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Never Stand Still Faculty of Engineering School of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Non-stationary Flow Downstream of an Ahmed Body: Frequency

Analysis and Preliminary Assessment of the Triple

Decomposition Technique

May 2017

By

V Bouillaut, F Murzyn, A Mehel and S Felder

Bibliographic Data Sheet

Report Title Non-stationary Flow Downstream of an Ahmed Body: Frequency Analysis and

Preliminary Assessment of the Triple Decomposition Technique

Report Authors V Bouillaut, F Murzyn, A Mehel and S Felder

Report No. WRL 262

Report Status Final

Date of Issue May 2017

ISBN EAN: 9780733437250

978-0-7334-3725-0

Number of pages 49

Keywords Ahmed body; frequency analysis; Strouhal number; triple decomposition technique;

wake flow

Document Status

Draft Dr Hang Wang

Final Dr Stefan Felder Prof Ian Turner 05 May 2017

Abstract

Air quality is a major concern for people living in cities. Pollutant exposure is dangerous, harmful and

associated with huge costs in terms of public health. Ground vehicles are an important source of fine and

ultrafine particle emissions in urban areas. Reducing exposure to such particles requires an improvement of

knowledge of their dynamics when released in the atmosphere from the exit of the tailpipe. Since the

behaviour of these particles is influenced by the surrounding flow, a better understanding of the flow

properties is required. Herein, the wake flow properties developing downstream of a simplified car model

(Ahmed body) at a reduced scale had been studied in a wind tunnel at ESTACA, France. In the

experiments, the upstream flow velocity was constant corresponding to a model Reynolds number of

Re=50,000. A 2D LDV system was used to investigate the velocity fields. In the present study, the

experimental data were analysed with focus on the non-stationary flow that developed in the near wake of

the Ahmed body. The most representative frequencies were assessed using the Fast Fourier Transform.

Characteristic Strouhal numbers were observed and compared with the literature showing that scale effects

cannot be neglected. A first assessment of the triple decomposition technique was undertaken which aimed

at identifying the contributions of the turbulent structures to the global dynamics. The main results of the

study showed that: i) low and high frequencies could be identified in the wake of the Ahmed body; the

corresponding Strouhal numbers were consistent with the Benard-Von Karman vortex street; ii) high

frequencies were mostly found in the lower and upper shear layers where the turbulence activity was

strongest; iii) good agreement was found with previous experiments with similar flow conditions but

different measurement techniques; iv) application of the triple decomposition technique to the wake flow

was possible assuming that both lower and upper cut-off frequencies could be identified; v) contributions of

turbulent structures of low, mean and high frequencies to the root mean square of the velocity were

presented and discussed. These present results provide new flow features which will improve the

understanding of the complex wake flow behind Ahmed bodies.

Contents

1. Introduction 1

1.1 Context of the present study 1

1.2 Basic concepts of interactions between particles and wake flow 3

1.3 Dimensionless numbers 7

1.4 Principle of the triple decomposition technique 9

2. Experimental set up, instrumentation and flow conditions 10

2.1 Wind tunnel 10

2.2 Ahmed body 11

2.3 Velocity measurements using LDV 12

2.4 Collected data 13

3. Signal processing 15

3.1 From the raw data to an interpolated signal 15

3.2 Fast Fourier transform (FFT) and Power Spectral Density (PSD) of the velocity 16

4. Results 18

4.1 Spectral analysis and characteristic frequencies 18

4.1.1 Spectral analysis of velocities in flow direction 18

4.1.2 Spectral analysis of velocities in upwards direction 20

4.1.3 Spectral analysis of velocities in transverse direction 21

4.2 Summary of characteristic frequencies and Strouhal numbers in the wake flow 22

4.3 Application of the triple decomposition technique downstream of an Ahmed body 24

4.3.1 Introduction 24

4.3.2 Preliminary results: influence of dimensionless longitudinal distance on the

root mean square velocity 25

5. Discussion 27

5.1 Limitation of sampling frequency of raw velocity data 27

5.2 Accuracy of the LDV measurements 28

5.3 Wind tunnel measurements and scale effects 28

6. Conclusion and future works 30

7. Acknowledgments 32

8. References 33

9. Appendices 37

9.1 Matlab code 37

9.1.1 Step 1: Reading data from Excel files to Matlab 37

9.1.2 Step 2: Performing a Fast Fourier Transform and triple decomposition of the

velocity signals 38

9.1.3 Step 3: Turbulence analysis of the decomposed signal components 41

9.2 Results of the FFT analysis for all velocity data in the present study 43

-i-

List of Tables

Table 2-2: Data acquisition positions (Rodriguez 2016) 14

Table 4-1: Summary of the characteristic frequencies and Strouhal numbers in the

present study 24

Table 4-2: Cut-off frequencies for the triple decomposition technique 25

List of Figures

(Buzea et al. 2007) 1

Figure 1-2: Bimodal distribution of particle diameters emitted from a Diesel engine

(Kittelson et al. 2004) 2

Figure 1-3: Sketch of a typical car model defined as Ahmed body (Kahn and Umale

2014) 5

Figure 1-4: Drag coefficient of an Ahmed body as a function of the rear slant angle

(Thacker 2010) 5

Figure 1-5: Flow topologies in the wake of an Ahmed body for different rear slant

angles (Franck et al. 2009) 6

Figure 1-6: Topology of the wake flow for an Ahmed body for =12.5° (Franck et al.

2009) 6

Figure 1-7: Benard-Von Karman vortex street (Van Dyke 1982) 7

Figure 1-8: Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in shear flows (Van Dyke 1982) 8

Figure 2-1: Wind tunnel and 2D LDV system at ESTACA (flow direction from right to

left) 10

Figure 2-2: Sketch of experimental test section in the wind tunnel (Rodriguez 2016) 11

Figure 2-3: Homogeneous region in the test section (side view, flow from right to left) 11

Figure 2-4: Dimensions of the Ahmed body model (scale 1:5.3) in the experiments of

Rodriguez (2016). Lengths in mm 12

Figure 2-5: Ahmed body installed in the wind tunnel (=35°) in the study of

Rodriguez (2016) 12

Figure 3-1: Example of instantaneous raw horizontal velocity U in the wake of the

Ahmed body (x/H=0.463; y/H=0.463; z/H=0.452) 15

Figure 3-2: Instantaneous raw velocity U and the corresponding linearly interpolated

signal (x/H=0.463; y/H=0.463; z/H=0.452) 16

Figure 3-3: FFT of the interpolated signal for U at (x/H=0.463; y/H=0.463;

z/H=0.452) 17

Figure 3-4: PSD of the interpolated signal for U at (x/H=0.463; y/H=0.463;

z/H=0.452) 17

Figure 4-1: FFT of the interpolated horizontal velocity signal U at same elevation

(y/H=0.093), same transverse position (z/H=0.226) and various

longitudinal positions (x/H) in the wake of the Ahmed body 20

Figure 4-2: FFT of the interpolated horizontal velocity signal U at same longitudinal

position (x/H=1.574), same transverse position (z/H=0.226) and various

elevation (y/H) in the wake of the Ahmed body 21

- ii -

Figure 4-3: FFT of the interpolated horizontal velocity signal U at same longitudinal

position (x/H=0.093), same elevation (y/H=0.093) and various transverse

positions (z/H) in the wake of the Ahmed body 22

Figure 4-4: Triple decomposition applied to the root mean square of the horizontal

component of the velocity. Influence of x/H 26

Figure 5-1: Particle size distribution of oil droplets released from the fog generator 27

Figure 9-1: FFT of the interpolated horizontal velocity signal U at same elevation

(y/H=0.093), same transverse position (z/H=0.226) and various

longitudinal positions (x/H) in the wake of the Ahmed body 45

Figure 9-2: FFT of the interpolated horizontal velocity signal U at same longitudinal

position (x/H=0.833), same transverse position (z/H=0.226) and various

elevation (y/H) in the wake of the Ahmed body 46

Figure 9-3: FFT of the interpolated horizontal velocity signal U at same longitudinal

position (x/H=0.093), same transverse position (z/H=0.226) and various

elevation (y/H) in the wake of the Ahmed body 46

Figure 9-4: FFT of the interpolated horizontal velocity signal U at same longitudinal

position (x/H=1.574), same transverse position (z/H=0.226) and various

elevation (y/H) in the wake of the Ahmed body 47

Figure 9-5: FFT of the interpolated horizontal velocity signal U at same longitudinal

position (x/H=3.796), same transverse position (z/H=0.226) and various

elevation (y/H) in the wake of the Ahmed body 48

Figure 9-6: FFT of the interpolated horizontal velocity signal U at same longitudinal

position (x/H=0.093), same elevation (y/H=0.093) and various transverse

positions (z/H) in the wake of the Ahmed body 49

- iii -

List of Symbols

d Diameter of the struts [m]

dacq Duration of data acquisition [s]

f Frequency [Hz]

hs Height of the struts [m]

H Height of the Ahmed body [m]

Hs Height of the test section (wind tunnel) [m]

Ix Turbulence level (Ix=u’/U)

Lf Focal length of the lens [m]

Lm Length of the Ahmed body [m]

lm Width of the Ahmed body [m]

Ls Length of the test section (wind tunnel) [m]

ls Width of the test section (wind tunnel) [m]

n Constant

Re Reynolds number (Re=U×H/)

St Strouhal number (St=f×H/U)

U Horizontal component of the velocity [m/s]

U0 Upstream horizontal component of the velocity [m/s]

u Instantaneous velocity [m/s]

u’ Slow fluctuating component of the horizontal velocity [m/s]

u’’ Fast fluctuating component of the horizontal velocity [m/s]

V Vertical component of the velocity [m/s]

x Longitudinal coordinate [m]

X* Dimensionless distance in the flow direction (X*=x/H)

y Vertical coordinate [m]

Y* Dimensionless distance in the vertical direction (Y*=y/H)

z Transverse coordinate [m]

Z* Dimensionless distance in the transverse direction (Z*=z/H)

φ Rear slant angle

Boundary layer thickness [m]

Kinematic viscosity of air [m2/s]

- iv -

Acronyms

2D Two-Dimensional

AT Arrival Time

CO Carbon monoxide

ESTACA Ecole Supérieure des Techniques Aéronautiques et de Construction Automobile

FFT Fast Fourier Transform

LDA1 Laser Doppler Anemometry 1 (corresponding to the horizontal component of the

velocity)

LDA2 Laser Doppler Anemometry 2 (corresponding to the vertical component of the velocity)

LDV Laser Doppler Velocimetry

N/A Not available

NOx Nitrogen Oxides

OECD Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

O3 Ozone

PIV Particle Imagery Velocimetry

PM Particle Matter

PM1 Particle Matter (diameter below 1 µm)

PM2.5 Particle Matter (diameter below 2.5 µm)

PM10 Particle Matter (diameter below 10 µm)

PNC Particle Number Concentration

PSD Power Spectral Density

rms Root mean square

SO2 Sulphur dioxide

TT Transit Time

UFP Ultra Fine Particle

WHO World Health Organization

-v-

1. Introduction

In the past few years, the air quality has become a major issue in terms of public health and

environmental protection. In 2016, a French parliamentary report assessed its cost between 68

and 97 billion Euros per year, considering only the mortality and the morbidity linked with it

(Roumegas and Saddier 2016). Further costs, including those associated with the deterioration

of public buildings (for example) were not considered in this amount. Likewise, other

international studies have shown that across the world the pollution is responsible for the deaths

of many people every year as well as for the aggravation of allergies and many cardiac,

pulmonary and respiratory diseases (Erba et al. 2015; OECD 2016; European Environment

Agency 2016; Xia et al. 2016). The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that throughout

the world 3.7 million people die every year caused by inhalation of ultrafine particles (WHO

2015). In a recent report, the cost of air pollution could reach up to 1% of the Gross Domestic

Product by 2060 (OECD 2016). The World Bank and the Institute for Health Metrics and

Evaluation (2016) wrote that “an estimated 5.5 million lives were lost in 2013 (one in ten

deaths) to diseases associated with outdoor and household air pollution, causing human

suffering and reducing economic development”. Altogether, these elements provide partial

explanation to the increasing interest for this issue across the world. Pulmonologists and heart

specialists agree that ultrafine particles (UFP) and nanoparticles are the most harmful. These

carbonaceous particles, also known as "soot particles" can penetrate deeply the respiratory

system and inside cells causing appearance and/or aggravation of respiratory and cardiovascular

diseases, cancer (e.g. lungs, bronchi). Figure 1-1 illustrates the pathways of exposure to

nanoparticles for a human body (Buzea et al. 2007).

