You are on page 1of 24

SECTION 03490

GLASS-FIBER-REINFORCED PRECAST CONCRETE

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Item No Title Page No

PART 1 GENERAL............................................................................................................... 1

1.01 DESCRIPTION OF WORK..................................................................................... 1

1.02 SECTION INCLUDES ............................................................................................ 1

1.03 RELATED SECTIONS............................................................................................ 1

1.04 REFERENCES ....................................................................................................... 2

1.05 DEFINITIONS......................................................................................................... 3

1.06 SUBMITTALS ......................................................................................................... 4

1.07 QUALITY CONTROL.............................................................................................. 5

1.08 HEALTH AND SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS ........................................................ 6

1.09 MANUFACTURERS QUALIFICATIONS................................................................ 7

1.10 DESIGN LOAD AND STRESS CALCULATIONS .................................................. 7

1.11 DELIVERY, HANDLING AND STORAGE.............................................................. 8

PART 2 PRODUCTS ............................................................................................................ 9

2.01 GENERAL .............................................................................................................. 9

2.02 CONCRETE MATERIALS ...................................................................................... 9

2.03 FORMWORK........................................................................................................ 12

2.04 CONNECTION AND BEARING MATERIALS ...................................................... 12

2.05 INSULATION FOR SANDWICH PANELS ........................................................... 13

2.06 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR GFRC MIXES.................................................. 14

2.07 FABRICATION ..................................................................................................... 14

2.08 FINISH .................................................................................................................. 15

2.09 GROUT MATERIALS ........................................................................................... 16

2.10 TOLERANCES ..................................................................................................... 16

2.11 IDENTIFICATION ................................................................................................. 17

Rev 1 i Contract No:


SECTION 03490
GLASS-FIBER-REINFORCED PRECAST CONCRETE

TABLE OF CONTENTS (Contd.)

Item No Title Page No

PART 3 EXECUTION ......................................................................................................... 18

3.01 PRE-INSTALLATION EXAMINATION ................................................................. 18

3.02 PREPARATION.................................................................................................... 18

3.03 INSTALLATION .................................................................................................... 18

3.04 FIELD INSPECTION AND TESTING ................................................................... 20

3.05 FIELD CUTTING OF OPENINGS ........................................................................ 20

3.06 DURABILITY AND CORROSION PROTECTION................................................ 20

3.07 REPAIRS.............................................................................................................. 21

Rev 1 ii Contract No:


SECTION 03490
GLASS-FIBER-REINFORCED PRECAST CONCRETE

PART 1 GENERAL

1.01 DESCRIPTION OF WORK

A. The extent of precast glass fiber reinforced concrete, (GFRC) work is shown on the
Contract Drawings.

B. This Section establishes the criteria for materials, mixes, evaluation, fabrication, and
installation of Glass Fiber Reinforced Precast Concrete (GFRC).

1.02 SECTION INCLUDES

A. Glass-Fiber-Reinforced Precast Concrete

1.03 RELATED SECTIONS

A. Section 01320 Construction Progress Documentation

B. Section 01330 Submittal Procedures

C. Section 01410 Regulatory Requirements

D. Section 01450 Quality Control

E. Section 01650 Product Delivery Requirements

F. Section 01660 Product Storage and Handling Requirements

G. Section 03310 Structural Concrete

H. Section 03430 Precast Structural Concrete

I. Section 03450 Precast Architectural Concrete

J. Section 03930 Concrete Rehabilitation

K. Section 05560 Metal Castings

L. Section 06100 Rough Carpentry

M. Section 06610 Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic Fabrications

N. Section 07920 Joint Sealants

O. Section 08520 Aluminum Windows

P. Section 09910 Paints

Rev 1 1 of 21 Contract No:


SECTION 03490
GLASS-FIBER-REINFORCED PRECAST CONCRETE

1.04 REFERENCES

A. The referred codes and standards are intended to provide an acceptable level of
quality for materials, products and workmanship. In case of conflict between these
standards and the text of this Specification, the Specification text shall govern.

B. The latest revision of the referred codes and standards shall be used wherever
applicable. In case of conflict, the Contractor shall propose equipment, materials and
processes conforming to one group of codes and standards.

