You are on page 1of 105

ASIAN INSTITUTE OF MARITIME STUDIES

Pasay City, Philippines

CENTER FOR ADVANCED STUDIES


(Graduate School)

EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND PERSONALITY TRAITS OF FILIPINO


SEAFARERS AND THEIR ATTITUDE TOWARDS
WORK ENVIRONMENT

A Thesis Presented to
The Faculty of Asian Institute of Maritime Studies
Center for Advanced Studies – Graduate School
Pasay City, Philippines

In Partial Fulfillment
Of the Requirements for the Degree
MASTER IN MARITIME ADMINISTRATION
SPECIALIZATION: SHIPPING AND SHIP MANNING BUSINESS
ADMINISTRATION

By

CEZAR M. BARRANTA JR.

2012
iii

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to extend my profound gratitude to the following persons for


their assistance and support in the completion of this thesis:

My superiors in Magsaysay Maritime Corporation, namely, Mr. Arnold B.


Javier – Vice President of Shipping; Mr. Brian T. Mayormita – Fleet Director and
Mr. Hiroyuki Narushima – Owner’s Representative of Asahi Marine Fleet; Thank
you, Sirs, for allowing me to pursue this study, while working with our company;

My adviser, Dr. Bayani U. Almaden, for his precious guidance in the


development of the conceptual framework of this paper;

Dr. Teresita Oblepias, the Dean of the Graduate School of the Asian
Institute of Maritime Studies for her unselfish encouragement and sharing of
research expertise that enabled me to learn much in the conduct of this study;

The Thesis Committee, namely; Dr. Ma. Luz Dasmariñas – Chairperson,


Dr/Capt. Walthor Maog – Member/Critic and Dr. Josefina Guitap – Member,
Research Expert, for intelligent comments and suggestion to improve the final
contents of this paper;

My other course professors at the Graduate School of Asian Institute of


Maritime Studies, namely; Prof/Dr. Alfredo Joson, Prof/Capt. Virginio Aris,
Prof/Engr. Teresa Mamisao and Prof/Atty. Lisabelle Villanueva, for sharing their
knowledge and skills in the field of maritime administration; Thank you very much
Sirs and Ma’ams.
iv

Special gratitude also goes to the following friends and colleagues in the
maritime profession: Capt. Winnie Bandong, Chief Mate Alex Enriquez, Chief
Mate Esrael Torres, 1AE Leomer Causarin and 2nd Mate Arnold Consignado, for
their rich encouragement to finish my studies and for helping me in the
distribution of my survey questionnaires.

My heartfelt appreciations an thanks to my loving family; my parents; in-


laws and my loving wife, Kathleen Joy, for their unwavering support, patience,
understanding and sacrifices to help me finished this study. To my wife, thank
you so much for being always around and continuous motivations that served as
my inspiration to finish this study.

Finally and top of everyone, I thank our Heavenly Creator for granting me
the grace of wisdom, direction and determination to pursue and finish my
master’s degree study as well as for all the graces and blessings I received from
Him since birth up to the present time. To Him be the Glory.
 
 
  v
 
 
 
ABSTRACT

Title : Emotional Intelligence and Personality Traits of Filipino


Seafarers and their Attitude Towards Work Environment

Author : Cezar M. Barranta, Jr.

Adviser : Dr. Bayani U. Almacen

Degree : Master in Maritime Administration, Specialization,


Shipping and Ship Manning Business Administration

School : Asian Institute of Maritime Studies – Graduate School

School Year : 2011 – 2012

No. of Pages : 95

The study examined the relationship between the attitude of seafarers

towards work environment and their emotional intelligence as well as personality

traits. The specific questions asked in the study were as follows: (1) What is the

attitude of the seafarers towards the following work environment aboard the ship

in terms of physical setting, emotional setting and social setting? (2) How did the

seafarers describe their personality traits and emotional intelligence levels in

terms of personality traits such as extraversion, agreeableness,

conscientiousness, emotional stability and openness; and emotional intelligence

level in terms of self-awareness, relationship with management and social skills?


 
 
  vi
 
 
 
(3) Was there a significant relationship between the overall attitude of seafarers

towards work environment and their emotional intelligence and personality

traits?; and (4) Can the level of emotional intelligence and personality traits of the

seafarers predict their overall attitude towards work environment aboard the

ship?

The null hypothesis postulated in the study stated that there was no

significant relationship between the attitude of seafarers towards work

environment and their emotional intelligence and personality traits.

Findings disclosed and concluded that the Filipino seafarers had generally

high and positive attitudes towards work environment because the physical

environment aboard the ship provided them with better appreciation of standard

work performance as well as general feeling of safety and healthy working

environment.

Their emotional attitude was generally highly positive because they have a

feeling of self-confidence, calmness, and clear thinking moments. Their social

attitude was highly positive because they had less fear and inferiority complex.

The overall level of personality of the respondents was only moderately

because of the presence or combination of both negative and positive traits in

them. Filipino seafarers had high emotional intelligence level. This level was

attributed to their high relationship to management, high self-awareness level,

high social skills and high social awareness.


 
 
  vii
 
 
 
There was no evidence to show that significant relationship existed

between attitude of the seafarers and the level of their personality. However,

there was partial and small evidence to show the existence of relationship

between attitude of seafarers and their emotional intelligence level. Emotional

intelligence was not a predictor of the attitude of the seafarers towards work

environment aboard the ship.


 
 
  viii
 
 
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page No.

Title Page ……………………………………………………………… i


Approval Sheet ……………………………………………………… ii
Acknowledgment ……………………………………………………… iii
Abstract ……………………………………………………………… v
Table of Contents ……………………………………………………… viii
List of Tables ……………………………………………………… ix

Chapter 1 The Problem and Its Setting


Introduction ……………………………………………… 01
Background of the Study ……………………………… 04
Statement of the Problem ……………………………… 07
Hypothesis ……………………………………………… 08
Significance of the Study ……………………………… 09
Scope and Limitation ……………………………… 10

Chapter 2 Review of Related Literature and Studies


Foreign and Local Literature ……………………… 12
Foreign and Local Studies ……………………… 16
Synthesis ……………………………………………… 19
Conceptual Framework ……………………………… 23
Definition of Terms ……………………………………… 24

Chapter 3 Research Methodology


Research Design ……………………………………… 29
Population, Sample Size and Technique ……… 29
Instrumentation …………………………………….... 34
Data Gathering Procedures ………………………… 36
Statistical Instrument ………………………………… 37

Chapter 4 Presentation and Analysis of Data ……………….... 39

Chapter 5 Summary of Findings, Conclusions, Recommendations


Summary of Findings ………………………………… 68
Conclusions ………………………………………………… 71
Recommendations ………………………………………… 72

Bibliography …………………………………………………………………. 74
Appendices …………………………………………………………………. 85
Researcher’s Resume …………………………………………………. 93
1

Chapter 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING

A. Introduction

Work environment is a central component in the life of a productive human

being. Work environment offers a number of experiences through which a

person evaluates the many years of his best life spent in working. The way a

person sees and reacts to a work environment can be associated to certain

factors. Aamodth and Raynes (2001) described that factors like heredity, external

environment and person-situation interaction influence the personality of a

person.

The relationship between personality and attitude has been a subject of

many researches and discussions in the various sectors of the society. According

to the IBS Center for Management Research (2010), an individual’s personality is

the way in which he views and understands himself, as well as the way in which

he interacts with people. However, it is the person’s attitude that enables him to

adapt to a given environment. From this perspective, it can be said that the

attitude of a person may have bearing on his emotional intelligence and

personality. Pertirdes, Pita, Kokkinaki (2007) described this connection when

they pointed out that self report emotional intelligence and personality converge

because they both intend to measure personality traits.


2

The interrelationship among personality, emotional intelligence and

attitude towards work environment is often seen in many fields of occupations

and professions. It is especially present in the most difficult and unique work

environment. In the maritime industry, the field of seafaring can be considered

as one of the most difficult and hazardous occupations. Every day, a seafarer

has to deal with a unique physical work setting. He works aboard a ship amidst a

deep surface of the ocean that is so very far away from the land. The ship stays

at sea for many days and all the seafarer could see is the deep body of water

and the sky above.

Apart from this setting, the nature of a seafaring job could be one of the

most demanding and stressful ones. An average seaman works approximately

12 hours a day, under different weather conditions while the ship is traversing a

deep sea. Aboard the ship, a seaman may be exposed to both man-made and

natural risks such as; severe weather conditions, accidents and serious untoward

incidents. On top of these, the most important risk that a seafarer has to confront

to can be either the emotional or psychological stress.

Being a human being, a seafarer can suffer emotional or psychological

disorders that might lead him to a state of desperation. Aboard the ship, he is

detached from the pleasures and comforts of own land, home and family. He

can suffer from the state of homesickness and in extreme cases, the state of

desperation, which may disrupt his ability to perform the assigned job duties and

responsibilities. This situation may lead to early repatriation resulting in the loss
3

of his earnings as well as inconvenience to the management level officers of the

ship and ultimately the employer.

According to Iversen (2009), emotional and mental status of health among

seafarers has been a growing concern of seafarers’ families, health workers, and

employers. The emotional and psychological disorders contribute to a host of

other physical health conditions that seafarers experienced over the last three

decades.

Roberts & Marlow (2005) reported about the deaths of 185 seafarers and

the causes of deaths were claimed to have been associated to emotional and

psychological disorders. Low (2006) also disclosed in his study that considerable

number of seafarers disappeared at sea and were believed to have had

committed suicide.

From the above-described scenarios, it becomes apparent that a

seafarer’s emotional intelligence and personality have to be strong enough to be

able to hurdle the difficulties of work and life aboard the ship. The relationship or

connection between the attitude of seafarers toward work environment aboard

the ship and the strength of his emotional intelligence as well as personality is an

area that needs further empirical validation. This point is crucial to stakeholders

in the shipping and ship crewing industry because of the reported number of

cases. Necessary intervention measures can be studied and proposed to

improve any future negative impact.


4

B. Background of Study

The subjects of this study were the selected Filipino Officers and Crews of

Magsaysay Maritime Corporation - Asahi Marine Co. Ltd. The company is now

managing by the Magsaysay Maritime Corporation, which supplies well

competitive crew to its principal, the Asahi Marine Company Limited.

Historically, the Asahi Marine Co., Ltd. was the domestic ship management

company called AMMTEC Co., Ltd, a wholly owned subsidiary of Asahi Tanker in

2007, based in Japan. It was re-incorporated on October 1, 2008 due to a

merger between the company and the Solar Japan Co., Ltd. (an international

ship management company), which also became a wholly owned subsidiary of

Asahi Tanker in 2007.

The foregoing setting enabled the Asahi Tanker Group to establish a

system to centrally manage its domestic and international fleet, while creating the

first ship management company capable of offering ship management services to

meet the major needs of domestic and international ship owners. The domestic

ship management department currently manages 8 ships owned by Asahi

Tanker, as well as providing management-support services (mainly for group

ships).

The international ship management department manages 6 ships,

including ships owned by Asahi Tanker and flag of convenience vessels. It also

manages 12 ships under contract by domestic ship owners. The company has a

total of 50-person management staff, including staff working at overseas offices


5

in Korea, the Philippines, and Slovenia, and Indonesia. It manages 132

Japanese and 500 foreign crewmembers.

The subject company of this study, the Magsaysay Maritime Corp - Asahi

Marine Co. Ltd., based in Manila was managing the crewing of 13 vessels at the

time this study was conducted. Aboard these 13 vessels were 15 Europeans, 5

Japanese, 7 Koreans and 7 Indonesians. A total of 256 Filipino crews were

onboard and 110 on vacation leave.

As a matter of both legal and operational policies, the average contractual

period of employment of the Filipino officers including the Master is 6 months;

while the ratings including Chief Cook and Messman are 9 months. The contract

for the crew may be extended or shortened, depending on the location of the

vessel as well as the request of the crew on board. In offering the tenure of

employment, the crew management also sometimes takes into account the

number of crews on shore who have waited for their vessel assignment for a long

time. In this case, the company does not grant any extension request from the

respective crew aboard the vessel.

As a matter of hiring policy of Human Resource Management Division, the

company assesses a seafarer’s capability to perform the requirements of his job

position aboard the ship. As such, the seafarer applicant is typically screened,

reviewed and validated through a battery of physical, psychological, intellectual

and aptitude tests. The supporting papers or documents are required to be

submitted together with several certifications that attest the seamen’s level of

work competence or proficiency.


6

The ship crewing management is always concerned on the attitude of the

seafarers towards work and company. As much as possible, the company wants

that each seafarer is able to complete his work contract aboard the ship within

the required period of time and return ashore at the end of contracted period with

records of good behavioral performance as well as job performance.

Since 2008 up to the time the study was conducted, the company had

minimal records of early repatriations as well as termination of contracts due to

serious cases of physical and psychological disorders. However, the Personnel

Division received reports of various cases of sick leaves due to slight or

moderate or serious physical illnesses. There are also reports of problems

concerning cases of seamen’s misbehavior and workers’ conflicts aboard the

ships.

The topic was considered important because, on the one hand, the

positive attitude of seafarers towards work and the environment where they work

can lead them to higher success in their chosen fields of work. Result of the

study was also expected to provide feedbacks on general attitude performance

of seafarers that can be used by the company in the rehiring or renewal of their

contracts. On the other hand, an adverse attitude may have negative

consequence both to the company and the seafarers. If the number of seafarers

with this type of attitude dominates the crew pools, the future planning for a

balanced supply of good and well experienced seafarers aboard the ships of the

company’s principal may likewise be adversely affected.


7

From the foregoing perspectives, the current study was pursued to

analyze whether or not significant relationship existed between the attitude

towards work environment aboard the ships of Filipino seafarers and the levels

of their emotional competence and personality so that intervention measures

can be introduced by the company to improve prevailing situation.

C. Statement of the Problem

The study analyzed the relationship between the seafarers’ attitude

toward work environment aboard the ships and the level of their emotional

intelligence and personality traits. Specifically, the study sought answers the

following questions:

1. What is the attitude of the seafarers towards the following work

environment aboard the ship:

1.1 Physical Setting;

1.2 Emotional Setting; and

1.3 Social Setting?

2. How do the seafarers describe their personality traits and emotional

intelligence level in terms of the following:

2.1 Personality Traits

2.1.1 Extraversion;

2.1.2 Agreeableness;

2.1.3 Conscientiousness;

2.1.4 Emotional Stability; and


8

2.1.5 Openness?

2.2 Emotional Intelligence

2.2.1 Self awareness;

2.2.2 Social awareness;

2.2.3 Relationship with management; and

2.2.4 Social skills?

3. Is there a significant relationship between the overall attitude of

seafarers towards work environment and their emotional intelligence and

personality traits?

4. Can the level of emotional intelligence and personality traits of the

seafarers predict their overall attitude towards work environment aboard the

ship?

5. Based on the findings of the study, what intervention measure can

be proposed to the management of the crewing company to improve the attitude

of the seafarers toward work environment aboard the ship?

D. Statement of Hypotheses

The following null hypothesis was tested at 0.05 level of significance:

Ho There is no significant relationship between the attitude of seafarers

towards work environment and the level of their emotional intelligence and

personality traits?
9

E. Significance of the Study

Filipino Seafarers – They will benefit from this study because the

contents and findings would reveal the actual reactions of the seafarers towards

a given situation aboard the ship. From the situations, the seafarers can compare

and validate their own experiences and reactions and be able to assess the logic

of their decisions relative to the pursuance of their career.

