collection of results from data captured over time.


Fog computing offers cloud computing to handle the larger set of data
generated daily from IoT. It helps solve challenges of exploding data velocity,
variety, and volume. It also enhances the awareness and response to events
by eradicating a round trip to the cloud for analysis.

Moreover, it helps in reducing the cost of additional bandwidths by discharging

gigabytes of the network from the prime network. In addition, it can protect the
sensitive Internet of Things data by evaluating it inside the company. Hence,
the enterprises who embrace fog computing gain faster and deeper insights,
resulting in increased business agility, improved safety, and higher service

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