You are on page 1of 5

BRT in Metro Dhaka: Towards Achieving a Sustainable

Urban Public Transport System

Dr. Md Mazharul Hoque,
Professor, Department of Civil Engineering and
Founding Director, Accident Research Institute (ARI)
Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET),
Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh
Phone: 9665650-80, 8614640-44 Ext.7548 (off.), 7966 (Res.), 9667798 (Rec.)
Mobile: +8801715007791
Fax: 880-2-861 3046, 880-2-9665622;
Dr. Hasib Mohammed Ahsan,
Professor, Department of Civil Engineering and
Director, Accident Research Institute (ARI)
Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET)

Dhaka the capital city of Bangladesh having a population of 15 million has a rudimentary public
transport system comprising cycle rickshaws, para-transit, taxis and buses. The rapid rise in
population along with increased and versatile urban land use patterns have generated
considerable travel demand as well as numerous transport problems in the city. The capacity of
the road is significantly reduced by poor operating conditions, inadequate traffic management
and efficient road use. The number of privately owned cars, on the other hand, is increasing day
by day because of undeveloped public transport system and lack of door to door services within
public transport network. Major shares of road space remain occupied by small capacity
vehicles. Buses being the only mode of mass transit available in Dhaka they carry about 1.9
million passengers per day. The share of mass transit is low, 27 percent of vehicular trips where
walking and other non-motorized travels still remain as the dominant travel modes.

In view of the worsening traffic congestion and deterioration in accessibility, level of service,
comfort, safety and operational efficiency, it is time to introduce the Bus Rapid Transit (BRT).
For achieving sustainable urban transport in Dhaka, the Strategic Transport Plan (STP) suggested
the development of six major corridors as mass transit routes including three BRT corridors. It
will start from Uttara and end to Sadarghat covering about 21.7 Kilometer road. In this paper an
attempt has been made to provide an overview of the public transportation system in metro
Dhaka in terms of the key issues, characteristics and improvement options. In particular the
paper discusses the aspects and potentials of introducing BRT in Dhaka to cater for ever
increasing public transport demand towards alleviation of congestion level and achieving a
sustainable urban public transport system.
Reforming Innercity
Bus Transportation in a
Developing Country:
A Passenger-Driven Model

Syed Saad Andaleeb, The Pennsylvania State University at Erie

Mahmudul Haq, BRAC University, Bangladesh
Rubina I. Ahmed, East West University, Bangladesh


The transportation system in Dhaka City, Bangladesh, requires significant improvements. The
shortage of motorized vehicles and the excessive number of nonmotorized vehicles on the city's
streets have been the cause of unbearable traffic congestion, leading to negative externalities
such as productivity loss, increase in stress levels, and adverse health effects from pollution. In a
city inhabited by more than 12 million people, predominantly representing the middle- and
lower-middle class, a well-organized low-cost bus transportation system is yet to emerge to
resolve the city's transportation problems. This study explores ways of improving bus
transportation services in Dhaka. Eight factors were identified to address satisfaction levels of
regular bus users whose opinions and concerns are deemed vital in making bus services in the
city better organized, need based, and service oriented. Using factor analysis and multiple
regression, five of the eight selected factors were found to have significant effects on passenger
satisfaction. These include comfort levels, staff behavior, number of buses changed to reach
destination, supervision, and waiting facilities. Policy implications are discussed in view of the

Journal of Civil Engineering The Institution of Engineers,

Bangladesh Voh CE 31,No. 2, 2003



Md. Jobair Bin Alam1 and K.M. Nurul Habib1

Department of Civil Engineerings BUET, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh
ABSTRACT: Transportation serves as channel for economic development of a country.
Development of transportation facilities involve huge amount of resources and time.
Also, in most the cases transportation investment are irreversible. To satisfy the future
demand and maximize the benefit of investment in this sector, elaborate planning is
deemed necessary. One of the major tasks of planning process is to assess future demand
and comprehend the impacts of alternative decisions. This paper presents an assessment
of future traffic demand and traffic related air pollution situation in Dhaka City. It also
evaluates the impacts of alternative transportation options on traffic congestion and air
pollution. The options examined in the study include banning of rickshaws and
autorickshaws from the major roads of the city, improvement of bus service, bottlenecks
and missing links in the road network of the city, and introduction of rail transit system.