Magsaysay Maritime Corporation - Asahi Marine Co. Ltd. – The

Company will be highly benefited from this study, because the main respondents

of the questionnaires are their own seafarers. From the data gathered and

presented in the study, the company can obtain vital information about the

attitude of the seafarers towards the job dimensional factors accorded to them

aboard the ships. From the inputs, the company can develop future courses of

actions that will be mutually beneficial to seafarers and the employer.

Ship Manning/Crewing Agencies – They can obtain good ideas on how

the reactions and behavior of seafarers to a given set of physical, emotional and

social setting accorded by shipping company to their seafarers. From the inputs,

they can assess their own weaknesses and strengths and develop the

appropriate measures for improvement.

Shipping Companies – They will know the problems being encountered

by ship-crewing companies who are providing the manning or crewing needs of

their fleets of ships. They can better understand the influence of good physical,
10

emotional and social settings aboard the ships over the physical and mental

fitness of the seafarers.

Human Resource Practitioners – They will gain ideas on what policies

and directions are needed by the management relative to the physical, social and

emotional needs of the seafarers . It can serve as a key towards development

of better management-labor relationship.

Maritime Training Centers – They will know the extent to which the

seafarers need training programs relating to socio-emotional upliftment.

Maritime Schools – The schools can develop programs for enhancement

of subjects towards building up the emotional and social strengths of the cadets

or maritime students. It will improve the level of knowledge and skills of the

students.

Future Researchers – There are rare studies and researches in the

Philippines concerning the psychological impact of work environment on attitude

of seafarers. The future researchers can explore from the results of this study

and develop topics for further studies or investigations in order to provide more

bases towards development of future actions on the problems disclosed in this

study.

F. Scope and Delimitations

The study included only the determination and analysis of the magnitude

and significance of relationship between the attitudes of seafarers towards work

environment aboard the ships in terms of variables such as: physical, emotional
11

and social settings and their personality traits and emotional intelligence. The

personality traits indicators were limited to the five top dimensions of personality

such as extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability and

openness adopted by John (1999); De Raad (2000) and Zimbardo (2002).

The emotional intelligence level covered only the indicators such as: self

awareness, social awareness, relationship with management and social skills, as

adopted by Daniel Goleman (1998). The study involved only the 154 Filipino

crews and officers aboard the ships of the Magsaysay Maritime Corporation -

Asahi Marine Co. Ltd, operating in Manila Office, who actually and voluntarily

participated in the study. The study was conducted from August 2011 until

January 2012.
12

Chapter 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

In this Chapter, the literature and studies deemed related to the current

research are presented. The topics included those pertaining to seafarers’ attitude

towards work environment aboard the ships and the influence of their personality

traits and emotional intelligence on this attitude.

A. Review of Related Literature (Foreign and Local)

Concepts and theories about attitude and traits of a person have been the

subjects of many discussions and views of previous authors. According to Daniel

Goleman ( 1998) emotional intelligence or ‘EQ” or “EI” is a collection of skills which

fall into four quadrants such as follow: (1) self awareness , which comprised

emotional self-awareness, accurate self-assessment and self –confidence; (2) self-

management, which comprised self-control, trustworthiness, conscientiousness,

adaptability, achievement orientation and initiative; (3) other awareness, which

comprised empathy, organizational awareness and service orientation; and (4)

social skills, which comprised teamwork and collaboration, developing others,

influence, communication leadership, and conflict management.

Goleman’s (1998) theory was described by Goldsmith (2009). She explained

that emotional intelligence refers to that ability of a person to recognize his owns

emotion and to understand what's causing them, and reflect on them for the sake of
13

emotional and intellectual growth. The idea is that people who are emotionally

intelligent are able to maintain positive mental states because of their ability to

manage their emotions. The research disclosed that high performers had stronger

relationship skills than average performers.

A person's attitude represents how they feel or their state of mind about

something. Many features of working in an organization can cause a person to have

a poor attitude about their jobs and organizations. Some people adopt a poor

attitude because they often resent their environment no matter what is going on

around them. Some people feel poorly about themselves, which affects their attitude

about their environment, as well. In contrast, some people work hard to keep a

positive attitude. These people often have better overall health and can effectively

address major challenges in the workplace, as well (retrieved from

http://managementhelp.org/personalwellness/improving-attitude.htm, July 2007).

The tolerance of a person to a stressor depends on how he reacts to it. This

means that some stressors may bring serious implications to one person but not

necessarily to others. Thus, individuals appear to differ in the extent to which they

are susceptible or tolerant to stress. At work, a person may encounter stress due to

conflicting role in a given assignment, ambiguity or instructions, overloading, work

environment, changes and relationship with others ((Villaluz and Oblepias, 2008).

Peak performance at work is achieved if stress is managed effectively and

adverse impacts are reduced Prominent stressors in the workplace include factors

such as overload, time pressure, organizational and personal change, technology,

career challenges and conflict. Stress arising from overload occurs in two forms;
14

one is in the form of excessive amount of work and the other is when an individual is

ill-prepared for work (Mark,1997, as cited by Villaluz, et.al , 2008).

Different jobs vary greatly in the amount of stress they generate. People also

differ in what causes them to experience stress. Both qualitative and quantitative

overloading are usually the causes of stress in a workplace. In addition, stress

causes may include responsibility for others, lack of participation in decisions,

performance evaluations of appraisals, working conditions and change within an

organization. Some people experience stress because they are detached from the

world around them; they lack warm interpersonal relationships. (Stoner and

Freeman, 1989; Stoner, 1997; and Newstrom and Davis, 2002).

Personal sources of stress arise from non-work and work-related factors. The

non-work issues are family and intimate relationships, marriage, divorce, health

issues, financial problems, raising children and even sexual orientation. Angry

people or people with difficult personalities are also sources of stress because of the

conflict they cause in a person’s work and life. Changes can be enormously source

of stress. Change for most people can be from moving to a new home, to a new

relationship or changing themselves. (Aamodth and Raynes, 2001).

A cultured people refer to a change in employee’s values, norms, attitudes,

beliefs and behavior. Changes in culture and people pertain to how employees think;

these are changes in the mindset. Two specific tools for changing people and culture

are training and development programs and organizational development (Daft,

2005).
15

People are generally more willing to adapt when they want to please others,

gain approval and learn about their work environment. Many of the approaches help

shaped the attitude, thoughts and behavior of employees. The broad environment

that people live in is their social culture. People need to accept and appreciates the

value that a diversity of cultural background (Newstrom and Davis, 2002).

In a team or group’s perspective, Lassiter (2004) felt that the team needs to

create emotionally intelligent norms, that refer to the attitudes and behaviors that

eventually become habits. This kind of attitude supports behaviors for building trust,

group identity and group efficacy. When people feel good, they work better, are

more creative, and are more productive. Good feelings are like lubrication for the

brain. It means that mental efficiency goes up, memory is sharpened, and people

can understand directions and make better decisions.

Problems of seafarers aboard the ship are varied. Cultural differences could

be one of these. Deale and James (2008) described that cultural differences often

result in the confrontation and clash of cultures and nationalities aboard ship. Certain

nationalities should never be put together on the same ship because racism and

abuse are prevalent on many open registry ships today.

The Philippine Online Chronicles (POC, 2011) reported that the Overseas

Filipino Workers (OFWs) are very much prone to mental illnesses given the

psychological stresses of their life abroad as they work away from their families for

prolonged period of time. Among the groups, the Filipino seafarers especially those

working in cargo ships and tankers and isolated out at sea for many months are

highly vulnerable or prone to mental illness.


16

The plight of seafarers has been the concerned of relevant organization. The

International Committee on Seafarers’ Welfare (ICSW), released a booklet entitled

“Guidelines for Mental Care Onboard Merchant Ships” (ICSW 2009) that describes

that stress, harassment and bullying, anxiety, fatigue, disruptive thinking and

behavior and addiction to alcohol and drugs are the common causes of mental

illnesses of seafarers.

B. Review of Related Studies (Foreign and Local)

The positive nature of a committed attitude of people to work is also

supported by the correlation between enjoyment of work and enjoyment of life and

existence in general. Without relating them to other aspects of life such as family

and leisure, it is evident that a great number of people show a strong sense of

commitment to their work. Many people give precedence to things outside work,

such as family, relatives and friends (Eriksson, 1998).

Emotional intelligence and self-efficacy to work attitudes of 475 secondary

school teachers in southwestern Nigeria have significant relationship. Emotional

intelligence and self-efficacy of the teachers should be enhanced to improve their

work attitudes (Salami, 2007).

Affective characteristics such as personality traits and emotional intelligence

serve as vehicle through which the teachers’ professional skills and qualifications

could work to produce effective outcomes on their schools (Adepoju, 2001).

It is more useful and interesting to consider how emotional intelligence

contributes to effective performance at work, the unique contributions of emotional


17

intelligence and self-efficacy to important work-related attitudes, behavior and

outcomes have not received much empirical attention and support (Cherniss, 2000).

The big five dimensions of personality can facilitate organizational change at

an individual level by exploring relationship between attributes and attitudes towards

organizational change. Relationship existed between personality traits and

employees attitudes towards change (Vakola, Tsaousis, & Nikolaou, 2004).

Deaths aboard merchant ships by depression leading to suicide have been

widely reported. This resulted in the damage to the seafarers, their families and ship

owners. It strongly demonstrates the need for everybody connected with the

international maritime shipping industry to do something about it (Iversen, 2009).

Physical factor in work environment as well as job dimensional factors has

positive, but low and negligible relationship with organizational effectiveness

indicators such as physical security, social contact, symbolic identification, task

instrumentality, pleasure and growth (Lorayes, 2002).

There were no sufficient evidences to show significant relationship between

the academic grades and personal attributes of the groups of maritime students.

The personality factors and emotional competence factors were not predictors of

their academic grade performance of these two groups of students (Relucio, 2011).

When exposed to the four major types of stressors such as personal

problems, job requirements, organizational requirements and interrelationships,

faculty members of a university were most affected by their personal problems

because they felt that these concerned their own family’s financial, health, and

routine problems. They were least affected by interpersonal relationships stressors


18

because they can avoid these types of stressors if they knew how to set the limits of

their relationships with their peers, superiors, students and other people they deal

with while at work (Villaluz and Oblepias, 2010).

Filipino seafarers in all levels working aboard the ship shared the same

feeling that economic factors, behavioral factors and physical factors hindered their

career development except for the social factors. The support level groups felt that

social factors hindered the seafarer’s desire for career growth. They were easily

affected by homesickness; the foods served aboardship as well as the presence of

different nationalities to work with (Anacta, 2011).

The demands of the job; the level of control seafarers have over their work;

the support received from management and colleagues; relationships at work; the

seafarers’ role in the organization; change and how it is managed are the six key

areas or risk factors that can cause work related stress to seafarers. When under

severe stress, a seafarer fails to take clear-cut decisions, reevaluate and reassesses

priorities and lifestyles, and ultimately tends to fall into unproductive distractions

(ICSW, 2009).

Other factors that add to psychological or mental illnesses of seafarers

include loneliness, short ship turnaround times, lack of shore leave, separation from

spouses and families, job retention, and long working hours (Iversen, 2006).

Working conditions aboard the ships of seafarers differed by country but did

not reflect working conditions in general. Further studies are necessary to describe

more closely the influence of work schedules on the health and social life of

seafarers. (Jensen, Sorensen, Thomas, Canals, Nikolic and Hu, 2006).


19

Cross cultural tolerance was evident with minor degree of social distance

frequently existing between members of different cultures of officers and ratings.

Social isolation correlated more strongly with company policies and the on board

practice of senior officers. Use of first languages rather than a common language

fostered suspicion amongst multilingual crews. The impact of seafarers’ absences

on community and family life is considerable. (Kahveci, E., Lane, T, Sampson, H.

(2001).

C. Synthesis of the Related Literature and Studies

People who are emotionally intelligent are able to maintain positive mental

states because of their ability to manage their emotions (Goleman’s 1998; as cited

by Goldsmith, 2009) A person's attitude represents how they feel or their state of

mind about something ( http://managementhelp.org/personalwellness/improving-

attitude.htm, July 2007) The tolerance of a person to a stressor depends on how he

reacts to it (Villaluz and Oblepias, 2010). Stress, harassment and bullying, anxiety,

fatigue, disruptive thinking and behavior and addiction to alcohol and drugs are the

common causes of mental illnesses of seafarers (ICSW 2009).

Stress arising from overload occurs in two forms; one is in the form of

excessive amount of work and the other is when an individual is ill-prepared for work

(Mark,1997, as cited by Villaluz, et.al, 2010). Some people experience stress

because they are detached from the world around them; they lack warm

interpersonal relationships (Stoner and Freeman, 1989; Stoner, 1997; and

Newstrom and Davis, 2002). The non-work issues are family and intimate
20

relationships, marriage, divorce, health issues, financial problems, raising children

and even sexual orientation (Aamodth and Raynes (2001)

A cultured people refer to a change in employee’s values, norms, attitudes,

beliefs and behavior (Daft, 2005). Many of the approaches help shaped the attitude,

thoughts and behavior of employees. People need to accept and appreciates the

value that a diversity of cultural background (Newstrom and Davis, 2002). Team

needs to create emotionally intelligent norms, that refer to the attitudes and

behaviors that eventually become habits (Lassiter, 2004).

Certain nationalities should never be put together on the same ship because

racism and abuse are prevalent on many open registry ships today (Dreele and

James, 2008). Filipino seafarers especially those working in cargo ships and tankers

who are isolated out at sea for many months are highly vulnerable or prone to

mental illness (POC, 2011).

Many people give precedence to things outside work, such as family, relatives

and friends (Eriksson, 1998). Emotional intelligence and self-efficacy of the teachers

should be enhanced to improve their work attitudes (Salami, 2007). Personality traits

and emotional intelligence serve as vehicle through which the teachers’ professional

skills and qualifications could work to produce effective outcomes on their schools

(Adepoju, 2001). It is more useful and interesting to consider how emotional

intelligence contributes to effective performance at work (Cherniss, 2000).

Relationship existed between personality traits and employees attitudes towards

change (Vakola, Tsaousis, & Nikolaou, 2004).


21

Deaths aboard merchant ships by depression leading to suicide demonstrate

the need for everybody connected with the international maritime shipping industry

to do something about it (Iversen, 2009). Physical factor in work environment as well

as job dimensional factors has positive, but low and negligible relationship with

organizational effectiveness (Lorayes, 2002). The personality factors and emotional

competence factors were not predictors of their academic grade performance of

these two groups of students (Relucio, 2011).

When exposed to the four major types of stressors such as personal

problems, faculty members were least affected by interpersonal relationships

stressors because they can avoid these types of stressors. (Villaluz and Oblepias,

2008).

Filipino seafarers in support level positions were easily affected by

homesickness; the foods served aboardship as well as the presence of different

nationalities to work with (Anacta, 2011). When under severe stress, a seafarer fails

to take clear-cut decisions, reevaluate and reassesses priorities and lifestyles, and

ultimately tends to fall into unproductive distractions (ICSW, 2009).

Factors that add to psychological or mental illnesses of seafarers include

loneliness, short ship turnaround times, lack of shore leave, separation from

spouses and families, job retention, and long working hours (Iversen, 2006).

Further studies are necessary to describe more closely the influence of work

schedules on the health and social life of seafarers (Jensen, Sorensen, Thomas,

Canals, Nikolic and Hu (2006).


