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ANTENNA ORIENTATION CALCULATION

The orientation of an antenna is determined with respect to

the electric field of the propagating radio wave to the surface
of the earth. The antenna’s physical structure is greatly
influenced by the polarization or the orientation of an antenna.
With this, orientation of an antenna can be considered reliant
to its polarization. However, there are some factors that affect
the polarization, such as reflection. Reflection of radio waves
off the ionosphere could result to a change in the polarization.
In line with this, transmissions in line-of-sight (LOS)
communications are expected to only have the same polarization
and orientation with each other in order to attain optimal
strength of signal.
For calculations:
A = | Long A – Long B |
𝑳𝒂𝒕 𝑩 − 𝑳𝒂𝒕 𝑨
𝒚−𝒙 𝑪 𝐬𝐢𝐧( )
𝟐
𝐭𝐚𝐧 ( ) = 𝐜𝐨𝐭( 𝟐) × 𝑳𝒂𝒕 𝑩 + 𝑳𝒂𝒕 𝑨
𝟐 𝐜𝐨𝐬( )
𝟐

𝑳𝒂𝒕 𝑩 − 𝑳𝒂𝒕 𝑨
𝒚+𝒙 𝑪 𝐬𝐢𝐧( )
𝟐
𝐭𝐚𝐧 ( ) = 𝐜𝐨𝐭( 𝟐) × 𝑳𝒂𝒕 𝑩 + 𝑳𝒂𝒕 𝑨
𝟐 𝐜𝐨𝐬( )
𝟐

ANTENNA HEIGHT CALCULATION

The height of an antenna plays a significant role on the
antenna’s performance and efficiency. Along with the height,
comes along the factors such as impedance, the radiation losses,
the distance from interference, the diagram of radiation and
many others. Taller antennas will somehow produce a better
performance however, some considerations still stand that limits
the height of the antenna. This is because building higher
antenna may cause interference with other antennas or, in
contrary, receive unnecessary signals from others.
For calculations:
𝒅𝟏 𝒅𝟐
𝒆𝒃 = 𝟏𝟐.𝟕𝟓𝒌

Where:
eb = earth bulge
d1 = distance of the first site to obstruction
d2 = distance of the second site to obstruction
k = earth bulge radius factor

𝒉𝒐 = 𝒆𝒃 + 𝒆𝒐 + 𝑻𝑮
Where:
ho = height of obstruction
eb = earth bulge
eo = elevation of the obstruction above sea level
TG = tree growth

𝒅 𝒅
𝟏 𝟐
𝑭𝟏 = 𝟏𝟕. 𝟑√ 𝑭×𝑫

Where:
F1 = First Fresnel zone
d1 = distance of the first site to the obstruction
d2 = distance of the second site to the obstruction
F = frequency
D = total distance

𝑯 = 𝑭𝟏 × 𝟔𝟎%
Where:
H = Fresnel Clearance
F1 = First Fresnel Zone