(Buzea et al. 2007)

Pope et al. (2013) and Semmler-Behnke et al. (2014) have shown that UFPs can penetrate into

the blood system and cells increasing the risk of lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases

significantly. Working with rabbits, Valentino et al. (2016) have shown that the effects of

pollution related to diesel engines can be transmitted from generation to generation. They also

showed that nanoparticles are able to move across the placenta infecting the unborn child

(Valentino et al. 2016). UFP have undoubtedly major health and financial consequences by

increasing medical related absences, death and hospitalizations.

Among the major contributors to air pollution are the transport modes in the air and on roads.

Car engines and other vehicles emit several toxic gases (NOx, CO, SO2, O3) and solid particles

known as fine, ultrafine particles depending on their diameter. Particles with diameter below 10

µm, 2.5µm and 1µm are defined as PM10, PM2.5 and PM1, respectively. Particles with diameter

below 0.1µm and 0.05µm are referenced as ultrafine and nanoparticles, respectively (Figure 1-

2). All these pollutants are released in the atmosphere from the tailpipe of motor vehicles

causing significant air pollution (Buseck and Adachi 2008). Particles emitted from a Diesel engine

have a bimodal distribution (Figure 1-2). Although the heaviest particles are the largest ones,

the smallest (UFP) are the most abundant and of biggest environmental concern. These particles

are associated with the most harmful effects (dotted line in Figure 1-2). Special attention must

be paid to UFPs including their fundamental motion, the associated dispersion processes in the

wake of motor vehicles and their infiltration into the in-cabin microenvironment of the vehicles.

Figure 1-2: Bimodal distribution of particle diameters emitted from a Diesel engine

(Kittelson et al. 2004)

As an example of an industrialised country, the French road industry is accountable for the

emission of up to 54%, 16% and 19% for NOx, PM10 and PM2.5, respectively (Roumegas and

Saddier 2016). Likewise, light commercial vehicles emit approximately 30% of the PM2.5

whereas trucks using gasoil release roughly 37% of the NOx. At the continental scale, the

European Environment Agency mentions that the automotive industry contributes up to 23%,

30% and 12% for the emission of CO2, NOx and PM2.5 respectively (European Environmental

Agency 2016). Although cars, buses and trucks are responsible for a significant part of those

emissions, some significant improvements have been made in the last two decades in engine

performances and reduction in vehicle mass using composite materials leading to a reduction of

fuel consumption and thus a decrease in pollutant emissions. This trend has also been fostered

by new and more restrictive regulations such as the EURO standard for vehicle emissions. As an

example, between EURO3 from 2000 and EURO6b from 2014, the emission thresholds of

released particles (in mass) and NOx have been reduced by factors of 11 (from 50 to 4.5

mg/km) and 6 (from 500 to 80 mg/km), respectively.

Further reductions of emission levels are still required, particularly regarding the finest particles

(PM10, PM2.5 and PM1). In recent years, two critical threshold levels (advisory and alert) for

both gaseous pollutants and particles have been defined. As an example, in France, for PM10s,

these are set at 50 (advisory) and 80 (alert) mg/m3 per hour per day. When higher levels are

recorded, recommendations are given to the public including limiting outdoor sport activities and

precautionary measures for pregnant women, young and old people. The use of vehicles on inner

city roads is limited and the use of public transportations is recommended instead (free of

charge). Reducing the emissions of the finest particles into the atmosphere is one of the key

issues which may be achieved through trapping of particles (including at the source) with

efficient filters (High Efficiency Particulate Air) preventing their spread into the atmosphere and

their infiltration in vehicle cabins. A better assessment of the rates at which human beings are

effectively subjected to these particles is also of major concern as well as the identification of

infiltration factors. To achieve these outcomes, it is important to improve the current knowledge

of the particle dynamics of the particles emitted from the tailpipe of motor vehicles.

Recent studies have proven that UFPs are also able to infiltrate into buildings including schools

through micro-cracks and windows seals. Consequently, people are exposed to UFPs not only

outside but also in indoor environments (Liu and Nazaroff 2003; Jeng et al. 2007). UFPs

contribute to the deterioration of both outdoor and indoor air quality increasing the interest of

the scientific community for improvement of air quality. New strategies target to reduce pollution

levels from tailpipes of vehicles, to improve our knowledge of the UFP dispersion processes in

the wake of vehicles or to upgrade filter efficiency. Other solutions may be linked with driving

recommendations helping people to reduce their exposure to UFPs (fan settings, AC on/off,

recirculation on/off, windows closing/opening…). An important decrease of exposure to UFPs can

also be achieved by limiting the infiltration of pollutants into the car cabin. A better

understanding of the non-stationary wake flow developing downstream of a vehicle is crucial

including the interactions between particles and the flow turbulence. In terms of application, it is

expected that this fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamic processes could be linked

with the formulation of new recommendations to automotive manufacturers regarding driving

practices. In addition, this would lead to an improvement of the numerical model efficiency

through a better definition of the boundary conditions and lead to realistic assessments of

particle concentrations in wake flows of vehicles. The description of the non-stationary flow

developing downstream of a car is the major goal of the present study. The research project at

UNSW Water Research Laboratory is part of a large research project undertaken at ESTACA

(France) focusing on air quality in transportation systems with special interest in ground

vehicles.

When particles are emitted from the tailpipe of a vehicle, some of the particles will infiltrate the

surrounding buildings through micro cracks and will thus expose their occupiers. The remaining

particles will either scatter in the ambient atmosphere or penetrate into car cabins through air

inlets, windows or leakages (Lee, 2013). Gaseous pollutants such as CO and NOx and solid

carbonaceous particles disperse or accumulate into the ambient air contributing to global

warming. When particles infiltrate into the cabin of a vehicle, this provides a micro-environment

where pollutants can quickly accumulate with negative impacts on health and safety of

passengers through inhalation. The ability of particles to infiltrate into the cabin depends upon a

range of different parameters linked with the driving practices, that is the ventilation settings or

the use of air conditioning for instance. Further parameters are linked to the speed of the

vehicle, the surface leakage, the surrounding traffic, the type of road including highways,

tunnels, bridges, buildings in urban environments as well as the distance between vehicles and

weather conditions. It is worth noting that particle dynamics is not only related to the initial

condition of the emission but also to the interaction between particles and large scale unsteady

turbulent motions in the wake of a vehicle, such as swirls and wake recirculation. A recent study

by Mehel and Murzyn (2015) has shown that high Particle Number Concentration (PNC) levels

can be found in the centreline of the near-wake or on both sides of the vehicle in the far wake.

Particles are typically caught in the recirculation region in the near-wake of the vehicle. The

near-wake region spreads over a dimensionless distance 0 < x/H < 2 downstream of the vehicle,

where x is the streamwise distance downstream of the vehicle and H is the height of the vehicle.

In this work, the upstream flow velocity is typically constant. Farther downstream (2 < x/H < 5),

longitudinal vortices generated from a vehicle’s lateral edges become predominant. These large

scale turbulent structures entrap particles on both sides of the vehicle leading to dissymmetrical

distribution of recorded PNC (Mehel and Murzyn 2015). Interestingly most of numerical models

consider Gaussian distribution of PNC rather than dissymmetrical distributions found during wind

tunnel experiments. Thus numerical results predicting PNC should be considered with caution

and improvements are possible based on wind tunnels investigations. Some recent studies

demonstrated interactions between particles and flow turbulence strengthening the need for a

deepening understanding of the fundamental flow processes (Carpentieri et al. 2012; Mehel and

Murzyn 2015). Further experimental research is needed to improve the understanding of the

time dependent and non-stationary particle distributions. The purpose of the present study is to

improve the understanding of the dynamics of the wake flow motions considering non-stationary

aspects.

Studies at the prototype scale are difficult due to the associated costs and the multitude of

relevant parameters including wind properties, yaw angle, roughness, boundary layer, vehicle

shape. Small scale experiments in wind tunnels are a suitable alternative to undertake

experiments in a well-controlled environment with the ability to modify different relevant

parameters. However scale effects may limit the extrapolation to the real-scale since a full

dynamic similitude cannot be achieved simultaneously. Herein the most important dimensionless

number is the Reynolds number. It is therefore important to systematically investigate potential

scale effects by repeating experiments at different scaling ratio. Considering the non-stationary

flow, a further relevant dimensionless number is the Strouhal number.

Understanding the aerodynamics around and downstream of a moving car is complex due to the

extreme variety of shapes and geometry of cars. Ahmed et al. (1984) designed a generic

simplified car geometry which retains most important features of real ground vehicles. Although

it does not take into account the flow through the engine compartment, the cabin and around

wheels and mirrors, an Ahmed body allows simulation of the three main topologies of wake flow

depending on the rear slant angle φ (Figure 1-3). Figure 1-3 illustrates a typical Ahmed body

highlighting the definition of the rear slant angle.

Figure 1-3: Sketch of a typical car model defined as Ahmed body (Kahn and Umale 2014)

Considering the Ahmed body, the drag coefficient of a vehicle depends on the rear slant angle as

shown by Thacker (2010) (Figure 1-4). In Figure 1-4, Cx represents the drag coefficient in x

direction.

Figure 1-4: Drag coefficient of an Ahmed body as a function of the rear slant angle

(Thacker 2010)

φ < 12.5°: The flow is considered as bidimensional in the symmetrical plan. Two

counter-rotating vortices with a toric shape can be found (Figure 1-5a and b, structures

A and B in Figure 1-6). On both sides of the Ahmed body, two small counter-rotating

vortices in the transversal plan develop and dissipate further downstream (Structure C in

Figure 1-6). In this case, the drag is mostly due to a pressure drop and the detachment

of the flow. The corresponding Ahmed body is usually called “squareback”.

12.5° < < 30°: The flow becomes highly three-dimensional. On the rear slant, a

detached bubble can be observed. Energetic longitudinal structures appear on the lateral

surface of the slant (Figure 1-5c). The drag is mostly linked to pressure drops and to the

tridimensional nature of the flow. This configuration is called “fastback”.

> 30°: The vortices created from the detachment of the rear slant dissipate in the

wake (Figure 1-5d). With increasing φ, the flow features from the initial configuration

are found again leading to a sudden decrease in drag. The drag reduction can also be

observed in Figure 1-4. The flow is comparable to the initial “squareback” situation

(Figure 1-5d).

