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# Sika Technology and Concepts

## for ESD and Conductive Flooring

Requirements with Sikafloor®
What Is Conductivity and How Does It Work?

Conductivity refers to the ability of a material to conduct an electrical (ESD) is the transfer of an electrostatic charge between two objects.
charge to earth or ‘ground’. In non-technical terms, this can be de- This is a very rapid event that happens when two objects with differ-
scribed as the ability of a material to carry or ‘conduct’ an electrical cur- ent electrical potentials come into direct contact with each other. This
rent. The electrical conductivity or the speciﬁc conductance of a ﬂooring charging results in one object gaining electrons on its surface area to
system is therefore also a measure of the material’s ability to conduct become negatively charged, whilst the other object loses electrons from
an electric current. An electric current is a quantitative measure of the its surface area and therefore becomes positively charged. The creation
amount of charged particles passing through a medium, and in order of an electrical discharge by this contact and separation of objects is
for an electric current to be created, there needs to be an electrical known as triboelectrical charging, which also explains the small static
potential difference between two points in a conductive medium with an electric shock you may receive from touching certain objects.
energy source to drive the charge. Electrostatic charges are therefore commonly created by the contact
The electrical resistance of a material is a measure of its resistance to and separation of two similar or dissimilar materials. For example, a
the ﬂow of an electric current. An ohmmeter is a device that is used to person walking across the ﬂoor generates static electricity as shoe
measure this conductivity or electrical resistance. The conductivity or soles contact and then separate from the ﬂoor surface. A metal com-
electrical resistance of a ﬂooring system is therefore also measured ponent or an electronic device sliding into or out of a case or against
with an ohmmeter. another piece of equipment also generates an electrostatic charge as
The ohmmeter measures the amount of electrical friction generated multiple contacts and separations are made.
as the charged particles pass through an electrical conductor e.g.
Sikaﬂoor®-262 AS N. This measured value is then expressed in
units of “ohm”, which are governed by “Ohm’s Law”. This states that What Does an ESD Event Do?
“the current passing through an electrical circuit is directly proportional
to the amount of voltage used to create the ﬂow and is inversely pro-
portional to the resistance when the temperature is constant”. It can be
written in three ways: V = I × R, or I=V/R, or R=V/I Where: V = voltage
in volts (V), I = current in amps (A), R = resistance in ohms (Ω) Or alter-
natively it can be used where: V = voltage in volts (V), I = current in
milliamps (mA), R = resistance in kilohms (kΩ).
For most electronic circuits the amp is too large and the ohm is too
small, therefore it is usual to measure the current in milliamps (mA) and
therefore to obtain the resistance in kilohms (kΩ). 1 mA = 0.001 A and
1 kΩ = 1000 Ω.
These Ohm’s Law equations work if you use V, A and Ω and also if you
use V, mA and kΩ, but you cannot mix these sets of units in the same One of the main causes of device failures in the semi-conductor in
equations. dustry is Electro Static Discharge (ESD).
An ESD event basically produces a spark (a micro-lightning bolt in
effect), which passes from one charged conductive surface to another.
What is ESD? This incredibly rapid transfer of what had previously been a static (non-
moving) charge can cause ﬁres, explosions, create heat, light and even
Controlling electrostatic discharge begins with understanding how an sounds. It is this potentially unseen, unfelt or unheard ‘micro lightning’
electrostatic charge occurs in the ﬁrst place. An Electro Static Discharge or spark without warning that must be prevented or controlled.

2
Where Do I Need a Conductive Floor?

Sikaﬂoor® ESD for Handling, production, assembling, storage of sensitive electronic Sikaﬂoor® ECF for explosive atmospheres and substances (i.e. gas, vapour, spray,
devices liquids, dust, explosives, ﬁreworks etc.)

In industries where electronic components or volatile chemicals are static-sensitive devices, inadvertent contact and damage can still occur.
involved, static electricity can result in signiﬁcant damage, injury and Sikaﬂoor® ESD (Electro Static Discharge) and Sikaﬂoor® ECF
ﬁnancial loss. All active electronic components and equipment e.g. (Electrically Conductive Flooring) Systems, can safeguard your entire
micro-chips, integrated circuits and machinery are sensitive to ESD process. These systems can be used to design and produce a ﬂoor that
events. Even when areas and people are equipped to handle such is’ tailor-made’ to meet your speciﬁc needs.