22

Cross cultural tolerance was evident with minor degree of social distance

frequently existing between members of different cultures. The impact of seafarers’

absences on community and family life is considerable. (Kahveci, E., Lane, T,

Sampson, H., 2001).

D. Theoretical and Conceptual Framework

This study used the theoretical finding of Iversen (2006), who described that

factors such as psychological or mental illnesses of seafarers include loneliness,

short ship turnaround times, lack of shore leave, separation from spouses and

families, job retention, and long working hours.

It further utilized the theories established by previous authors mentioned or

discussed under the reviewed literature and studies such as: Anacta (2011); ICSW

(2009) ; and very essentially those postulated by Goleman (1998) on the use of the

four variables or indicators of emotional intelligence as well as those described by

De Raad (2000), on the criterion for personality traits. It added the theories of

Petrides, K.V., Pita, R., Kokkinaki, F.( 2007).

The current study postulated that attitude of seafarers towards work

environment can be influenced by their emotional intelligence level and personality

traits. The interrelationship among the variables can be seen in Figure No. 1. It

showed that the major dependent variable was the attitude of seafarers towards

work environmental factors. The major dependent variable was composed of attitude

towards three factors such as: physical setting, emotional setting and social setting

aboard the ships.


23

Filipino Seafarer

Dependent Variables

Work Environment
 Physical setting
 Emotional setting
 Social setting

Independent Variables

Personality Traits (positive or Emotional Intelligence


negative)  Self awareness
 Extraversion or introversion  Self- management
 Agreeableness or antagonism  Relationship with
 Conscientiousness or lack of management
direction  Social skills
 Emotional stability or neuroticism
 Openness and closed to experience

Figure 1

Conceptual Framework
24

The major independent variables were reflected in another frame. The

emotional intelligence level indicators were: self-awareness, self-management,

social skills and relationship with management.

The other frame contained the personality variables, represented by the top

five personality traits such as the positive and negative traits: extraversion or

introversion, agreeableness or antagonism, conscientiousness or lack of direction,

emotional stability or neuroticism and openness or closed to experience. The

linkages, as illustrated, clearly outlined the connections between or among the

variables measured in the study.

E. Definition of Terms

The following terms, words and phrases are operationally used in this

research:

Antagonism – It is a negative personal trait and the opposite of

agreeableness. It pertains to a person’s state of being rough, cold and unfriendly,

impersonal, unsympathetic, unkind, hard and rigid, inconsiderate and rude; impolite,

insensitive and unaffectionate, demanding and selfish; ill-tempered and shrewd,

ruthless and coarse,

Agreeableness – It refers to a positive personal traits such as; being happy

and cheerful, obliging, sympathetic, kind and warm, helpful, considerate, pleasant

and tolerant, genial, affectionate and sensitive, soft-hearted.


25

Attitude- It refers to the definition IBS Center for Management Research

(2010), which means individual’s personality is the way in which he views and

understands himself, and the way in which he interacts with people. However, it is

the person’s attitude that enables him to adapt to a given environment.

Attitude towards work environment - It refers to the behavior of seafarers

aboard the ships measured in terms of indicators such as physical setting, emotional

setting and social setting.

AME – It is an abbreviation for Associate in Marine Engineering, a two-year

ladderized course leading to BSME (Bachelor of Science in Marine Engineering)

(please see BSME). This course is now obsolete and was change to BSME.

BSCS – It is an abbreviation for Bachelor of Science in Computer Science, a

program of study which aims to provide skills and knowledge to students in

experimentation, and engineering that form the basis for the design and use of

computers. This is classified as “Others” in the Educational Attainment.

BSME – It is an abbreviation for Bachelor of Science in Marine Engineering.

This program of study provides knowledge and skills to students on the

fundamentals of the operation of the ship’s main engine, adjunct and auxiliary

machinery and the safe operation and maintenance of the ship’s electrical and

refrigeration machines. It aims to produce graduates who are able to work in the

marine industry.
26

BSMeE – It refers to Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering, a

program which provides skills and knowledge to students in design, production, and

use of machinery and tools, as well as the generation and transmission of heat and

mechanical power. This is classified as “Others” in the Educational Attainment.

BSMT – It refers to Bachelor of Science in Marine Transportation. This

program is designed to provide knowledge and skills to students in marine

transportation and the different navigational techniques necessary to become a

competent shipman..

Conscientiousness- It is a positive personal trait which pertains to a

person’s being alert and ambitious, firm, careful and cautious, responsible and

dependable, stern and strict, deliberate, organized, neat and orderly, steady and

consistent, industrious and perfectionist, sophisticated/.

Emotional Intelligence Level- It comprised of measures to determine the

extent of emotional understanding of seafarers about him comprised of factors such

as self awareness, social awareness, relationship with management and social

skills.

Emotional setting – It refers to the environmental factors aboard the ship

which stimulates response to individual person in terms of emotions such as

satisfaction and pleasure, motivation, personal enjoyment,

Emotional stability- It is a positive personality trait which pertains to a

persons’ state of being indefatigable; weariless, unselfconscious, patient, relaxed,

undemanding, unemotional, informal; unenvious, imperturbable.


27

Extraversion – It is a positive personal trait pertaining to gregariousness or

being sociable, warmth or outgoing, active or energetic, assertive or forceful,

enthusiastic confident and bold, persistent and competitive

Introversion – It is a negative personal trait of a person such as: shyness,

quietness, timidity, ingressiveness, submissiveness, restrained, unsociable,

seclusive and uncommunicative, cowardly- passive and inner directed.

Lack of direction – It is a negative personal trait of an individual person

which refers to being reckless, unruly, impulsiveness, irresponsible, disorganized,

careless, unstable, inefficient, and indecisive.

Neuroticism – It is a negative personal trait; excitable, self-pitying, emotional,

irritable, temperamental, compulsive, possessive and jealous, meddlesome, nosey

Openness – It is a positive personal trait which refers to state of being open-

minded, imaginative, curious, cultured, meditative, deep , analytical, intellectual, and

philosophical

Personality- As defined by the IBS Center for Management Research (2010)

and used in this study, it refers to the way in which the seafarer views and

understands himself, and the way in which he interacts with people and situation.

Personality traits - As those defined by De Raad (2000) and used in this

study, it pertains to positive and negative qualities and characteristics of seafarers.

These include the five traits such as extraversion and it opposite (introversion);

agreeableness and its opposite (antagonism); conscientiousness and its opposite

(lack of direction); emotional stability and its opposite (neuroticism) and openness

and its opposite (closed to experience).


28

Physical setting- It is an environmental factor aboard the ship that stimulates

or triggers seafarer’s attitudinal response. It comprised factors such as job schedule

or time, tasks involved in the job, safety and security, health and sanitation condition,

job policies and systems, food and accommodation.

Relationship with Management - It is an emotional intelligence factor that

pertains to an emotional intelligence indicator comprised of level of empathy,

organizational awareness, service orientation.

Self-Awareness – It is an emotional intelligence indicator that pertains to

emotional awareness on owns degree of emotions, accuracy of self assessment,

self confidence

Self-Management – It is an emotional intelligence indicator that pertains to

self control, trustworthiness, conscientiousness, adaptability, achievement

orientation and initiative

Social Skills - It is the ability to develop others, leadership skills, influence,

communication skills, state of being a change catalyst, ability to confront

management, ability to build bonds, and cooperation or teamwork ability.

SRC – It is an abbreviation for Seafarers Rating Course, a one-year course

that covers basic study on Deck and Stewardship duties, functions and

responsibilities.
29

Chapter 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

In this chapter, the methods used in the conduct of the study are

presented. The methods include the following: research design, sampling design,

instrumentation, and validation of instrument, procedure and statistical tools.

A. Research Design

The study utilized the descriptive design because all situations and data

pertain to the present time. Qualitative and quantitative data were also used to

discuss and present the analysis and meet the objective of this research.

Qualitative discussions were done in providing information regarding historical

background of the Subject Company and respondents of the study. The

quantitative discussions were made on the interpretation of the presented data

and findings of the study. Both descriptive and inferential methods of statistical

treatments were incorporated in the design.

B. Population, Sample Size and Sampling Technique

Population and Samples of Respondents of Study

The respondents of the study were the officers and crews aboard the

ships of Asahi Marine Fleet Company of the Magsaysay Maritime Corporation.

The entire population of the officers and non-officers aboard was 366.
30

All of them were targeted as respondents of the study and therefore given

a survey questionnaire to participate as key informant. However, from the 366

total, only 154 actually responded and returned the written survey. Below is the

table that provides information about the number of actual respondents of the

study, as grouped according to the work station or department to which they

belong.

Table 3.1

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents of the Study Grouped by


their Work Station/Department Groups

Frequency
(No. of Percentage from Total
Work Station On Board
Respondents) (%)

Deck Department 96 62.30 %

Engine Department 58 37.70%

Total 154 100.00 %

As revealed in Table 3.1, the total respondents were 154. A total of 96 or

about 62.30% came from Deck Department and 58 represented the Engine

Department.
31

Profile of Respondents

The series of tables presented below revealed the data concerning profile

of key informants or respondents of the study in terms of years of work

experience aboard the ship, years of service with current company, age bracket,

and family status.

Table 3.2
Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents of the Study according to
their Years of Work Experience On Board

Frequency
(No. of Percentage
Years of Experience On Board Respondents) (%)
2 Years and below 31 20.10 %
Between 3 and 6 years 37 24.00%
Between 7 and 9 years 16 10.40 %
Between 10 years and above 70 45.50%
Total 154 100.00 %

A total of 70 or 40.50% out of 154 respondents have between 10 years

experience and above. Roughly 20% have only two years and below

experience. Only 16 seafarers or about 10.40% clustered between 7 and 9

years.
32

Table 3.3

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents of the Study According


to their Years of Work in Service To Company

Frequency
Length of Service in (No. of Percentage
the Company Respondents) (%)
3 Years and below 61 39.60 %
Between 4 and 6 years 63 40.90%
Between 7 and10 years 13 8.40%
More than 10 years 17 11.00%
Total 154 100.00%

Approximately 40.90% acquired between 4 and 6 years length of service

with the company. They were followed by 61 personnel with only 3 years and

less service and comprised about 39.60%.

The lowest group was composed of 13 crews and officers or about 8.40%

who served the company between 7 and 10 years. A total of 17 respondents

reached more than 10 years of service with the company.


33

Table 3.4

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents of the Study


According to Their Age Bracket

Frequency
(No. of Percentage
Age Bracket Respondents) (%)
30 Years and below 48 31.20%
Between 31 and 35 Years 34 22.10%
Between 36 and 40 Years 34 22.10%
Between 40 Years and above 38 24.70%
Total 154 100.00%

By age bracket, a total of 48 or about 31.20% belonged to the bracket of

30 years and below. Approximately 38 or 24.70% comprised those between 40

years and above; while 34 each belonged to the groups of 31-35 years old and

36 and 40 years old.

Table 3.5
Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents of the Study
According to their Family Status

Frequency
(No. of Percentage
With and Without Children Respondents) (%)
“No” Answer 38 24.7
“Yes” Answer 116 75.3
Total 154 100.0
34

In terms of number of respondents who answered the question if they

have children, a total of 38 or about 24.7% said “ No or None”. The very great

majority or a total of 116 that comprised about 75.3% responded “Yes”.

Table 3.6
Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents of the Study
According to their Family Status

Frequency
Breadwinner and Non- (No. of Percentage
Breadwinner Respondents) (%)
‘No” Answer 41 26.6
‘Yes” Answer 113 73.4
Total 154 100.0

Finally, respondents who responded that they were breadwinners in the

family or those who said “Yes” composed of 113 or about 73.40%. Those who

responded “No” comprised of 41 respondents or about 26.60%.

C. Instrumentation

The researcher utilized written survey questionnaires as the main

instrument. The written survey questionnaire has four important parts. The first

part asked questions about the profile of the respondents. The second part asked

about the attitude of respondents towards their work environment aboard the

ships. The third part asked questions about their emotional intelligence level. The

final or fourth part asked about their personality.

The first and second parts of the questionnaire were constructed,

developed and validated by the researcher with the help of my adviser. These
35

twin portions were about the profile of respondents and attitude towards

environmental factors.

The third part of the questionnaire asked questions about the emotional

intelligence factors. The questionnaire utilized the emotional intelligence

variables designed by the Goleman (1998). However, the questionnaire and

measurement of the intelligence level redesigned and constructed to suit the

objective of this study and the setting of the work environment.

The fourth and final set of questionnaire was designed using the five top

personality traits factors introduced by De Raad (2000). The measurement of

personality traits was, as well, constructed by the researcher and validated.

For the questions regarding attitude towards environmental factors, the

following Likert five-point rating scale and interpretation was applied. The set of

questionnaires had undergone validation. It was first shown to the adviser and

statisticians. Later, the questionnaires were subjected to the approval of the

Thesis Panel. The five-point scale was used in measuring the response of the

respondents to the questions asked in the survey on attitude of respondents.

Table 3.7 laid down the options, interval range and verbal interpretations

of the five-point scale used in the study.


36

Table 3.7

Option, Interval Range and Verbal Interpretation Used in Measuring the


Response of Key Informants to Question Rose in the Survey

Option Interval Range Verbal Interpretations

5 4.51 – 5.00 Strongly Agree/Very High

4 3.51 – 4.50 Agree/High

3 2.51 – 3.50 Uncertain/Moderate

2 1.51 – 2.50 Disagree/Low

1 1.00 – 1.50 Strongly Disagree/Very Low

For the personality and emotional intelligence level, the same five-point

scale was applied, though a different interpretation was used. The samples of the

questionnaire were appended to this paper.

D. Data gathering Procedures

Ethics was highly observed in the gathering of data. The endorsement of

the Dean of AIMS-Graduate School was secured to strengthen the request. After

the approval of the Vise President of Shipping (MMC) of the request to conduct a

survey on the approved topic of the study, questionnaires were administered to

the said subjects of the said fleet with the help of my colleagues in the Office,

members of the family and friends.


37

E. Statistical Treatment Data

The following descriptive statistics were used in the treatment of the

collected and classified data:

Percentage - It was applied to determine the value of a segment of a part

from the whole of the data. It was determined by dividing the total number of

responses in each item given by the respondent and the quotient was multiplied

by 100. The percentage was used in almost all data showing the profiles of the

respondent seafarers.

Frequency Distribution – It was applied to present each of the variable

under study such as the personal profile of the respondents as well as the survey

of their personal response concerning given statements.

Ranking – It was applied to measure the positional distance of the

percentage and the computed mean values.

Mean or Arithmetic Mean – It was used to determine the average of the

set of scores obtained by the respondents which measured the central tendency

of each set of data.

Weighted Mean- It was used to measure the responses from options of

qualitative values or descriptions. The formula will be appended in the final

paper.

Pearson r “Correlation coefficient” – It was used to determine the

existence of a relationship between the sets of x and y variables and the choice

of type of correlation for the calculation of dependent variables and whether the
38

data gathered was linear or curvilinear. The interpretation used for results of

correlation is shown in the Table below:

Table 3.8
Interpretation of Pearson r (correlation coefficient) Results
0.00 to 0.20 Very low/weak, negligible correlation
0.21 to 0.40 Definite but low/weak correlation
0.42 to 0.50 Substantial correlation
0.51 to 0.80 Marked correlation
Very high/ very strong to perfect
0.81 to 1.00
correlation
Coefficients are either negative or positive but not to exceed 1.00

t - Test for the significance of Pearson r – It was applied for testing the

significance of the correlation coefficient.

r - Square (Coefficient of Determination) – It was applied to determine

the percentage in the variations of the dependent variables as a result of change

in the independent variable.

