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Advancements in MPPT Techniques for PV Systems

Kamal Kumar
Electrical Department
National Institute of Technology, Uttarakhand

Abstract—The ingestion of electrical energy is increasing and Where:

due to inadequate supply of fossil fuel, the only option left is I is the cell current (A).
the renewable energy (RE). In last few Years there has been IL is the light generated current(A).
an increase in consideration towards the use of solar energy. Io is the diode saturation current.
The power-voltage characteristic of photovoltaic cell are non- q is the change of electrone= 1.6 ∗ 10−19 (coul.) order to get the Maximum output power from PV system,
the maximum power point (MPP) must be uninterruptedly
K is the Boltzman constant (j/K).
tracked. The maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms T is the cell temperature (K).
enhance the efficiency of PV system. The Maximum Power Point Rs , Rsh are cell series and shunt resistance (ohms).
(MPP) of a photovoltaic system differs with irradiance and Load V is the cell output voltage(V).
connected to the (PV) system along with the temperature. I have
been asked to review a paper in electrical engg. SoI choose The installation cost of a PV system is very huge.Any
this one.This paper comprehends three of the most commonly improvement in the efficiency of the PV panel and the inverter
applied algorithms and recent developments in them namely is difficult because it depends on available technology, but
as Perturband observe,Incremental Conductance, and also one improvement in the tracking algorithm is easier.
intelligent control algorithm i.e. AI based MPPT techniques. The total investment in the solar PV system constitutes of the
following, PV array around ,60 percent battery, 27 percent
charge controller, inverter and other installation costs around
I. I NTRODUCTION 13 percent. The nominal costing can be reduced by improving
In present time many renewable energy sources are available the efficiency of the PV system. There is a balance to be upheld
such as solar energy, wind energy,bio energy,fuel energy etc. between the cost and efficiency.
Solar energy is one of the most suitablewidespread form of
renewable energy because of the possibility of direct con- II. M AXIMUM P OWER P OINT T RACKING (MPPT)
version into electrical energy using Photo Voltaic system.The T ECHNIQUES
photovoltaic system is the system which practices the sun
light to generate the electrical energy by the photoelectric A. Experimental Framework
phenomenon. This phenomenon converts the solar energy This is an electronic system that operates the photovoltaic
(photo) into electric energy. The general photovoltaic circuit cell in a manner to extract the maximum power from the
module is shown in figure. system. It is an operating point at which maximum power
can be taken out from the system. Usually represented as
load for maximum power transmission may require either
providing a difficult voltage at lower current or lower voltage
at higher current. The output of solar array is a function
of solar irradiance, temperature. Generally MPPT is installed
in between PV system and load. Coupling to the load for
maximum power transmissionmay require either providing a
difficult voltage at lower current or lower voltage at higher

B. Perturb and Observe (PO) Algorithm

Fig. 1: Solar cell diagram PO is the most extensively used algorithm due to the
easiness of enactmentpractically. In Perturb algorithm, a small
increase in operating voltage of PV array is realized, and
(V +IRs ) q
V + IRs the amount of change in power is measured. In the lower
I = IL − IO (e KT − 1) − (1) solar radiation cases, such as because of becoming smooth,
it is difficult to define the location of MPP exactly. In this
Kamal Kumar, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Institute of technique, as the name says, produces an infinitesimal change
Technology, Uttarakhand, India. in output voltage to observe the change in power. If the next
D. Advancements in Perturb and Observe method
comprehended by Chen in 2010.In this algorithm, MPP is seen
as a movement goal. In this research, a MPPT algorithm is
obtained that has biological swarm chasing technique. In order
to determine the direction of tracking accurately, a system
is proposed that assume all modules of PV array connected
with each other. Consequently, each segment is a separate part
of the system, and samples are taken from all of them. In
this algorithm, MPP is seen as a movement goal. Thus, each
module automatically is a chain in the determination of MPP.
This method has provided a higher efficiency at a rate of 12.19
Fig. 2: diagram of traction STEP SIZE SELECTOR MODIFICATION- In this method
step size is selected using various dc-dc convertors so that
the location of maximum power point could be realized using
variable step size and advanced converters.
perturbation should be in same way to find the MPP and
if then direction of perturbation is reversed. In other terms
we can say that if due to increment in voltage, the power E. Incremental Conductance
increases it shows that the actual operating point is at the left Inc.Cond. technique is based on power- voltage character-
side of the maximum power point. This process is repeated at istic, the slope of P-V curve is zero at the maximum power
some fix intervals until the MPP are achieved.In the lower point, positive on the left side and negative on the right side.
solar radiation cases, such as G= 440 W/m2 and G=260 In this technique to track the new MPP, increases or decreases.
W/m2, because of becoming smooth, it is difficult to define The drawback of the PO method (oscillation of operating point
the location of MPP exactly. Disadvantage of PO method is in varying irradiance condition) is eliminated by Inc.Cond.
also that it cannot determine actual location of MPP. method. This is a further improvement on the PO algorithm.
The Inc.Cond. methodconcedes that the MPPT has reached at
MPP and stops perturbing the output voltage. The PV array
C. Flowchart for the PO method operation is maintained at this point until output current is