C. ACI American Concrete Institute

1. ACI 544.1R State-of-the-Art Report on Fiber Reinforced Concrete

2. ACI 544.2R Measurement of Properties of Fiber Reinforce


Concrete

3. ACI 506.1R Committee Report on Fiber Reinforced Shotcrete

D. ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials

1. ASTM A153M Standard Specification for Zinc Coating (Hot-Dip) on


Iron and Steel Hardware

2. ASTM A283M Standard Specification for Low and Intermediate


Tensile Strength Carbon Steel Plates

3. ASTM A307 Standard Specification for Carbon Steel Bolts and


Studs, 60 000 PSI Tensile Strength

4. ASTM C33 Standard Specification for Concrete Aggregates

5. ASTM C150 Standard Specification for Portland Cement

6. ASTM C260 Standard Specification for Air-Entraining Admixtures


for Concrete

7. ASTM C494M Standard Specification for Chemical Admixtures for


Concrete

8. ASTM C947 Standard Test Method for Flexural Properties of Thin


Section Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete

9. ASTM C948 Standard Test Method for Dry and Wet Bulk Density,
Water Absorption and Apparent Porosity of Thin
Sections of Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete

10. ASTM C979 Standard Specification for Pigments for Integrally


Colored Concrete

11. ASTM C1017M Standard Specification for Chemical Admixtures for


Use in Producing Flowing Concrete

Rev 1 2 of 21 Contract No:


SECTION 03490
GLASS-FIBER-REINFORCED PRECAST CONCRETE

12. ASTM C1116 Standard Specification for Fiber-Reinforced Concrete


and Shotcrete

13. ASTM C1228 Standard Practice for Preparing Coupons for Flexural
and Washout Tests on Glass Fiber Reinforced
Concrete

14. ASTM C1229 Standard Test Method for Determination of Glass


Fiber Content in Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete
(GFRC) (Wash-Out Test)

15. ASTM E84 Standard Test Method for Surface Burning


Characteristics

16. ASTM G23 Standard Practice for Operating Light-Exposure


Apparatus (Carbon-Arc Type) With and Without
Water for Exposure of Non-metallic Materials

17. ASTM G152 Standard Practice for Operating Open Flame Carbon
Arc Light Apparatus for Exposure of Non-metallic
Materials

18. ASTM G153 Standard Practice for Operating Enclosed Carbon


Arc Light Apparatus for Exposure of Non-metallic
Materials

E. BS British Standards

1. BS EN 197-1 Cement - Part 1: Composition, Specifications and


Conformity Criteria for Common Cements

2. BS 882 Specification for Aggregates from Natural Sources


for Concrete

3. BS EN 1008 Mixing Water for Concrete - Specification for


Sampling, Testing and Assessing the Suitability of
Water, including Water Recovered from Processes in
the Concrete Industry, as Mixing Water for Concrete

F. PCI Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute

1. PCI MNL-117 Manual for Quality Control for Plants and Production
of Architectural Precast Concrete Products

1.05 DEFINITIONS

A. admixture, air entraining: An admixture that causes the development of a system of


microscopic air bubbles in concrete, mortar or cement paste during mixing, usually to
increase its workability and resistance to freezing and thawing.

B. admixture, retarding: An admixture that causes a decrease in the rate of hydration


of the hydraulic cement and lengthens the time of setting.

Rev 1 3 of 21 Contract No:


SECTION 03490
GLASS-FIBER-REINFORCED PRECAST CONCRETE

C. admixture, water-reducing: An admixture that either increases slump of freshly


mixed mortar or concrete without increasing water content, or maintains slump with a
reduced amount of water, the effect being due to factors other than air entrainment.

D. glass fiber reinforced cement: A composite material consisting essentially of a


matrix of hydraulic cement paste or mortar reinforced with glass fibers; typically
precast into units less than 25 mm thick.

E. grout: A mixture of cementitious material and water, with or without aggregate,


proportioned to produce a pourable consistency without segregation of the
constituents; also a mixture of other compositions but of similar consistency.

F. portland cement: A hydraulic cementing material for mortar and concrete, resulting
from grinding and pulverising the burned calcareous or lime bearing materials with
argillaceous or other silica, alumina and iron oxide bearing materials (clinker), with
the addition of gypsum or its derivative or water or both.

G. precast: A member or element that is cast and cured in other than its final position;
the process of placing and finishing precast concrete.

1.06 SUBMITTALS

A. The Contractor shall submit to the Royal Commission, under the provisions of
SECTION 01330, the following items for review and approval before commencing
Work:

1. Product Data

a) The Contractor shall submit manufacturer's specifications, data and


instructions for manufactured materials and products, including
manufacturer's certifications and laboratory test reports.

2. Shop Drawings

a) The Contractor shall submit Shop Drawings showing complete


information for the fabrication and installation of precast glass fiber
reinforced concrete (GFRC) units, indicating member dimensions, cross-
sections and unit mass; and lifting devices necessary for handling and
erection.

b) Include erection procedure for precast units, sequence of erection, and


required handling equipment.

c) Show layout, dimensions, and identification of each precast glass fiber


reinforced unit corresponding to sequence and procedure of installation.
Indicate welded connections by AWS standard symbols. Detail inserts,
connections, and joints, including accessories and construction at
openings in precast GFRC units.

d) Show location and details of anchorage devices that are to be


embedded in other constructions.