## An Example of an Electrostatic Discharge Protected Area (EPA)

1. Groundable wheels
16 2. Groundable surface
3. Wrist band and foot wear
tester
18
4. Footwear footplate
5. Wrist band and grounding
17 cord
3
11 6. Grounding cord
15 7. Ground
8. Earth bounding point (EBP)
6 12 9. Groundable point of trolley
5 13 10. Toe and heel strap (footwear)
11. Ionizer
8 12. Dissipative surfaces
13. Seating with groundable
2
9 14. Sikaﬂoor® ESD or
4 Sikaﬂoor® ECF System
10
15. Garments
16. Shelving with grounded
7 14 surfaces
1 17. Groundable racking
18. EPA sign
19. Machine

3
Global Sikafloor® Solutions for ESD Protection and Electr

US-Standards: ANSI/ESD S 20.20 ANSI/ESD S 20.20 ANSI/ESD S 20.20 ASTM F 150 ASTM F 150 ASTM F 150 ASTM F 150
(ANSI/ESD STM97.1) (ANSI/ESD STM97.2) (ANSI/ESD S7.1) (ECF) Surface to (ECF) Surface to (DIF) Surface to (DIF) Surface to
System Test: Walking Test (BVG) Resistance to Ground Test: Surface Test: Ground Test: Surface Test:
Systems: < 35 M Ω < 100 Volt Ground RG < 109 Ω >2.5x104 – <1x106Ω >2.5x104 – <1x106Ω >1x106 – <1x109Ω >1x106 – <1x109Ω
Smooth ESD roller coating (Epoxy)
Sikaﬂoor®-200 ESD c c c – – c c
Sikaﬂoor®-200C ESD c c c c c – –
Roller coating for high chemical resistance (Epoxy Novolac)
Sikaﬂoor®-700 ESD c c c c c
c c c c c
®
Sikaﬂoor -700C ESD – –
Smooth ESD roller coating (Polyurethane)
Sikaﬂoor®-340 ESD c c c – – c c
c Meets the Standard – Does not meet the Standard

Standards

## There are more than 20 different

Standards dealing with the subject
of Electrostatic Discharge (ESD).
Sika provides global solutions and
speciﬁc solutions for the particular
requirements of the markets in
Europe, North America and Asia
Paciﬁc. The most widely used
Standards are presented below.

IEC 61340

## These Standards describe the protection of Electrostatic Discharge

Sensitive devices (ESDS) from electrostatic phenomena. The require-
ments for an EPA (ESD Protected Area) are detailed and described,
from the ﬂooring up to the most suitable work clothes. According TRBS 2153
to IEC 61340-4-1, the resistance to ground must be measured.
IEC 61340-4-5 describes the standard test methods for the electro- This is a German standard that applies to the assessment and
static protection capability of footwear and ﬂooring in combination with prevention of ignition due to static electricity in designated hazardous
a person and the measurement of chargeability; the so-called Body areas, and for the selection and implementation of protective measures
Voltage Generation (BVG) is also described. to avoid these dangers.

## Resistance Ranges According to IEC 61340-5-1

DIN VDE 0100-410 (IEC 60364-4-41)
ESD-protection
Part 4-41 of IEC 60364 deals with protection against electric shock
as applied to electrical installations. It is based on IEC 61140 which is
the basic safety standard that applies to the protection of persons and
ESD-protection ESD-protection
personnel are grounded ﬂooring is used livestock.
by a wrist strap for grounding personnel

alternative
DIN EN 1081
resistance of the resistance of the
resistance to ground
(electrode) person/footwear/ person/footwear/ This Standard describes the determination of the electrical resistance
ﬂooring system ﬂooring system
Rg <109 Ohm
R <35 x 106 Ohm Rg <109 Ohm of resilient ﬂoor coverings. The electrical resistance to ground is also
body voltage <100V
measured using a Tripod Electrode.