Linear Regression – It was applied to determine the predictive capability

of the independent variables.

The PH Statistical Package 2, Microsoft Excel Program and SPSS 17.0

were used in the treatment of the statistical data gathered for this study.
39

Chapter 4

PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE DATA

In this Chapter, the data gathered are presented, analyzed and discussed.

The order of data presentation is parallel to the order of presented sub-problems in

Chapter 1 of this paper. Based on the stated sub-problems, three areas were

investigated in this study. These comprised the following: attitude of seafarers

towards work environment, level of their emotional intelligence as well as personality

traits, and the relationship between or among attitude, emotional intelligence and

personality traits. The results and discussions are presented below.

1. Attitude of Seafarers Towards Work Environment Aboard the Ship

The first sub-problem in this study pertains to the assessment of the attitude

of respondent seafarers towards work environment aboard the ship. The attitude

was measured in terms of three key indicators. These were three variables used in

determining the attitude of respondents towards work environment. These were the

physical setting, emotional setting and social setting.

2.1 Physical Setting

The attitude of respondents towards work environment aboard the ship in

terms of physical setting was measured in terms of 10 indicators, as shown in Table

4.1 of this chapter.


40

Table 4.1
Attitude of Respondents towards Physical Setting Aboard the Ship

Statements/Indicators Weighted Verbal Ranking


Mean Interpretation
1. Provides me with less rigid elements on 3.88 Agree 10
physical arrangement
2. Encourages quality of work and promotes 4.19 Agree 4
work efficiency
3. Helps me better appreciate standard work 4.31 Agree 1
performance
4. Allows me to see things work smoothly 4.19 Agree 4
5. Provides me reasonable working hours 4.12 Agree 7
6. Provides me with safe and healthy working 4.24 Agree 2
environment
7. Promotes enthusiasm and interest to work 4.21 Agree 3
8. Allows me to observe how the system and 4.13 Agree 6
processes work
9. Gives me protection from physical stress 3.95 Agree 9
10. Gives me opportunity to manipulate the 3.97 Agree 8
needed change
Overall 4.12 Agree
Legend: 1.00 – 1.50 Strongly Disagree (SD); 1.51-2.50 Disagree (D); 2.51-3.50 Uncertain (UN); 3.51-4.50 Agree
(A); 4.51-5.00 Strongly Agree (SA).

The response of the seafarers to each of the 10 statements in the survey fell

within the interval scale of 3.51-4.50 with verbal interpretation “agree”. The intensity

of their agreement to each statement, however, differed based on the numerical

values of the response. The highest degree of agreement was given to Item No. 3,

(ranked number 1) in which the respondents felt that their work environment aboard

the ship in terms of physical setting helped them to better appreciate standard work

performance. The mean clustered towards 4.31 (agree). This response may be

attributed to the fact that in all aspects of work activities aboard the ship, they are

given guidance on the required standards of quality and quantity of output.


41

The positive attitude towards physical setting was continuously sustained with

the respondents’ agreement that work environment aboard the ship provided them

with a feeling of healthy and safe environment. This can be seen in Item No. 6 with a

mean of 4.24 (agree, ranked 2). As such, they felt that the environment promoted

their enthusiasm or interest to work (Item No.7). The mean was 4.21 (ranked 3). The

seven remaining responses to statements in the survey projected highly positive

attitude towards physical setting of the work environment aboard the ship. The

lowest mean of 3.88 (ranked 10) still fell within the verbal description of “agree”. As

such they agreed that aboard the ship, the physical environment provided them with

less rigid elements on physical arrangement and even protection from physical

stress (Item 9, ranked 9), with a mean of 3.95.

The overall mean of 4.12 obviously reflected the general highly positive

attitude of the respondents towards physical setting of the work environment aboard

the ship. This result suggests that the seafarers love the physical environment

aboard the ship and such feeling has been attributed to the 10 key factors laid down

in the table.

2.2 Emotional Setting

Emotional setting, as defined in Chapter 2 of this paper, refers to the

environmental factors aboard the ship which stimulate response to individual person

in terms of emotions such as, for instance, satisfaction and pleasure, motivation,

personal enjoyment and similar factors. In determining the attitude, the respondents
42

were asked in the written survey to express their degree of agreement or

disagreement to a total of 10 settings which create emotions reflecting emotional

setting. Table 4.2 showed the results of the survey.

Table 4.2

Attitude of Respondents Towards Emotional Setting Aboard the Ship

Statements/Indicators Weighted Verbal Ranking


Mean Interpretation
1. Stimulates new thoughts and feeling 3.95 Agree 9
2. Encourages me to positively react to 4.06 Agree 4
situations
3. Promotes individual control of my 3.98 Agree 7
environment
4. Allows me to experience the joy of 3.92 Agree 10
solitude
5. Helps me to combat loneliness and 4.03 Agree 5
homesickness
6. Gives a more confident feeling about 4.19 Agree 1
myself
7. Makes me a calm and clear thinking 4.08 Agree 2
person
8. Gives me a feeling of security and 4.01 Agree 6
calmness
9. Protects me from psychological 3.98 Agree 7
stress and disorders
10. Decrease my fear and inferiority 4.08 Agree 2
complex
Overall 4.03 Agree
Legend: 1.00 – 1.50 Strongly Disagree (SD); 1.51-2.50 Disagree (D); 2.51-3.50 Uncertain (UN); 3.51-4.50
Agree (A); 4.51-5.00 Strongly Agree (SA).

Each of the 10 statements obtained a mean within the interval range of 3.51-

4.50 with a verbal interpretation of “agree”. It indicates positive emotions on the work

environment aboard the ship. Among others, the results revealed that respondents

had the highest degree of agreement in regard to Item No. 6, which pertains to self
43

confidence. The mean of 4.19 (agree, ranked one) conveyed that environment

aboard the ship gave them a more confident feeling about themselves. This was

followed by Items No. 7 and 8 with the same mean of 4.08 (agree, ranked 2). As

such, the environment gave them an emotion of calmness which enabled them to

think clearly as persons. Such emotion decreased their fear and inferiority complex.

This encouraged the respondents to act positively on given situations as indicated in

Item 2 with a mean of 4.06 (ranked 4). It helped them combat loneliness and

homesickness as manifested in Item 5, with a mean of 4.03 (ranked 5).

The remaining 6 items subjected to assessment of attitude provided all

positive reflections of attitude towards emotional settings aboard the ship. The

environment provided them with an emotion of calmness and clarity of thinking

(Item 8, ranked 6), with a mean of 4.01 (agree). They agreed (mean, 3.98) that it

promoted their emotion of individual control over their environment (Item 3, ranked

7) and protected them from psychological stress and disorders (mean, 3.98, ranked

7). The lowest rating of 3.92 (agree) was given to Item No.4 (ranked 10), which

manifested their agreement that they experienced the joy of solitude aboard the

ship. The overall mean of 4.03 (agree) strongly suggests a positive attitude of the

seafarers towards emotional setting aboard the ship.

2.3 Social Setting

The attitude of seafarers towards social setting aboard the ship also

encompassed a total of 10 key statements .The results were shown in Table number

4.3.
44

Table 4.3

Attitude of Respondents Towards Social Setting Aboard the Ship

Statements/Indicators Weighted Verbal Ranking


Mean Interpretati
on
1. Promotes social interaction of 4.08 Agree 8
individuals
2. Encourages problem solving and 4.10 Agree 6
group action
3. Promotes pleasant and 4.22 Agree 2
harmonious relationship with
people
4. Allows people to grow socially 4.05 Agree 9
5. Promotes group dynamics and 4.04 Agree 10
fosters group interaction
6. Allows to adjust myself with multi- 4.16 Agree 4
cultured co-workers
7. Builds up my confidence in dealing 4.18 Agree 3
with superiors and peers
8. Fosters good social relations and 4.10 Agree 6
increase my cross cultural
tolerance
9. Builds up my language and 4.17 Agree 5
communication skills
10. Decrease my fear and inferiority 4.23 Agree 1
complex
Overall 4.03 Agree
Legend: 1.00 – 1.50 Strongly Disagree (SD); 1.51-2.50 Disagree (D); 2.51-3.50 Uncertain (UN);
3.51-4.50 Agree (A); 4.51-5.00 Strongly Agree (SA).

Among the 10 statements given in the table, the highest mean of 4.23 (agree)

was given to Item No.10 (ranked 1). It pertains to the reduction in the feeling of fear

and inferiority complex. It suggests that aboard the ship, the interaction or mingling

of seafarers among peers, superiors and even subordinates provided them with a

comfortable feeling of belongingness.


45

This was manifested further in Item No. 7 with a mean of 4.18 (ranked 3) in

which they said that social setting built up their confidence in dealing with superiors

and peers. Such setting, allowed them to adjust themselves with multi-cultured co-

workers, as reflected in Item No. 6 with a mean of 4.16 (ranked 4).

The respondents agreed (mean, 4.17) that social setting aboard the ship built

up their language and communication skills (Item 9, ranked 5). The remaining

statements on social setting were all indicative of positive attitude of the seafarers

towards social setting. The lowest mean of 4.04 (agree) which refers to Item 5

(ranked 10) manifested their agreement that social setting promoted group dynamics

and fostered group interaction. Overall, the mean of 4.03 (agree) indicated the

respondents’ positive attitude towards social setting aboard the ship.

2.4 Summary Table on Attitude Towards Work Environment

Table 4.4 provides a holistic view of the overall results of the assessment of

attitude towards work environment along three areas, namely, physical setting,

emotional setting and social setting.

Table 4.4

Summary Table on Attitude of Filipino Seafarers Towards Work Environment


Aboard Ship
Indicators Weighted Mean Verbal Ranking
Interpretation
1. Physical Setting 4.12 Agree 2
2. Emotional Setting 4.03 Agree 3
3. Social Setting 4.13 Agree 1
Grand Mean 4.09 Agree
Legend: 1.00 – 1.50 Strongly Disagree (SD); 1.51-2.50 Disagree (D); 2.51-3.50 Uncertain (UN); 3.51-4.50 Agree
(A); 4.51-5.00 Strongly Agree (SA).
46

The highest overall positive attitude was given by the respondents to social

setting with a mean of 4.13 (agree, ranked 1). It was followed by physical setting

with a mean of 4.12 (agree, ranked 2). Lastly, the table showed the emotional setting

result with a mean of4.03 ( ranked 3). The grand mean clustered towards 4.09

(agree).

2. Personality Traits and Emotional Intelligence Level of Seafarers

As mentioned earlier on this chapter, the second problem examined in this

study pertains to the assessment of personality traits and emotional intelligence

levels of the respondent seafarers. The results and discussions are presented

below.

2.1 Personality Traits

The personality traits of seafarers were measured in terms of five key factors

and these include the following: extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness,

emotional stability and openness.

2.1.1 Extraversion

Table 4.5 revealed the survey on the personality traits of seafarers as

respondents in terms of extraversion.


47

Table 4.5

Personality Traits of Seafarers In Terms of Extraversion

Indicators Weighted Verbal Ranking


Mean Interpretation
1. Energetic and enthusiastic 3.96 High 1
2. Socially adaptable and assertive 3.81 High 4
3. Bold and self-confident 3.83 High 3
4. Shy and quiet 2.98 Moderate 5
5. Timid and unaggressive 2.91 Moderate 6
6. Reserved and restrained 3.51 High 2
Overall 3.44 Moderate
Legend: 1.00-1.50 Very Low (VL); 1.51-2.50 Low (L); 2.51-3.50 Moderate (M); 3.51-4.50 High (H); 4.51-5.00
Very High (VH)

Extraversion pertains to positive personality traits of a person that comprised

of gregariousness or being sociable, warmth, outgoingness, being active or

energetic, assertive or forceful, enthusiastic and confident, bold, persistent and

competitive. The top three extraversion traits disclosed in the table which obtained a

rating within the interval range of 3.51-4.50 or high were: energetic and enthusiastic

(ranked 1); reserved and restrained (ranked 2) and bold and self-confident (ranked

3). Except for the trait of being reserve and restrained, the other two top traits

manifested positive extraversion traits. The lowest mean of 2.91 (moderate, ranked

6) pertains to the traits of timidity and unaggresiveness and followed by ‘shy and

quiet” trait with a mean of 2.98 (moderate, ranked 5).

The overall mean clustered towards 3.44 (moderate level). The result

indicated that respondent seafarers described themselves to be more positively

extraverts rather than being negative. The dominance of positive traits in terms of

extraversion may be attributed to the nature of their work aboard the ship. They

need to be always physically strong, energetic and in good physical condition to


48

carry out tedious work. They have to be socially adaptable and assertive in their

work because of their co-workers are oftentimes multi-nationals. They need to be

bold and confident to protect them from being trampled upon.

However, despite their positive extraversion traits, they also possessed some

degrees of opposite traits such as shyness, timidity, and unaggresiveness and

restrained. The presence of these negative traits mitigated the high level of their

positive extraversion traits resulting in the overall rating under the “moderate level”.

Thus, the respondent seafarers were categorized to be moderately extraverts.

2.1.2 Agreeableness

Table 4.6 contains the data on personality traits of respondents in terms of

agreeableness.

Table 4.6

Personality Traits of Seafarers In Terms of Agreeableness

Indicators Weighted Mean Verbal Ranking


Interpretation
1. Merry and cheerful 3.88 High 1
2. Soft-hearted and agreeable 3.71 High 2
3. Kind, warm and sympathetic 3.65 High 3
4. Cold and unfriendly 2.45 Low 6
5. Hard and rigid 2.72 Moderate 4
6. Unsympathetic and harsh 2.52 Moderate 5
Overall 3.15 Moderate
Legend: 1.00-1.50 Very Low (VL); 1.51-2.50 Low (L); 2.51-3.50 Moderate (M); 3.51-4.50 High (H);
4.51-5.00 Very High (VH)
49

Agreeableness refers to a positive personal trait of a person, which comprised

of qualities of being happy or cheerful, obliging, sympathetic, kind and warm, helpful,

considerate, pleasant and tolerant, genial, affectionate and sensitive as well as soft-

hearted.

As shown in the table, the top three personality traits in terms of

agreeableness garnered a mean within the interval range of 3.51-4.50 and with

verbal interpretation of “high”. These three agreeableness traits were: being “merry

and cheerful”, with a mean of 3.88 (high, ranked 1); soft-hearted and agreeable with

a mean of 3.71 (high, ranked 2) and kind or warm and sympathetic, with a mean of

3.65 (high, ranked 3).

Noticeably, respondents rated the three remaining negative rates within the

interval range of 2.51-3.50 or under the verbal description of “moderate level”. The

result indicated the high regard of the respondents to their positive personality traits,

as far as agreeableness was concerned. The results of negative traits mitigated the

twin positive agreeableness traits. Therefore, the overall agreeableness trait reached

only a mean of 3.15 or moderate level. Hence, the respondents achieved moderate

level of agreeableness as part of their personality traits.

2.1.3 Conscientiousness

Table 4.7 bears the results of personality traits concerning conscientiousness.