A Simple Experimental Analysis on Transportation Problem: A New

Approach to Allocate Zero Supply or Demand for All Transportation

Md. Ashraful Babu1, Utpal Kanti Das2, Aminur Rahman Khan3, Md. Sharif Uddin4

'Department of Mathematics, IUBAT-International University of Business

Agriculture and Technology, Dhaka-1230, Bangladesh)

(Department of Computer Science & Engineering, IUBAT-International University
of Business Agriculture and Technology, Dhaka-1230, Bangladesh)

'Department of Mathematics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka-1342, Bangladesh)

'Department of Mathematics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka-1342, Bangladesh)


Basic feasible solution is the initial solution of transportation problem. There are
several transportation algorithms to determine feasible solution. These algorithms
are only way to get optimal solution because optimal solution obtains from the initial
basic feasible solution using some optimality test methods such as MODI- Modified
Distribution Method and Stepping Stone Method where MODI is the most efficient
method to determine optimal solution. Before applying MODI on feasible solution
we have to resolve degeneracy if it occurs and also make sure that allocations (non-
negative basic variable) are should not form a closed loop when we draw horizontal
and vertical paths from allocated cells to allocated cells. Degeneracy occurs when
supply and demand are satisfied simultaneously it can be resolved if one row or
column of them is crossed out and another remains with zero supply or demand.
Difficulty arise when if all uncrossed out rows or column have (remaining) zero
supply or demand. In that case, Vogel’s Approximation Method (VAM) and some
other methods solve that by allocating these zero supply or demand using Least Cost
Method (LCM). But in some problem when we make allocation by LCM in that
particular case then closed loop is formed and not possible to apply any optimality
test method. So that optimal solution is not possible to determine in that case. In this
paper we resolve this particular problem and find a new approach to allocate zero
supply or demand so that closed loop will not be formed.
@2013 Journal of PU, Part: B Vol.2
No.2, July 2013, pp 46-54 PRESIDENCY

Traffic Flow Interruptions in Dhaka City: Is Smooth

Traffic Flow Possible?

Sakib Mahmud Khan,2 3 Md. Shamsul Hoque**


Deficiencies in present roadway network of Dhaka city have reached to such an alarming state where
scopes of traffic improvement are getting confined day after day. Weak infrastructure has
provoked the heterogeneous mixing of vehicle along with non-lane based movement and no
access control. Taking advantage of existing poor monitoring system, number of non-registered
and road unworthy vehicles is on a rise. Recent studies showed that in developed countries,
between 2 to 8.5 percent of accidents are directly caused by faulty vehicles. Situation gets
worsen for developing countries like Bangladesh. Due to lack of proper implementation of
transport planning and effective management, streets of Dhaka have become over numbered with
vehicles and remain motionless for hours in both peak and off- peak periods. Frequent
application of brake is a regular scene in congested roads, which directly stimulates accelerated
depreciation of vehicle brake system. Identification of inherent weakness of interrupted traffic
flow like total number of interruptions during a vehicle trip is prerequisite to confirm the smooth
flow of vehicle and minimize the undesirable time killing of road users. As there is a direct
relationship between road accident and vehicle brake system performance, an attempt is made to
quantify the number of interruptions of vehicles of different categories. In this regard a
comprehensive study has been carried out to count number of brake applied during vehicle flow
from Malibagh level crossing to Bashundhara residential area for a week. The striking features of
the research will be discussed in the paper with a view to understand the root causes of
disruptions obstructing smooth vehicular flow and necessary engineering countermeasures will
be provided to improve vehicle performance.

Lecturer, Department of Civil Engineering, Azimur Rahman School of Engineering Presidency University, Dhaka,
3Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, BUET, Dhaka, Bangladesh.