Those three scenarios represent the fundamental behaviours of a wake flow which can be

observed for most car shapes. More details regarding these flow topologies can be found in

Hucho (1987), Wang et al. (2013), Lahaye (2014), Aljure et al. (2014) and Rodriguez (2016).

(a) Counter-rotating vortices with a toric shape (b) Counter-rotating vortices with a toric shape

for φ < 12.5° are affected by increasing angle φ < 12.5°

(c) Longitudinal structures appear on the (d) Vortices created from the detachment of

lateral surface of the slant 12.5° < < 30° the rear slant dissipate in the wake > 30°:

Figure 1-5: Flow topologies in the wake of an Ahmed body for different rear slant angles

(Franck et al. 2009)

Figure 1-6: Topology of the wake flow for an Ahmed body for =12.5° (Franck et al. 2009)

Ahmed bodies have been used in many studies because they are easy to build and of low cost

(Krajnovic and Davidson 2004; Gosse 2005; Leclerc 2008; Thacker 2010; Grandemange 2013;

Wang et al. 2013; Lahaye 2014; Aljure et al. 2014). Most of these studies provided experimental

data. Studies have focused in particular on the characterization of the wake flow (e.g. Krajnovic

and Davidson 2004; Grandemange 2013; Wang et al. 2013; Lahaye 2014), on the drag force

(Leclerc 2008), on the dispersion of the temperature (passive scalar) in the wake flow (Gosse

2005) and on the effects of the aspect ratio (i.e. the ratio between width of the Ahmed body and

the length of the rear slant) on the wake (Venning et al. 2015). Experiments in water channels

and in wind tunnels as well as numerical investigations were undertaken for a wide range of

Reynolds numbers (104 < Re < 106). Only a few studies focused upon the dispersion of the

particles (Mehel and Murzyn 2015), the gaseous pollutants in the wake of vehicles (Gosse 2005;

Carpentieri et al. 2012) and on the non-stationary flow aspects (Vino et al. 2005; Wang et al.

2013; Tunay et al. 2014). Herein the present study aims to provide further insights into the non-

stationary flow aspects which are needed for a better understanding of particle dispersion

processes in the wake of an Ahmed body. To date, very few previous studies characterized the

frequencies and the related Strouhal number in the wake of a car which are associated with the

turbulence structures in the near-wake (Thacker 2010; Lienhart and Pego 2012; Tunay et al.

2014). Using a 2D LDV system, the velocity fields in the wake flow of an Ahmed body were

recorded at ESTACA, France. The collected data were post-processed in the present study

including the application of a Fast Fourier Transform to identify the characteristic frequencies.

These frequencies are used for the triple decomposition of the raw velocity signals into its mean,

fast and slow fluctuating velocity components. The triple decomposition yielded the contribution

of each frequency range to the global dynamics of the flow. It is worthwhile to note that the

triple decomposition technique has already been applied successfully to multiphase flows (Felder

2013; Felder and Chanson 2014; Wang et al. 2014). The present study is the first application of

the triple decomposition technique to a wake flow.

For wake flows, turbulence can be observed in two principal features, i.e. the Benard-Von

Karman vortex street and the Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities (Eulalie 2014). When the flow ceases

to be stationary and the velocity becomes time- and space-dependent, vortex shedding occurs

periodically downstream of an Ahmed body. Vortex shedding forms a repeating pattern of

swirling vortices (Figure 1-7) called Benard-Von Karman vortex street. This is usually

encountered in flows downstream of a cylinder or other types of bluff bodies. It is caused by the

unsteady separation of fluid flow around bluff bodies. Even if the phenomenon largely disappears

in fully rough turbulent flows, its characteristic frequency can still be found in spectral analysis

(Eulalie 2014).

A second mechanism is linked to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities which occur when velocity

differences are present across the interface of two fluids, resulting in the creation of a wave

pattern (Figure 1-8). This instability occurs at higher frequencies when the Strouhal number St

exceeds 0.6 (Eulalie, 2014):

St=f × H/U (1)

periodical vortex shedding occurs downstream of a body, the Strouhal number links the vortex

shedding frequency with flow velocity and geometry of the body.

The turbulence behind the Ahmed body can be also described by the Reynolds number Re. The

Reynolds number characterises the nature of the flow including laminar, transient or turbulent

flows. It represents the ratio between inertia and viscous forces and it is defined as:

Re = U × H/ (2)

where is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid. Both Strouhal and Reynolds numbers can be

based on different parameters depending on the flow situation and the relevant characteristic

time and length scales. For example, for an Ahmed body, the characteristic length scale may be

the height of the vehicle H. In the present study, the characteristic velocity U=U0 was the mean

velocity of the flow, measured upstream of the model in the wind tunnel and H was the height of

the car model. The Strouhal number was assessed through the frequency analysis. Identifying

the characteristic frequencies of the flow behind an Ahmed body is an important part of the triple

decomposition technique. Furthermore, a discussion about scale effects is required as the

experiments were conducted in a relatively small-scale wind tunnel compared to previous

experimental studies.

In wind tunnels, the exhaust of nanoparticle can be achieved through a tube located under the

vehicle. To limit scale effects as much as possible, it is important to accurately set the ejection

rate (and thus the velocity) of the carbon particles in the test section in such a manner that the

study reproduces faithfully the engine emissions at the prototype scale. This similitude must be

also taken into account in addition to the Reynolds similitude. In the present study only the

Reynolds similitude is considered as particles are not injected.

Prior to the investigation of the interaction between particles and air flow turbulence it is

necessary to understand the air flow in the wake of the Ahmed model. This is the main goal of

the present study. Mean and turbulent fields must be assessed to characterise the structure of

the wake flow and its time scales. In a next step, the concentration fields (PNC) will be

investigated. In a final stage the results of both turbulence and velocity fields and PNC will be

correlated allowing a better identification of the interaction between particles and flow. The

present study is part of the first step mentioned above.

The triple decomposition technique aims at separating a raw instantaneous velocity signal into

three components, i.e. the mean flow velocity as well as the slow and fast velocity fluctuations of

the flow. The decomposition is undertaken using low pass, band pass and high pass filtering of

the raw signal. The decomposed parts correspond to the slow, mean and fast fluctuating

velocities, respectively. The fast fluctuating velocity component corresponds to the “true”

turbulent motion of the flow (Hussain and Reynolds, 1972; Lyn and Rodi, 1994; Fox et al. 2005;

Brown and Chanson, 2013). Such a decomposition can be used to assess the contribution of the

decomposed velocity components to the overall turbulence motion improving the accurate

understanding of the flow dynamics.

The triple decomposition technique was originally developed for mono-phase flow for which the

instantaneous velocity was given (Hussain and Reynolds, 1972; Lyn and Rodi, 1994). The triple

decomposition approach has been recently expanded to non-stationary air-water flows on pooled

stepped spillways (Felder 2013; Felder and Chanson 2014) and hydraulic jumps (Felder and

Chanson 2012; Wang et al. 2014). In air-water flows, it is not possible to measure an

instantaneous velocity and the triple decomposition technique was applied to the instantaneous

void fraction signal before the decomposition was applied. Further details can be found in Felder

and Chanson (2014).

In the present study, the application of the triple decomposition technique to the wake flow

downstream of a car model was tested to ascertain the contribution of the fast and slow velocity

fluctuations to the structure of the turbulence. After the introduction, the experimental set-up

and the measurement technique are introduced. Note that no experiments were conducted in

the present study, and that the raw velocity data were measured by Rodriguez (2016). Section 3

details the signal processing with special emphasis on data resampling methods and spectral

analysis. The results dealing with the spectral analysis, frequency identification and assessment

of the triple decomposition technique are presented and discussed in section 4. A discussion

about the accuracy of the results and possible scale effects is presented in section 5 before the

conclusion of the report. The appendix provides supplementary data.

2. Experimental set up, instrumentation and flow conditions

All measurements were conducted in the subsonic wind tunnel at ESTACA Campus Ouest in Laval

(France). The experimental test section had a length of LS = 1 m, a width of lS = 0.3 m and a

height of HS = 0.3 m (Figure 2-1). The sidewalls of the experimental facility were made of

transparent Plexiglas allowing the use of optical measurement devices such as laser Doppler

velocimetry (LDV) and detailed flow visualizations (Figure 2-1). The bottom of the channel was

smooth and horizontal with 40 equally-spaced holes (Figure 2-2). These holes were used to

attach models such as cars, wings and other obstacles in the wind tunnel. When required, they

were plugged with home-made plastic caps to avoid any disturbance of the flow including in the

measurements by Rodriguez (2016). The roof of the test section included a removable gate

which facilitated the installation of experimental models in the test section (Figure 2-2). The air

flow was supplied through suction from the downstream end of the wind tunnel generated by an

engine with power of 3 kW. The velocity of air could be accurately controlled providing average

flow velocities between 0 and 40 m/s in the test section. The mean flow velocity was measured

with a Pitot tube in the inlet section. At the upstream end of the tunnel, a convergent ensured

the homogeneity of the flow which was overall one-dimensional, i.e. mean horizontal velocity U

was much higher than the mean vertical velocity V. A detailed and accurate calibration of the

wind tunnel without installed model was undertaken by Rodriguez (2016). Rodriguez (2016)

showed that the turbulence level in flow direction Ix (Ix=u’/U) outside of the turbulent boundary

layers was below 1%. The maximum boundary layer thickness was assessed as = 12 mm

(/H~0.22) at the downstream end of the test section. As a consequence, the flow was partially-

developed. This detailed survey identified a large region where the flow was homogeneous and

not disturbed by the presence of the walls (green area in Figure 2-3). The Ahmed body was set

up in this homogeneous region, so that the upstream flow was well-known and without wall

effects (that is out of the boundary layer and without any blockage effect). A smoke generator

was used for flow seeding for LDV measurements and flow visualization. It was placed on the

side of the wind tunnel to avoid any additional disturbance.

Figure 2-1: Wind tunnel and 2D LDV system at ESTACA (flow direction from right to left)

Figure 2-2: Sketch of experimental test section in the wind tunnel (Rodriguez 2016)

Figure 2-3: Homogeneous region in the test section (side view, flow from right to left)

In the experiments used in this report, the upstream velocity of the flow was fixed at U0=U=14.5

m/s. The corresponding Reynolds number defined in terms of the height of the vehicle model

was Re~5.104 for all experiments. Figure 2-3 illustrates the definition of the flow direction x and

the vertical direction y in dimensionless terms as X* and Y* corresponding to dimensionless

distances X*=x/H and Y*=y/H respectively. The origin was located at the centreline of the test

section, on the rear bottom of the car model. It is worthwhile to note that the model was fixed

on four 15 mm high struts with circular section. The struts were installed to position the lower

part of the car outside of the boundary layer and the origin of axis was 15mm above the bottom

of the wind tunnel.

For the experiments used in the present study, a car model with a rear slant angle of =35° was

used. It was made of aluminium with smooth surfaces to avoid any flow disturbances. A sketch

of the car is shown in Figure 1-3 at full scale as designed by Ahmed et al. (1984). Considering

the size of the experimental facility in the present study, the car was scaled in a ratio of 1:5.3 to

the original Ahmed model size. The model in the present study had a length Lm=0.196 m, width

lm=0.073 m and height H=0.054 m. The model was mounted on 4 cylindrical struts having a

diameter d = 0.006 m and a height hs=0.015 m (Figure 2-4). The dimensionless ground

clearance was hs/H=0.278. The scale of the model had a scaling ratio of ~1:19 compared to a

prototype scale car. The front size area of the model car was small enough to limit the blockage

ratio to below 5% to avoid unwanted wall effects (Wang et al. 2013). For all measurements, the

car model was fixed at the entrance of the test section, with the upstream edge of the car

installed on the first row of holes in the channel bottom. Figure 2-5 shows the car model and the

test section in the present study from a different viewing angle.