Rev 1 4 of 21 Contract No:


SECTION 03490
GLASS-FIBER-REINFORCED PRECAST CONCRETE

3. Samples

a) The Contractor shall submit 3 sets of precast samples approximately


300 x 300 x 50 mm to illustrate the quality, color, and texture of the
surface finish for approval by the Royal Commission prior to GFRC unit
fabrication.

b) The Contractor shall submit samples of cast-in gaskets, anchorages,


and other attachments and accessories as requested by the Royal
Commission.

c) The Contractor shall prepare full-size sample mock-ups of each required


precast GFRC unit for the Royal Commission's inspection and review
prior to production of units and installation. Acceptable full-size samples
may be incorporated in the construction.

d) The Royal Commission's review of samples will be for color, texture and
general appearance. Compliance with other requirements is the
responsibility of the Contractor and subject at all times to further
approval by the Royal Commission.

1.07 QUALITY CONTROL

A. The Contractor shall be responsible for the quality of work and shall develop and
propose programs and methods of construction and testing such as to achieve the
specified quality to the approval of the Royal Commission in accordance with
SECTION 01450.

B. Quality Control Program

1. The GFRC manufacturer shall have an established quality control program in


effect at the plant or shall employ an independent testing laboratory approved
by the Royal Commission to monitor glass content, spray rate, physical
properties and curing period and conditions.

C. Test boards shall be produced in parallel with the first and last panel fabrication for
each day’s production by each spray team, and for each newly batched concrete
mixture. In order to provide initial production compliance, an initial increased rate of
production test boards may be required.

D. Test boards shall be large enough to enable test coupons to be cut from boards
without using the area at the perimeter of the test board for respective test methods
and procedures.

E. Each test board shall be stored with the respective panel production and shall be
marked with the same identification. When the production panels are removed from
curing, the test board shall be transferred to the quality control area for testing.

F. Quality control of the GFRC units produced shall be carried out by monitoring test
results on a statistical basis. Samples for glass content determination shall be taken
from the test board immediately after spraying.

G. Within 48 hours after cure schedule, test boards shall be cut into test coupons and

Rev 1 5 of 21 Contract No:


SECTION 03490
GLASS-FIBER-REINFORCED PRECAST CONCRETE

the flexural yield and ultimate strength as well as the density shall be measured.

H. Compliance

1. Results of the individual test boards’ mean values will be treated statistically
for compliance with the following conditions:

a) No single test board mean result shall fall below 85% of the
Characteristic Value.

b) The average of over lapping groups of 4 successive results must be


greater than the Characteristic Value (MkLk) plus half the Margin (where
Margin is the difference between Characteristic and Target Mean prior
to the last 4 results; i.e. Mtm-Mk and Ltm-Lk).

I. Non-Compliance

1. Where test boards do not comply with the specified performance requirements,
the fabricated panels identified with the test boards shall be deemed to be
defective and shall not be incorporated in the work. Costs for defective
products shall be borne by the Contractor.

J. Submit test reports to the glass fiber manufacturer for approval.

K. Quality Assurance

1. Codes and Standards shall comply with the applicable provisions of the
following codes, specifications, and standards, except as otherwise shown or
specified:

a) American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards as


specified in this Section.

b) British Standards (BS/BS-EN) as specified in this Section.

c) Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute, PCI, MNL-117.

2. Fire-Resistance Rated Precast GFRC Units

a) Where precast concrete units are shown on drawings or schedules as


requiring a fire-resistance classification, provide units tested and listed
by UL with each unit bearing UL label and marking or meeting Class O
requirements of BS 476.

1.08 HEALTH AND SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS

A. All works undertaken in relation to this Specification are to be completed in full


accordance with the respective health and safety requirements established by the
following:

Rev 1 6 of 21 Contract No:


SECTION 03490
GLASS-FIBER-REINFORCED PRECAST CONCRETE

1. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

a) Legislation, Regulation, Standards and Codes.

2. Royal Commission Regulations

a) Standards, Contractual Conditions, and Health and Safety Systems.

3. Contractor

a) Health and Safety Standards and Systems as accepted by the Royal


Commission.

B. In the absence of any of the above, best accepted industry practice shall be
employed throughout.

1.09 MANUFACTURERS QUALIFICATIONS

A. Fabricator Qualifications

1. Firms which have a minimum of 2 to 5 years successful experience in the


fabrication of precast glass fiber reinforced concrete units, similar to units
required for this Project, will be acceptable.

2. The fabricator must have sufficient production capacity to produce, transport,


and deliver required units without causing delay in the work.

3. Produce precast glass fiber reinforced concrete units at a fabricating plant.

4. Design modifications may be made only as necessary to meet field conditions


and to ensure proper fitting of the work, and only as acceptable to the Royal
Commission. Maintain general design concept shown without increasing or
decreasing sizes of members or altering profiles and alignment shown. Provide
complete design calculations and drawings prepared by a professional
engineer, pre-qualified as to structural design background if design
modifications are anticipated.