F. Flowchart of Incremental Conductance method

Fig. 3: Flow chart of P O Fig. 4: Flow chart of incremental conductance

G. Advancements/Improvements In Incremental Conductance of system. As an outcome of cost optimization, after decided
Method to use a maximum power point traction system by the designer,
Parasitic Capacity Algorithm-Parasitic capacity (PC) method it is important to choose which algorithm will be used in ap-
shows similarities with the IC method. However, changing of plication. In this paper, general classification and descriptions
parasitic junction capacity (PJC) value is taken in account in of the most widely used MPPT algorithms are analysed and
this method. Parasitic junction capacity occurs as outcome compared. Operating principles and application processes of
of charge accumulation in junction area and the inductance Maximum power point algorithms such as PO, incremental
associated to the connections of photovoltaic cells. Actually, conductance, parasitic capacity, and artificial intelligence have
there are two main apparatuses (parasitic capacitance and been explained. As results of analysis, obtained efficiency,
inductance) called the reactive parasitic components. It is ranges and other criteria for comparison are given in the liter-
determined that the parasitic capacitance reduces the error ature review. As explained, different profits may be selection
signal when the PV panel is operating outside the MPP, reason for each algorithm. Parasitic capacity, modified PO,
slackening down the system dynamic. The charge is stored in and artificial intelligence-based MPPT algorithms are the most
pn junction of the solar cells. In case we add the capacitance advantageous systems in terms of electrical efficiency.As I
to the lighted diode equation we obtained- In the parasitic have stated above, varied MPPT techniques are suitable for
capacitance the maximum power is found at the point where different applications. In each system, an algorithm may not
(dP/d) Byreproducing the above equation by array voltage (v) give the same result. However, in practice, the most popularly
to obtaining the power of array and differentiating the result. used commercial designs are PO and IC algorithms due to their
simple organizations and low cost. Recently, the using areas
of software-based artificial intelligent techniques such as FL,
H. AI(artificial intelligence based MPPT techniques ANN are growing in MPTT applications.
An Artificial Intelligence MPPT technique in PV system
realizes very good enactment and fast responses especially R EFERENCES
for rapidly varying temperature and irradiance variations. In [1] 1. S. Jain and V. Agarwal, “New current control based MPPT technique
present time AI technique is implemented in vast areas. This for single stage grid connected PV systems,” Energy Conversion and
paper contemplates only artificial neural network (ANN) and Management, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 625–644, 2007.
Fuzzy logic (FL) method out of the many remaining AI [2] 2. H. Patel and V. Agarwal “ Maximum power point tracking scheme
techniques for MPPT. for PV system operating under partially shaded conditions” IEEE Trans.
Artificial Neural Network – An Artificial neural network Ind. Electron., vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 1689-1698, April 2008
(ANN) consists of electrical neurons which are connected [3] 3. Insights of the Advancement in Maximum Power Point Tracking
Techniques in PV Module, Yoganandini A.P., IEEE Trams. Ind., March
to each other depending on diverse topologies. An ANN 2012.
uses nonlinear and complex function for identification and [4] 4. T. Tafticht, K. Agbossou, M. L. Doumbia, and A. Chériti, “An im-
modelling of the system. A neural network consists of three proved maximum power point tracking method for photovoltaic systems,”
layers. The output signal is the duty cycle signal for power Renewable Energy, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 1508–1516, 2008.
converter to operate at Maximum power point. The exact
knowledge of PV system parameter is not obligatory, which
is a major advantage of Artificial neural Network.The PV
data such as open circuit voltage and short circuit current or
atmospheric irradiance and temperature can be used as input.
Fuzzy Logic-The Fuzzy-Logic technique is used for complex
and non-linear systems and in recent years has found applica-
tion in MPPT system. The fuzzy logic based MPPT controllers,
similar to ANN, can also work with imprecise inputs. Wang
at. al. compared the two MPPT algorithms with FL and the
above-mentioned TPWC. According to the simulation results,
FL-based algorithm operate with 3.07W power loses of total
220W. These loses reduce by increasing of solar radiation to
0.475W. The average error is around 1.6W, and this value is a
significantly successful value for a 220W system. In algorithm,
average loses are under 1.5W. But unsteadiness of this method
is higher especially in low solar radiation situation especially
in the morning and evening time. Eventually, both choices are
considered equally.


MPPT algorithms used in photo voltaic systems are one of
the most important factors distressing the electrical efficiency