Figure 2-4: Dimensions of the Ahmed body model (scale 1:5.3) in the experiments of Rodriguez

(2016). Lengths in mm

Figure 2-5: Ahmed body installed in the wind tunnel (=35°) in the study of Rodriguez (2016)

Velocity measurements were conducted using a 2D LDV system manufactured by DANTEC. LDV

is an optical and non-intrusive measuring technique that does not disturb the flow. The

measurement principle of the LDV system can be summarized as follows:

An optical probe is mounted on a displacement system driven by a computer. It contains

an optical device from which two (2) pairs of laser beams are emitted with two (2)

different wavelengths (Table 2-1). The first pair of laser beams measures the horizontal

component of the instantaneous velocity vector while the second pair records the vertical

instantaneous velocity component.

The four (4) laser beams pass through a convergent lens which has a focal length of

Lf=500 mm. The point where all laser beams cross is called the measurement volume. It

is located in the flow and can be shifted for profiling of the flow velocities.

The dimensions of the measurement volume are accurately defined by the optical

parameters of the system. Within this very small volume, a network of interference

fringes is created with equally-spaced dark and bright fringes. The size of the fringes is

also accurately defined (Table 2-1).

When a seeding particle crosses the measurement volume, a light signal is emitted with

a frequency proportional to the velocity of the particle, according to Mie theory. The

signal is collected, analysed and converted into a velocity by a processor.

The collected data are then processed through a software (BSAFlow) supplied by

DANTEC.

Note that a Bragg cell is added in the optical device which allows the determination of

the direction of the velocity.

During the experiments, the “burst mode“ was chosen and both horizontal and vertical

components of the velocity vector were simultaneously recorded according to a coincidence

window. To improve the data rate, a seeding generator was used. Its position was defined after

a sensitivity analysis which ensured that it did not disturb the incoming flow. The average

particle size of the seeding droplets was around 1 µm. Several thousand instantaneous samples

were collected at each position to ensure data convergence. It is worthwhile to note that LDV is

one of the most accurate non-intrusive technique to measure velocity fields. It has been

intensively used in the past decades either in air or water flows including for investigations of the

wake flow downstream of an Ahmed body (Lienhart and Pego 2012; Wang et al. 2013). It has a

high spatial resolution (very small measurement volume) and fast response in time (high data

rate ranging from tens to thousands kiloHertz depending on the seeding). Furthermore, it does

not need any calibration. It is an easy-to-use system as the displacement table and data

acquisition are fully computer-controlled. The experimental set-up of Rodriguez (2016) is shown

in Figure 2.1.

LDV Beam Wave length (nm) (mm3) fringes 2 fringes (m)

Beam 2 785 0.2003*0.1999*3.338 30 6.396

To ensure good quality of data, a preliminary calibration was conducted to define the minimum

duration (dacq) for data acquisition. Finally, dacq = 90 s. The repeatability of measurements was

also checked and further information can be found in Rodriguez (2016).

For a good description of the wake flow, velocities were collected in four (4) different (x,y)

planes for z/H=0; 0.226; 0.452; 0.678 where z was the transversal direction. For each location,

195 (13×15) different positions (x,y) were investigated. The domain ranged from x/H=0.093 to

x/H=4.722 (15 positions) and y/H=0.093 to y/H=1.296 (13 positions). Table 2-2 summarizes

these positions (Rodriguez 2016). For each position, raw data were recorded comprising the

arrival time of the measured particles AT, the transit time of the recorded particle in the

measurement volume TT, the horizontal component of the velocity LDA1, the vertical component

of the velocity LDA2, the root mean square of LDA1 (rms1) and the root mean square of LDA2

(rms2). These data were then post-processed in the present study.

0.093 0.093 0

0.278 0.186 0.226

0.463 0.279 0.452

0.648 0.372 0.678

0.833 0.465

1.018 0.558

1.203 0.651

1.388 0.744

1.573 0.837

1.758 0.930

1.943 1.023

2.869 1.116

3.795 1.296

4.721

5.647

3. Signal processing

The wind tunnel generated a flow with an incoming velocity U0=14.5 m/s corresponding to a

Reynolds number Re~5.104. Data were acquired for 90 s at each measurement position following

a sensitivity analysis made by Rodriguez (2016). As LDV acquisition depended on a random

process where seeded particles were measured in a fixed volume measurement, the acquisition

of velocity data was also random. This means that the particle arrival times were not equally-

spaced (Figure 3-1). Thus, the number of acquired samples within these 90 s measurement

interval differed from file to file. As a consequence, the raw signal had to be resampled to satisfy

an important criterion for the Fast Fourier Transform, i.e. 2n samples. Figure 3-1 presents an

example of a typical raw velocity signal over a period of 90 s at x/H=0.463; y/H=0.463;

z/H=0.452. The figure highlights the randomness of the data recording.

10

Raw Signal

5

Velocity (m/s)

-5

-10

-15

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

Time (s)

Figure 3-1: Example of instantaneous raw horizontal velocity U in the wake of the Ahmed body

(x/H=0.463; y/H=0.463; z/H=0.452)

A resampling of the raw signal was done with a linear interpolation of the raw data in Matlab.

The preliminary step was to define a number of intervals that matched the duration of the

acquisition. This number was set as the next exponent of two with respect to the number of

acquired samples. The interpolated data were compared to the raw data to ensure an accurate

superposition. This is shown in Figure 3.2 where raw and resampled data are superimposed for

the example mentioned above (x/H=0.463; y/H=0.463; z/H=0.452). Strong agreement between

raw and resampled signals was found. The resampled signal provided a constant time interval

between two points enabling a Fast Fourier Transform of the resampled signal.

10

Raw Signal

Interpolated Signal

Velocity (m/s)

0

-5

-10

-15

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

Time (s)

Figure 3-2: Instantaneous raw velocity U and the corresponding linearly interpolated signal

(x/H=0.463; y/H=0.463; z/H=0.452)

3.2 Fast Fourier transform (FFT) and Power Spectral Density (PSD) of the

velocity

The interpolated signal (blue line in Figure 3-2) was processed with a Fast Fourier Transform

(FFT). A typical FFT result is presented in Figure 3-3 and the matching power spectral density

(PSD) in Figure 3-4. The "pwelch" function in Matlab was used with an overlap of 50% to satisfy

the Nyquist criterion. The same method was used by Tunay et al. (2014). It is worthwhile to

note that the experiments by Tunay et al. (2014) were conducted at similar geometric scale and

similar Reynolds number allowing a direct comparisons of results. The main difference between

the studies was the fluid (water versus air).

For the triple decomposition, two characteristic frequencies are required. Ideally, those are

expected to be clearly identifiable from the FFT. In the present study, for some measurement

positions, the characteristic peaks were hard to determine. This was mainly due to a data rate

which was sometimes too low. Although the seeding was conducted thoroughly, some regions of

the flow were still poor in seeding particles. To overcome this issue, the Savitzky-Golay filter was

used to smooth the signal and outline trends (Figures 3-3 and 3-4). This method preserved the

pertinent high frequency component of the signal allowing a comparison with previous studies

(Lienhart and Pego 2012; Tunay et al. 2014). In Figure 3-3, some typical peaks could be

identified around 3 Hz and 60 Hz, respectively. This information was important for the triple

decomposition technique.

All data were processed with a self-developed Matlab code. For more information, please refer to

the appendices.

0

10

FFT

-1

10

FFT

-2

10

-3

10 0 1 2

10 10 10

Frequency (Hz)

Figure 3-3: FFT of the interpolated signal for U at (x/H=0.463; y/H=0.463; z/H=0.452)

3

10

PSD

2

10

1

10

0

10

PSD

-1

10

-2

10

-3

10

-4

10

-5

10 0 1 2

10 10 10

Frequency (Hz)

Figure 3-4: PSD of the interpolated signal for U at (x/H=0.463; y/H=0.463; z/H=0.452)

4. Results

Data collected by Rodriguez (2016) were post-processed in the present study as outlined in

section 3 including the Fast Fourier Transform of the interpolated velocity signals. The data were

from various locations in the near-wake of the Ahmed body model with rear slant angle =35°.

The data analysis focused upon the horizontal velocity component U. For all measurement

locations, the spectral analysis provided the characteristic frequencies enabling the triple

decomposition technique of the raw velocity signal. In this section the results are presented

including the FFT of the raw velocity signals, as well as the turbulence properties of the

decomposed signals following the triple decomposition. The results of the FFT analysis are

presented for three scenarios: a) various dimensionless positions x/H downstream of the car for

constant y/H and z/H; b) various dimensionless distances above the wind tunnel bottom y/H for

constant x/H and z/H; c) various dimensionless transverse distances z/H for constant x/H and

y/H. All results are presented in the appendix. The FFT allowed the detection of characteristic

frequencies of the wake flow which were compared with the results of other experimental studies

of Ahmed bodies with various rear slant angles 25° ≤ ≤ 35° (Lienhart and Pego 2012; Tunay

et al. 2014). The section concludes with the presentation of the results of the triple

decomposition analysis.

4.1.1 Spectral analysis of velocities in flow direction

Figure 4-1 shows the results of the FFT analysis for different dimensionless distances 0.093 <

x/H < 3.796 for constant vertical y/H and transverse positions z/H. In all figures, the vertical

elevation above the floor of the wind tunnel was y/H = 0.093 because in the proximity of the

floor the turbulent activity was maximum.

Figures 4-1a and b show similar frequencies in the area just downstream of the Ahmed body. No

characteristic frequency peaks were found despite some small disturbance around 60 Hz

corresponding to a Strouhal number St≈0.223 (Figure 4-1b). Some small peaks appeared also

around 3 Hz (Figure 4-1a) and 7 Hz (Figure 4-1b) corresponding to Strouhal numbers of 0.011

and 0.026, respectively. At the longitudinal position x/H=0.648 (Figure 4-1b), the characteristic

Strouhal numbers agreed well with the results of Tunay et al. (2014) who mentioned Strouhal

numbers between 0.08 (major peak in the FFT at 0.23 Hz) and 0.18 for x/H~0.8.

Between 0.833 ≤ x/H ≤ 1.759, frequency peaks could be observed around 60 Hz corresponding

to a Strouhal number of 0.223 (Figures 4-1c to 4-1e). This frequency appeared to be linked to a

Strouhal number that is often related to the Benard-Von Karman vortex street (Thacker, 2010;

Eulalie, 2014). As mentioned by Thacker (2010) and Lienhart and Pego (2012) the frequency

corresponded to a periodic vortex shedding. In the flow region closest to the rear slant and in

the wake region close to the ground, such high frequencies would be expected (Lienhart and

Pego 2012). Interestingly, Tunay et al. (2014) found the highest level of turbulent kinetic energy

in a similar region for 0.7 < x/H < 1 and 0 <y/H < 0.2 for =35°. Wang et al. (2013) observed

similar results in experiments with hotwire probes identifying the presence of quasi-periodical

structures. Wang et al. (2013) linked these large scale turbulent structures to the Benard-Von

Karman vortex street behind a 2D bluff body. The same conclusion was found by Vino et al.