B. Qualifications of Erector

1. Firms which have a minimum of 2 years successful experience in the erection


of precast concrete units, similar to units required for this project, will be
acceptable.

1.10 DESIGN LOAD AND STRESS CALCULATIONS

A. GFRC precast units shall be designed for the following installed loads:

1. Wall panels shall be designed for 960 Pa wind load.

2. Roof panels shall be designed for 960 Pa live load (downward) and 720 Pa for
uplift on enclosed structures or 1200 Pa uplift on unenclosed structures.

Rev 1 7 of 21 Contract No:


SECTION 03490
GLASS-FIBER-REINFORCED PRECAST CONCRETE

3. Dead loads shall be combined with these loadings in all cases.

B. Stresses shall be calculated using working stress methods and compared with the
allowable stresses shown below:

1. Tensile Design Stress : 3 MPa

2. Tensile Bending Stress : 6 MPa

3. Compressive Design Stress : 6 MPa

4. Design Shear Stress : 1.5 MPa

C. The allowable stresses for load combinations including wind loads may be increased
by one-third.

D. The live plus dead load deflection shall be calculated and held to 1/360 times and span
length for sandwich panel construction. For other types of construction the deflection
shall be held to 1/180 times the span length. Young's modulus used for calculating
deflection shall be 9000 MPa.

E. Anchorage shall be designed to support the above loadings. The safety margin factor
for installed anchorage, ultimate failure load/working load shall be 7 for load
combinations including wind and 10 for load combinations.

1.11 DELIVERY, HANDLING AND STORAGE

A. The Contractor shall deliver, handle and store equipment and material units in
accordance with SECTIONS 01650 and 01660, as well as the following
requirements:

1. Transport, lift and handle units with care, avoiding excessive stress and
preventing damage; use appropriate equipment.

2. Deliver precast glass fiber reinforced concrete (GFRC) units to Project site in
quantities to assure scheduling and uniformity of overall color and texture of
installation.

3. Store units to prevent cracking, distortion, warping, staining, or other physical


damage, and with markings visible.

4. Lift and support units into place only at the designated lifting points.

Rev 1 8 of 21 Contract No:


SECTION 03490
GLASS-FIBER-REINFORCED PRECAST CONCRETE

PART 2 PRODUCTS

2.01 GENERAL

A. All goods and products covered by these Specifications shall be procured, when
available, from an in-Kingdom manufacturer. Procurement of all goods and products
manufactured out-of-Kingdom must be approved by the Royal Commission.

2.02 CONCRETE MATERIALS

A. Requirements for Constituent Materials

1. Cement

a) Portland Cement
1) ASTM C150, Type II or Type I/II convertible, having a maximum
tricalcium aluminate content of 8% or complying with
BS EN 197-1 and conforming to the above sulfate resistance
requirements.

b) Use only 1 brand and type of cement during fabrication of units, unless
otherwise acceptable to the Royal Commission.

c) Use "buff" or "grey" colored portland cement for concrete mix to match
the Royal Commission's control sample.

d) Cement will be accepted on the basis of manufacturer's mill certificates


that the cement furnished meets the physical and chemical
requirements of ASTM C150 or BS EN 197-1. The Royal Commission
reserves the right to sample and conduct such tests on cement as it
deems necessary.

2. Aggregates

a) As per ASTM C33 or BS 882, and as herein specified. Provide


aggregates from a single source for all exposed concrete.

b) Coarse Aggregate for Facing Mixes shall be hard, durable, carefully


selected and graded; free of material causing staining or reacting with
cement. Aggregates shall match the Royal Commission's control
sample.

c) Fine Aggregate
1) Manufactured sand shall not exceed 20% by weight of the total
mix and have 98% minimum silica content by weight; moisture
content not to exceed 2%, particle size between 0.15 and 1 mm.

3. Fibers

a) Glass Fiber Reinforcement


1) Alkali resistant, fiber length as recommended by manufacturer.

Rev 1 9 of 21 Contract No:


SECTION 03490
GLASS-FIBER-REINFORCED PRECAST CONCRETE

b) Glass fibers shall be specifically designed to be compatible with the


aggressive alkaline environment of portland cement based composites
or fibers with a history of successful use in portland cement based
composites that have been modified to be compatible with the fiber.

c) Alkali resistant glass fibers containing a minimum 16% of zirconia,


designed for use in cementitious composites, may be added to the slurry
through the spray gun, chopping a continuous roving into approximately
37 mm long filaments. These chopped fibers impart tensile properties to
the slurry and control the maximum loading the composite can
withstand, as well as impact resistance and durability.

4. Mixing Water

a) The mixing water shall comply with BS EN 1008, free of foreign


materials in amounts harmful to concrete strengths, durability and finish.