50

Table 4.7

Personality Traits of Seafarers In Terms of Conscientiousness

Indicators Weighted Verbal Ranking


Mean Interpretation
1. Alert and ambitious 3.93 High 1
2. Careful and cautious 3.93 High 1
3. Stern and Strict 3.20 Moderate 3
4. Reckless and unruly 2.29 Low 4
5. Unreliable and negligent 2.18 Low 6
6. Haphazard and illogical 2.25 Low 5
Overall 2.96 Moderate
Legend: 1.00-1.50 Very Low (VL); 1.51-2.50 Low (L); 2.51-3.50 Moderate (M); 3.51-4.50 High (H);
4.51-5.00 Very High (VH)

Conscientiousness is a positive personal trait of a person which pertains to

his being alert and ambitious, firm, careful and cautious, responsible and

dependable, stern and strict, deliberate, organized, neat and orderly, steady and

consistent, industrious and perfectionist and sophisticated. The table disclosed that

the respondents rated themselves high in terms positive traits under

conscientiousness. Traits such as, being alert and ambitious as well as being careful

and cautious both obtained a mean of 3.93 (high) and ranked in the same position,

as number one.

Negative traits pertains to traits which opposed the conscientiousness

qualities, such as being stern and strict, reckless and unruly, unreliable and

negligent, haphazard and illogical, were all given rating that fell within the lower

level or with verbal description from moderate to low levels. The impact of negative

traits over the positive conscientiousness traits resulted in the overall mean of 2.96.

Thus, the respondents were only moderately conscientious.


51

2.1.4 Emotional Stability

Table 4.8 presents the results concerning personality traits of respondent

seafarers in terms of emotional stability.

Table 4.8

Personality Traits of Seafarers In Terms of Emotional Stability

Indicators Weighted Verbal Ranking


Mean Interpretation
1. Unselfconsciousness and 2.73 Moderate 4
unexcitable
2. Unenvious and unassuming 2.86 Moderate 3
3. Weariless and indefatigable 2.90 Moderate 2
4. Excitable and meddlesome 2.99 Moderate 1
5. Emotional and irritable 2.59 Moderate 6
6. Defensive and temperamental 2.66 Moderate 5
Overall 2.79 Moderate
Legend: 1.00-1.50 Very Low (VL); 1.51-2.50 Low (L); 2.51-3.50 Moderate (M); 3.51-4.50 High (H);
4.51-5.00 Very High (VH)

The tabular data interestingly showed that each of the rating given by the key

informants of the study was within the interval range of 2.51-3.50 (moderate level).

The highest mean of 2.99 (moderate, ranked 1) was given to the negative trait of

being “excitable and meddlesome”. It was followed by the positive trait of “weariless

and indefatigable, with a mean of 2.90 (moderate, ranked 2), and ranked 3, another

positive trait of “unenvious and unassuming”, with a mean of 2.86. The lowest mean

of 2.59 (moderate, ranked 6) pertains to the trait of “emotional and irritable”. The

overall mean of 2.79 indicated that the respondent seafarers achieved moderate

emotional stability.
52

2.1.5 Openness

The traits of respondent seafarers in terms of openness, as part of their

personality traits can be seen in the next table.

Table 4.9

Personality Traits of Seafarers In Terms of Openness

Indicators Weighted Verbal Ranking


Mean Interpretation
1. Theatrical and eloquent 3.18 Moderate 2
2. Meditative and contemplating 2.61 Moderate 3
3. Analytical and perceptive 3.34 Moderate 1
4. Unimaginative and inarticulate 2.52 Moderate 4
5. Shallow and terse 2.46 Low 5
6. Unreflective and ignorant 2.19 Low 6
Overall 2.72 Moderate
Legend: 1.00-1.50 Very Low (VL); 1.51-2.50 Low (L); 2.51-3.50 Moderate (M); 3.51-4.50 High (H);
4.51-5.00 Very High (VH)

Openness is a personality trait which refers to the state of being open-

minded, imaginative, curious, cultured, meditative, deep, analytical, intellectual and

philosophical. Obviously, the ratings given by the respondents to each of the trait

listed in the table, ranged from the lowest interval of 1.51 up to the maximum of 3.50.

Thus, verbal descriptions fell from low to moderate levels only.

The top three ratings under openness traits revealed in the table included the

following: analytical and perceptive, with a mean of 3.34 (moderate, ranked 1);

theatrical and eloquent, with a mean of 3.18 (moderate, ranked 2); and meditative

and contemplating, with a mean of 2.61 (moderate, ranked 3). The remaining traits

were rated by the respondents with much lower mean values and indicated their low
53

to moderate levels of negative openness traits. Overall, the openness trait of the

respondents clustered towards a mean of 2.72 and suggestive of their moderate

traits.

2.1.6 Summary Table of Personality Traits

In summary, the personality traits of the respondents are shown in Table 4.10

Table 4.10

Summary Table of Personality Traits

Indicators Weighted Verbal Ranking


Mean Interpretation
1. Extraversion 3.44 Moderate 1
2. Agreeableness 3.15 Moderate 2
3. Conscientiousness 2.96 Moderate 3
4. Emotional Stability 2.79 Moderate 4
5. Openness 2.72 Moderate 5
Overall 3.01 Moderate
Legend: 1.00-1.50 Very Low (VL); 1.51-2.50 Low (L); 2.51-3.50 Moderate (M); 3.51-4.50 High (H);
4.51-5.00 Very High (VH)

Among the personality traits of the respondents, ranked number or the trait

with the highest mean was extraversion with a mean of 3.44. Ranked second was

agreeableness, with a mean of 3.15. It was followed by conscientiousness, with a

mean of 2.96; then, by emotional stability, with a mean of 2.79. The last in the

ranking (number 5) pertains to openness, with a mean of 2.72. Grand mean was

3.01 with a verbal description of “moderate” level.


54

2.2 Emotional Intelligence

Emotional intelligence of seafarers was measured in terms of factors such as;


self awareness, social awareness, relationship management and social skills. Below
are the results and corresponding discussions.

2.2.1 Self-Awareness

Indicators of self-awareness comprised of three key elements such as:

emotional awareness level, accuracy of self-assessment and self confidence. Table

4.11 shows the results.

Table 4.11

Emotional Intelligence Level of Seafarers In Terms of Self Awareness

Indicators Weighted Mean Verbal Ranking


Interpretation
1. Emotional awareness 3.86 High 3
2. Accuracy of self assessment 3.87 High 2
3. Self-confidence 4.08 High 1
Overall 3.94 High
Legend: 1.00-1.50 Very Low (VL); 1.51-2.50 Low (L); 2.51-3.50 Moderate (M); 3.51-4.50 High (H);
4.51-5.00 Very High (VH)

The highest mean of 4.08 (high, ranked 1) was given by the respondents to

self-confidence, which indicated their high level of regard to themselves as persons.

They were highly aware about the certainty of assessing themselves, as manifested

with a mean of 3.87 (high, ranked 2). The respondents were emotionally aware on

the degree of their emotions. This was also manifested in the high level based on

the mean of 3.86 (high, ranked 3). Overall, the mean of 3.94 was reflective of the
55

respondents’ high level of emotional awareness and likewise suggestive of their

high emotional intelligence.

2.2.2 Social Awareness

The level of social awareness comprised of three indicators namely; empathy,

organizational awareness and service orientation. The results can be seen in Table

4.12.

Table 4.12

Emotional Intelligence Level of Seafarers In Terms of Social Awareness

Indicators Weighted Verbal Ranking


Mean Interpretation
1. Empathy 3.80 High 1
2. Organizational awareness 3.75 High 3
3. Service orientation 3.78 High 2
Overall 3.78 High
Legend: 1.00-1.50 Very Low (VL); 1.51-2.50 Low (L); 2.51-3.50 Moderate (M); 3.51-4.50 High (H);
4.51-5.00 Very High (VH)

Clearly, in terms of empathy, organizational awareness and service

orientation, the respondents got high social awareness level. The highest mean of

3.80 pertains to empathy (high, ranked 1) or degree of sympathy or compassion to

other people. It was followed by service orientation, with a mean of 3.78 (high,

ranked 2), and manifested their degree of desire to serve others. The lowest mean

of 3.75 was given to organizational awareness (ranked 3) and projected the degree

to which they knew their organizations. Overall, the social awareness level of the

respondents clustered towards a mean of 3.78 and indicative of a high level of

emotional intelligence.
56

2.2.3 Relationship with Management

Relationship with management was measured in terms of six indicators,

namely; self control, trustworthiness, conscientiousness, adaptability, achievement

orientation and initiative. Table 4.13 bears the results.

Table 4.13
Emotional Intelligence Level of Seafarers In Terms of Relationship to
Management
Indicators Weighted Verbal Ranking
Mean Interpretation
1. Self control 3.99 High 5
2. Trustworthiness 4.05 High 1
3. Conscientiousness 3.99 High 5
4. Adaptability 4.00 High 4
5. Achievement orientation 4.03 High 2
6. Initiative 4.03 High 2
Overall 4.01 High
Legend: 1.00-1.50 Very Low (VL); 1.51-2.50 Low (L); 2.51-3.50 Moderate (M); 3.51-4.50 High (H); 4.51-5.00
Very High (VH)

Relationship with management pertains to an emotional intelligence factor

that involves self control, trustworthiness, conscientiousness, adaptability,

achievement orientation and initiative. Remarkably, each item listed on the table got

a mean within the interval range of 3.51-4.50 and with verbal interpretation of “high”.

However, trustworthiness got the highest mean of 4.05 (high, ranked 1). This

indicated the ability of the seafarers to keep their promises to others and perform

their commitment as well.

Trustworthiness was followed by “achievement orientation” and “initiative”,

which both obtained a rating of 4.03 (high). As such, both were placed in the same
57

position or ranked number 2 in the criteria listed on the table. These twin areas

indicated respondents’ sensitivity to accomplish things that should be done and

introduce actions even without being told to do so. In the last position were “self

control” and conscientiousness, with the same mean of 3.99. They were both

placed in the same ranked (number 5).

These twin areas reflected the respondents’ high ability to control their

feelings .They were meticulous in all aspects of their emotions. The overall mean

clustered towards 4.01 and projected the high level of emotional intelligence of the

respondents in terms of relating themselves with management of the work

organization.

2.2.4 Social Skills

Social skills were measured along eight key areas and these included the

following: developing others, leadership ability, influence, communication skills,

change catalyst skill, confront management, building bonds, and teamwork culture.
58

Table 4.14

Emotional Intelligence Level of Seafarers In Terms of Social Skills

Indicators Weighted Verbal Ranking


Mean Interpretation
1. Developing others 4.04 High 1
2. Leadership 3.95 High 3
3. Influence 3.61 High 8
4. Communication 3.82 High 5
5. Change catalyst 3.66 High 7
6. Confront management 3.71 High 6
7. Building bonds 3.83 High 4
8. Teamwork culture 4.01 High 2
Overall 3.83 High
Legend: 1.00-1.50 Very Low (VL); 1.51-2.50 Low (L); 2.51-3.50 Moderate (M); 3.51-4.50 High (H);
4.51-5.00 Very High (VH)

Each indicator of social skills was given by the respondents with a rating

within the interval range of 3.51-4.50, or under the verbal interpretation of “high”.

Among the eight indicators, the highest mean of 4.04 (high, ranked 1) was given to

the skill of developing other people”. This indicated the high ability of the

respondents to extend their help or assistance to other people.

It was followed by the “teamwork culture”, based on the mean of 4.01 (high,

ranked 2). Apparently, the respondents had high ability to cooperate with people

whom they deal with. Leadership was ranked as number 3, based on the mean of

3.95 (high) and indicative of their ability to guide or direct others.

Aside from the top three high social skills, the respondents also gave

themselves high rating in building bonds or ability to build ties with other people,

communication or ability to exchange message both in oral or written with other

people; confront management or ability to face up with higher authorities or peers;

change catalyst or ability to introduce innovations; and influence or ability to sway or


59

manipulate others. The overall mean of 3.83 suggests that respondents obtained

high social skills as vital parts of their high emotional intelligence level.

2.2.5 Summary Table

Table 4.15 shows the summary table on emotional intelligence levels of the

respondents of the study.

Table 4.15
Summary Table on Emotional Intelligence Level of Filipino Seafarers

Indicators Weighted Verbal Ranking


Mean Interpretation
1. Self Awareness Level 3.94 High 2
2. Social Awareness Level 3.78 High 4
3. Relationship with 4.01 High 1
Management Level
4. Social Skills Level 3.83 High 3
Grand Mean 4.09 High
Legend: 1.00-1.50 Very Low (VL); 1.51-2.50 Low (L); 2.51-3.50 Moderate (M); 3.51-4.50 High (H); 4.51-5.00
Very High (VH)

As revealed in the table, relationship with management level obtained the

highest mean of 4.01 (high, ranked 1). It was followed by self awareness level,

based on the mean of 3.94 (high, ranked 2); then by social skills level, with a mean

of 3.83 (high, ranked 3); and social awareness level, with a mean of 3.78 (high,

ranked 4). The grand mean clustered towards 4.09 (high).


60

3. Relationship Among Attitude, Personality Traits and Emotional


Intelligence of Seafarers

Table 4.16 showed the results of the computation regarding magnitude or

strength of relationship between attitude of seafarers and their personality traits as

well as attitude and their emotional intelligence levels. The results of tests of

significant relationship between variables can also be seen in the same table.

In terms of relationship between physical settings aboard the ship emotional

intelligence level of the respondent seafarers, the coefficient of correlation (r) came

out to be 0.239. This indicates low but definite relationship between the two

variables. The explained variations (r-square) were 5.73% or quite small. It means

that roughly 94% of the attitude of seafarers towards physical setting of the work

environment aboard the ships was attributed to factors other than the level of their

emotional intelligence. Thus, the only proportion that can be related to emotional

intelligence level of the respondents was about 5.73%.


61

Table 4.16

Magnitude of Relationship and Results of Tests of Significant Relationship


Between Attitude and Personality Traits; and Attitude and
Emotional Intelligence

Correlation r-square p-value t-stat Decision Interpretation


Coefficient
(r)
Physical 0.239 5.73% 0.002 3.039 Reject Ho Significant*
Setting and Low but
Emotional definite
Intelligence
Level
Physical 0.014 0.02% 0.861 0.174 Retain or Not
Setting and Very low Accept Ho Significant
Personality and
Traits negligible
Emotional 0.255 6.53% 0.001 3.260 Reject Significant *
Setting and Low but Ho
Emotional definite
Intelligence
Level
Emotional 0.051 0.26% 0.528 0.631 Retain or Not
Setting and Very low Accept Significant
Personality and Ho
Traits negligible
Social 0.258 6.67% 0.001 3.298 Reject Significant*
Setting and Low but Ho
Emotional definite
Intelligence
Level
Social 0.009 0.0098% 0.902 0.122 Retain or Not
Setting and Very low Accept Significant
Personality and Ho
Traits negligible
*Significant at 0.05 alpha level; degrees of freedom 155-2=153
62

The test of significant relationship disclosed a p-value of 0.002 or much lower

than the 0.05 level of significant. Therefore, the null hypothesis was rejected. There

was evidence to show that despite low or weak relationship, such relationship

between physical setting aboard the ship and the level of emotional intelligence of

the seafarers was significant. Therefore, the percentage of variations in physical

setting attitude was definite and attributable to the emotional intelligence level of the

respondents.