4
rostatic Discharge Control

European-Standards: DIN EN 1081 IEC 61340-5-1 IEC 61340-5-1 IEC 61340-5-1 ATEX 137 / TRBS 2153 DIN VDE 0100-410
Resistance to Ground (IEC 61340-4-5) (IEC 61340-4-5) (IEC 61340-4-1) European Standard (IEC 60364-4-41)
8
RG < 10 Ω System Test: Walking Test (BVG) Resistance to Ground Resistance to Ground Isolation Resistance
Systems: < 35 M Ω < 100 Volt RG < 109 Ω RG < 108 Ω > 50 kΩ
Smooth and textured, hygienic ECF ﬂoors
Sikaﬂoor®-262 AS N c – – c c

## Any insulating self-smoothing layers e.g.

Sikaﬂoor®-262 AS Thixo c – – c c
High chemical resistance

Sikaﬂoor®-263 SL
Sikaﬂoor®-381 AS c – – c c
Sikaﬂoor®-390 AS c – – c c
Aprooved for clean rooms
Sikaﬂoor®-266 ECF CR c – – c c
Sikaﬂoor®-269 ECF CR c – – c c
ESD systems with very low body voltage generation
Sikaﬂoor®-235 ESD c c c c c
Sikaﬂoor®-262 AS N +
c c c c c
Sikaﬂoor®-230 ESD TopCoat
c Meets the Standard – Doesn’t meet the Standard

Standards used in Asia: SJ/T 11294-2003 SJ/T 11294-2003 IEC 61340-5-1 IEC 61340-5-1 IEC 61340-5-1
(ECF) (DIF) (IEC 61340-4-5) (IEC 61340-4-5) (IEC 61340-4-1)
Resistance to Ground Resistance to Ground System Test: Walking Test (BVG) Resistance to Ground
Systems: RG >5 x 104 – < 1 x 106 Ω RG >1 x 106 – < 1 x 109 Ω < 35 M Ω < 100 Volt RG < 109 Ω
Smooth, hygienic ﬂoors
Sikaﬂoor®-262 AS N c – – – c
c c c
®
Sikaﬂoor -239 EDF – –
High chemical resistance
Sikaﬂoor®-390 AS c – – – c
Sikaﬂoor®-381 AS c – – – c
ESD system with very low body voltage generation
Sikaﬂoor®-235 ESD – – c c c
Sikaﬂoor®-262 AS N +
– – c c c
Sikaﬂoor®-230 ESD TopCoat
c Meets the Standard – Doesn’t meet the Standard

## ANSI/ESD S 20.20 SJ/T 11294-2003

This Standard covers the requirements necessary to design, establish, This Chinese Standard is the general Chinese speciﬁcation standard
implement and maintain an Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Control for ﬂoor coatings for electrostatic protection.
Program for activities that manufacture, process, assemble, install,
package, label, service, test, inspect or otherwise handle electrical or
electronic components, plus assemblies and equipment susceptible to Please note:
damage by electrostatic discharges greater than, or equal to 100 volts
Human Body Model (HBM). This Standard is also harmonized with the None of the speciﬁc conductivity or electrical resistance values
IEC 61340-5-1. mentioned in any of these International or National Standards, nor in
the descriptions and tables shown above are mandatory. These values
should be adapted to meet the requirements of the responsible local
ASTM F 150 authorities.

This Standard is a test method that covers the determination of Before applying an ESD, conductive or dissipative ﬂooring system, Sika
electrical conductance or resistance of resilient ﬂooring, either in tile or always recommends a detailed assessment of at least the following
sheet form, for applications such as hospitals, computer rooms, clean parameters, and then for the appropriate values to be agreed and
rooms, access ﬂooring, munitions plants, or any other environment accepted by all of the parties involved:
concerning personnel-generated static electricity. Limits for the electrical resistance and body voltage generation
Methods of Measurement
Equipment to make these measurements
Any applicable standards or speciﬁcations

5
Sikafloor® Solutions for Areas with Explosive Atmospheres or
Substances (i.e. Gas, Dust, Explosives, Fireworks etc.)

## Textured Conductive Coating Primer: Sikaﬂoor®-156/-161

Conductive layer: Sikaﬂoor®-220 W

Good wear and abrasion resistance Conductive

Good chemical resistance Textured conductive coating:

Slip resistance Sikaﬂoor®-262 AS N Thixo

Easy cleaning A two part, total solids, electrostatic

Conductive conductive, coloured, epoxy resin based
binder for textured coating systems.
Total layer thickness: 0.6 – 0.8 mm