(2005) based upon measurements of surface pressures behind a bluff body. In the present study

further frequency peaks were also observed between 1.5 and 6 Hz (Figure 4-1c), between 1.5

and 3 Hz (Figure 4-1d) and between 2 and 8 Hz (Figure 4-1e) respectively. The corresponding

Strouhal numbers were in a range of 0.006 ≤ St ≤ 0.03. For comparison, the lowest Strouhal

number mentioned by Tunay et al. (2014) was St = 0.08 for a rear slant angle of =35°. Far

downstream of the Ahmed body, frequency peaks were reduced (Figure 4-1f) and for x/H=2.870

no frequency peaks were observed (Figure 4-1g). The results showed consistently low frequency

activities between 1 and 8 Hz corresponding to 0.004 ≤ St ≤ 0.03 for all dimensionless distances

x/H whereas the high frequency events were mostly found in a limited area downstream of the

rear part of the Ahmed body where the highest turbulent levels occur (St≈0.223). Additional

figures are presented in Appendix 9.2.

0 0

10 10

FFT FFT

-1 -1

10 10

FFT Amplitude

FFT Amplitude

-2 -2

10 10

-3 -3

10 0 1 2

10 0 1 2

10 10 10 10 10 10

Frequency (Hz) Frequency (Hz)

0 0

10 10

FFT FFT

-1 -1

10 10

FFT Amplitude

FFT Amplitude

-2 -2

10 10

-3 -3

10 0 1 2

10 0 1 2

10 10 10 10 10 10

Frequency (Hz) Frequency (Hz)

0 0

10 10

FFT FFT

-1 -1

10 10

FFT Amplitude

FFT Amplitude

-2 -2

10 10

-3 -3

10 0 1 2

10 0 1 2

10 10 10 10 10 10

Frequency (Hz) Frequency (Hz)

0

10

FFT

-1

10

FFT Amplitude

-2

10

-3

10 0 1 2

10 10 10

Frequency (Hz)

(g) x/H=2.870

Figure 4-1: FFT of the interpolated horizontal velocity signal U at same elevation (y/H=0.093),

same transverse position (z/H=0.226) and various longitudinal positions (x/H) in the wake of

the Ahmed body

Figure 4.2 presents the results of the FFT for different dimensionless distances y/H above the

bed of the wind tunnel for constant longitudinal x/H and transverse positions z/H respectively.

The longitudinal position was located within the area where the strongest turbulence activities

were observed x/H=1.574 (Rodriguez 2016). These results showed that the highest frequency

peaks of about 60 Hz were closest to the bottom where the turbulent kinetic energy was highest

(Figure 4-2a). As observed in Figure 4-1, no high frequency activity was visible for x/H < 0.648.

However, for x/H > 0.833, frequency peaks were observed close to the bed. This result is in

agreement with the findings of Lienhart and Pego (2012). Tunay et al. (2014) observed a

frequency peak in the upper part of the flow where a shear layer developed at the top of the

Ahmed body in the region closest to the car model for x/H~0.5 and y/H~0.8. In this region,

Tunay et al. (2014) found St~0.22. In the present study, Figure 4-1c shows a peak at around 40

Hz corresponding to a Strouhal number St≈0.15. The characteristic frequency may be related to

the development of the upper shear layer even if x/H was larger compared to Tunay et al.

(2014). Overall the frequency analysis revealed a good agreement with the results of Tunay et

al. (2014). Further corresponding results are presented in Appendix 9.2.

0 0

10 10

FFT FFT

-1 -1

10 10

FFT Amplitude

FFT Amplitude

-2 -2

10 10

-3 -3

10 0 1 2

10 0 1 2

10 10 10 10 10 10

Frequency (Hz) Frequency (Hz)

0

10

FFT

-1

10

FFT Amplitude

-2

10

-3

10

-4

10 0 1 2

10 10 10

Frequency (Hz)

(c) y/H=0.833

Figure 4-2: FFT of the interpolated horizontal velocity signal U at same longitudinal position

(x/H=1.574), same transverse position (z/H=0.226) and various elevation (y/H) in the wake of

the Ahmed body

Figure 4-3 shows the results of the FFT analysis for different dimensionless transverse positions

z/H while the longitudinal and transverse positions were constant at x/H=0.093 and y/H=0.093

respectively. These locations corresponded to the lowest position in the lower shear layer with

the largest turbulence levels. For all transverse positions, Figure 4-3 shows characteristic peaks

around 2 to 4 Hz. However no characteristic frequency peaks were identified in the higher

frequency range and for all transverse positions z/H. This finding was in agreement with

previous observations due to the close proximity downstream of the Ahmed body (Figure 4-1).

The behaviour tends to confirm a symmetrical behaviour in transverse direction. Further

investigations are required for larger dimensionless distances x/H to identify possible

dissymmetry effects.

-1 -1

10 10

FFT FFT

FFT Amplitude

FFT Amplitude

-2 -2

10 10

-3 -3

10 0 1 2

10 0 1 2

10 10 10 10 10 10

Frequency (Hz) Frequency (Hz)

-1 -1

10 10

FFT FFT

FFT Amplitude

FFT Amplitude

-2 -2

10 10

-3 -3

10 0 1 2

10 0 1 2

10 10 10 10 10 10

Frequency (Hz) Frequency (Hz)

Figure 4-3: FFT of the interpolated horizontal velocity signal U at same longitudinal position

(x/H=0.093), same elevation (y/H=0.093) and various transverse positions (z/H) in the wake of

the Ahmed body

wake flow

Table 4-1 summarizes the characteristic frequencies for 22 locations scrutinised in the present

study. We were particularly interested in the close wake of the car model where the flow is

highly turbulent and fluctuating. Furthermore, even if 195 measuring points were investigated,

some of them were associated with non-homogeneous seeding conditions meaning that bursts of

particles were sometimes required to ensure a suitable data rate. Nevertheless, it was believed

that these non-homogeneous seeding conditions may affect the results by overweighting some

samples. This specific topic is the core of an in-depth investigation: a new and innovative data

analysis method, currently being developed, aims at providing reliable and repeatable results

whatever the seeding conditions are. Herein, we focused our investigations in measuring points

for which the seeding was homogeneous. Three different characteristic frequency peaks are

listed for each measurement location including a low range peak, a high frequency peak and an

intermediate peak. All frequencies were in a range between 1 Hz and 62 Hz. Typically the lowest

frequency peaks were observed for frequencies between 1 and 3 Hz independent of the

measurement position (Table 4-1). The intermediate peaks were more diverse ranging between

2.5 and 11 Hz; no clear trend was recognised in terms of measurement locations. The upper

frequency peaks were in the range of 41 to 62 Hz. While there was no clear trend in terms of

measurement locations, for locations just downstream of the vehicle (i.e. 0.093 ≤ x/H ≤ 0.463)

and towards the far end of the measurement range (2.87 < x/H), no characteristic maximum

frequencies were found. This appeared to be linked with lower turbulence activities just

downstream of the Ahmed body and in the area far downstream. The limited frequency range in

the present study did not allow the identification of higher frequency peaks and experiments

with higher sampling rate are required. For some data points, the lower and the intermediate

peaks were very close and therefore only the lowest of the frequency peaks was considered as

the lower characteristic frequency in the triple decomposition technique.

The data in the present study showed a maximum Strouhal number St=0.231 corresponding to a

frequency of 62 Hz. This Strouhal number is similar to the results of Tunay et al. (2014) and

Lienhart and Pego (2012) although the latter results were for a smaller rear slant angle (=25°)

and for a Reynolds number one order of magnitude larger. A direct comparison of the present

data with Lienhart and Pego (2012) may be affected by scale effects. Tunay et al. (2014) found

Strouhal numbers between 0.08 and 0.22 for a rear slant angle of =35° within 0.5<x/H<0.8

and 0<y/H<0.8 and for Re~1.48.104, i.e. a Reynolds number of similar order of magnitude to

the present study. Tunay et al. (2014) were not able to measure larger frequencies because they

used a PIV system working at 15 Hz. The present Strouhal numbers associated with the lowest

frequency peaks 10-2<St<10-1 were about one order of magnitude smaller than those suggested

by Tunay et al. (2014) for comparable positions. Scale effects may explain these differences.

Lienhart and Pego (2012) found lowest characteristic frequency peaks at about 5 Hz which was

relatively close to the present results considering the different scaling. According to Lienhart

(2016), frequencies below 9 Hz would be expected for the present flume configuration even

though an accurate assessment of the lowest frequency peaks was sometimes difficult.

Table 4-1: Summary of the characteristic frequencies and Strouhal numbers in the present study

Strouhal Intermediate Strouhal Strouhal

peak peak

x/H y/H z/H (lower) peak (Hz) (intermediate) (upper)

(Hz) (Hz)

0.093 0.093 0 2.0 0.007 N/A N/A N/A N/A

0.093 0.093 0.226 1.0 0.004 3.5 0.013 N/A N/A

0.093 0.093 0.452 1.0 0.004 2.5-5.5 0.093-0.0205 N/A N/A

0.093 0.093 0.678 2.0 0.007 N/A N/A N/A N/A

0.093 0.185 0.226 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

0.093 0.370 0.226 2.0 0.007 3.0-5.0 0.011-0.019 N/A N/A

0.463 0.093 0.226 1.0 0.004 N/A N/A N/A N/A

0.648 0.093 0.226 3.0 0.011 7.0 0.026 57.0 0.212

0.833 0.093 0.226 1.5 0.006 5.5 0.021 59.0 0.220

0.833 0.185 0.226 0.5 0.002 11.0 0.042 60.0 0.223

1.019 0.093 0.226 1.0 0.004 2.5 0.093 57.0 0.212

1.204 0.093 0.226 3.0 0.011 N/A N/A 57.5 0.214

1.389 0.093 0.226 1.0 0.004 N/A N/A 62.0 0.231

1.574 0.093 0.226 2.0 0.007 2.5 0.093 60.0 0.223

1.574 0.185 0.226 1.0 0.004 2.5-4.0 0.093-0.015 59.5 0.222

1.574 0.833 0.226 1.0 0.004 1.5 0.006 41.5 0.155

0.007-

1.759 0.093 0.226 2.0-3.0 5.0-8.0 0.019-0.030 58.5 0.218

0.011

1.944 0.093 0.226 1.0 0.004 3.0-4.0 0.011-0.015 61.0 0.227

2.870 0.093 0.226 3.0 0.011 N/A N/A N/A N/A

0.004-

3.796 0.093 0.226 1.0-3.0 N/A N/A N/A N/A

0.011

3.796 0.278 0.226 2.0 0.007 4.0-6.0 0.015-0.022 N/A N/A

3.796 0.463 0.226 3.0 0.011 6.0 0.022 53.5 0.199

Ahmed body

4.3.1 Introduction

The triple decomposition technique aims to separate the instantaneous velocity signal U(t) into

three (3) components comprising the mean component U, a slow fluctuating component u' (t)

and a fast fluctuating velocity component u"(t). For the horizontal velocity, this can be expressed

as:

In this section, the triple decomposition technique is applied to a selected range of data in the

wake flow of the Ahmed body. The triple decomposition technique was based upon upper and

lower cut-off frequencies determined in the previous section (Table 4-1). The upper and lower

cut-off frequencies were used to decompose the raw instantaneous velocity signal into three (3)

components. In the present study, the triple decomposition technique was applied in terms of

the root mean square of the horizontal component of the velocity Urms. The root mean square of

the velocity represented a characteristic measure of the turbulence fluctuations of the flow, i.e. a

measure of the turbulence intensity. The technique was only applied to selected data points

(Table 4-2). The selected data represented the best raw data signals and for several longitudinal

positions downstream of the Ahmed body. The data represented the near-wake region in the

lower shear layer which was characterised by strongest turbulent activities, i.e. best suited for

the triple decomposition technique. For all locations, the upper peak was clearly distinguishable

and the lowest cut-off peak corresponded to the minimum characteristic frequency peak.