When the attitude of respondents physical setting was measured in terms

overall level of personality traits, the obtained coefficient or r was 0.014 described or

within very low or almost negligible level. The explained variations or r-square was

merely 0.02% or too low. It means that approximately 98.98% of the attitude of

seafarers toward physical setting factor was not caused or influenced by their

personality. Other factors influenced their attitude.

Hence, the test of significant relationship resulted in the p-value of 0.861 or

higher than 0.05 level of significance. Therefore, the null hypothesis was retained or

accepted. There was no evidence to show that significant relationship existed

between the physical setting attitude of seafarers and the level of their personality.

With regard to relationship between emotional setting and level of emotional

intelligence, the computed coefficient correlation or r was 0.255 and described as

low or weak but definite relationship.


63

The explained variations or r-square was 6.53% or small. It means that

approximately 94.47% of the emotional setting attitude of respondents was

influenced by other factors and roughly 6.53% attributed to their emotional

intelligence level.

The test of significant relationship came out with a p-value of 0.001 or less

than the 0.05 level of significance. Therefore, the null hypothesis was rejected.

There was evidence to show that relationship existed between emotional setting

attitude and level of emotional intelligence of the respondents. It further means that

although the relationship was low or weak such relationship was definite and

significant.

In terms of relationship between emotional setting and personality traits of the

respondents, the computed correlation coefficient or r was 0.051 and described as

low, weak and almost negligible relationship. The explained variations or r-square

reached a total of approximately 0.26%, or very small. It means that less than one

percent of the attitude of respondents towards emotional setting was not influenced

by their personality level. Their emotional attitude was very strongly influenced by

other factors.

In the test of significant relationship, the computed p-Value was 0.528 or

higher than the 0.05 level of significance. Therefore, the null hypothesis was

retained or accepted. There was no evidence to show the existence of relationship

between emotional setting attitude of the respondents and their level of personality.

As far as relationship between social setting attitude of seafarers and their

emotional intelligence level was concerned, the computed correlation coefficient


64

resulted in a total of 0.258 and described as low, weak but definite. The explained

variations or r-squared totaled to 6.67% or small. It means that about 93.33% of the

social setting attitude of the respondent seafarers was not influenced by the level of

their emotional intelligence. Thus, only about 6.67% of such social setting attitude

was affected by their emotional intelligence, and the rest can be attributed to other

factors.

The computed p-value resulted in 0.001 or less than the 0.05 level of

significance. Therefore, the null hypothesis was rejected. There was evidence to

show that despite small or weak relationship, such relationship was definite and

significant.

Finally, when social setting attitude was measured vis-à-vis the level of

personality of the respondent seafarers, the computed correlation coefficient

resulted in 0.009 or very small, very weak and negligible relationship. The explained

variations or r-square was almost nil at 0.00098%.

The test of significant relationship came out with 0.902 or very much higher

than the 0.05 level of significance. Therefore, the null hypothesis was retained or

accepted. There was no evidence to show that significant relationship existed

between the social setting attitude of the respondents and the level of their

personality.
65

4. Predictors of Attitude Towards Work Environment

In order to analyze if emotional intelligence and personality traits can predict

the attitude of seafarers, Table 4.17 is shown below.

Table 4.17

Significant Relationship Between Seafarers’ Attitude Towards Work


Environment and Emotional Intelligence

R r- p-value t-stat Decision Interpretation


square
Physical 0.239 5.73% 0.002 3.039 Reject Significant*
Setting and Low but Ho
Emotional definite
Intelligence
Level
Emotional 0.255 6.53% 0.001 3.260 Reject Significant *
Setting and Low but Ho
Emotional definite
Intelligence
Level
Social 0.258 6.67% 0.001 3.298 Reject Significant*
Setting and Low but Ho
Emotional definite
Intelligence
Level
*Significant at 0.05 alpha level; degrees of freedom 155-2=153

Recall that based on earlier presented Table 4.16, only the variables shown in

Table 4.17 divulged significant relationship. The bivariate relationship was between

the following: physical setting and emotional intelligence; emotional setting and

emotional intelligence; and social setting and emotional intelligence.


66

The very small value of correlation of coefficient between each of the pair

and the less than 10 points computed explained variations of each pair are clearly

not strong enough to substantially establish that emotional intelligence can predict

the attitude of the seafarers towards work environment aboard the ship.

In other words, it can be said that, despite the evidence of relationship

between the emotional intelligence level and attitude of seafarers, such amount of

relationship was too small to conclude that emotional intelligence predicted

seafarers’ attitude. What has been established in this study was the fact that

emotional intelligence had very small influence over the attitude of the seafarers

towards work environment. The very large proportion of the attitude, therefore, can

be attributed to factors outside of the emotional intelligence areas.

5. Intervention Measures

The foregoing facts, figures and analyses imply that intervention measures

may be developed by the concerned company to improve the attitude of seafarers

toward work environment. The intervention measures may be along the areas of

personality traits and emotional level improvement as well as factors outside of

these areas.
67

Chapter 5

FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

In this Chapter, the summary of findings, conclusions and

recommendations of the study are presented. The study examined the

relationship between the attitude of seafarers towards work environment and

their emotional intelligence as well as personality traits. The specific questions

asked in the study were as follows: (1) What was the attitude of the seafarers

towards the following work environment aboard the ship in terms of physical

setting, emotional setting and social setting? (2) How did the seafarers describe

their personality traits and emotional intelligence levels in terms of personality

traits such as extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability

and openness; and emotional intelligence level in terms of self-awareness, social

awareness, relationship with management and social skills? (3) Was there a

significant relationship between the overall attitude of seafarers towards work

environment and their emotional intelligence and personality traits?; and (4) Can

the level of emotional intelligence and personality traits of the seafarers predict

their overall attitude towards work environment aboard the ship?

The null hypothesis postulated in the study stated that there was no

significant relationship between the attitude of seafarers towards work

environment and their emotional intelligence and personality traits.


68

A. Summary of Findings

The following are the findings of the study:

1. Attitude of Seafarers Towards Work Environment Aboard the Ship

1.1 The seafarers’ attitude towards work environment in terms of

physical setting obtained a mean of 4.12 (agree) and reflective of highly positive

attitude.

1.2 Their attitude towards emotional setting got a mean of 4.03 (agree)

and also projected highly positive attitude .

1.3 The attitude towards social setting reached a mean of 4.03 (agree)

and reflective of highly positive attitude.

1.4 The highest overall positive attitude was given by the respondents

to social setting with a mean of 4.13 (agree, ranked 1). It is followed by physical

setting with a mean of 4.12 (agree, ranked 2) and lastly emotional setting (mean,

4.03, ranked 3). The grand mean clustered towards 4.09 (agree).

2. Personality Traits and Emotional Intelligence Level of Seafarers

2.1 Among the personality traits of the respondents, ranked number or

the trait with the highest mean was extraversion with a mean of 3.44. Ranked

second was agreeableness, with a mean of 3.15. It was followed by

conscientiousness, with a mean of 2.96; then, by emotional stability, with a mean

of 2.79. The last in the ranking (number 5) was openness, with a mean of 2.72.

Grand mean was 3.01 with a verbal description of “moderate” level.


69

2.2 In terms of emotional intelligence, the relationship with

management obtained the highest mean of 4.01 (high, ranked 1). It was followed

by self awareness level, based on the mean of 3.94 (high, ranked 2); then by

social skills level, with a mean of 3.83 (high, ranked 3); and social awareness

level, with a mean of 3.78 (high, ranked 4). The grand mean clustered towards

4.09 (high).

3. Relationship Among Attitude, Personality Traits and Emotional

Intelligence of Seafarers

3.1 The relationship between physical settings aboard the ship

emotional intelligence level of the respondent seafarers obtained a coefficient

0.239 or low but definite relationship. The test of significant relationship

disclosed a p-value of 0.002 or much lower than the 0.05 level of significant. The

null hypothesis was rejected. There was significant relationship between physical

setting attitude and the level of emotional intelligence of the seafarers.

3.2 The relationship between physical setting and personality trait

obtained a coefficient of 0.014, or within very low or almost negligible level. The

test of significant relationship resulted in the p-value of 0.861 or higher than 0.05

level of significance. The null hypothesis was retained or accepted. There was no

significant relationship between the two variables.

3.3 The relationship between emotional setting and level of emotional

intelligence got a coefficient of 0.255 or low and weak but definite relationship.

The test of significant relationship came out with a p-value of 0.001 or less than
70

the 0.05 level of significance. The null hypothesis was rejected. There was

significant relationship between the two variables.

3.4 The relationship between emotional setting and personality traits of

the respondents reached a coefficient of 0.051 and described as low, weak and

almost negligible relationship. The test of significant relationship obtained a

computed p-Value of 0.528 or higher than the 0.05 level of significance.

Therefore, the null hypothesis was retained or accepted. The relationship was

not significant.

3.5 The relationship between social setting attitude of seafarers and

their emotional intelligence obtained a coefficient of 0.258 and described as low,

weak but definite. The computed p-value resulted in 0.001 or less than the 0.05

level of significance. Therefore, the null hypothesis was rejected. There was

significant relationship between the two variables.

3.6 The relationship between social setting and personality of the

respondent seafarers got a coefficient of 0.009 or very small, very weak and

negligible relationship. The test of significant relationship came out with 0.902 or

very much higher than the 0.05 level of significance. Therefore, the null

hypothesis was retained or accepted. The relationship was not significant.

4. Predictors of Attitude Towards Work Environment

Partial and small bivariate relationship was found between the following:

physical setting and emotional intelligence; emotional setting and emotional

intelligence; and social setting and emotional intelligence. The degree of


71

relationship was very small and cannot predict the attitude of the seafarers

towards work environment aboard the ship.

B. Conclusions

From the findings of the study, the following are concluded:

1. The Filipino seafarers have generally high and positive attitude towards

work environment because the physical environment aboard the ship provides

them with better appreciation of standard work performance as well as general

feeling of safety and healthy working environment. Their emotional attitude is

generally highly positive because they have the feeling of self-confidence,

calmness and clear thinking moments. Their social attitude is highly positive

because they have less fear and inferiority complex .They believe that the work

environment promotes pleasant and harmonious relationship with people.

2. On the one hand, the overall level of personality of the respondents was

only moderate because of the presence or combination of both negative and

positive traits in them. They are generally moderately extravert, agreeable,

conscientiousness, emotionally stable and open. This moderate personality is

attributed to their being energetic and enthusiastic but also reserved and

restrained. They are cheerful but can also be harsh. They are alert or careful but

can be also haphazard and illogical. Their unselfconsciousness and unexcitable

traits are mitigated by their being excitable and meddlesome. They are analytical

and perceptive but have tendencies to be shallow and unimaginative. On the


72

other hand, the Filipino seafarers have high emotional intelligence level. This

level is attributed to their high relationship to management, high self awareness

level, high social skills and high social awareness.

3. There is no evidence to show that significant relationship exists between

attitude of the seafarers and the level of their personality. However, there is

partial and small evidence to show the existence of relationship between attitude

of seafarers and their emotional intelligence level.

4. The very small amount of relationship established between the attitude of

seafarers towards work environment and their emotional intelligence level cannot

safely put forward that emotional intelligence is a predictor of the attitude of the

seafarers towards work environment aboard the ship. There are other vital and

stronger factors that influence the attitude of the seafarers.


73

C. Recommendations

Based on the findings and conclusions of the study, the following are

recommended:

1. The Filipino seafarers should be commended for appreciating their

positive attitude towards their work environment and should be motivated and

inspired more to continue this kind of mood and climate on ships, to promote

harmonious relationship with people on board. This will contribute to more

productivity and meaningful employment of seafarers.

2. Since there is a presence of both negative and positive traits, measures

have to taken in order to make the negative traits positive. Assertiveness

program can be proposed to develop their openness and more social functions

could be held to familiarize themselves with the people they work with. They can

also be taught how to control their emotions and handle conflicts.

3. The areas for attitudes and emotional intelligence level could also be

attended by more enhancement programs and exposure to foster positive

attitudes and emotional maturity. This may make them more responsible

seafarers not only for themselves but also for co-workers on and off ships.

4. Other factors that contribute that influence the attitudes of the seafarers

could also be considered in order for the seafarers to become more comfortable

in their work environment. Some of these factors may emanate from their family
74

or personal problems and need to be addressed. Programs for family members

could also be held to involve them in the development of the seafarers and feel

comfortable in their work.

5. All of the above specific programs can be developed by the company as

intervention measures to improve the attitude of seafarers towards work

environment and enhance their emotional intelligence and personality levels.


75

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Aamodt , M.G. and Raynes B.L. (2001).Human Relations in Business:


Developing Interpersonal and Leadership Skills. International: Wadsworth
Publishing Co.

Adepoju, T.L. (2001). Personality characteristics of an effective primary school


teacher in Oyo State. Journal of Advanced Studies in Educational
Management, 1(1), 97-103

Anacta, K. (2011). Factors Affecting the Career Development of Seafarers.


Master Thesis. Asian Institute of Maritime Studies-Graduate School,
Pasay City, Philippines.

Cherniss, C. (2000). Emotional intelligence: What it is and why it matters. Paper


presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Industrial and
Organizational Psychology, New Orleans, LA, April 15.

Daft, R.L. (2005). Management 7th ed. USA: South-Western Thompson


Corporation

De Raad, B.(2000). The Big Five Personality Factors, the Psycholexical


Approach to personality. USA. Journal of Managerial Psychology: USA
Emerald Group Publishing Ltd.

Dreele V and James D.( 2008). The Human Elements in Shipping: A Maritime
Chaplain’s Perspective. Proceedings of the American Petroleum Institute
Conference,San Diego, California, June 24, 2008. 5 p.

Eriksson, B. (1998). Attitude to Work doctoral Dissertation. Sweden: Goteborg


University, Department of Sociology

Goldsmith, K. (2009). Putting Emotional Intelligence to Work: Greater Good, the


Science of Meaningful Life.USA: University of California Berkeley

Goleman, D. (1998). Working with emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam


Books
76

ICSW. (2009) Guidelines for mental care onboard merchant ships. International
Committee on Seafarers’ Welfare, Seafarers Health Information
Programme. 12 p. Online address: www.seafarershealth.org. Email:
icsw@icsw.org.uk.

Iversen, R ( 2009). A business plan for a project on “The Mental Health of


Seafarers” in http:// www.seafarersmentalhealth.org.

Jensen, O., Sørensen, J., Thomas, M., Canals, M.L., Nikolic, N, and Hu, Y,(2006)
Working Conditions in International Seafarring. Occupational Medicine.
Online Publication. 56: 393-397.

Kahveci, E., Lane, T, Sampson, H. ( 2001) Transnational Seafarer Communities.


UK : Seafarers International Research Centre, Cardiff University

Lassiter, D. ( 2004). The Importance of Emotionally Intelligent Teams.Leadership


Advantage.Newsletter, Vol. IV Number 3, Executive Coaching &
Consulting Associates

Lorayes, M.E. (2002). Factors in the Work Environment that Strenthen


Organizational Effectiveness of Equitable PCI-Bank in Makati City. Master
Thesis. University of Perpetual Help System-Laguna.-Graduate School,
Sto. Nino, Binan, Laguna, Philippines.

Low, A.( 2006). Seafarers and passengers who disappear without a trace
fromaboard ships. International Maritime Health 57:(1-4)219-229.

Petrides, K.V., Pita, R., Kokkinaki, F. (2007). The location of trait emotional
intelligence in personality factor space. British Journal of Psychology, 98,
273- 289.

