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MODEL

AND

QUANTUM NUMBERS

C h e m i s t r y 9 – 3 rd T r i m e s t e r A . Y . 2 0 1 8 - 2 0 1 9

Ms. Timmy Dela Peña and Ms. Aileen Lopez

LEARNING COMPETENCIES:

model of the atom describes energies

and positions of the electrons; and

BOHR’S MAJOR CONTRIBUTION

THAT REMAINS UNCHALLENGED

UNTIL TODAY

• Energy of an electron in an atom is quantized.

energy level, electrons emit electromagnetic

radiation.

DEVELOPMENT OF THE ATOMIC MODEL

OF THE ATOM definite orbits around the

nucleus.

VS

Electrons as particles could

WAVE also be thought as waves

MECHANICAL and thus, it is impossible to

know their exact positions

MODEL because a wave extends in

space.

THE ORBITALS

Orbitals – regions of space inhabited by electrons

• The illustration shows the orbital

of a Hydrogen atom.

• The gradient indicates where the

electron might be located in the

atom.

• The orbital does not have a definite

size.

THE ORBITALS

Orbitals – regions of space inhabited by electrons

• Chemists found a way to describe the

size of the orbital by enclosing the atom

in a solid sphere which has a probability

of finding 90% of the electrons within it.

The remaining 10% can be found

outside of this sphere.

THE INVERTED TRIANGLE ANALOGY:

THE PRINCIPAL ENERGY LEVELS AND THE

SUBLEVELS

• The modern atomic structure shows that the atom has specific energy levels which may be pictured

like an inverted triangle, and electrons can be found within these energy levels.

THE INVERTED TRIANGLE ANALOGY:

THE PRINCIPAL ENERGY LEVELS AND THE

SUBLEVELS

s p d f

s p d

s p

• The modern atomic structure shows that the atom has specific energy levels which may be pictured

like an inverted triangle, and electrons can be found within these energy levels.

THE INVERTED TRIANGLE ANALOGY:

THE PRINCIPAL ENERGY LEVELS AND THE

SUBLEVELS

• Each of these

sublevels contains

spaces where s p d f

electrons are located,

and these spaces are s p d

called orbitals.

1. The number tells s p

the principal energy

level s

2. The letter tells the

shape.

THE PRINCIPAL ENERGY LEVELS

• Principal energy level 2

has 2 sublevels (2s and

2p)

• 2s has 1 orbital

• 2p has 3 orbitals (2px,

2py, 2pz)

has 1 sublevel and

contains 1 orbital.

1s

orbital

CHECKPOINT:

• What does the difference between the numbers suggest? For

example, how is 1s different from 2s?

increase in the size of the sublevel and their corresponding

orbitals.

THE PRINCIPAL ENERGY LEVELS

• Principal energy level 3 has 3 sublevels: 3s, 3p and 3d

3p 3d

3s

orbitals orbitals

orbital

THE PRINCIPAL ENERGY LEVELS

• Principal energy level 4 has 4 sublevels: 4s, 4p, 4d and 4f

4p 4d

4s

orbitals orbitals

orbital

4f

orbitals

LETTER DESIGNATIONS OF THE

ORBITALS

SUMMARY

• Atoms contain certain energy levels called principal

energy levels (n).

itself, increases as n increases.

of sublevels and inside are different types of orbitals.

SUMMARY

• The number of sublevels is equal to the given principal

energy level.

number corresponds to the principal energy level while the

letter describes the shape of the orbital.

electrons within the orbital.

EXERCISE:

Indicate whether each of the following statements about

atomic structure is TRUE or FALSE.

1. It is possible to have a 2d orbital.

2. An s orbital is spherical in shape.

3. The number of lobes on a p orbital increases as n

increases. This means that a 3p orbital has more lobes

than a 2p orbital.

4. The 2s orbital is the same size as the 3s orbital.

5. The hydrogen atom has a 3s orbital.

QUANTUM NUMBERS

PRINCIPAL QUANTUM NUMBER (n)

• represented as ‘n’

shell

from the nucleus in a particular orbital

ANGULAR MOMENTUM QUANTUM

NUMBER (𝓁)

• For a given value of 𝑛, 𝓁 has possible integral values

from 0 to n-1 and cannot be greater than n.

ANGULAR MOMENTUM QUANTUM

NUMBER (𝓁)

𝓁 0 1 2 3

Orbital s p d f

Shape

ANGULAR MOMENTUM QUANTUM

NUMBER (𝓁)

• possible values (depends on the principal quantum number).

SUBSHELLS DISTRIBUTION IN PERIODIC TABLE

s-block

p-block

d-block

f-block

MAGNETIC QUANTUM NUMBER

(m 𝓁)

• represented as 𝑚𝓁

orbital

MAGNETIC QUANTUM NUMBER

(m 𝓁)

• possible values (depends on the angular momentum

quantum number), 𝑚𝓁 = - 𝓁 to + 𝓁

when:

➤ 𝓁 =0, 𝑚𝓁 = 0

➤ 𝓁 =1, 𝑚𝓁= -1, 0, 1

➤ 𝓁 =2, 𝑚𝓁 = -2, -1, 0, 1, 2

➤ 𝓁 =3, 𝑚𝓁 = -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3

ELECTRON SPIN QUANTUM

NUMBER (m s)

•describes the direction of the “spin” of an

electron

SUMMARY

• Principal Quantum Number – determines the main energy

of an orbital or shell

• Angular Momentum Quantum Number – describes the

shape of the orbital

• Magnetic Quantum Number – describes the orientation in

space

• Electron Spin Quantum Number - describes the direction

of the “spin” of an electron

What is the importance of

knowing how the electrons are

arranged in an atom?

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