Table 4-2 summarizes the lower and upper cut-off frequencies.

frequency (Hz) frequency (Hz)

x/H y/H z/H

0.833 0.093 0.226 1.5 59.0

1.204 0.093 0.226 3.0 57.5

1.389 0.093 0.226 1.0 62.0

1.574 0.093 0.226 2.0 60.0

1.759 0.093 0.226 2.0 58.5

root mean square velocity

The triple decomposition was applied to the root mean square of the instantaneous raw velocity

Urms for a range of longitudinal positions x/H. Figure 4-4 presents the results of the triple

decomposition technique as a function the dimensionless distance x/H. In Figure 4-4, the

"interpolated signal" refers to the instantaneous interpolated raw signal, while the "mean

component", the "slow fluctuation" and "high fluctuation" components represent the decomposed

velocity components. The comparison of the root mean square of the raw velocity signal U rms

(and thus the turbulence level in the flow direction) with the decomposed components revealed

that the turbulent motion was predominantly governed by the slow and mean components of the

flow. Fast fluctuations above 60 Hz did not significantly affect the turbulent flow motion.

With increasing distance downstream of the Ahmed body, the root mean square of the

interpolated raw velocity decreased which was linked with a decrease in turbulence activities

(Figure 4-4). Simultaneously the mean and slow fluctuating components decreased while the

contribution of the fast fluctuating components increased proportionally. Except for one position

(x/H=1.204), the contribution of the slow component seemed to be more important than the

mean component.

The present results are preliminary. The results confirm however that the triple decomposition

technique can be applied to instantaneous raw velocities downstream of an Ahmed body

providing a better understanding of the flow dynamics in wake flows. Further investigations are

required to build on these first results. In particular, further detailed measurements of flow

velocities downstream of the Ahmed body are needed. Furthermore the data processing should

be expanded to different turbulence parameters including Reynolds stresses and turbulent time

scales.

4

Interpolated Signal

3.5 Mean Component

Slow Fluctuation

High Fluctuation

3

Urms (m/s)

2.5

1.5

0.5

0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

x/H

Figure 4-4: Triple decomposition applied to the root mean square of the horizontal component of

the velocity. Influence of x/H

5. Discussion

The present study confirmed some interesting features in the non-stationary flow downstream of

an Ahmed body. The results were based upon experiments with a 2D LDV measurement system.

Distinctive frequencies were found corresponding to different regions of the flow defined by their

turbulent activity. Furthermore, some agreements were found in terms of Strouhal numbers with

different previous studies which used different experimental techniques such as PIV and/or

sensors. Some limitations existed in the present experiments that should be addressed in future

work to expand the triple decomposition approach to further parameters. Three of these

recommendations are discussed in this section.

Using LDV for velocity measurements implies flow seeding. In a wind tunnel, this is ensured by a

fog generator fed with oil. In the present study, one model was used for which the particle size

distribution was known (Figure 5-1). At the nozzle exit, oil droplets had a mean diameter of

1.068 µm while the majority of droplets had sizes below 1 µm (Figure 5-1). The sizes of the

droplets were sufficiently small compared to the size of the interference fringes of the laser

beam (5.448 µm) forming in the measurement volume (0.1684*0.1681*2.806 mm3). This fog

fluid was provided by DANTEC and manufactured by Safex.

Figure 5-1: Particle size distribution of oil droplets released from the fog generator

Depending on the position of the measurement within the wake of the Ahmed body, regions

could be observed where it was difficult for oil droplets to enter. This resulted in low data rates

making the frequency analysis meaningless. To overcome this issue, bursts of droplets were sent

from the fog generator to ensure a continuous supply of seeding. This procedure led to a sudden

and brief increase in the data rate for most of the investigated positions of up to several kHz.

The results in the present report were not significantly affected by the issue of droplet seeding

as the data rate was at least several tens of Hertz and reached hundreds of Hertz in many cases.

The present data rate was larger compared to data rates of a PIV system. Overall, for the

present rear slant angle =35° and the range of investigated positions, the rate of particles per

unit of time was sufficiently large (Rodriguez 2016). The present data quality was in agreement

with other LDV studies (e.g. Lienhart and Pego 2012).

5.2 Accuracy of the LDV measurements

LDV is a non-intrusive and accurate optical technique. This means that it does not create any

unintended disturbances that might affect the description of the flow. Furthermore, it is not

sensitive to temperature fluctuations. Nevertheless, there are different factors that might have

affected the accuracy of the present results:

Duration of the acquisition: If the acquisition time dacq is too short, the dynamics of the

turbulent structures might not be captured. In the present study, the acquisition time

has been defined according to a rigorous calibration which ensured a convergence of the

data. As a result dacq = 90 s in the present investigations. This was large enough

compared to the time scales of the flow and larger than in most other studies. A

sensitivity analysis showed that for 300 s > dacq > 90 s the deviations for both mean and

root mean square velocities were below 4% (Rodriguez 2016). For comparison, Tunay et

al. (2014) used an acquisition time dacq = 25 s for a comparable Reynolds number.

Repeatability of measurements: The repeatability of data has also been assessed in five

(5) recordings which showed a maximum deviation of 10% for mean and root mean

square values independent of dacq (Rodriguez 2016).

Data filtering: In the present study, no filtering was applied and the raw data were

resampled before FFT computations.

When bursts of droplets were sent into the wind tunnel, some additional limitations may

occur for optical reasons. If more than one particle crossed the measurement volume at

the same time, the recording of mean and turbulent properties of the flow may be

biased. Rodriguez (2016) discussed this effect and proposed a new calculation method.

While this feature was outside of the scope of the present study, it is believed that this

point did not significantly affect the determination of the characteristic frequencies. Close

agreements between the present results and previous experimental works tended to

confirm this.

The vicinity of a wall can lead to erroneous data due to light reflections. Similarly,

unclean or imperfect glue joints at the wall may affect the light path making

measurements impossible. This was not a concern in the present study and precautions

were taken to avoid these issues.

Experimental investigations in scaled wind or water tunnels may be affected by scale effects. The

most representative dimensionless number in the present study was the Reynolds number based

upon the height of the car model. Considering a prototype car with a height of H = 1 m moving

in an urban area with a velocity of about 8 < U < 14 m/s, the corresponding Reynolds number

would be about 5.105 < Re < 106. In previous experimental studies, the Reynolds numbers were

in a range of 104 < Re < 106 depending on the size of the experimental facilities and the fluid.

For a given scale, water is sometimes used to reach higher Re of approximately one order of

magnitude. As an example, Tunay et al. (2014) worked in a water channel with Re=1.48×104.

Wang et al. (2013) conducted an experimental campaign in a wind tunnel with Re=5.3×104.

Both have the same rear angle as the present study (=35°). Mc Arthur et al. (2016) performed

measurements in a water channel facility with Re=3.78×104 but the model was slightly different

compared to the present Ahmed body, i.e. they used a truck model without rear slant angle

(=0°). As a consequence, the flow topology differed from the present setup. In these studies,

the Reynolds numbers were similar to the present study (Re=5×104) despite some differences in

the rear slant angle and the shape of the model (McArthur et al. 2016). Other experimental

investigations were undertaken with larger Reynolds numbers, e.g. Re= 1.3×105 in Vino et al.

(2005) and Re=7.4×105 in Lienhart and Pego (2012). These studies were conducted for

Reynolds numbers of one order of magnitude larger than the present study. Both studies were

conducted in wind tunnels.

For the test with the smaller Reynolds numbers, some interesting features were reported by

Tunay et al. (2014) in terms of Strouhal number. For =35°, Tunay et al. (2014) observed 0.08

< St< 0.22, which was in good agreement with the present findings. Considering the flow

downstream of a circular cylinder, the Strouhal number is a unique function of the Reynolds

number and independent of the Reynolds number when Re > 103 (St=0.21). According to Vino

et al. (2005), the vortex shedding downstream of square cylinders is well-defined up to

Re≈7.7×105. This finding indicates that no scale effect should be expected downstream of

Ahmed bodies for Reynolds number below 7×105.

Very few experimental investigations assessed the unsteady flow downstream of Ahmed bodies

and apart from Tunay et al. (2014) no other study considered a rear slant angle of =35°. It is

expected that an increase in Reynolds number would lead to an increase of Strouhal number.

This is in agreement with the results of other studies undertaken at larger scales. For instance,

Lienhart and Pego (2012) found St≈0.45 for Re=7.4×105 (=25°). Thacker (2010) observed

St≈0.42 for Re=5.5×105. For the same rear slant angle (=25°), Tunay et al. (2014) assessed

St≈0.31 for Re=1.48×104 while Vino et al. (2005) found St≈0.34 for 4.7×105 < Re < 6.62×105

(=25°). As a consequence, scale effects cannot be neglected for the range of investigated rear

slant angles.

Considering the ratio of the geometric scales between Lienhart and Pego (2012) and the present

experimental conditions, i.e. geometric scaling ratio of 1:5 and velocity scale ratio of 1:2.8,

would result in a frequency scale ratio of 1:1.8. Comparing the results of Lienhart and Pego

(2012) with the present data would result in a lower characteristic frequency of about 9 Hz.

While the present study did not have the same rear slant angle, only slightly lower characteristic

frequencies were observed. Considering potential scale effects, the results were in relatively

close agreement.

It is also important to note that results were sensitive to other external conditions. For instance,

the ground clearance should be taken into account as well as the development of the boundary

layer upstream of the Ahmed body. Comparing the present ground clearance with the studies of

Tunay et al. (2014) and Lienhart and Pego (2012) revealed some differences in ground

clearance, i.e. dimensionless ground clearance of 0.28, 0.17 and 0.60, respectively. These

differences could also explain some differences between flow features downstream of the Ahmed

bodies.

6. Conclusion and future works

The present study was a preliminary study of the non-stationary wake flow downstream of a car

model (Ahmed body). The rear slant angle of the Ahmed body was =35°. The experiments

were conducted in a relatively small-sized wind tunnel at ESTACA, France. The upstream flow

was uniform, i.e. turbulence level below 1% outside of the boundary layers with a velocity

U0=14.5 m/s. The corresponding Reynolds number was about Re=5×104. A detailed series of

velocity measurements were conducted using a 2D LDV system for 0.093≤x/H≤4.722,

0.093≤y/H≤1.296 and 0≤z/H≤0.678. The aim of the present work was to assess the basic

properties of the non-stationary flow with special interest in the characteristic frequencies.

Detailed spectral analysis of the velocity fields was conducted to identify the representative

frequencies of the flow in the wake of the car. LDV data were resampled using a linear

interpolation and an FFT analysis of the resampled data was used to identify the characteristic

frequencies of the velocity signals. For most data, two (2) frequency peaks were identified

allowing the determination of Strouhal numbers and the application of the triple decomposition

technique. The triple decomposition technique was successfully applied to the root mean square

of the horizontal velocity component. The main conclusions are:

Just downstream of the car model x/H<0.65, no characteristic high frequency peaks

were observed and low frequency activity tended to emerge below 7 Hz corresponding to

Strouhal numbers of 0.011 < St < 0.026.

With increasing x/H, characteristic peak frequencies were found around 60 Hz

corresponding to St=0.223. The Strouhal number corresponded to periodic vortex

shedding related to Bernard-Von Karman vortex street.