## Smooth Conductive Screed Primer: Sikaﬂoor®-156/-161

Conductive layer: Sikaﬂoor®-220 W

High wear and abrasion resistance Conductive

Good chemical resistance Wearing course: Sikaﬂoor®-262 AS N

Coloured A two part, total solids, electrostatic

Easy cleaning conductive, coloured, epoxy binder for self-

Conductive smoothing screed systems.
Total layer thickness: approx. 2 mm

Heavy Duty Monolithic Conductive Finish Monolithic concrete slab using Sikament®
for Concrete or Sika® ViscoCrete® SCC technology.
Dry shake ﬂoor hardener Sikaﬂoor®-1

Excellent abrasion resistance MetalTop applied to the fresh concrete

Excellent impact resistance slab before power-ﬂoat ﬁnishing, surface

Extreme durability cured and sealed with

Conductive Sikaﬂoor® Proseal-22
No
Osmosis

6
Sikafloor® Solutions for Areas Involved in the Handling,
Production, Assembly or Storage of ESD-Sensitive Devices

## Smooth ESD Screed + TopCoat Primer: Sikaﬂoor®-156/161

Conductive layer: Sikaﬂoor®-220 W

Low Body Voltage Generation (BVG) Conductive

Easy application Wearing course: Sikaﬂoor®-262 AS N

In accordance with ESD static dissipative Top coat: Sikaﬂoor®-230 ESD
requirements A two part, total solids, electrostatic conductive,

Matt ﬁnish epoxy resin based binder, for self-smoothing

Coloured screed systems, produced in combination
with a two part, water dispersed, electrostatic
conductive, coloured, epoxy resin based roller
coating for ESD-control requirements.
Total layer thickness: approx. 2 mm

## Smooth ESD Screed Primer: Sikaﬂoor®-156/-161

Conductive layer: Sikaﬂoor®-220 W

High wear and abrasion resistance Conductive

Good chemical resistance Wearing course: Sikaﬂoor®-235 ESD

Low Body Voltage Generation (BVG) A two part, total solids, electrostatically

Easy cleaning dissipative, coloured, epoxy resin based

Static dissipative binder for self-smoothing screed systems.
Total layer thickness: approx. 2 mm

## Smooth Dissipative ESD Screed Primer: Sikaﬂoor®-156/161

Conductive layer: Sikaﬂoor®-220 W

High wear and abrasion resistance Conductive

Good chemical resistance Wearing course: Sikaﬂoor®-239 EDF

Low Body Voltage Generation (BVG) A two part, total solids, electrostatic

Easy cleaning dissipative, epoxy resin based binder for self-

Static dissipative smoothing screed systems with ESD-control
requirements.
Available for the asian market.
Total layer thickness: approx. 2 mm

7
Sikafloor® Solutions for Areas Involved in the Handling,
Production, Assembly or Storage of ESD-Sensitive Devices

## Smooth ESD Roller Coating Primer: Sikaﬂoor®-107/207

Conductive layer: Sikaﬂoor®-100 W

Less than 15 volts BVG (for conductive ﬂoor applications)

Easy to apply, easy one-step recoat Wearing course: Sikaﬂoor®-200/C ESD

Available in two resistance range: A four-component, ESD, epoxy resin based
– Conductive coating for systems, designed to impart
(2.5 x 104 to 1 x 106 ohms) electrostatic control properties to existing
– Static Dissipative non-conductive substrates and concrete.
(1.0 x 106 to 1.0 x 109) Available for the US market.