5. Admixtures

a) General
1) Use water-reducing and retarding admixtures in strict compliance
with the manufacturer's directions for climatic conditions prevailing
at the time of placing. Adjust quantities of admixtures as required
to maintain quality control.
2) Admixtures to increase cement dispersion or provide increased
workability for low-slump concrete may be used subject to the
Royal Commission's acceptance.

b) Water-Reducing Admixture
1) ASTM C494M, Type A.

c) Retarding Admixture
1) ASTM C494M, Type B.

d) Calcium Chloride
1) Do not use calcium chloride.

e) Admixtures are permitted and shall always be used strictly in


accordance with the supplier's recommendations and the producers
must ensure that their use has no adverse effect on the product.

f) Use water-reducing and retarding admixtures in strict compliance with


the manufacturer's directions for climatic conditions prevailing at the
time of placing. Adjust quantities of admixtures as required to maintain
quality control.

g) Admixtures to increase cement dispersion or provide increased


workability for low-slump concrete may be used subject to the Royal
Commission's acceptance.

h) Air-entraining admixtures shall conform to ASTM C260.

Rev 1 10 of 21 Contract No:


SECTION 03490
GLASS-FIBER-REINFORCED PRECAST CONCRETE

i) Chemical admixtures shall conform to either specification ASTM C494M


or ASTM C1017M as applicable.

6. Additions (including mineral fillers and pigments)

a) Coloring agent shall conform to specification ASTM C979. Coloring


agent shall have no adverse effects to GFRC set and strength; shall be
stable at high temperature; and shall be alkali-resistant. Color shall be
as required to obtain panel facing color indicated.

B. Application of GFRC Mix

1. Application shall be by spraying a uniform mixture of glass fiber with cement


matrix into the forms or molds.

2. The glass fiber and cement slurry shall be metered to the spray head at rates
to achieve the mix proportion and glass content. These shall be checked prior
to spray up of each panel in accordance with Pilkington's test methods
CEM/QC/002 and 003. Distribution of the fiber in the mix shall be controlled so
as to be as uniform as practical.

3. Spray application shall be carried out with equipment and procedures


approved by the glass fiber manufacturer and reviewed by the Royal
Commission. Maintain equipment in a clean and properly operating condition.

4. Mist coats consisting of the concrete mixture without fibers may be spray
applied onto mold surfaces. The thickness of this coating shall not exceed
0.5 mm at maximum in order to avoid an unreinforced surface. Spray-up of the
main body of material shall proceed before the mist coat has set.

5. Consolidation shall be with rollers and related techniques as approved by the


glass fiber manufacturer as necessary encapsulate the fibers and compact the
concrete.

6. Control of thickness shall be achieved by using a pin-gage or other method as


approved by the glass fiber manufacturer.

7. All hand forming of intricate details, incorporation of liners and forms and over-
spray shall be carried out prior to initial set of the GFRC material to ensure
complete bond.

C. Glass fiber reinforced precast concrete units shall comply with the following
performance requirements:

1. Glass Content

a) Not less than 5% by weight, not more than 5.3% by weight of mixture in
accordance with wash-out method ASTM C1228.

2. Flexural Ultimate Strength

a) 21 MPa after 48 hours in accordance with test method ASTM C947.

3. Flexural Yield Strength

Rev 1 11 of 21 Contract No:


SECTION 03490
GLASS-FIBER-REINFORCED PRECAST CONCRETE

a) 6.5 to 8 MPa after 48 hours in accordance with test method


ASTM C947.

4. Dry Density

a) Minimum 1800 kg/m3 in accordance with test method ASTM C948.

5. Weather Resistance

a) No significant loss in strength or change in appearance after 200


accelerated weathering conducted in accordance with ASTM G152 or
G153 (or equivalent tests performed under ASTM G23).

6. Surface Burning Characteristics

a) Flame spread index of 0, smoke developed index of 5; when tested in


accordance with ASTM E84, fuel contribution of 3.

2.03 FORMWORK

A. The Contractor shall:

1. Provide forms or molds and, where required, form and mold facing materials of
metal, plastic, wood, or other acceptable material that are non-reactive with
GFRC and will produce the required finish surfaces.

2. Accurately construct forms and molds, mortar-tight, and of sufficient strength to


withstand all pressure due to concrete placing operations, and temperature
changes.

3. Maintain formwork to provide complete precast concrete GFRC units of the


shapes, lines, and dimensions indicated, within the specified fabrication
tolerances.

4. Ensure that molds are adequately cured to eliminate shrinkage and distortion.

5. Ensure that formwork or molds are reserved and maintained at the plant during
the construction period so as to provide a means for fabrication of additional
GFRC units which may be damaged during installation and construction
activities.

6. Allow the Royal Commission to inspect formwork and molds prior to GFRC unit
fabrication.

7. Apply release agents and use in accordance with the manufacturer's


instructions. Release agent shall be compatible with exposed surface finish.