Low frequency activities of between 1.5 and 8 Hz were also found far downstream of the

Ahmed body. Far downstream, high frequency activity dampened for x/H>2.870.

In vertical direction, the highest frequency activity was found close to the bottom where

the turbulent kinetic energy reached its maximum levels in the lower shear layer. A

similar trend was found in the upper shear layer in the vicinity of the roof of the car.

In the transverse direction, no differences were found albeit the present data were

limited to the near-wake region.

The present data were in agreement with the available literature for comparable

Reynolds numbers and rear slant angles. For larger scales and Reynolds numbers, the

present data differed from other studies indicating that possible scale effects cannot be

ignored above a critical Reynolds number.

For selected locations, two characteristic frequency peaks were identified and the triple

decomposition technique was applied to the root mean square of the horizontal velocity

component. The results showed that the mean and slow fluctuating velocity components

contributed most to the turbulence flow motions.

Overall the present study highlighted some interesting features of the non-stationary flow

developing downstream of a car model in a wind tunnel. Characteristic Strouhal numbers of 0.2

were found in the close wake of the Ahmed body corresponding to a vortex street. The

preliminary investigations demonstrated that the triple decomposition can be applied to such

wake flows. Further experiments are required to strengthen these first results. Particularly, it

would be interesting to expand the work to different rear angles, to further measurement

positions downstream of the car as well as to different upstream velocities. Interactions between

two (2) vehicles should also be considered representing a more realistic situation. The present

contribution provided new information about the dynamics of the flow in the wake of a car

model. It will help to improve the understanding of the interactions between particles and

turbulence, i.e. key factors that may influence pollutant dispersion and/or infiltration in the wake

of a vehicle. From an experimental point of view, it will be useful to optimize sampling

parameters, acquisition duration, meshing, size of sampling sensors for the two-phase flow

campaign. Considering discrepancies that appear in the literature regarding the spectral analysis,

it also brings practical information that will be used to calibrate new numerical models.

7. Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Dr Hang Wang (The University of Queensland, Australia) for his

detailed review of the report and valuable comments. The first author would like to thank Dr

Stefan Felder and Professor Ian Turner (Director of WRL) from the Water Research Laboratory,

School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, UNSW Sydney for the invitation to undertake his

internship as part of his studies at ESTACA. He particularly thanks Stefan Felder for his patience

and availability during the internship. Romain Rodriguez (PhD Student at ESTACA, Laval, France)

is greatly acknowledged for providing his LDV data.

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9. Appendices

9.1.1 Step 1: Reading data from Excel files to Matlab

This program is used to open Excel files and to store the data in Matlab. Two matrices are used

containing the file names and folder name. A loop allows the navigation through the folder

matrix. Each file contained in the matrix with file names is opened and the data are extracted to

Matlab including the time series and the instantaneous velocity. Furthermore for each file the

corresponding mean flow velocity, the sampling frequency and the coordinates of the

measurement points are extracted and stored in Matlab.

close all

clear all

clc

file_={'x25_y25_z-24.3.xlsx','x35_y5_z-12.2.xlsx','x45_y5_z-

12.2.xlsx','x65_y5_z-12.2.xlsx','x75_y5_z-12.2.xlsx','x85_y5_z-

12.2.xlsx','x95_y5_z-12.2.xlsx','x205_y25_z-12.2.xlsx'};

n_=length(file_);

Fs=zeros(n_);

folder_={'Ahmed_35'};

n_2=length(folder_);

m=1;

freq=[1.1 55.2;2 57;1.5 58.8;3 57.7;1.1 62;1.8 63.7;1 58.5;2.9 53.7];

%Concatenation gives the name of the global files without having to copy

%paste it

global_file=strcat('Global_',file_(1:n_));

folder_path=strcat('C:\Users\z5131390\Desktop\Project\',folder_(1:n_2));

Excel = actxserver('Excel.Application');

Excel.Visible = false;

for j=1:length(folder_);

for i=1:n_;

xlspath = folder_path{j} ;

xlsfile = file_{i} ;

Workbook = Excel.Workbooks.Open(fullfile(xlspath,xlsfile));

r(1) = ActiveSheet.Range('B7');

r(2) = ActiveSheet.Range('B7').End('xlDown');

time_raw = ActiveSheet.get('Range',r(1),r(2)).Value;

time_raw = cell2mat(time_raw);%Converts the table from cell to matrix

time_raw = time_raw./1000;% Converts the time in seconds

r_(1) = ActiveSheet.Range('D7');

r_(2) = ActiveSheet.Range('D7').End('xlDown');

velocity_raw = ActiveSheet.get('Range',r_(1),r_(2)).Value;

velocity_raw = cell2mat(velocity_raw);

Workbook.Close(false);

xlspath_ = folder_path{j}

xlsfile_ = global_file{i} ;

Workbook = Excel.Workbooks.Open(fullfile(xlspath_,xlsfile_));

Fs(i)=ActiveSheet.Range('E7').Value;

absi=ActiveSheet.Range('B7').Value;

ord=ActiveSheet.Range('C7').Value;

velocity_raw,file_{i},folder_{j},absi,ord,i,j,freq);

Workbook.Close(false);

end

end

Quit(Excel);

9.1.2 Step 2: Performing a Fast Fourier Transform and triple decomposition of the

velocity signals

This program is used to perform the spectral analysis for selected data points. First the code

interpolates the raw instantaneous velocity data to achieve equal time intervals. Then it does a

Fast Fourier Transform on the interpolated data and displays the FFT and Power Spectral Density

(PSD) functions. Based upon the characteristic frequencies the software performs the triple

decomposition analysis of the interpolated signal.

raw,file_,folder_,absi,ord,i,j,freq )

n = 2^nextpow2(length(time_raw));

x_=[5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 70];

y=[5 15 25 35 45 55 65 75 85 95 105 155 205 255 305];

x=1;

%Determination of the new time-series

xq = time_raw(1):(time_raw(length(time_raw))-

time_raw(1))/n:time_raw(length(time_raw));

lin = interp1(time_raw,raw,xq);

Fs_=length(lin)/xq(length(xq));

%Determination of the FFT

Y = fft(lin,n);

P = abs(Y/n);

f = Fs_*(0:(n/2))/n;%Application of Nyquist-Shannon criteria

h(x)=figure; %Display of the mesh

for i_=1:length(x_)

t = 1:5:310;

line([t;t],repmat(x_(i_),1,numel(t)),'color','b','linestyle','-')

end

for i_=1:length(y)

t=0:5:75;

line(repmat(y(i_),1,numel(t)),[t;t],'color','b','linestyle','-')

end

hold on

plot(absi,ord,'or')

axis equal

title([folder_,' ', file_])

x=x+1;

smoo_fft=smooth(P,55,'sgolay',3);

h(x)=figure;

loglog(f,P(1:n/2+1));%Again, application of the Nyquist-Shannon criteria

hold on

loglog(f,smoo_fft(1:n/2+1),'k-')

% loglog((Fs/16):(Fs/2),10.^(((-5/3)*log10((Fs/16):(Fs/2)))+0.08),'r-

')%Display of the -5/3 slope

xlabel('Frequency (Hz)')

ylabel('Amplitude')

legend('FFT','span 55 degree 3')

title([folder_,' ', file_])

x=x+1;

% Smoothing the signal using the Savitzky-Golay method

% smoo_signal=smooth(lin,500,'sgolay',5);

h(x)=figure;

plot(time_raw, raw, 'g-')%Display of the raw signal

hold on

plot(xq,lin,'b-');%display of the linear interpolation

hold on

% plot(xq,smoo_signal, 'r-'); %Display of the smoothing curve of the

interpolqted signal

legend('Raw Signal','Interpolated Signal')

ylabel('Velocity (m/s)');

xlabel('Time (s)');

title([folder_,' ', file_])

x=x+1;

[pxx,ff] = pwelch(lin,n,n/2,f,Fs_);%Power spectral Density function

St=ff.*0.0547/14;

St_s=Fs_*0.0547/14;

smoo_psd=smooth(pxx,55,'sgolay',3);

%

[pk,MaxFreq]=findpeaks(smoo_psd,'NPeaks',2,'SortStr','descend','MinPeakDi

stance',2000);

for l=1:length(smoo_psd)

if ff(l)>=0.1

pxx_2(l)=pxx(l) ;

end

end

%

[pk2,MinFreq]=findpeaks(pxx_2,'NPeaks',1,'SortStr','descend','MinPeakDist

ance',500);

h(x)=figure;

% loglog(St,pxx);%Display of the PSD with the Strouhal number on the x-

axis

% hold on

% loglog(ff(MinFreq),pk2,'or')

% hold on

loglog(ff,pxx,'g-')%Display of the PSD with the frequency on the x-axis

hold on

loglog((St_s/16):0.005:(St_s/2), 10.^(((-

5/3)*log10((St_s/16):0.005:(St_s/2)))-4), 'r-')%Display of the -5/3 slope

hold on

loglog(ff,smoo_psd,'k-')

% hold on

% loglog(ff(MaxFreq(2)),pk(2),'or')

xlabel('Frequency (Hz)/Strouhal Number')

ylabel('Magnitude (dB)')

legend('PSD Frequ','-5/3 slope','span 55 degree 3','Peak')

title([folder_,' ', file_])

x=x+1;

%Triple decomposition

[x, raw_mean_,raw_highf_,raw_slowf_,h ] = Triple_dec( lin, freq,i,

Fs_,xq, folder_,file_,h,x );

% %Turbulence Analysis

[x, h,

Tu_lin_,Tu_raw_mean_,Tu_raw_slowf_,Tu_raw_highf_,T_xx_lin_,T_xx_raw_mean_

,T_xx_raw_slowf_,T_xx_raw_highf_ ] = Turbulence_analysis(

h,raw,lin,raw_mean_,raw_slowf_,raw_highf_,xq,folder_,file_,freq,i,x );

%Sensitivity Analysis

[x,h, w, w_mean, w_slowf,

w_highf,R_xx_lin,R_xx_raw_mean,R_xx_raw_slowf,R_xx_raw_highf

]=sensitivity_analysis( lin, Fs_ ,xq,file_,folder_,h,x);

Fs_,xq, folder_,file_,h,x );

% [x, raw_mean_,raw_highf_,raw_slowf_,h ] = Test_freq_r_xx( lin, freq,i,

Fs_,xq, folder_,file_,h,x );

xq,lin,h,Fs_,file_,folder_,x );

% n_zoom_2 = 2^nextpow2(length(lin_zoom_2));

% Fs_zoom_2=length(lin_zoom_2)/(xq_zoom_2(length(xq_zoom_2))-

xq_zoom_2(1));

% %Determination of the FFT

% Y_zoom_2 = fft(lin_zoom_2,n_zoom_2);

% P_zoom_2 = abs(Y_zoom_2/n_zoom_2);

% f_zoom_2 = Fs_zoom_2*(0:(n_zoom_2/2))/n_zoom_2;%Application of Nyquist-

Shannon criteria

% smoo_fft_zoom_2=smooth(P_zoom_2,55,'sgolay',3);

% % Display of the FFT

% h(x)=figure;

% loglog(f_zoom_2,P_zoom_2(1:n_zoom_2/2+1));%Again, application of the

Nyquist-Shannon criteria

% hold on

% loglog(f_zoom_2,smoo_fft_zoom_2(1:n_zoom_2/2+1),'k-')

% % loglog((Fs/16):(Fs/2),10.^(((-5/3)*log10((Fs/16):(Fs/2)))+0.08),'r-

')%Display of the -5/3 slope

% xlabel('Frequency (Hz)')