Good chemical resistance Layer thickness: approx. 15 mils / 0.40 mm

## Chemical Resistant ESD Roller Coating Primer: Sikaﬂoor®-107/207

Conductive layer: Sikaﬂoor®-100 W

Excellent wear, abrasion and impact (for conductive ﬂooring applications)
resistance Wearing course: Sikaﬂoor®-700/C ESD

Easy to apply, easy one-step recoat A three-component, ESD epoxy novolac resin

Available in two resistance range: based system, designed especially for areas
– Conductive that require both ESD control and chemical
(2.5 x 104 to 1 x 106 ohms) resistance to acids and solvents.
– Static Dissipative Available for the US market.
(1.0 x 106 to 1.0 x 109) Layer thickness: approx. 15 mils/ 0.40 mm

Good chemical resistance

## Smooth ESD Roller Coating (USA = PUD) Primer: Sikaﬂoor®-107/207

Wearing course: Sikaﬂoor®-340 ESD

High wear and abrasion resistance A ﬁve part, aliphatic polyurethane and

Good chemical resistance polyester resin based system, designed to

Broad range of colours (pastels to dark) impart ESD electrostatic control properties

Easy to maintain and simple to clean to a variety of substrates, including existing

Easy to apply, easy one-step recoat non-conductive coatings, vinyl tiles, static

Non yellowing control tiles and concrete.

Static Dissipative (PUD) Available for the US market.
Layer thickness: approx. 8 mils / 0.20 mm

8
Sikafloor® Solutions for Areas Requiring Conductivity and
Chemical Resistance

## Smooth, Flexible, Highly Chemically Primer: Sika® Asplit® VE leveling mortar

Resistant, Glass Fabric Reinforced Coating Wearing course: Sika® Asplit® VE
+ glass fabric

High wear and abrasion resistance A two part, highly chemically resistant, crack

Extremely high chemical resistance bridging, coloured vinyl ester resin based

Waterproof binder for glass ﬁbre reinforced coating

Glass fabric reinforced systems.
Total system thickness: approx. 3 mm

## Smooth, Chemically Resistant Conductive Primer: Sikaﬂoor®-156/-161

Screed Conductive layer: Sikaﬂoor®-220 W
Conductive

High wear and abrasion resistance Wearing course: Sikaﬂoor®-381 AS

High chemical resistance A two part, total solids, highly chemical

Coloured resistant, electrostatically conductive,

Easy cleaning coloured, epoxy resin based binder for self-

Conductive smoothing screed systems.
Total layer thickness: approx. 2 mm

## Smooth, Flexible, Chemically Resistant Primer: Sikaﬂoor®-156/-161

Conductive Screed Conductive layer: Sikaﬂoor®-220 W
Conductive

High wear and abrasion resistance Wearing course: Sikaﬂoor®-390 AS

High chemical resistance A two part, total solids, highly chemically

Crack-bridging resistant, electrostatically conductive, crack-

Coloured bridging, coloured, epoxy resin based binder

Easy cleaning for self-smoothing screed systems.

Conductive Total layer thickness: approx. 2 mm

9
Sikafloor® Solutions for Clean Rooms with Conductive
Requirements

## Smooth, Ultra-Low VOC, Conductive Primer: Sikaﬂoor®-144/-161

Screed Conductive layer:
Sikaﬂoor®-220 W Conductive

Ultra-Low VOC/AMC emissions Wearing course:

Low particle emissions Sikaﬂoor®-269 ECF CR

Conductive A two part, total solids, electrostatic

High wear resistance conductive, ultra-low emission, coloured,

IPA certiﬁed “Cleanroom Suitable Material” epoxy resin based binder for self-smoothing
screed systems.
Total layer thickness: approx. 2 mm
For
Food

## Smooth, Low VOC, Conductive Screed Primer: Sikaﬂoor®-144/-161

Conductive layer:

Low VOC/AMC emissions Sikaﬂoor®-220 W Conductive

Low particle emissions Wearing course:

High wear resistance Sikaﬂoor®-266 ECF CR

Good chemical resistance A two part, total solids, electrostatically

Conductive conductive, low emission, coloured, epoxy

Coloured resin based binder for self-smoothing screed

IPA certiﬁed “Cleanroom Suitable Material” systems.
Total layer thickness: approx. 2 mm
For
Food

## Smooth Low VOC ESD Screed Primer: Sikaﬂoor®-144/-161

Conductive layer:

Low VOC/AMC emissions Sikaﬂoor®-220 W Conductive

Low particle emissions Wearing course:

High wear resistance Sikaﬂoor®-235 ESD

Good chemical resistance A two part, total solids, ESD, low emission,

Static dissipative coloured, epoxy resin based binder for self-

Coloured smoothing screed systems.