Philippine Online Chronicles (2011). Depressed state of National Mental Health,


retrieved 29 July 2011. from http://www.thepol.net/thepol-features/health-
and- wellness/health-and-fitness/

Mark, G.(1997). Human Relations: Human Relations, productive Approach for


the Workplace. Boston, USA: Allyn and Bacon Publishing, Inc.

Newstrom, J.W. and Davis, K.(2002). Organizational Behavior: Human Behavior


at Work. International: McGraw-Hill Irwin
77

Roberts, E. & Marlow, P.( 2006). Work related mortality among


merchant seafarers employed in UK Royal Fleet Auxiliary shipping from
1976 to 2005. International Maritime Health 57:1-4(24-35).

Relucio, O. (2011).The Relationship Between Academic Performance ,Emotional


Competence and Personal Factors of BSMT Students of Asian Institute of
Maritime Studies. Master Thesis. Asian Institute of Maritime Studies-
Graduate School. Pasay City, Philippines

Salami, Samuel O. (2007). Relationships of Emotional Intelligence and Self-


Efficacy to Work Attitudes Among Secondary School Teachers in
Southwestern Nigeria. Doctoral Dissertation. Nigeria: University of
Ibadan, Nigeria. Volume 20, Spring 2007, Essays in Education

Stoner, J.A.F. and Freeman, R.E. (1989; ). Management. Fourth Edition.


International: Prentice-Hall International, Inc.

Stoner, J.A.F (1997; ). Management. Fifth Edition. International: Prentice-Hall


International, Inc.

Vakola, M., Tsaousis, I. & Nikolaou, I. (2004). The role of Emotional Intelligence
and Personality Variables on Attitudes toward Organisational Change.
Journal of Managerial Psychology 19, 88-110

Villaluz, L.V. and Oblepias,T.S (2010). Workplace Stressors in a University:Basis


of Improvement Measures. Faculty Research. University Research
Journal Refereed. University of Perpetual Help System-Laguna Research
Center. Vol. 4 Series of 2008, Sto. Nino, Binan, Laguna

http://managementhelp.org/personalwellness/improving-attitude.htm, 29 July
2007)

International Business Research Center. Retrieved/ http://www.icmrindia.org/29


july 2011
78 
 

SAMPLE OF SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE


==================================================================
Statement of Voluntary Consent

To participate as a subject in the study described below:

Date: 10 September 2011

Name of Study: FILIPINO SEAFARER’S WORK ENVIRONMENT: Relationship to


their Emotional Intelligence and Personal Traits

Purpose of Study: To analyze the relationship between Filipino Seafarer’s attitude


toward work environment aboard ships and the level of their Emotional Intelligence and
Personality Traits. To identify measures that can be proposed to the management of
Magsaysay Maritime Corporation – Asahi Marine Fleet to improve the attitude of the
seafarers toward work environment aboard the ship.

Primary Researcher: 2M Cezar M. Barranta Jr. [Fleet HR Officer, Asahi Marine Fleet;
MIS Alumni, Member; AIMS Alumni, Vice President; AIMS Graduate Studies Student
Council, Vice President; Red Cross Cavite City Chapter, Volunteer]

Contact Information: Office Phone: (02) 5269620; Mobile Phone: (0917) 5080601;
Office Address: Magsaysay Maritime Corporation, 7th Floor, Magsaysay Bldg, T.M.
Kalaw Street, Ermita, Manila

As a volunteer participant in the above mentioned research, I understand that I will be


asked to complete a survey that will ask questions related to my work experience and
college grades. The survey typically takes about 20 minutes to complete although this
time can vary depending on each subject. I also understand that I may consider some of
the questions personal in nature but that the information I provide will be used
exclusively for this project and will in no way be associated with my name, address, ID
or any other identifiable information.

As a participant in this study I am aware that the questions on the research survey may
cause anxiety or stress depending on my personal situation but that most find the
experience harmless and even enjoyable. As a participant, I am aware that the
responses I provide may assist future college students at this Institution and perhaps
other colleges across the country.

By signing below, I state that I have read this consent form in its entirety and that all of
my questions have been answered. I understand that I may withdraw from this study at
any time and that my participation or lack of participation will in no way affect my status
as a crew.

Subject Signature ________________________ Date ____________________


Witness Signature ________________________ Date ___________________
79

PERSONAL INFORMATION-PART 1

INSTRUCTIONS: Please supply the necessary information asked below


by filling out the blank portion or putting a check ( / ) mark in the
appropriate “open –close” parenthesis

1. Name : ___________________________(optional)

2. Name of Vessel (in case on vacation, the last vessel you boarded: ________

3. Work Station On Board the Ship ( ) Deck ( ) Engine

4. How long have you been working onboard the ship?


a. ( ) 2 years and below
b. ( ) 3- 6 years
c. ( ) 7-10 years
d. ( ) More than 10 years

5. Age Bracket
a. ( ) 30 years and below
b. ( ) 31-35 years old
c. ( ) 36-40 years old
d. ( ) 40 years and above

6. Civil Status : ( ) Single ( ) Married ( ) Widow ( ) Separated

7. Do you have children : ( ) Yes ( ) None

8. Are you the breadwinner in the family? ( ) Yes ( ) No

9. Length of Service in Current Company


a. ( ) 3 years and below
b. ( ) 4- 6 years
c. ( ) 7- 10 years
d. ( ) Over 10 years

10. Highest Educational Attainment


a. ( ) BS Marine Transportation (BSMT) Graduate
b. ( ) BS Marine Engineering (BSME) Graduate
c. ( ) Seafarers Rating Course
d. ( ) With Master’s Degree
e. ( ) With Units in Master’s Degree
f. ( ) Others: please specify:_________________
80

PART 2
SURVEY QUESTIONS ON ATTITUDE TOWARDS WORK ENVIRONMENT
ABOARD THE SHIP

Direction: Please Use the following as your guide :

Response/Rating Interpretations of Response Rating and Abbreviations

Strongly Agree (SA) means that you fully agree to the


5
statement
Agree (A) means that you agree to the statement but to a
4
lesser extent that fully agree
Uncertain (UN) means you are not sure whether or not the
3
statement holds true to you
Disagree (D) means that you do not agree to the statement
2 because there are certain things or factors to consider, which
only you know
Strongly Disagree (SD) means that you fully disagree to the
1 statement because personally you believe that it does not
hold true to you.

Questions/Statements
A. Key Statement: The physical setting aboard the 1 2 3 4 5
ship SD D UN A SA
1. Provides me with less rigid elements on physical
arrangement
2. Encourages quality of work and promotes work
efficiency
3. Helps me better appreciate standard work
performance
4. Allows me to see things work smoothly
5. Provides me reasonable working hours
6. Provides me with safe and healthy working
environment
7. Promotes enthusiasm and interest to work
8. Allows me to observe how the system and
processes work
9. Gives me protection from physical stress
10. Gives me opportunity to manipulate the needed
change
81

Questions/Statements
B. Key Statement: The emotional setting aboard the 1 2 3 4 5
ship SD D UN A SA
1. Stimulates new thoughts and feelings
2. Encourages me to positively react to situations
3. Promotes individual control of my environment
4. Allows me to experience the joy of solitude
5. Helps me to combat loneliness and homesickness
6. Gives me a more confident feeling about myself
7. Makes me a calm and clear-thinking person
8. Gives me a feeling of security and calmness
9. Protects me from psychological stress and disorders
10. Decrease my fear and inferiority complex

Questions/Statements
C. Key Statement: The social setting aboard the 1 2 3 4 5
ship SD D UN A SA
1. Promotes social interaction of individuals
2. Encourages problem solving and group action
3. Promotes pleasant and harmonious relationship with
people
4. Allows people to grow socially
5. Promotes group dynamics and fosters group
interaction
6. Allows to adjust myself with multi-cultured co-
workers
7. Builds up my confidence in dealing with superiors
and peers
8. Fosters good social relations and increase my cross
cultural tolerance
9. Builds up my language and communication skills
10. Helps me to bring out my leadership abilities
82

SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE- PART 3 (EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE)


================================================================
DIRECTIONS: Do not write your name nor identify on this paper. Please answer
each of the question/statement given in the matrix shown below by putting a check
(√) in the cell under your chosen option. Use the following as your guide.
Option Verbal description Abbreviation
5 Very High (VH)
4 High (H)
3 Moderate ( M)
2 Low (L)
1 Very Low (VL)
Given below are factors that comprised the emotional intelligence of 5 4 3 2 1
a person. Examine yourself and HONESTY indicate in the
VH H M L VL
appropriate cell your own degree of emotional intelligence.
Self Awareness Level
1. Emotional Awareness (how you know about your own degree of
emotions)
2. Accuracy of self assessment (how sure or certain are you about
assessment of yourself)
3. Self-Confidence (degree to which you believe in yourself)
Social Awareness Level
4. Empathy (degree of sympathy or compassion to other people)
5. Organizational awareness (degree to which you know about
organization :e.g. school
6. Service orientation (degree to which you desire to serve or
outreach others)
Relationship to Management Level
7. Self Control (ability to control your feelings such as: anger or
anxiety or sadness or sorrow, )
8. Trustworthiness (ability to keep your promises to others and to
perform your commitments)
9. Conscientiousness (your ability to be careful, prudent or
83

meticulous)
10. Adaptability (degree to which you can be flexible or can adjust to
a given situation )
11. Achievement orientation (sensitivity to finish or accomplish things
that should be done)
12. Initiative ( sensitivity to introduce action without being told to do
so)
Social Skills Level
13. Developing others (ability to extend help or assistance to other
people )
14. Leadership (ability to extend direct or guide other people)
15. Influence (ability to sway or manipulate other people)
16. Communication (ability to exchange verbal or written message
with others)
17. Change catalyst (ability to introduce innovations or changes)
18. Confront management (ability to face up higher authority or
peers)
19. Building bonds (ability to construct or builds ties with other
people)
20. Teamwork culture (ability to cooperate with people whom you
deal with: e.g. Co-students, co-family)
84

SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE- PART 4 (PERSONALITY TRAITS)


================================================================
DIRECTIONS: Do not write your name nor identify on this paper. Please answer
each of the question/statement given in the matrix shown below by putting a check
(√) in the cell under your chosen option. Use the following as your guide.
Option Verbal description Abbreviation
5 Very High (VH)
4 High (H)
3 Moderate ( M)
2 Low (L)
1 Very Low (VL)
Given below are factors that comprised the PERSONALITY 5 4 3 2 1
TRAITS OF A person. Examine yourself and HONESTY indicate in
VH H M L VL
the appropriate cell your own description of personality traits.
Extraversion
1. Energetic and enthusiastic
2. Socially adaptable and assertive
3. Bold and self confident
4. Shy and quiet
5. Timid and unaggressive
6. Reserved and restrained
Agreeableness
7. Merry and cheerful
8. Soft-hearted and agreeable
9. Kind, warm and sympathetic
10. Cold and unfriendly
11. Hard and rigid
12. unsympathetic and harsh
Conscientiousness
13. Alert and ambitious
14. Careful and cautious
15. Stern and Strict
85

16. Reckless and unruly


17. Unreliable and negligent
18. Haphazard and illogical
Emotional Stability
19. Unselfconsciousness and unexcitable
20. Unenvious and unassuming
21. Weariless and indefatigable
22. Excitable and Meddlesome
23. Emotional and Irritable
24. Defensive and temperamental
Openness
25. Theatrical and Eloquent
26. Meditative and Contemplating
27. Analytical and Perceptive
28. Unimaginative and Inarticulate
29. Shallow and Terse
30. Unreflective and Ignorant
86

STATISTICAL APPENDICES- COMPUTATION SAMPLES

DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS

Physical Emotional Social Emotional Intelligence Personality Traits


3.80 4.00 4.10 3.00 2.89
3.50 3.60 3.60 3.20 2.56
4.00 4.00 4.00 3.80 3.00
4.30 4.20 4.10 4.00 3.78
4.00 3.60 4.00 3.50 3.67
4.50 5.00 4.90 4.30 2.78
4.00 4.10 4.00 3.90 3.22
5.00 5.00 5.00 4.00 2.00
4.20 3.80 4.20 3.60 2.78
4.20 4.30 4.20 3.80 3.00
4.40 4.40 4.20 3.10 2.11
4.40 4.40 4.20 3.10 2.11
4.80 4.50 4.20 3.20 2.00
4.80 4.50 4.20 3.20 2.00
4.10 4.00 4.00 4.00 3.00
3.80 3.80 4.10 4.00 3.56
3.90 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00
3.90 3.90 4.00 3.60 2.78
3.90 3.90 4.00 3.60 2.78
3.90 4.70 4.90 4.50 2.44
3.80 1.60 1.40 4.10 2.67
3.90 3.90 4.00 3.60 2.78
3.90 3.90 4.00 3.60 2.78
3.90 2.60 4.30 4.30 2.33
4.50 4.70 5.00 4.00 2.89
5.00 5.00 5.00 3.30 3.33
4.10 4.20 4.30 4.20 3.56
3.90 4.00 4.00 3.80 1.33
4.10 4.10 4.30 4.10 3.00
4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00
4.00 4.00 4.00 3.80 3.00
3.80 3.80 3.90 4.40 2.89
3.60 3.70 4.80 4.10 2.11
4.00 4.20 4.00 3.90 3.00
4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 3.00
4.00 4.30 4.00 3.40 3.00
4.00 3.00 4.00 4.00 4.00
87

Physical Emotional Social Emotional Intelligence Personality Traits


4.60 3.70 4.30 2.70 2.78
4.00 3.00 4.00 4.00 4.00
4.30 4.80 5.00 4.20 1.78
4.40 4.00 4.00 4.00 2.67
4.00 4.00 4.00 3.80 2.00
4.70 4.60 4.40 3.60 2.78
4.00 4.00 4.00 3.90 2.44
4.00 4.00 4.00 3.90 2.44
4.80 4.70 4.70 3.30 2.44
2.00 2.00 2.00 4.00 3.00
4.70 4.10 4.00 3.00 3.00
3.90 3.90 4.00 3.60 2.78
4.20 4.10 4.10 3.70 3.00
4.10 4.20 4.30 3.70 2.89
4.30 4.80 4.20 4.50 3.00
4.30 4.80 4.20 4.50 3.00
2.90 3.00 2.80 3.90 2.78
4.00 4.00 4.00 4.90 2.56
4.00 4.00 4.00 4.90 2.56
4.00 3.80 4.00 4.20 1.78
3.90 3.90 4.00 3.60 2.78
3.50 3.20 3.40 3.60 3.44
5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 2.56
4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 2.33
4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 2.33
4.10 4.20 4.30 3.70 2.89
4.80 4.60 4.90 4.30 2.11
4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 3.56
4.20 4.00 4.40 3.70 2.22
4.00 4.00 4.00 3.50 3.00
3.40 3.50 4.40 4.30 2.44
4.00 5.00 5.00 3.70 2.67
5.00 5.00 5.00 4.00 2.56
4.90 5.00 4.70 4.80 2.56
4.00 4.10 4.00 4.20 3.67
88