% ylabel('Amplitude')

% legend('FFT','span 55 degree 3')

% title([folder_,' ', file_])

fig_file_=strcat(file_,'.fig');

fig_file_2=strcat(folder_,fig_file_);

savefig(h,fig_file_2)

close(h)

end

This program analyses the turbulence properties for the interpolated raw data as well as for the

decomposed signal components. The analysis includes the mean flow velocities, the standard

deviation of flow velocities and the turbulence intensities. The program writes the results to a file

and produces result plots.

function [x, h,

Tu_lin_,Tu_raw_mean_,Tu_raw_slowf_,Tu_raw_highf_,T_xx_lin_,T_xx_raw_mean_

,T_xx_raw_slowf_,T_xx_raw_highf_ ] = Turbulence_analysis(

h,raw,lin,raw_mean_,raw_slowf_,raw_highf_,xq,folder_,file_,freq,i,x )

%UNTITLED3 Summary of this function goes here

% Detailed explanation goes here

s1=1;

s2=1;

s3=1;

s4=1;

% raw_meanvalue_=mean(raw);

lin_mean_=mean(lin);

raw_mean_mean_=mean(raw_mean_);

raw_slowf_mean_=mean(raw_slowf_);

raw_highf_mean_=mean(raw_highf_);

% raw_rms_=rms(raw);

lin_rms_=std(lin);

raw_mean_rms_=std(raw_mean_);

raw_slowf_rms_=std(raw_slowf_);

raw_highf_rms_=std(raw_highf_);

% Tu_raw_=raw_rms_/raw_meanvalue_;

Tu_lin_=lin_rms_/lin_mean_;

Tu_raw_mean_=raw_mean_rms_/lin_mean_;

Tu_raw_slowf_=raw_slowf_rms_/lin_mean_;

Tu_raw_highf_=raw_highf_rms_/lin_mean_;

% R_xx_raw=autocorr(raw);

R_xx_lin_=autocorr(lin,length(xq)-1);

R_xx_raw_mean_=autocorr(raw_mean_,length(xq)-1);

R_xx_raw_slowf_=autocorr(raw_slowf_,length(xq)-1);

R_xx_raw_highf_=autocorr(raw_highf_,length(xq)-1);

for q=2:(length(xq)-1)

if sign(R_xx_lin_(q-1))~=sign(R_xx_lin_(q))

w_(s1)=q;

s1=s1+1;

end

if sign(R_xx_raw_mean_(q-1))~=sign(R_xx_raw_mean_(q))

w_mean_(s2)=q;

s2=s2+1;

end

if sign(R_xx_raw_slowf_(q-1))~=sign(R_xx_raw_slowf_(q))

w_slowf_(s3)=q;

s3=s3+1;

end

if sign(R_xx_raw_highf_(q-1))~=sign(R_xx_raw_highf_(q))

w_highf_(s4)=q;

s4=s4+1;

end

end

dt=xq(2)-xq(1);

% T_xx_raw(o)=trapz(R_xx_raw)*dt;

T_xx_lin_=trapz(R_xx_lin_(1:w_))*dt;

T_xx_raw_mean_=trapz(R_xx_raw_mean_(1:w_mean_(1)))*dt;

T_xx_raw_slowf_=trapz(R_xx_raw_slowf_(1:w_slowf_(1)))*dt;

T_xx_raw_highf_=trapz(R_xx_raw_highf_(1:w_highf_(1)))*dt;

h(x)=figure;

% plot(freq(i,1),raw_meanvalue_,'dc');

% hold on

plot(freq(i,1),lin_mean_,'or');

hold on

plot(freq(i,1),raw_mean_mean_,'ob');

hold on

plot(freq(i,1),raw_slowf_mean_,'ok');

hold on

plot(freq(i,1),raw_highf_mean_,'og');

legend('Interpolated Signal Mean Value with Sfreq','Mean Component Mean

Value with Sfreq','Slow Fluctuation Signal Mean Value with Sfreq','High

Fluctuation Signal Mean Value with Sfreq');

ylabel('Velocity (m/s)');

xlabel('Lower Cut-Off Frequency (Hz)');

title([folder_,' ', file_])

x=x+1;

h(x)=figure;

% plot(freq(i,1),Tu_raw_,'dc');

% hold on

plot(freq(i,1),Tu_lin_,'or');

hold on

plot(freq(i,1),Tu_raw_mean_,'ob');

hold on

plot(freq(i,1),Tu_raw_slowf_,'ok');

hold on

plot(freq(i,1),Tu_raw_highf_,'og');

legend('Interpolated Signal Turbulence Intensity Value with Sfreq','Mean

Component Turbulence Intensity Value','Slow Fluctuation Signal Turbulence

Intensity Value','High Fluctuation Signal Turbulence Intensity Value');

ylabel('Velocity (m/s)');

xlabel('Lower Cut-Off Frequency (Hz)');

title([folder_,' ', file_])

x=x+1;

% h(x)=figure;

% % plot(sensi,T_xx_raw,'or');

% % hold on

% plot(freq(1),T_xx_lin_,'or');

% hold on

% plot(freq(1),T_xx_raw_mean_,'ob');

% hold on

% plot(freq(1),T_xx_raw_slowf_,'ok');

% hold on

% plot(freq(1),T_xx_raw_highf_,'og');

% legend('Interpolated Signal Integral Time Scale Value with Sfreq','Mean

Component Integral Time Scale Value with Sfreq','Slow Fluctuation Signal

Integral Time Scale Value','High Fluctuation Signal Integral Time Scale

Value');

% ylabel('Velocity (m/s)');

% xlabel('Lower Cut-Off Frequency (Hz)');

% title([folder_,' ', file_])

% x=x+1;

h(x)=figure;

% plot(freq(i,1),raw_rms_,'dc');

% hold on

plot(freq(i,1),lin_rms_,'or');

hold on

plot(freq(i,1),raw_mean_rms_,'ob');

hold on

plot(freq(i,1),raw_slowf_rms_,'ok');

hold on

plot(freq(i,1),raw_highf_rms_,'og');

legend('Interpolated Signal RMS Value with Sfreq','Mean Component RMS

Value','Slow Fluctuation Signal RMS Value','High Fluctuation Signal RMS

Value');

ylabel('Velocity (m/s)');

xlabel('Lower Cut-Off Frequency (Hz)');

title([folder_,' ', file_])

x=x+1;

end

9.2 Results of the FFT analysis for all velocity data in the present study

This appendix presents all results of the FFT analysis. The results in this section are

complementary to the data presented in Section 4.1 of the report. Figures 9-1 to 9-6 present the

complete results of the FFT analysis of velocities in flow direction (Figure 9-1), in vertical

direction (Figures 9-2 to 9-5) and in transverse direction (Figure 9-6) respectively.

0 0

10 10

FFT FFT

-1 -1

10 10

FFT Amplitude

FFT Amplitude

-2 -2

10 10

-3 -3

10 0 1 2

10 0 1 2

10 10 10 10 10 10

Frequency (Hz) Frequency (Hz)

0 0

10 10

FFT FFT

-1 -1

10 10

FFT Amplitude

-2 FFT Amplitude -2

10 10

-3 -3

10 0 1 2

10 0 1 2

10 10 10 10 10 10

Frequency (Hz) Frequency (Hz)

0 0

10 10

FFT FFT

-1 -1

10 10

FFT Amplitude

FFT Amplitude

-2 -2

10 10

-3 -3

10 0 1 2

10 0 1 2

10 10 10 10 10 10

Frequency (Hz) Frequency (Hz)

0 0

10 10

FFT FFT

-1 -1

10 10

FFT Amplitude

FFT Amplitude

-2 -2

10 10

-3 -3

10 0 1 2

10 0 1 2

10 10 10 10 10 10

Frequency (Hz) Frequency (Hz)

0 0

10 10

FFT FFT

-1 -1

10 10

FFT Amplitude

FFT Amplitude

-2 -2

10 10

-3 -3

10 0 1 2

10 0 1 2

10 10 10 10 10 10

Frequency (Hz) Frequency (Hz)

0 0

10 10

FFT FFT

-1 -1

10 10

FFT Amplitude

-2 FFT Amplitude -2

10 10

-3 -3

10 0 1 2

10 0 1 2

10 10 10 10 10 10

Frequency (Hz) Frequency (Hz)

Figure 9-1: FFT of the interpolated horizontal velocity signal U at same elevation (y/H=0.093),

same transverse position (z/H=0.226) and various longitudinal positions (x/H) in the wake of

the Ahmed body

0 0

10 10

FFT FFT

-1 -1

10 10

FFT Amplitude

FFT Amplitude

-2 -2

10 10

-3 -3

10 0 1 2

10 0 1 2

10 10 10 10 10 10

Frequency (Hz) Frequency (Hz)

Figure 9-2: FFT of the interpolated horizontal velocity signal U at same longitudinal position

(x/H=0.833), same transverse position (z/H=0.226) and various elevation (y/H) in the wake of

the Ahmed body

0 0

10 10

FFT FFT

-1 -1

10 10

FFT Amplitude

FFT Amplitude

-2 -2

10 10

-3 -3

10 0 1 2

10 0 1 2

10 10 10 10 10 10

Frequency (Hz) Frequency (Hz)

0

10

FFT

-1

10

FFT Amplitude

-2

10

-3

10 0 1 2

10 10 10

Frequency (Hz)

(c) y/H=0.370

Figure 9-3: FFT of the interpolated horizontal velocity signal U at same longitudinal position

(x/H=0.093), same transverse position (z/H=0.226) and various elevation (y/H) in the wake of

the Ahmed body

0 0

10 10

FFT FFT

-1 -1

10 10

FFT Amplitude

FFT Amplitude

-2 -2

10 10

-3 -3

10 0 1 2

10 0 1 2

10 10 10 10 10 10

Frequency (Hz) Frequency (Hz)

0

10

FFT

-1

10

FFT Amplitude

-2

10

-3

10

-4

10 0 1 2

10 10 10

Frequency (Hz)

(c) y/H=0.833

Figure 9-4: FFT of the interpolated horizontal velocity signal U at same longitudinal position

(x/H=1.574), same transverse position (z/H=0.226) and various elevation (y/H) in the wake of

the Ahmed body

0 0

10 10

FFT FFT

-1 -1

10 10

FFT Amplitude

FFT Amplitude

-2 -2

10 10

-3 -3

10 0 1 2

10 0 1 2

10 10 10 10 10 10

Frequency (Hz) Frequency (Hz)

0

10

FFT

-1

10

FFT Amplitude

-2

10

-3

10 0 1 2

10 10 10

Frequency (Hz)

(c) y/H=0.463

Figure 9-5: FFT of the interpolated horizontal velocity signal U at same longitudinal position

(x/H=3.796), same transverse position (z/H=0.226) and various elevation (y/H) in the wake of

the Ahmed body

-1 -1

10 10

FFT FFT

FFT Amplitude

FFT Amplitude

-2 -2

10 10

-3 -3

10 0 1 2

10 0 1 2

10 10 10 10 10 10

Frequency (Hz) Frequency (Hz)

-1 -1

10 10

FFT FFT

FFT Amplitude

FFT Amplitude

-2 -2

10 10

-3 -3

10 0 1 2

10 0 1 2

10 10 10 10 10 10

Frequency (Hz) Frequency (Hz)

Figure 9-6: FFT of the interpolated horizontal velocity signal U at same longitudinal position

(x/H=0.093), same elevation (y/H=0.093) and various transverse positions (z/H) in the wake of

the Ahmed body

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