IPA certiﬁed “Cleanroom Suitable Material” Total layer thickness: approx. 2 mm
For
Food

10

## Slip Resistant Conductive Screed Primer: Sikaﬂoor®-156/161

Conductive layer: Sikaﬂoor®-220 W

Slip resistant Conductive

High chemical resistance Wearing course: Sikaﬂoor®-390 AS


High wear resistance and abrasion TopCoat: Sikaﬂoor®-390
resistance A two part, total solids, highly chemically

Tough elastic resistant, electrostatically conductive, crack-
bridging, slip resistant, epoxy resin based
systems.
Total layer thickness: approx. 2.5 mm

## Conductive Wall-Coatings Primer: Sikaﬂoor®-2530 W + 5% H20

Intermediate Layer: Sikaﬂoor-2530 W

Conductive TopCoat: Sikaﬂoor®-230 ESD TopCoat

Easy to apply A two part, water dispersed, electrostatically

High wear resistance conductive, coloured, epoxy resin based,

Good chemical resistance roller coating for ESD-requirements on walls


Matt ﬁnish including concrete, renders and gypsum
plasters.
Total layer thickness: approx. 0.4 mm

## Conductive Medium Duty Chemically and Primer/Scratch Coat:

Wear Resistant Screed Sikaﬂoor®-25 S PurCem ECF
Wearing course:

High wear resistance Sikaﬂoor®-25 PurCem ECF

Conductive A 3 part water dispersed, conductive, selfs-

High chemical resistance moothing, polyurethane resin based, heavy

Medium thermal shock resistance duty screed system.

Coloured Total layer thickness: approx. 4.5 – 6 mm

Hygienic
For
Food

11
Sikafloor®-Earthing Kit

## An electrostatic charge, which occurs during materials contact and

separation, has to be discharged via an earthing point. Sika provides the
Sikaﬂoor®-Earthing Kit, a unique tool box containing all of the
necessary components for up to 10 earthing points.
Every earthing point is able to conduct to earth approximately 300 m2
Ensure the longest distance between each earthing point in each
room or area is a maximum of 10 m apart. In larger areas with longer
distances, additional earthing points must be installed in accordance
with the Electrical Engineer’s requirements.
If site conditions or other constraints do not allow the positioning of any
additional earthing points that are required, then any longer distances
(>10 m) must be bridged by the use of additional adhesive copper tapes
in accordance with the relevant speciﬁcations. All of the earthing points
have to be connected to an appropriate ring-main to ground them and
this work must be carried out and approved by the responsible Electrical
Engineer in accordance with all relevant local regulations.


Prepare and prime the substrate in 
Fit the small plastic tube onto the Allen
accordance with the relevant screw and fasten tightly.
Sikaﬂoor® PDS. 
Make sure the plastic tube is ﬁtted tightly

Drill a 8 mm diameter hole, depth > 50 mm before the application of Sikaﬂoor®

Remove all dust, loose and friable material materials.
and Insert the anchor, the top of the anchor
must be ﬂush with the ﬂoor surface.

Fix the screw into the anchor with an Allen key,
so that 16 mm of the Allen screw stick out.


Apply the copper tapes (2 x 10 mm) at 
Apply the conductive wearing layer and
either side of the drilled-hole as shown in then the rest of the selected Sikaﬂoor®
the picture. system.

Fix the large (D = 60 mm) and the medium 
After full curing of the complete
size (D = 30 mm) washers with the nut Sikaﬂoor® system, remove the plastic
(M 6) to the Allen screw. tube and clean the head of the Allen screw
thoroughly.

Fix the brass eyelet using the self-locking
nut (M 6) on the Allen screw.

Connect the earthing main cable with the
brass eyelet (only by a qualiﬁed Electrical
Engineer).