2.04 CONNECTION AND BEARING MATERIALS

A. Connection types shall be as shown on the drawings and as specified.

Rev 1 12 of 21 Contract No:


SECTION 03490
GLASS-FIBER-REINFORCED PRECAST CONCRETE

B. Steel Plates

1. ASTM A283M, Grade C, structural quality, hot-rolled carbon steel, galvanized.

C. Anchor Bolts

1. ASTM A307, low-carbon steel bolts, regular hexagon nuts and carbon steel
washers, galvanized.

D. Connection Accessories

1. Provide additional connection accessories including dovetail anchors and


slots, through-bolts with eye bolts, cast-in sockets, and miscellaneous nuts,
bolts, and washers as required, galvanized accessories.

E. Galvanized Finish for Connections

1. Connections shall be galvanized in accordance with ASTM A153M.

F. Elastic Washers and Grummets

1. Neoprene, 70 shore A Durometer hardness.

G. Bearing Pads

1. Provide bearing pads for precast concrete units as indicated on the Contract
Drawings. Bearing pads may, subject to the Royal Commission’s approval, be
one of the following types:

a) Elastomeric Pads
1) Vulcanized, chloroprene elastomeric compound, molded to size or
cut from a molded sheet, 70 shore A Durometer, ± 5%.

b) Laminated Fabric-Rubber Pads


1) Preformed, unused synthetic fibers and new, unvulcanized
rubber. Surface hardness of 80 shore A Durometer, ± 10%.

2.05 INSULATION FOR SANDWICH PANELS

A. Expanded Polystyrene Board

1. Expanded polystrene board with the following characteristics:

a) Density : 40 kg/m3

b) Ultimate Shear Strength : 0.26 MPa

c) Shear Modulus (G) : 11 MPa

d) Young's Modulus (E) : 26 MPa

Rev 1 13 of 21 Contract No:


SECTION 03490
GLASS-FIBER-REINFORCED PRECAST CONCRETE

e) Thermal Conductivity (K) : 0.037

f) Vapor Resistance : 100 to 600 MNs/g

B. Insulating Concrete Fill

1. Composite fill material of concrete and expanded polystyrene with the


following characteristics:

a) Density : 400 kg/m3

b) Ultimate Shear Strength : 0.34 MPa

c) Shear Modulus (G) : 240 MPa

d) Young's Modulus (E) : 800 MPa

e) Thermal Conductivity (K) : 0.14 to 0.18

f) Vapor Resistance : 200 MNs/g (approx.)

2.06 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR GFRC MIXES

A. The Contractor shall:

1. Prepare GFRC mix design using a uniform spray mixture of glass fibers and
cement matrix. The mix design shall be determined by the glass fiber
reinforcement manufacturer and the precast GFRC manufacturing facility
personnel.

2. Chose the proportions to achieve the performance test requirements of this


Section using specified materials.

3. Submit written reports to the Royal Commission of proposed mix prior to start
of precast GFRC unit production. Do not begin concrete production until mixes
and evaluations have been reviewed.

B. Adjustment to GFRC Mixes

1. Mix design adjustments may be requested when characteristics of materials,


job conditions, weather, test results, or other circumstances warrant.

2. Laboratory and plant test data for revised mix designs and strength results
must be submitted to and accepted by the Royal Commission before using in
fabricating the units.

C. Concrete mixes shall be in accordance with SECTION 03310.

2.07 FABRICATION

A. Fabricate precast GFRC units complying with the manufacturing procedures, quality

Rev 1 14 of 21 Contract No:


SECTION 03490
GLASS-FIBER-REINFORCED PRECAST CONCRETE

control recommendations, and dimensional tolerances of PCI MNL-117, except as


otherwise specified. Fabricate GFRC units to the shapes, sizes, and design shown
on the drawings.

B. Fabricate units straight, smooth, and true to size and shape, with exposed edge and
corners precise and square unless otherwise indicated. Precast GFRC units which
are warped, cracked, broken, spalled, stained, or otherwise defective will not be
acceptable.

C. Fabricate sandwich panels in 3 layers. Spray an initial layer of glass fiber concrete
matrix followed by application of board type insulation or insulating concrete. Apply
an enclosing layer of glass fiber concrete matrix over the insulation.

1. Minimum thickness of GFRC matrix and inset of insulation from edges of form
shall be as shown on the drawings. If not shown, submit Shop Drawings for
review and approval by the Royal Commission.

2. Bonded units of GFRC matrix and insulation shall meet and be subject to
specified performance requirements.

D. Built-In Items

1. Provide reglets, slots, holes, and other accessories in units to receive


windows, cramps, dowels, reglets, waterstops, flashings, and other similar
work as indicated.

