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W AV E M E C H A N I C A L

MODEL
AND
QUANTUM NUMBERS
C h e m i s t r y 9 – 3 rd T r i m e s t e r A . Y . 2 0 1 8 - 2 0 1 9
Ms. Timmy Dela Peña and Ms. Aileen Lopez
LEARNING COMPETENCIES:

• Describe how the wave mechanical


model of the atom describes energies
and positions of the electrons; and

•Identify the four quantum numbers.


BOHR’S MAJOR CONTRIBUTION
THAT REMAINS UNCHALLENGED
UNTIL TODAY
• Energy of an electron in an atom is quantized.

• When jumping from high energy level to low


energy level, electrons emit electromagnetic
radiation.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE ATOMIC MODEL

BOHR MODEL Electrons are found in


OF THE ATOM definite orbits around the
nucleus.

VS
Electrons as particles could
WAVE also be thought as waves
MECHANICAL and thus, it is impossible to
know their exact positions
MODEL because a wave extends in
space.
THE ORBITALS
Orbitals – regions of space inhabited by electrons
• The illustration shows the orbital
of a Hydrogen atom.
• The gradient indicates where the
electron might be located in the
atom.
• The orbital does not have a definite
size.
THE ORBITALS
Orbitals – regions of space inhabited by electrons
• Chemists found a way to describe the
size of the orbital by enclosing the atom
in a solid sphere which has a probability
of finding 90% of the electrons within it.
The remaining 10% can be found
outside of this sphere.
THE INVERTED TRIANGLE ANALOGY:
THE PRINCIPAL ENERGY LEVELS AND THE
SUBLEVELS

• The modern atomic structure shows that the atom has specific energy levels which may be pictured
like an inverted triangle, and electrons can be found within these energy levels.
THE INVERTED TRIANGLE ANALOGY:
THE PRINCIPAL ENERGY LEVELS AND THE
SUBLEVELS

s p d f

s p d

s p

• The modern atomic structure shows that the atom has specific energy levels which may be pictured
like an inverted triangle, and electrons can be found within these energy levels.
THE INVERTED TRIANGLE ANALOGY:
THE PRINCIPAL ENERGY LEVELS AND THE
SUBLEVELS
• Each of these
sublevels contains
spaces where s p d f
electrons are located,
and these spaces are s p d
called orbitals.
1. The number tells s p
the principal energy
level s
2. The letter tells the
shape.
THE PRINCIPAL ENERGY LEVELS
• Principal energy level 2
has 2 sublevels (2s and
2p)
• 2s has 1 orbital
• 2p has 3 orbitals (2px,
2py, 2pz)

• Principal energy level 1


has 1 sublevel and
contains 1 orbital.

1s
orbital
CHECKPOINT:
• What does the difference between the numbers suggest? For
example, how is 1s different from 2s?

Answer: An increase in the principal energy level denotes and


increase in the size of the sublevel and their corresponding
orbitals.
THE PRINCIPAL ENERGY LEVELS
• Principal energy level 3 has 3 sublevels: 3s, 3p and 3d

3p 3d
3s
orbitals orbitals
orbital
THE PRINCIPAL ENERGY LEVELS
• Principal energy level 4 has 4 sublevels: 4s, 4p, 4d and 4f

4p 4d
4s
orbitals orbitals
orbital

4f
orbitals
LETTER DESIGNATIONS OF THE
ORBITALS
SUMMARY
• Atoms contain certain energy levels called principal
energy levels (n).

• The size of the energy level, as well as the energy level


itself, increases as n increases.

• Each principal energy level contains one or more types


of sublevels and inside are different types of orbitals.
SUMMARY
• The number of sublevels is equal to the given principal
energy level.

• The sublevels are designated by a number and a letter. The


number corresponds to the principal energy level while the
letter describes the shape of the orbital.

• The shape of the orbital indicates the probability of finding


electrons within the orbital.
EXERCISE:
Indicate whether each of the following statements about
atomic structure is TRUE or FALSE.
1. It is possible to have a 2d orbital.
2. An s orbital is spherical in shape.
3. The number of lobes on a p orbital increases as n
increases. This means that a 3p orbital has more lobes
than a 2p orbital.
4. The 2s orbital is the same size as the 3s orbital.
5. The hydrogen atom has a 3s orbital.
QUANTUM NUMBERS
PRINCIPAL QUANTUM NUMBER (n)
• represented as ‘n’

• determines the main energy of an orbital or


shell

• relates to the average distance of the electron


from the nucleus in a particular orbital
ANGULAR MOMENTUM QUANTUM
NUMBER (𝓁)
• For a given value of 𝑛, 𝓁 has possible integral values
from 0 to n-1 and cannot be greater than n.

• Also known as azimuthal quantum number.

• Describes the “shape” of an orbital.


ANGULAR MOMENTUM QUANTUM
NUMBER (𝓁)

𝓁 0 1 2 3

Orbital s p d f

Shape

spherical dumbell cloverleaf too complex


ANGULAR MOMENTUM QUANTUM
NUMBER (𝓁)
• possible values (depends on the principal quantum number).
SUBSHELLS DISTRIBUTION IN PERIODIC TABLE
s-block
p-block

d-block

f-block
MAGNETIC QUANTUM NUMBER
(m 𝓁)
• represented as 𝑚𝓁

• describes the orientation in space of an atomic


orbital
MAGNETIC QUANTUM NUMBER
(m 𝓁)
• possible values (depends on the angular momentum
quantum number), 𝑚𝓁 = - 𝓁 to + 𝓁
when:
➤ 𝓁 =0, 𝑚𝓁 = 0
➤ 𝓁 =1, 𝑚𝓁= -1, 0, 1
➤ 𝓁 =2, 𝑚𝓁 = -2, -1, 0, 1, 2
➤ 𝓁 =3, 𝑚𝓁 = -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3
ELECTRON SPIN QUANTUM
NUMBER (m s)
•describes the direction of the “spin” of an
electron

• possible values: +1/2 , -1/2


SUMMARY
• Principal Quantum Number – determines the main energy
of an orbital or shell
• Angular Momentum Quantum Number – describes the
shape of the orbital
• Magnetic Quantum Number – describes the orientation in
space
• Electron Spin Quantum Number - describes the direction
of the “spin” of an electron
What is the importance of
knowing how the electrons are
arranged in an atom?