12

For alternative situation Sika can provide detailed CAD drawings of the different possibilities to position an earthing point. Please do not hesitate to

0902
9_C_appl_
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N° 900_81 ini Aeppli
;
Coatings Author: He 9; Edition 002
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## Industrial flooring; 8.1 Resin Floors and Coatings N° 900_81_012_C/037_G_appl_0807/0902

Author: Heini Aeppli
Date: 07/2009; Edition 002;
®
tion

## Sikafloor - Conductive Coatings

Detailing of placing of an earthing point within the area with a cut-
out (ECF / ESD floors)
Ground plan until step 11
Construc

C–C
Construction

Industria
l flooring
; 8.1 Re
sin Floors
and Co
atin gs
N° 900_
Sikaflo ® 81_035
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Heini Ae /036_C_appl_
Detailing n ductive 07/2009
; Edition
Date: ppli 0901

## floors) of plac Coating 002;

ing of an
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3
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ained here handled uct(s) expr applicati ucts from must 4 Sikafloor -156/161, priming of the whole area and the he cut-out
mation contproperly stored, ) and prod case of a different user of the prod delivery. Users est.
The infor n ication(s lied on requ 5 Drilling a hole for the heavy-duty anchor and inset-screw
crew
ucts whe the appl trates etc., or in ve the sale and
the prod only applies to in subs in does not relie ent terms of of which will be supp
informati
on
as chan
ges ained here ect to our
curr
d, copies 6 Placing of the two copper-strips and insert anchor; anchor must be flush with the
applicati
on, such mation contare accepted subj product concerne
ucts. The
infor
orders et for the floor surface
Sika prod and purpose. All Product Data She
on
of the loca
l 7 Placing of the brass-plate and brass-disc
applicati
most rece
nt issue , Sw itzerland 8
®
Sikafloor -220 W Conductive, conductive layer C–C
48 Zürich .com
16, CH-80 46 86, www.sika 9 Fix the large and medium size brass-plates with the large brass screw
ces AG fenwies
Sika Servi Construction, Tüf (0)58 436 10 Fix the eyelet fastener using the small brass washerr and screw to the large brass
Fax +41
Corporate (0)58 436 40 40, screw
Ph one +41
11 The connection of the isolated wire point to the mainsns has to be executed by a
®
12 Application of Sikafloor conductive coating onto the e whole area incl. cut-out

The information contained herein and any other advice are given in good faith based on Sika's current knowledge and experience of
cordance with Sika's recommendations. The
the products when properly stored, handled and applied under normal conditions in accordance
information only applies to the application(s) and product(s) expressly referred to herein. In case of changes in the parameters of the
nsult Sika's Technical Service prior to using
application, such as changes in substrates etc., or in case of a different application, consult
Sika products. The information contained herein does not relieve the user of the products roducts from testing them for the intended
application and purpose. All orders are accepted subject to our current terms of sale and delivery. Users must always refer to the
hich will be supplied on request.
most recent issue of the local Product Data Sheet for the product concerned, copies of which

Sika Services AG 1
Corporate Construction, Tüffenwies 16, CH-8048 Zürich, Switzerland 2 Concrete
Phone +41 (0)58 436 40 40, Fax +41 (0)58 436 46 86, www.
www.sika.com
w.ssika.com 3 Joint of construction
the
4 Sikafloor ® cut-out section
5 Isolated -156/161, primi and surface pre
wire ng of the pa
6 Fan out
iso whole are ration
Filling the lated wire fixe a and the
cut-out
join d with co
po int to the t around the pp
7
Sik mains ha isolated er tape
8 aflo or ® s to be wir e wit
9 Applicatio -220 W Conduct executed by h an epoxy mo
a rta
Ground n of Sikafloor ® ive, conductive licensed electr r (The connectio
plan /vie conductiv layer ical engin n of the
w; showin e eer)
The info g the exe coating onto the
the prod
rmation
con cution un whole are
ucts whe tained herein til ste a incl. cut
informa
tion only n properly stor and any othe
p6 -out
applicat applies ed, han r advice
ion, to dled are
Sika prod such as cha the application( and applied given in good
nges in under norm faith bas
applicat ucts. The info substra s) and product( al con ed on Sika
ion rmation tes etc.
most rece and purpose contain , or in cass) expressly refe ditions in acc 's current
knowled
nt issue . All ed e rred orda
of the loca orders are acc herein does notof a different app to herein. In nce with Sika ge and
l Produc epte relieve lication, case of 's recomm experience
t Data She d subject to the use consult cha end of
our curr r Sika's Tecnges in the para ations. The
et for the
product ent term of the products hnic met
concern s of sale from test al Service prio ers of the
Sika Se ed, cop and
ies of whic delivery. Use ing them for r to usin
g
rvices h will be rs must the inte
Corporat AG supplied alwa
on requ ys refer to the
nded
e Const est.
Phone +4 ruction,
1 (0) 58 436 Tüffenw
40 40, Fa ies 16, CH-80
x +41 (0) 48 Zürich
58 436 , Sw
46 86, ww itzerland
w.sika.co
m