E. Anchorage

1. Provide metal plates, slip angles, seat angles, anchors, dowels, cramps,
hangers, and other miscellaneous metal shapes necessary for securing
precast GFRC units to supporting and adjacent members.

F. Initial Set

1. Immediately after completion of spraying operations, a cure period in


accordance with SECTION 03310 and approved by the glass fiber
manufacturer shall be established prior to demolding of units or formwork.

G. Demolding

1. On demolding, the panels shall be uniformly supported to prevent warpage or


surface damage. Curing shall be maintained as recommended by the glass
fiber manufacturer. Curing operations shall include water spray of surfaces and
panel temperature level control.

2.08 FINISH

A. Fabricate precast GFRC units with one of the following exposed surface finishes, as
shown on the Contract Drawings or instructed by the Royal Commission:

1. Abrasive blast finish, using abrasive grit, equipment, application techniques


and cleaning to expose aggregate and surrounding matrix surfaces, to match
the Royal Commission's control sample.

Rev 1 15 of 21 Contract No:


SECTION 03490
GLASS-FIBER-REINFORCED PRECAST CONCRETE

2. Exposed aggregate finish, using chemical retarding agents applied to GFRC


forms and molds, with washing and brushing procedures after form removal to
match the Royal Commission's control sample.

3. Smooth surface finish free of pockets, sand streaks, and honeycombs, with
uniform color and texture to match Royal Commission's control sample.

4. Textured surface finish imparted by form liners or inserts with surfaces free of
pockets, streaks, and honeycombs, providing uniform color and texture to
match the Royal Commission's control range of samples.

5. Pattern surface finish imparted by mold pattern or insert liners to provide


detailed reproduction of shapes and forms free of pockets, streaks, and
honeycombs with uniform color to match the Royal Commission's control
sample.

6. As-cast or float finish for unexposed surfaces.

2.09 GROUT MATERIALS

A. Cement Grout

1. Portland cement, ASTM C 150, Type II or BS 12 equivalent, and clean natural


sand, ASTM C 404. Mix at ratio of 1 part cement to 2½ parts sand, by volume,
with minimum water required for placement and hydration.

B. Non-Metallic Shrinkage-Resistant Grout

1. Premixed, non-metallic, non-corrosive, non-staining product containing


selected silica sands, portland cement, shrinkage compensating agents,
plasticizing and water reducing agents, complying with Corps of Engineers
CRD-C558, Type A.

2.10 TOLERANCES

A. Fabrication Tolerances

1. Comply with the following dimensional requirements for precast glass fiber
reinforced concrete units.

a) Tolerance in any Dimension: ± 3 mm.

b) Tolerance in Thickness: 0 mm + 4 mm.

c) Maximum Out of Square with Major and Minor Axes Measured at the
End of the Minor Axis: 3 mm in 3 m or part thereof.

d) Maximum Bowing (Concave or Convex) of any Part of the Flat Surface:


(Length of Bow)/360.

e) Maximum Warpage of any Edge out of Plane: The greater of

Rev 1 16 of 21 Contract No:


SECTION 03490
GLASS-FIBER-REINFORCED PRECAST CONCRETE

1.5 mm/300 mm distance from the nearest adjacent edge of 3 mm.

f) Location of openings and cast-in items ± 3 mm.

2.11 IDENTIFICATION

A. Each panel shall be identified as to panel type, installation location, sequence of


installation, and date of manufacture.

Rev 1 17 of 21 Contract No:


SECTION 03490
GLASS-FIBER-REINFORCED PRECAST CONCRETE

PART 3 EXECUTION

3.01 PRE-INSTALLATION EXAMINATION

A. The Contractor shall examine all parts of the supporting structure, precast units, and
the conditions under which the precast GFRC concrete work is to be erected.

B. The Contractor shall not proceed with the installation until unsatisfactory conditions
have been corrected.

3.02 PREPARATION

A. The Contractor shall deliver anchorage items embedded in other construction before
the start of such work. The Contractor shall provide setting diagrams, templates,
instructions, and directions required for installation.

B. The Contractor shall verify dimensions of supporting structures at the Project site and
adjust final Shop Drawings to reflect actual field dimensions.

3.03 INSTALLATION

A. The Contractor shall install precast GFRC members plumb, level, and in alignment
within PCI MNL-117 specified erection tolerances, except as modified herein.

B. Provide temporary supports and bracing as required to maintain position, stability,


and alignment as members are being permanently connected.

C. Maintain horizontal and vertical joint alignment and uniform joint width as erection
progresses.

D. Installation Tolerances

1. The Contractor shall install precast GFRC units without exceeding the
following tolerance limits:

a) Variations from Plumb, Level, and Elevation


1) 6 mm in any 6 m run or story height; 13 mm total in any 12 m or
longer run.

b) Variation from Theoretical Position in Plan


1) ± 6 mm maximum at any location.

c) Offsets in Alignment of Adjacent Members at any Joint


1) 1.5 mm in any 3 m run; 6 mm maximum.