Physical Emotional Social Emotional Intelligence Personality Traits


4.00 4.10 4.00 4.20 3.67
4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 2.44
4.50 4.20 5.00 3.60 2.44
5.00 5.00 5.00 4.20 5.00
5.00 5.00 5.00 4.20 5.00
4.00 4.00 4.90 4.00 2.56
3.70 3.20 4.00 4.10 1.78
3.70 3.20 4.00 4.10 1.78
3.40 3.20 3.70 2.50 3.67
3.50 2.50 3.30 3.80 2.44
4.00 4.00 4.20 4.00 2.56
4.00 4.00 4.20 4.00 2.56
3.80 3.90 3.60 4.50 2.89
3.80 3.90 3.60 4.50 2.89
5.00 4.80 4.90 4.00 4.00
4.30 3.90 4.10 3.40 2.33
4.30 3.90 4.10 3.40 2.33
5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 2.56
5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 2.56
3.50 2.80 3.70 3.80 2.33
3.10 2.20 3.60 3.60 2.33
4.00 3.80 4.00 4.10 2.11
3.80 3.00 3.90 3.70 2.11
4.80 4.80 4.60 4.50 2.00
4.80 4.80 4.60 4.50 2.00
4.80 4.50 4.50 4.30 2.33
4.80 4.44 4.50 4.30 2.33
4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 2.67
3.30 3.20 3.00 2.80 3.00
3.30 3.20 3.00 2.80 3.00
4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00
4.50 4.30 4.10 4.40 2.78
4.50 4.30 4.10 4.40 2.78
3.20 3.00 3.00 4.00 3.00
4.00 4.00 4.10 5.00 4.00
4.50 3.80 4.60 4.20 3.00
4.50 4.40 4.50 3.70 2.78
3.80 3.70 3.70 4.00 3.00
3.80 3.70 3.70 4.00 3.00
4.00 4.00 4.00 3.00 3.00
89

Physical Emotional Social Emotional Intelligence Personality Traits


3.60 4.00 4.00 3.80 2.67
3.60 4.00 4.00 3.80 2.67
4.50 4.50 4.70 4.00 3.00
4.50 4.50 4.70 4.00 3.00
4.30 3.40 4.10 3.30 2.78
3.90 4.00 4.00 3.90 4.00
3.90 4.00 4.00 2.70 2.56
3.90 4.00 4.00 2.70 2.56
5.00 5.00 5.00 4.00 2.11
4.00 3.90 3.70 2.90 2.56
3.80 3.40 3.70 1.20 1.33
4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00
4.00 3.90 4.30 4.00 2.33
4.00 4.00 4.00 3.00 3.00
4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00
4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00
3.90 4.00 4.10 4.80 4.00
3.70 3.40 4.00 4.30 2.33
4.00 4.00 4.00 3.80 3.00
4.00 4.00 4.00 3.80 3.00
4.50 4.40 4.70 4.50 4.22
4.00 3.90 4.30 3.80 2.00
4.00 3.90 4.30 3.80 2.00
3.40 3.33 3.50 2.80 2.56
3.40 3.40 3.50 2.80 2.56
4.00 3.70 3.80 3.60 3.00
4.00 4.00 4.00 3.50 3.00
4.80 5.00 4.80 4.10 2.89
4.80 5.00 4.80 4.10 2.89
4.40 4.40 4.90 3.50 4.00
3.30 3.30 2.10 3.70 2.00
4.70 4.20 4.10 4.50 2.78
5.00 5.00 5.00 4.00 2.56
4.00 4.00 4.00 5.00 2.78
4.00 4.00 4.00 3.70 1.89
4.00 4.00 4.00 5.00 2.78
4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 2.33
4.70 4.20 4.10 4.50 2.78
4.70 4.50 4.80 4.20 1.67
4.00 4.00 4.00 3.60 2.22
90

Physical Emotional Social Emotional Intelligence Personality Traits


4.20 4.30 3.80 3.50 2.67
4.20 4.30 3.80 3.50 2.67
4.11 4.02 4.13 3.87 2.80 Overall

INFERENTIAL STATISTICS –REGRESSION AND SIMPLE AND MULTIPLE CORRELATIONS

Regression Statistics: PHYSICAL SETTING VS EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE


Multiple R 0.239402

R Square 0.057313 5.73%


Adjusted R Square 0.051111
Standard Error 0.465428

Observations 154

ANOVA
df SS MS F Significance
F
Regression 1 2.001867 2.001867 9.241247 0.002787
Residual 152 32.9267 0.216623

Total 153 34.92857


Coefficients Standard t Stat P-value Lower 95% Upper Lower Upper
Error 95% 95.0% 95.0%
Intercept 3.320137 0.263917 12.58025 2.53E-25 2.798719 3.841556 2.798719 3.841556

EmIntel 0.205199 0.067501 3.039942 0.002787 0.071838 0.338561 0.071838 0.338561

Regression Statistics: PHYSICAL SETTING VS PERSONALITY TRAITS


Multiple R 0.014144
R Square 0.0002 0.02%

Adjusted R Square -0.00638

Standard Error 0.47932

Observations 154

ANOVA
Significance
df SS MS F
F
Regression 1 0.006988 0.006988 0.030414 0.861786
Residual 152 34.92158 0.229747

Total 153 34.92857


Standard Upper Lower Upper
Coefficients t Stat P-value Lower 95%
Error 95% 95.0% 95.0%
Intercept 4.084882 0.172972 23.61581 1E-52 3.743141 4.426622 3.743141 4.426622

Personal 0.010506 0.060244 0.174396 0.861786 -0.10852 0.12953 -0.10852 0.12953


91

Regression Statistics – PHYSICAL SETTING VS EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND PERSONALITY TRAITS


Multiple R 0.240045
R Square 0.057621
Adjusted R Square 0.04514
Standard Error 0.46689
Observations 154
ANOVA
Significance
df SS MS F
F
Regression 2 2.012635 1.006318 4.616425 0.011324
Residual 151 32.91594 0.217986
Total 153 34.92857
Standard Upper Lower Upper
Coefficients t Stat P-value Lower 95%
Error 95% 95.0% 95.0%
Intercept 3.349217 0.295312 11.34129 5.93E-22 2.76574 3.932694 2.76574 3.932694
EmIntel 0.2072 0.068309 3.033281 0.002849 0.072235 0.342165 0.072235 0.342165
Personal -0.01316 0.059198 -0.22226 0.824413 -0.13012 0.103806 -0.13012 0.103806

Regression Statistics- EMOTIONAL SETTING VS EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE


Multiple R 0.255652
R Square 0.065358 6.53%
Adjusted R Square 0.059209
Standard Error 0.584929
Observations 154
ANOVA
Significance
df SS MS F
F
Regression 1 3.636669 3.636669 10.62913 0.001374
Residual 152 52.00554 0.342142
Total 153 55.64221

Standard Upper Lower Upper


Coefficients t Stat P-value Lower 95%
Error 95% 95.0% 95.0%
Intercept 2.950909 0.331679 8.896896 1.59E-15 2.295614 3.606204 2.295614 3.606204
EmIntel 0.276573 0.084832 3.260235 0.001374 0.108971 0.444176 0.108971 0.444176
92

Regression Statistics: EMOTIONAL SETTING VS PERSONALITY TRAITS


Multiple R 0.051182
R Square 0.00262 0.26%
Adjusted R Square -0.00394
Standard Error 0.604242
Observations 154
ANOVA
Significance
df SS MS F
F
Regression 1 0.145759 0.145759 0.39922 0.528441
Residual 152 55.49645 0.365108
Total 153 55.64221
Standard Upper Lower Upper
Coefficients t Stat P-value Lower 95%
Error 95% 95.0% 95.0%
Intercept 3.886989 0.218053 17.82588 4.48E-39 3.456183 4.317795 3.456183 4.317795
Personal 0.047985 0.075945 0.631839 0.528441 -0.10206 0.198029 -0.10206 0.198029

Regression Statistics: EMOTIONAL SETTING VS EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND PERSONALITY TRAITS


Multiple R 0.256261
R Square 0.065669
Adjusted R Square 0.053294
Standard Error 0.586765
Observations 154
ANOVA
Significance
df SS MS F
F
Regression 2 3.653993 1.826997 5.306519 0.005926
Residual 151 51.98822 0.344293
Total 153 55.64221
Standard Upper Lower Upper
Coefficients t Stat P-value Lower 95%
Error 95% 95.0% 95.0%
Intercept 2.914025 0.371134 7.851688 7.05E-13 2.180739 3.64731 2.180739 3.64731
EmIntel 0.274036 0.085847 3.192128 0.001719 0.104419 0.443653 0.104419 0.443653
Personal 0.016688 0.074397 0.224315 0.822815 -0.13031 0.163682 -0.13031 0.163682
93

Regression Statistics: SOCIAL SETTING VS EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE


Multiple R 0.258455
R Square 0.066799 6.67%
Adjusted R Square 0.06066
Standard Error 0.534631
Observations 154
ANOVA
Significance
Df SS MS F
F
Regression 1 3.109905 3.109905 10.88025 0.001211
Residual 152 43.4462 0.28583
Total 153 46.5561
Standard Upper Lower Upper
Coefficients t Stat P-value Lower 95%
Error 95% 95.0% 95.0%
Intercept 3.136151 0.303158 10.34495 2.54E-19 2.537204 3.735097 2.537204 3.735097
EmIntel 0.25576 0.077538 3.298523 0.001211 0.102569 0.40895 0.102569 0.40895

Regression Statistics: SOCIAL SETTING VS PERSONALITY TRAITS


Multiple R 0.00992
R Square 9.84E-05 0.0098%
Adjusted R Square -0.00648
Standard Error 0.553408
Observations 154
ANOVA
Significance
Df SS MS F
F
Regression 1 0.004581 0.004581 0.014959 0.902817
Residual 152 46.55152 0.30626
Total 153 46.5561
Standard Upper Lower Upper
Coefficients t Stat P-value Lower 95%
Error 95% 95.0% 95.0%
Intercept 4.102165 0.199709 20.54076 1.06E-45 3.707602 4.496728 3.707602 4.496728
Personal 0.008507 0.069556 0.122307 0.902817 -0.12891 0.145928 -0.12891 0.145928
94

Regression Statistics: SOCIAL SETTING VS EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND PERSONALITY TRAITS


Multiple R 0.2596
R Square 0.067392
Adjusted R Square 0.05504
Standard Error 0.536228
Observations 154
ANOVA
Significance
df SS MS F
F
Regression 2 3.137515 1.568757 5.455782 0.005156
Residual 151 43.41859 0.28754
Total 153 46.5561
Standard Upper Lower Upper
Coefficients t Stat P-value Lower 95%
Error 95% 95.0% 95.0%
Intercept 3.182715 0.339169 9.383874 9.11E-17 2.512586 3.852844 2.512586 3.852844
EmIntel 0.258963 0.078453 3.300853 0.001203 0.103955 0.413972 0.103955 0.413972
Personal -0.02107 0.067989 -0.30987 0.757085 -0.1554 0.113265 -0.1554 0.113265
RESEARCHER’S RESUME

CEZAR MARQUINEZ BARRANTA JR.

 Residence

 Date/Place of Birth : 27 October 1979, Manila, Philippines

 Languages Spoken : Filipino, English, Spanish (novice)

ACADEMIC BACKGROUND

 Master in Maritime Administration with Specialization in Shipping and Ship


Manning Business Administration (MARAD), Asian Institute of Maritime
Studies, currently enrolled

 Bachelor of Science in Marine Transportation, Asian Institute of Maritime


Studies, Pasay City (1998-2001)

COMPLETED RELEVANT TRAINING

 Certificate: Training Course for Instructors (IMO Model Course 6.09),


National Maritime Polytechnic, Makati City

 Certificate: Ship Security Officer (IMO Model Course 3.19), Maritime


Technological and Allied Services, Inc. (MARITAS), Sta. Cruz, Manila

 Certificate: Ship Stability and Trim, Keel Marine Technologies, Inc.,


Malate, Manila.

 Certificate: Completed in-house training on personal development


(Principles of Effective People) at Magsaysay Training Center, Ermita,
Manila.

 Certificate: Officer Candidate Course, Magsaysay Institute of Shipping,


Dasmariñas, Cavite.

 Certificate: Collision Regulations (COLREG) Workshop, Magsaysay


Institute of Shipping, Dasmariñas, Cavite.
 Certificate: Safety and Familiarization, Magsaysay Institute of Shipping,
Dasmariñas, Cavite.

 Certificate: Voyage Planning, Magsaysay Institute of Shipping,


Dasmariñas, Cavite.

 Certificate: Sigma Coating Paint Seminar, Magsaysay Institute of


Shipping, Dasmariñas, Cavite.

 Certificate: Shipboard Waste Management & Marine Pollution Prevention,


Magsaysay Training Center, Ermita, Manila.

 Certificate: Radar Navigation, Plotting and Use of ARPA, Magsaysay


Training Center, Ermita, Manila.

 Certificate: Radar Simulator, Magsaysay Training Center, Ermita, Manila.

 Certificate: MARPOL 73/78 Annex VI, Magsaysay Training Center, Ermita,


Manila.

 Certificate: Basic Safety Course, Magsaysay Training Center, Ermita,


Manila.

 Certificate: Medical First Aid, National Maritime Polytechnic, Malate,


Manila.

 Certificate: Cargo Handling and Care of Cargoes, National Maritime


Polytechnic, Malate, Manila.

 Certificate: Ship Simulator and Bridge Teamwork with Bridge Resource


Management, New Simulator Center of the Philippines, Inc., Makati City.

 Certificate: MARPOL 73/78 Annex I, Maritime Technological and Allied


Services, Inc., Sta. Cruz, Manila.

 Certificate: MARPOL 73/78 Annex II, Maritime Technological and Allied


Services, Inc., Sta. Cruz, Manila.

 Certificate: Ship’s Restricted Radiotelephone Operators, Maritime


Technological and Allied Services, Inc., Sta. Cruz, Manila.

 Certificate: International Maritime Satellite Communication, Maritime


Technological and Allied Services, Inc., Sta. Cruz, Manila.
 Certificate: General Operator’s Certificate for Global Maritime Distress and
Safety System, Maritime Technological and Allied Services, Inc., Sta.
Cruz, Manila.

 Certificate: Proficiency in Survival Craft and Rescue Boats (Other than


Fast Rescue Boats), Southern Institute of Maritime Studies, Bacoor,
Cavite.

 Certificate: Advance Training in Fire Fighting, Southern Institute of


Maritime Studies, Bacoor, Cavite.

 Certificate: Electronic Chart Display and Information Display, Excellence


and Competency Training Center, Manila.

TEACHING/LECTURING EXPERIENCE

 Instructor, Marine Transportation Department, Meteorology, Seamanship,


Asian Institute of Maritime Studies, Pasay City, Philippines

WORK EXPERIENCE (INDUSTRY)

 Fleet HR Officer, Magsaysay Maritime Corporation, 2010 – present

 Seafarer, Aboitiz Jebsens, 2009 – 2010

 Seafarer, Magsaysay Maritime Corporation, 2002 – 2009

ASSOCIATION MEMBERSHIP

 Vice President, AIMS Association

 Member, Magsaysay Institute of Shipping Alumni Association Inc.

 Vice-President, Graduate Student Council, AIMS Graduate School

 Volunteer, Red Cross, Cavite City Chapter


OTHER KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS

 Have knowledge in Strategic Planning, Research and Statistics and


Financial Accounting

 Practicing Research Studies on particular topics.

 Computer Skills (Microsoft Excel, Microsoft Word, Microsoft Powerpoint,


Microsoft Access, Adobe Photoshop and Paint (includes automated
payroll, forms, mail merge, inventory, vessel accounting, photo editing)

 Reads widely. Able to identify strategies and teach myself new skills.