13
Measurement of the Conductivity or Electrical Resistance of
Sikafloor® ESD and ECF Systems

## As previously indicated at the beginning of

this brochure, an Ohm meter, as pictured in
the left photo, is the equipment that is used
for the measurement of the conductivity or
electrical resistance of these ﬂooring
systems. The range of the Ohm meter must
be in within 1 x 103 Ohms (Ω) to 1 x 1013 Ω.

## The metering voltage required for an

electrical resistances of < 1 x 106 Ω is 10 V,
whilst the metering voltage for an electrical
resistances of ≥ 1 x 106 Ω is 100 V. Body
Voltage Generation (BVG) is measured
separately with an ‘electrostatic ﬁeld meter’.

## The main differences between different

models and manufacturers of the
measurement electrodes used for this are
not their size or the weight, but the type
and hardness of their contact surface. This
can give misleading results and should
only be carried out by suitably qualiﬁed and
experienced people. Therefore Sika generally
recommends for measurements according to
IEC 61340 the use of metal electrodes with a
contact area of 65 ± 5 mm, a conductive
rubber pad of Shore Hardness A = 60 ± 10
and a weight of 2.5 ± 0.25 kg for hard resin
ﬂoor surfaces.

14
Different Types of Conductive Floor Perform Differently

In the example of testing for resistance below, Sika Conductive “Carbon Fibre Fillers”-Technology is compared with Sika Conductive “Pigment
Fillers”-Technology

Controlled Homogeneity of the Floor Surface using Sika Conductive “Pigment Fillers”-Technology

Note:
The conductive ﬁllers are
in permanent continuous
e.g. Sikaﬂoor®-230 ESD e.g. Sikaﬂoor®-230 ESD contact and so there are
many paths across &
through the conductive
system – the surface is
suitable for point to point
measurement.
Typically the Resistance to Ground (Rtg) with the Conductive Priming Layer is equal to or greater than the Resistance Point to Point (Rtt)

## Variable Floor Surface with Sika Conductive “Carbon Fibre Fillers”-Technology

Note:
The resin around the
ﬁbres can insulate points
Conductive
Primer
on the surface and within
the thickness of the resin.
e.g. Sikaﬂoor®-262 AS N e.g. Sikaﬂoor®-262 AS N
Therefore Point to Point
measurement is NOT
recommended on the
surface of conductive
ﬂooring systems based on
carbon ﬁbre technology.
Typically the Resistance Point to Point (Rtt) is greater than the Resistance to Ground (Rtg)

These graphs show the effects of Multi-directional Conductivity and Uni-directional Conductivity obtained with the different ﬁller types.
It is not possible to refurbish (over-coat) existing conductive ﬂoors based on carbon ﬁbre technology with each other, without the application of
an intermediate conductive primer (such as Sikaﬂoor®-220 W Conductive). This is because there is a minimal chance that the carbon
ﬁbres in each layer will make an adequate connection to the carbon ﬁbres in the other. As a result any electrical charges could not be discharged
to ground. However this type of refurbishment and over-coating work is perfectly possible with systems based on conductive ﬁllers (such as
Sikaﬂoor®-230 ESD or Sikaﬂoor®-200 ESD). This is because the conductive ﬁllers provide fully homogeneous conductivity.

15
Sika Full Range Solutions for Construction
Concrete Production Waterprooﬁng Flooring

## Sika® ViscoCrete® Sikaplan®, Sikalastic® Sikaﬂoor®

Sika® Retarder® Sika® & Tricosal® Waterstops SikaBond®
Sika® SikaAer® Sika® Injection Systems

Corrosion and Fire Protection Concrete Repair and Protection Structural Strengthening

## SikaCor® Sika® MonoTop® Sika® CarboDur®

Sika® Unitherm® Sikagard® SikaWrap®

## Joint Sealing Grouting Rooﬁng

Sikasil® SikaGrout® Sikaplan®
SikaRoof® MTC®

Sika Services AG