2. The Contractor shall install precast panels so that joints between panels are
within the following limits:

a) Face Width of Joint : ± 5 mm.

Rev 1 18 of 21 Contract No:


SECTION 03490
GLASS-FIBER-REINFORCED PRECAST CONCRETE

b) Joint Taper : 0.5 mm in 300 mm length.

c) Step in Face : 3 mm.

d) Jog in Alignment of Edge : 3 mm.

E. Bearing Pads

1. Install flexible bearing pads where indicated, as precast units are being
erected.

2. Set pads on level, uniform bearing surfaces and maintain in correct position
until precast units are placed.

F. Accessories

1. Install clips, hangers, and other accessories required for erection of precast
GFRC units to supporting members and back-up materials.

G. Anchor units in final position by bolting, grouting, or as otherwise indicated. Remove


temporary shims, wedges, and spacers as soon as possible after anchoring is
complete. At bolted connections use lock washers or other acceptable means to
prevent loosening of nuts.

H. Repair damaged metal surfaces by cleaning and applying a coat of liquid galvanizing
repair compound to galvanized surfaces and compatible primer to painted surfaces.

I. Power-Actuated Fasteners

1. Do not use power-actuated fasteners for surface attachment of accessory


items in precast GFRC units, unless approved in writing by the precast GFRC
manufacturer.

J. Grouting Connections and Joints

1. After precast GFRC concrete units have been placed and secured, grout open
spaces at connections and joints as follows:

a) Cement grout consisting of 1 part portland cement, 2½ parts sand, and


only enough water to properly mix and for hydration.

b) Shrinkage-resistant grout consisting of premixed compound and only


enough water to provide a flowable mixture without segregation of
bleeding.

c) Provide forms or other acceptable method to retain the grout in space


until sufficiently hard to support itself. Pack spaces with stiff grout
material, tamping until voids are completely filled. Place grout to finish
smooth, plumb, and level with adjacent concrete surfaces.

d) Keep grouted joints damp for not less than 24 hours after initial set.
Promptly remove any grout material from exposed surfaces before it
hardens.

Rev 1 19 of 21 Contract No:


SECTION 03490
GLASS-FIBER-REINFORCED PRECAST CONCRETE

K. Cleaning

1. Clean exposed facings to remove dirt and stains which may be on units after
erection and completion of joint treatment.

2. Wash and rinse in accordance with pre-cast manufacturer's recommendations.


Protect other work from damage due to cleaning operations.

3. Do not use cleaning materials or processes which could change the character
of exposed GFRC unit finishes.

3.04 FIELD INSPECTION AND TESTING

A. Conduct inspections, perform testing, and make repairs or replace unsatisfactory pre-
cast GFRC units to comply with PCI MNL-117 and as stipulated in par. 3.07.
Limitations as to the amount of patching which will be permitted are subject to
acceptance of the Royal Commission.

B. In addition to above, in-place precast GFRC units may be rejected for:

1. Exceeding the specified installation tolerances.

2. Damage to units during installation and subsequent construction operations.

3. Exposed-to-view surfaces which develop surface finish defects including loss


of exposed aggregate, surface staining, cracking, separation of anchorage,
and other deficiencies affecting the structure and general appearance of the
precast units.

4. Failure of GFRC units to comply with the performance and design calculation
requirements.

C. The Contractor shall be responsible and pay for costs of corrections and
replacements of the precast GFRC units.

3.05 FIELD CUTTING OF OPENINGS

A. No field openings shall be made unless approved by the Royal Commission prior to
construction. All openings shall be made with either power saws or core drills.

B. Cracks, spalls and sharp corners created by field cutting shall be ground, eased, and
patched with acceptable epoxy resin type bonding and patching compounds.

3.06 DURABILITY AND CORROSION PROTECTION

A. The elements shall comply with the durability and corrosion protection requirements
of SECTION 03310.

Rev 1 20 of 21 Contract No:


SECTION 03490
GLASS-FIBER-REINFORCED PRECAST CONCRETE

3.07 REPAIRS

A. The Contractor or manufacturer shall submit a Repair Method Statement, in


accordance with the repair of concrete defects requirements of SECTION 03310, to
the Royal Commission for review and approval prior to proceeding with the repair.

B. Any major job-site and fabrication shop repair shall be inspected and approved by
the Royal Commission prior to the repair. The Contractor shall replace with new all
shop repaired elements not approved by the Royal Commission.

C. Repairs shall be considered acceptable if structural adequacy or architectural


appearance is not impaired as determined by the Royal Commission. All repairs
shall be done prior to final cleaning and caulking of joints.

D. Shop repairs shall be in accordance with SECTION 03930.

END OF SECTION

Rev 1 21 of 21 Contract No: