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News analysis Health Business

Kidnap in the park: Crisis Best sleep position Uganda Airlines: Good
Management Unit needed for pregnant women investment, wrong timing

Issue No. 567 April. 12 - 18 2019 Ushs 5,000,Kshs 200, RwF 1,500, SDP 8

The bad in Shs40

trillion budget
Experts expose how Museveni
is destroying economy

Independent Publications Limited, Plot 82/84, Kanjokya Street, P. O. Box 3304, Kampala, Uganda Tel: +256-312-637-391/ 2/ 3/ 4 Fax: +256-312-637-396
E-mail:,, Website:

Issue No. 567 April. 12 - 18 2019

News analysis Business Health Arts Motoring

Cover story
5 reasons why Shs40 trillion budget is bad
Experts expose how Museveni is destroying economy

5 The Week
Rwanda commemorates
25th anniversary of genocide
Time for a true global
currency: Turning the SDR
9 The Last Word into a global currency would
yield benefits for the world’s
Our country’s misguided priorities: economy and monetary system
How the debate on Lubowa hospital
exposes the self-indulgence of Ugandan
32 Health
elites and their poverty of ideas
Best sleep position for
14 Analysis pregnant women: Mega study
confirms sleeping on the side
Kidnap in the park: American reduces risk of stillbirth
tourist rescued; experts call for
Crisis Management Unit
35 Arts & Culture
27 Business In memory of Serulyo :
The master of anatomy
Uganda Airlines: Good investment wrong
and individual
timing :Economists support its revival but proficiency lives on
remain skeptical about its success as a business

STRATEGY & EDITORIAL DIRECTOR: Andrew M. Mwenda WRITERS:Ronald Musoke, Flavia Nassaka, Ian Katusiime,
MANAGING EDITOR: Joseph Were Agnes Nantaba, Julius Businge.

PUBLISHER: Independent Publications Limited, Plot 82/84, Kanjokya Street, P. O. Box 3304, Kampala, Uganda
Tel: +256-312-637-391/ 2/ 3/ 4 | Fax: +256-312-637-396 E-mail: | | Website:

2 April. 12 - 18 2019

“For a leader to say a vote can never oust

Museveni without offering a solution is
disappointing... Don’t talk about democracy
and stand four times and on the fifth
time you say it doesn’t work, we believe it
works.”Bobi Wine on Dr Kizza Besigye

The Huangjuewan Interchange on the outskirts of Chongqing, a sprawling city

in southwest China five layers, 20 lanes, and goes in eight different directions

“We are going to hold a meeting with

Bank of Uganda, Ministry of Finance and
the management of Post Bank to come
up with a plan to enable the operations
of the bank continue,”Lt Col Edith Nakalema,
the head of Anti-Corruption Unit at State House
after raid on Post Bank

“So what merit do they use to make others

climb ladders while some of us, who did
the dirty job in the bush, are left down
here for all that long? I keep asking myself
whether it is because of indiscipline.”Maj.
Gen. Mataliyo Kyaligonza on his irregular
President Yoweri Museveni on April 04 received and held a meeting at promotion
State House Entebbe with his South Sudan counterpart, Mr. Salva Kiir.

Families displaced in Houses for soldiers to be Cash shortage EC

200 30,000 Shs16bn

Namisindwa after their constructed by the UPDF needed to implement
houses developed Engineering Brigade 2021 roadmap
deadly cracks activities for March

April. 12 - 18 2019 3
Questions over Mao, Bwanika coalition American tourist,
a coalition with the hope of
ousting President Museveni
guide freed
has baffled many minds. There was a sign of relief
However their coalition has in Uganda and beyond when
received support from Bobi an American tourist, Sue
Wine, a fellow presidential Endicott, and her guide, Jean
aspirant. The coalition was Paul Mirenge, were freed
announced by Mao during after a few days in captivity
a press conference held at in Queen Elizabeth National
the party’s headquarters in Park. The abductors asked
Kampala. Mao adds that for a ransom of $500,000
with the guidance of a legal and it is widely believed the
committee, the entities will payment of this ransom is
sign a Memorandum of what brought back them back
Understanding outlining their from captivity. However, the
Mabikke addressing the press at DP headquarters intentions and goals ahead government spokesperson
of the 2021 general elections. Ofwono Opondo tweeted
Abed Bwanika is a candidate with his party, Mao said the political block that Ugandan security forces
mainstay on the Uganda People’s Development Party will lead a drive to woo had rescued the two. Reports
presidential election (PDP) is now in an alliance former members back say the tour company Wild
ballot and 2021 will be no with Nobert Mao, president into the party; facilitate Frontiers paid the ransom
exception. What motivates general of the Democratic reconciliation among and a spokesperson for the
him in spite of failing to Party, Michael Mabike of the different political actors and company said the two were
score even 1% of the vote Social Democrats Party. The recruit new members into the unharmed. Endicott and
is unknown. However the latter is a non-starter and how opposition outfit. Mirenge were abducted in the
three time presidential the three lightweights formed park while on a game drive.

Obore probed over Museveni continues tour of army barracks

parliament job President Yoweri Museveni, District. He has also toured the and strategic challenges we face
the Commander in Chief, is UPDF 3rd Infantry Division presently while offering solu-
Jane Kibirige, clerk to parlia- currently on a national tour of Headquarters in Moroto, the tions,” Museveni tweeted. The
ment, wrote to Chris Obore barracks around the country 5th Infantry Division in Acholi President promised to look for
in March indicating that his to assess the welfare of the Pii, Pader District, the Second funding to enable the UPDF
contract as Parliament Director UPDF, listen to complaints of Division in Mbarara and the Engineering Brigade start
of Communications had to be the rank and file in the army, Armoured Brigade in Masaka. building houses for soldiers.
terminated following an investi- with a view to resolving some “The goal of these visits is to The target is to build at least
gation that he concluded he was of them. Museveni started remind our soldiers about the 30,000 two-bedroomed housing
illegally recruited. After receiv- his tour at the First Infantry spirit in which our army was units for all our soldiers in the
ing his contract termination let- Division in Kakiri, Wakiso founded, diagnose the tactical barracks.
ter Obore sought an injunction
from the High court restraining
the Parliamentary Commis-
sion from implementing the
clerk’s decision to terminate his
employment until the matter
is determined. According to an
investigation by the IGG, Obore
did not have a Masters’ degree
by the time he was recruited. He
is said to have acquired his MA
in March last year when he was
already three years in the job.
However Parliament has not
issued a statement regarding
the fate of Obore. Meanwhile
Speaker of Parliament Rebecca
Kadaga issued a social media
post saying she is regaining
good health and will be resume
her duties soon. Kadaga has
been hospitalized for three
weeks at Aga Khan Hospital
in Kenya after she was taken ill
from a long trip in the US.

4 April. 12 - 18 2019
Rwanda commemorates 25th anniversary of genocide Cheptegei
2018 best
A week after scooping
his third gold medal in
less than a year, Joshua
Cheptegei was crowned as
the 2018 Sports Personal-
ity of the Year by Uganda
Sports Press Association
(USPA) in a glitzy ceremony
at Imperia Royale Hotel.
“In athletics, we say once
you cross the finish line, it
is the beginning of a new
race,” said the 22-year old
Cheptegei as he capped a
perfect week. A few days
ago, he had just returned
from Denmark where he
Kagame and other leaders light the commemoration torch flew Uganda’s flag high at
the World Cross Country
Heads of State from Africa the remembrance flame at the by the energy and purpose Championship. Cheptegei
and Europe joined Rwanda Kigali Genocide Memorial to that drives us forward - however was being
as it commemorated the signal the start of the mourning young and old,” Kagame said crowned for his double gold
25th anniversary of the 1994 period, which coincides with during the commemoration exploits at the 2018 Com-
genocide where an estimated the duration of the brutal ceremony in Kigali. Ethiopian monwealth Games held
800,000 Rwandans perished. campaign of killings in 1994. Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed in Australia. On the night,
In what is an annual ceremony The memorial in the capital and Jean-Claude Juncker, he beat Uganda Cranes’
marked over 100 days, holds the remains of over a the European Commission’s skipper Denis Onyango,
President Paul Kagame and million people who lost their president, are some of the Rugby Cranes star Phillip
his counterparts laid wreaths lives in the slaughter. “Fear leaders who attended. Wokorach and She Cranes
and attended the lighting of and anger have been replaced assistant captain Lillian Ajio.

Old Nalubaale bridge safe- UNRA

Ministry of Works and Transport has decided to restrict traffic on be redirected to the old Nalubaale
and the Uganda National Roads the Source of the Bile Bridge which Bridge that had been closed to motor
Authority (UNRA) have assured the was opened in October 2018 until vehicles since last year. Only the
public that the old Nalubaale Bridge July 10 to allow for restoration Kampala-bound traffic will allowed
does not pose any safety threat to works to replace the defective pave- on the new bridge. The bridge was
road users because the infrastructure ment and asphalt layer. During the constructed in 1954 and had report-
is still strong and durable. UNRA works, traffic headed to Jinja will edly outlived its lifespan.

AfricellUG @AfricellUG

Dial *133*2# *terms and conditions apply |

Regulated by Uganda Communications Commission

for more bundles

April. 12 - 18 2019 5
Ugandan farmers acquire
dairy skills from Kenya
A team of 12 dairy farmers from Sembabule
district sponsored by Fresh Dairy, in
partnership with Brookside Dairy Limited
were exposed to various technologies at the
demonstration farms they visited in Kenya.
These included use of milking machines for
quickened milking with less manpower, silage
and hay production for easier feeding by both
small and large scale farmers during periods
of scarcity. They also learnt techniques of
feeding of concentrates to help farmers realize
improved milk production and enhance
fertility for cows, farm structures constructed Emirates shines at Travellers’ choice awards
with local materials to help farmers reduce on
the cost of production as well as manage dairy Emirates has been awarded Best First the in-flight Shower Spa, the Onboard
animals easier. Rainfall recording to enable the Class in the world at the 2019 TripAdvisor Lounge and many other industry firsts.
documentation of rainfall at the farms to aid Travelers’ Choice® awards for Airlines. The The airline’s latest First Class cabin features
decision making in terms of pasture planting airline also clinched several other awards the game-changing, fully enclosed private
was another skill. The study tour highlighted including Best Regional Business Class suites inspired by Mercedes-Benz that have
the role of the youth in the dairy value chain. Middle East, Best First Class Middle East floor to ceiling sliding doors, sleek design
Some of the farmers who attended the study and nabbed the overall Travelers’ Choice features, soft leather seating, high-tech
tour were Sam Mugabi, Richard Abamu, Major Airline honour for the Middle East. control panels and mood lighting. Sir Tim
Enock Kutesa, Lawrence Mutaggubya etc. TripAdvisor has awarded the world’s top Clark, President, Emirates Airline said:
The demo farms and farmer cooperatives carriers based on the quantity and quality “Emirates’ First Class product is an end-to-
visited include Ena Demo Farm in Embu of reviews and ratings for airlines by Tri- end experience. It begins before the flight
County, Mune Dairy Farm, Kirima Dairy pAdvisor flyers, gathered over a 12-month takes off - from the chauffeur drive airport
Farmers Cooperative, Demo Farm owned period. Emirates’ First Class experience transfer to exclusive check-in counters, use
by Youth, Mbucco Demo Farm, and Mangu has defined premium travel introducing of our dedicated Emirates Lounges, and all
Progressive Dairy Cooperative. product innovations like private suites, the onboard comforts and services.

6 April. 12 - 18 2019
Humour Did you know?
South Korea, U.S. fight
over world-first 5G

South Korea has claimed it beat the U.S.

by a matter of hours to become the first
Parliament passed a supplementary budget of Shs280 billion country to roll out a super-fast 5G mobile
towards the payment for two Uganda Airline Bombardier planes. network, which allows users to download
entire movies almost instantaneously.
Three South Korean carriers – SK
Telecom, KT and LG Uplus – launched 5G
services at 11pm local time on April 03,
according to media reports, but only for
a handful of celebrities in what their U.S.
rival dismissed as a publicity stunt.
The launch was reportedly brought
forward by two days, as speculation
mounted that the U.S. mobile carrier
Verizon planned to launch its own service
ahead of schedule and claim the title of the
world’s first 5G provider.
With national pride at stake, South
Korean government regulators modified
service terms so that the carriers could
quickly sign up half a dozen celebrity
customers, including two members of the
K-pop band EXO and the former Olympic
figure-skating gold medalist Kim Yuna.
The Supreme Court has assured the appellants that the Verizon’s 5G service also appeared
court is writing the Age Limit appeal judgment. on April 03 in parts of Chicago and
Minneapolis – a week ahead of its
scheduled 11 April launch but a little
later than the three South Korean carriers,
according to Yonhap news agency.
The U.S. firms said it planned to
introduce the new service in more than 30
locations across the country by the end of
the year.
Ordinary consumers in South Korea,
which has one of the world’s highest
smartphone penetration rates, were able
to connect to 5G services from April 05 –
the original launch day – when Samsung
begun sales of the Galaxy S10 5G, the
world’s first available smartphone with
the technology built in. LG Electronics will
release its 5G smartphone later this month.
Verizon South Koreas launch as
a publicity stunt. They added that
Verizon launched a network and
Internal Affair minister Jeje Odongo will lead the team made 5G devices available for any
investigating the murder of Ronald Ssebulime. customers that wanted them.

April. 12 - 18 2019 7
News analysis Health Business
40-year Moshi lessons Danger of eating Behind dfcu’s 52%
for younger Ugandans reused cooking oil decline in net profit

Issue No. 566 April. 05 - 11 2019

Ushs 5,000,Kshs 200, RwF 1,500, SDP 8


Why NRM doesn’t want
Follow us on Twitter @ to talk about it!/ugandatalks

Follow us on Facebook @

Letters are Nantaba’s impunity saddening

welcome ! Refer to: “Why Minister death a murder. Someone makes for very sad reading. No
The Editor welcomes short and Nantaba snubbed police sum- should be brought to book. wonder all our institutions are
concise letters from our esteemed mons” (The Independent The fact that Aida Nantaba, crumbling. At this rate, Uganda
readers on topical issues. Please online March 30). This is the Minister of State for ICT is truly a banana republic. This
send them to:
The Editor, The Independent impunity. No one should be has ignored police summons, is indeed very sad.
Publications Ltd, above the law. The police have allegedly on instructions of
P.O Box 3304, deemed Ronanld Ssebulime’s President Yoweri Museveni Dan
Plot 82/84 Kanjokya St,
Bamugemereire Uganda gold exports miraculous
Email: land probe wasteful
Refer to: “Gold importers run, it highly boarders on
Refer to: “Land probe seeks tasked to classify gold by insecurity. Uganda does not
extra Sh3bn” (The Independent
On French Online March 28). This is just
embarrassing and obscene in a
country of origin” (The
Independent Online April
have significant gold deposits
(at least publicly not known).
ambassador’s country that is grappling with
poverty and unemployment.
02). Uganda is a conduit for
bad money. If one followed
How then, do we manage
to export such amounts

comments Imagine less than 10% of the

cases have been handled but
the Susan Magara murder
it carried all the hallmarks
of gold? The little that the
artisan miners at Mubende
of money laundering. How mined was seized. Unless
already US$3 million gone! Let
Refer to: “I can’t believe someone is in possession God is performing another
us refer to earlier commissions
Museveni and Kagame want of more than US$1 million, miracle of “gold raining from
for different matters and realise
to destabilise each other, that we are still just wasting carries it to the forex bureau, heaven”, Uganda is engaging
French envoy” (The Indepen- taxpayers’ money and accumu- goes on with the exchange in an international crime of
dent March 29). Focus should lating debts on issues which are without being asked the monumental proportions.
be placed on the ambassador’s known. source and its intended
strong points in her analysis. purpose. The way Uganda’s Rajab Kakyama
For instance, “Kenya is more Bruno Namisi Ignatius finance system is being
mature in business, but Ugan-
da positions herself to attract
foreign investment”. This is
a strong point that should
generate debate. What has
National teacher’s policy will improve education sector
contributed to Kenya’s matur- Cabinet’s recent approval of disciplined. good teachers because good
ing in business? When South the National Teachers Policy to The policy will also strength- results are got from the most
Sudan emerged as a serious streamline the teachers’ man- en pre-service and in-service capable and committed teach-
market in the region, Kenya agement for productivity, disci- teacher training to enhance ers. But we still have teachers
went there to provide services pline, retention and motivation competence among teacher and on permanent schedule who
like banking, transport, insur- is a sign of empowering and enable them to effectively deliv- teach in more than two schools.
ance and the like. Uganda strengthening teachers to do er quality learning outcomes How long do they interact
mostly provided security their work. It will standardise and leadership at all levels of with students? With the help
services for the Kenyan busi- teacher development, qualifica- the education cycle. Teachers of media, we have seen teach-
nesses. This was also good as tions, and practice across all will get opportunity to upgrade ers who spend more time on
security in the region is para- levels of education. their knowledge and skills to other jobs like motorcycle
mount. Strategically, however, Absenteeism, lack of com- cope with new demands. riding (boda boda) yet they
I think we lag behind Kenya. mitment, dissatisfaction, and Teacher exploitation; mainly continue getting their salaries.
We need to be thinking inefficiency will now auto- in private-owned schools and This policy will handle all these
broadly. We should be nurtur- matically cease. The levels and institutions, has gone on for challenges. It will cut across
ing companies that can seize quality of output will increase long. It includes little pay, over- the government aided schools
business opportunities out because these do not only working, sexual harassment, and institutions and in private
there to expand our economic depend on the qualification and violation of rights of our owned ones.
influence in the region. but also on their commitment teachers because there has been
towards work. The teachers no policy to protect them. David Serumaga
Fredrick will now be well motivated and Good education requires

8 April. 12 - 18 2019
The Last Word Opinion

Our country’s misguided priorities

By Andrew M. Mwenda
How the debate on Lubowa hospital exposes the self-
indulgence of Ugandan elites and their poverty of ideas

wo weeks ago Uganda government go for expensive medical treatment at zero principle is that everyone should seek that
approved $380m (or Shs1.4 trillion) cost. Consequently, they have brought a which is to his/her best monetary advan-
to build an “international specialised lot of heat but shade very little light on the tage. Therefore, it is difficult to reconcile
hospital” in Lubowa. On the face of project. capitalism’s foundational creed with the
it, this is a great idea. It is prestigious for a For instance, the cost of $250m to construct ethics we demand from public officials.
poor country like Uganda to own a state- this hospital – with its 264 beds, 82-room Public servants have power to allocate
of-the-art hospital that can handle highly budget hotel, a 500 sitter conference facility, lucrative rights over scarce resources. It fol-
complex medical problems. Besides, if our a health training school, housing for staff lows that they will always seek to bargain
country is to attract high-end tourism, it (85,000 square meters of built up area), the for a share of the rents they help to create.
needs such a highly specialised hospital so cost of equipping the hospital with some of The magnitude of this share may vary from
that rich tourists can visit our country con- the most advanced and high tech medical society to society and from one period to
fident that in case of a medical emergency gadgets, beds etc., medicines for one year, another.
they can be handled. training of Ugandan health professional Thus, the inflation in the costs of a dam
Yet I think the hospital at Lubowa has very staff etc. is reasonable. Ugandan elites do or highway by anything between 10 to 30%
little to do with high-end tourism. Rather not want to look at the detailed bill of quan- may be the necessary price to get public
it shows how political power in Uganda, tities and they go yapping around. officials incentivised to work hard and get
most especially democratic power, is in the Secondly there is the cost of interest on the such projects off the ground. Otherwise
tight grip of a very small, parochial and self- money borrowed to build this hospital at without a commission they may drag their
indulgent elite – inside government, in the 6.5%, which I find reasonable as well. This feet forever. Delaying a project in a vain
fickle opposition, and in the wider Ugandan is because it is hard to find a concessionary effort to stop alleged corruption is always
chattering elite class! The Lubowa hospital loan for building a highly specialised hos- more costly in direct financial costs and in
is being built because Ugandan elites want pital. Besides, there has to be profit for the opportunity cost than in letting officials take
such a government owned facility to save contractor and the promoter of this project. a commission of 10 to 20%. NSSF’s pension
their lives. In their self-indulgence, they Finally there is always the cost of corrup- towers, which I will write about next time,
ignore where national health priorities tion: I do not think is it possible to give out proves this.
should be. such a lucrative contract in Uganda without The real issue in the debate over Lubowa
The permanent secretary in the ministry wheeler-dealers getting a cut. is that a government of a poor country like
of Finance who is also the secretary to the A note on this corruption: this is a great Uganda should not be sponsoring people,
Treasury, Keith Muhakanizi, explained moral issue and on that I share everyone’s rich or poor, for expensive medical atten-
it well. He said 8,200 persons in Uganda concerns and outrage. However, I learnt tion here or abroad. Our meagre public
applied for medical visas to India in 2016 from Samuel Huntington, an American resources should be spent on trying to
of whom, 5,000 were sponsored by govern- scholar that an intellectual must always achieve the greatest good for the greatest
ment of Uganda at a cost of $123m ($15,000 separate their values/morals from their number. This means emphasis on public
per person). In building the hospital, gov- analysis – so that they can analyse clearly. health programs such as vector control,
ernment is cutting down on this expense, While it is good for us to try to ensure that improved sanitation, immunisation
which makes sense – until. public projects reflect reasonable costs, it is and vaccination, clean water and public
Muhakanizi also said the total cost of often counterproductive to seek to delay/ hygiene.
medical treatment abroad (government and stop them unless and until you have the If government invests in clinical care, it
privately sponsored persons) in 2014 was ideal price. It doesn’t exist. should focus on those diseases that affect
$186 million of which only $73 million went Secondly, big infrastructure projects are the largest number of the most vulnerable:
to medical treatment while $133 million inherently more political than technical. malaria, cough and cold, urinary tract
went to transport and upkeep. It makes a Without financial rewards to the wheeler- infections, intestinal worms, gastrointes-
lot of sense, therefore, that Uganda builds dealers in the system and their ability to tinal disorders, acute diarrhea, etc. This
a hospital to handle highly complicated create political slush funds for those in means government invests more in health
medical emergencies because it will reduce power, it would be difficult for any country centres at community level – with better
the foreign exchange cost by 71.5%. to implement them. Often it is the corrup- medical staff, equipment and medicines.
Consistent with the self-indulgence of the tion involved that makes such projects This is not to say it should ignore treat-
Ugandan elites across the intellectual spec- possible; and why public officials are likely ment for complicated diseases. Rather, it
trum, their disagreement with the project to get incentivised to process them faster. can provide a long term loan at low cost to
is over its cost, not its actual purpose i.e. Those who believe in the altruism of public a private investor to develop such a facility
government to subsidise the medical bills officials should remember how commu- and everyone who goes there – rich or
of largely a few people with influence to nism failed. poor – pays his/her bills.
get recommended by the medical board. Capitalism, which has created unprec-
Our elites want the state to build a highly edented prosperity, is based on the selfish-
specialised hospital where they can always ness of man (individual greed). Its cardinal

April. 12 - 18 2019 9
cover story

5 reasons why
Shs40 trillion
budget is bad
Experts expose how Museveni
is destroying economy

10 April. 12 - 18 2019
of the total
of the total budget) budget) domestically.
domestically. The domestic The domesticgrew
borrowing borrowing grew from
by 175.7% by 175.7% from
     UGX 346 billion. 346 billion.

cover story
Figure 1: Increasing
ure 1: Increasing public debtpublic debt
is driven byisincreased
driven byborrowing
increased borrowing

45% 45%
40% 40%
Public debt, % GDP
Public debt, % GDP

35% 35%
30% 30%
25% 25%
20% 20%
15% 15%
10% 10%
5% 5%
0% 0%
2012/13 2012/13
2013/14 2013/14
2014/15 2014/15
2015/16 2015/16
2016/17 2016/17
2017/18 2017/18
2018/19 2018/19

ce: IMF Country IMF Country Report
No 17/206 andNo 17/206
Ministry of and Ministry
Finance of Finance
2017/18 2017/18
approved approved
estimates estimates
of revenue andof revenue and
nditure. expenditure.

By Haggai Matsiko nomics at Makerere University Business debt situation was already getting out of
 Government  Government
revenue: revenue: Since School (MUBS).
2012/13 government hasrevenuehand without the new pressures.
has increased in
he budget this year isSince
proving2012/13 Other government
experts, basing on revenue
URA’s previ- increased
Secondly,in the figures before parliament
nominal terms to nominal
be a as
headache. terms
a proportion as aofproportion
After years GDP (12.7% of GDP
ous performance, in (12.7%
URA will failinto16.5%
to 2012/13
col- show,
in to 16.5%
2017/18). in 2017/18).
government intends to aggres-
of borrowing to finance huge lect this money and pile even more trouble sively borrow from the local money mar-
The central roadTheandcentral
factor behind
electricity factor behind
this increase
projects, on thethis
has increase
budget been has beenat the
planners. They point improvements
in tax
ket. collection,
This move in will
local businesses
Ministry of Finance has a new current year where URA is supposed to because it crowds them out of the credit
both in direct painboth
– how intodirect
(income (income
finance and indirect tax)
sources butsources
trillion, short of(VAT,
fell excise excise
and international
target market by and international
offering commercial banks high
huge defense and security budgets. by a whopping one trillion. risk free returns.
trade Thetaxes), trade
new demands taxes),
have pushedinhighlighted
bud- in
2. Year
GrantFigure year,2.
after funding URAGrant fundingtocontinues
has consistently provide On theto provide
fourth front, unlike borrowing
get from Shs34 trillion in the early plan- failed to meet its targets because they are to build roads and bridges that contribute
significant significant
ning stages tosupport
Shs37 trillion support
to initially,
governmentand to government
unrealistic, the revenue,
around say. 10% at around 10%
of the total, of
directly the
to is total,
the economy and is be seen
and can
to nearly Shs40 trillion now expected to be This is because instead of expanding and used, defense and security are secre-
predominantly predominantly
announced at end of project project based.
June. based. Whiletheincreases
tax base by getting tax
in tax collection
areas that arehavetive provided have provided
items whose details are classified and
To understand how big
more more
fiscal space tothe
fiscal Shs40
budget is, it must be compared not only
trillion currently not
to facilitate
increased taxed, the government
spending, thespending,
keeps heaping new taxes on the same
government onlythe government
often become conduits
for budget indisci-
to theis
there Shs32 there
potential of tois increase
last potential
year but to the ittofurther,
people. it further,
given economists given
the relativelyrefer tothe
low relatively
tax to
proportion lowofproportion
Related tonon- of non-
budget indiscipline, on the
Shs22 trillion of 2017 and the Shs20 trillion GDP ratio or the proportion of tax revenue fifth front, the massive budget comes at
grant revenue
of 2016. grant
The budget as
fora revenue
next financialasyear a percentage
of GDP. of GDP.
in the entire economy Meanwhile
(US$26 has other
billion) countries
thewhenregion in the
the 2021 region
election campaigns
represents a 60% jump in the money the stagnated at slightly over 13%. loom large. Most commentators have
government is spending from back then. Ggoobi says rather than taxing the same pointed at the past to show that President
Under normal circumstances, a bigger small bracket of business people, the gov- Yoweri Museveni and his ruling NRM
budget should be great news as it would ernment should be getting into areas like party often need piles of cash during elec-
mean more money to spend on more agriculture, which remained under-taxed. tion. It is not unusual for the state treasury
schools, hospitals, and other services for Although agriculture contributes 24% of to be raided in the guise of classified
poor orientation
wananchi. of orientation
Uganda's 2017/18 of Uganda's budget2017/18
GDP, budget
only 1%/
pays taxes. expenditure. 4 4
Instead, the government’s plan to spend “Politicians world over want expansion-
Shs40 trillion in the 2019/20 Financial Year 5 trouble points ary budgets because they want to show
which starts in July is being described as a These contradictions mean trouble for that they are spending on development in
crisis that threatens to hurt the economy. the common taxpayer on five fronts. order to be popular,” says Ggoobi.
Why? On one front, instead of increasing mon- But in Uganda’s case, he blames officials
The experts cite several other concerns. ey for social services like schools, hospitals, in charge of the treasury for failing to be
First, the government is clamouring and public service welfare; the govern- firm and saying no.
to spend more money than it can collect ment is cutting them to fund defense and “The technical managers of the economy
domestically in taxes. security. are no longer in charge,” he says, “This is
The new collection target for the Uganda On the other front, the government is not surprising because some of these man-
Revenue Authority (URA) is Shs18 trillion, to try to squeeze as much tax as it can agers have either hit retirement age or their
up from Shs16 trillion last year. from the few taxpayers in its database. So contracts are near expiry.”
“Because of this ever increasing spend- FY2019/20 is likely to be a year of tighten- “They rely on the good will of the execu-
ing appetite, we are seeing politicians ing the belt. tive (Museveni)—they are vulnerable and
initiating taxes based not on research but On the third front, the government is to cannot stand firm against the whims of the
their whims,” says Ramathan Ggoobi, a borrow big time. This approach is prob- politicians.”
renowned commentator who teaches eco- lematic at two levels. First, the national

April. 12 - 18 2019 11
cover story
Museveni should know better Sharp raises and deep cuts bills reached 21% and banks shifted a lot
Ggoobi says the budget expansion to is Next year, for example, Treasury of their lending from the private sector
a mistake and Museveni, who has been in Operations which deals with domestic to government and also increased their
power for around 33 years, should know debt refinancing, was allocated Shs9.5 lending rates.
better what happened in the past when trillion – bigger than any ministry, Because lending to government is less
governments were spending everything in government department or agency. risky, most banks limited their lending to
the treasury. The other big takers will be the Works the private sector, those that did, charged
“He should not be making the same mis- Ministry (Shs5.3 trillion up from Shs4.7 exorbitant terms—sometimes in the
takes,” he told The Independent. trillion) and Security (about Shs4 trillion). region of 30%.
Ggoobi says the problem is worse Budget allocations to other sectors— In some cases, companies that had
because the government is drifting further social sectors—are set to dip. For borrowed at lower rates all of a sudden
and further away from the best situation; instance, the Health budget is being cut had to pay more than what they had
where the money the government collects from Shs2.3 trillion to Shs2.2 trillion initially borrowed at. Many began to
in tax revenue is equal to what it spends, to and Education from Shs2.7 trillion from default and even collapsed. The biggest
a worse situation where it is always looking shs2.6 trillion, according to details in victims were banks.
to borrow to spend more and more. parliament’s Budget Committee report By 2015, three major banks suffered
This year, since donor support to the bud- on the National Budget Framework major losses as a result of Non-
get is nearly zero due to corruption; over Paper. These figures could further performing Assets. Those backed by
Shs20 trillion of the budget will be funded change given that officials at Finance are international benefactors got recaptalised
through borrowing. still tinkering with the budget. and survived. Locally owned Crane
Of the Shs20trillion, Shs7trillion is coming Uganda has over the years suffered Bank, which was the biggest lender to
from external lenders and about Shs15tril-
lion will be borrowed locally.
This is worsening the country’s debt situ-
ation and killing domestic businesses and
social services.
According to the Public Finance Manage-
ment Act, 2015, the domestic borrowing
limit for government is capped at 10% of
domestic revenues. That means this year’s
domestic revenues of Shs15 trillion, can only
support government borrowing of Shs1.5
trillion. However, government is looking to
borrow several times more.
Experts are warning that the economy
could pay a high price. The 2018 report by
the parliamentary committee on national
economy, for example, cautioned that
government domestic debt is constraining
funding to the private sector.
To understand how critical private sector
credit (PSC) is to economic performance,
one looks at years when the economy has
performed poorly and when it has per-
formed well.
In 2008 when the economy performed
at its best— slightly over 10%, PSC grew at
49.4% between June 2007 and April 2008.
In 2013 when the economy posted worst
performance since 1991, PSC had fallen
from an average of 33% to 4.5% in Septem-
ber 2012 and sluggishly picked up to about
8.8% as of September 2013. In 2017, the
economy was still struggling—no wonder
PSC only grew at 2.8%. The current wave the cost of domestic borrowing. Between local businesses, was not as lucky.
of recovery was supported by a PSC annual 2012 and 2018, Uganda’s economic The economy shrunk even further—
growth of 10.5% as of last year. growth limped on at about 4%. hitting the lows of 3% growth. These
But the new plan by government to Trouble started in 2012 when Uganda sorts of consquences explain the concerns
increase borrowing internally could reverse passed the Anti-homosexuality Act and about how Finance officials are planning
this positive trajectory. angry pro-gay Western donors reacted to finance and spend the upcoming
By end of June 2018, the total public by cutting budget support. budget.
debt stock stood at Shs41.3 trillion which is Rather than cut spending, the
equivalent to 41.5% of the country’s GDP. government, which previously only Does Uganda have a budget?
The level of debt as a percentage of GDP borrowed domestically for monetary Commenting on the shifting figures, Fred
was 26% in 2012 and went to 32% in 2014, policy objectives, started raising cash for Muhumuza, an economist who previously
and 40% in 2018. The more debt has grown, financing the budget through domestic advised the Finance Minister said the
the more it has eaten into the budget. borrowing. budget is changing at such a fast rate that he
Consequently, interest on treasury is not sure whether there is a budget at all.

12 April. 12 - 18 2019
cover story
He said government budgets are elections threatens to make the bad situation spending’ (Issue565, March 29-April 04)
supposed to signal its intentions for private worse. exclusively reported that President Musev-
players, but the rate of changes is confusing Supplementary budgets should, under eni had directed finance officials to push
instead. current regulations, not exceed 3% of the through parliament some US$100 million
He says private players who planned entire national budget but these have been (Approx.Shs370 billion) as part of a supple-
basing on the government allocating money increasing from 4% in 2008/2009, to 7.2% mentary for the defence budget.
in certain areas get thrown off when there in 2009/2010 and over 30% of the budget in The directive to increase defence spend-
are budgets cuts in those areas and the 2010/11. ing followed two meetings this month; one
money is taken to other areas. It gets worse These tend to get worse ahead of with security chiefs and another with offi-
if the new areas were not planned for at all. elections. cials from the Finance Ministry.
“There is a lot of uncertainty and lack of Just months to the 2011 election, the Museveni first met the security chiefs
consistency with a lot of off budget items government pushed through parliamentary and discussed “tensions with Rwanda”,
negatively affecting budget items,” he told budgets of close to a trillion shillings – with said a source familiar with the details of
The Independent in an interview. the last round coming in December 2011 the meeting on conditions of anonymity
Just this March, for example, on top of the right in the middle of campaigns. because of the sensitivity of the matter.
US$100 million for Security, government Just months to the 2016 election, After this meeting, the source added,
requested for supplementary expenditure the government again requested for a Museveni then summoned officials from
budgets worth billions of shillings to Shs847billion supplementary budget, the Finance Ministry who he directed to
cater for procurement of two Bombardier of which only Shs11.9 billion was for make the allocations.
planes for the revival of the national development expenditure and a whopping The Independent also reported that the
flag carrier; Uganda Airlines, facilitation Shs728.1 billion for recurrent expenditure. Security docket would get a significantly

for establishment of the Atiak Sugar In both cases, Uganda suffered. Post-2011 bigger allocation in the next FY2019/20
Factory, purchase Okello House which election inflation hit the highs of 30% and budget that Finance officials are putting
is an extension of the Nakasero Lodge in post 2016, the economy shrunk further. together.
Kampala, and construction of a centre of The Defense/Security had already thrown The Independent understands, the
excellence in Pediatric Surgery in Entebbe, this year’s budget off balance. Finance Ministry will add another $270
among others. Butambala MP Muwanga Kivumbi million (Approx.1 trillion) to the defence
“If you look at how much the who sits on the parliamentary Budget budget for 2019/2020 alone.
current budget has changed because of Committee told The Independent that Kivumbi said the Security budget is
supplementary budgets you wonder already Defense/Security was consuming jumping from Shs2 trillion last year to Shs4
whether the budget is reliable anymore,” the bulk of new money that the Finance trillion. That will push Uganda’s defense
Muhumuza said. Ministry has asked parliament to approve spending to over $1 billion dollars again.
Intense domestic borrowing; some of in an adjusted budget.
which is intended to finance supplementary The Independent in its recent cover
budgets, especially ahead of the 2021 story titled `Museveni doubles military

April. 12 - 18 2019 13
news analysis

Kidnap in
the park
American tourist
rescued; experts
call for Crisis
Management Unit
By Ronald Musoke

he kidnap of an American tourist
and a guide in the Queen Elizabeth
National Park in early April spread
jitters across Uganda’s tourism
Kimberley Sue Endecott, was one of
three guests on an evening game drive on
April 02 when she and the guide, Jean Paul
Mirenge, who works for Wild Frontiers
Uganda, a local tour company, were both
ambushed and abducted by four armed
The gang left the other two tourists; an
elderly couple, and made off with Endecott
and Mirenge. The kidnappers later used
one of the abductees’ phone to demand
a ransom of US$500,000 (about Shs 1.8
Fortunately, Endecott and Mirenge’s
ordeal ended on April 07 when the two
were found alive inside the Democratic Tourists take vantage positions to view a lion hiding in the grasslands of Queen Elizabeth National Park on
Republic of Congo thanks to a joint security Feb.06, 2019. The park is very popular with visitors from around the world.  INDEPENDENT/RONALD MUSOKE
operation that included; the Uganda
People’s Defence Force, police, the Uganda Secret rescue plan teams at Queen Elizabeth National Park
Wildlife Authority and the Joint Intelligence Until the day of the rescue, it remained which borders parts of the restive eastern
Task Force. unclear how the government was going Democratic Republic of Congo.
Lilly Ajarova, the new executive director about saving the two. Fred Enanga, the The police and government appeared
of the Uganda Tourism Board (UTB) told Spokesperson of Police had two days earlier determined to reassure tourists and the
The Independent that much as this is an told The Independent that there would be general public that although this is the
isolated case, dealing with its aftermath no public updates on the kidnap because first incident of this kind registered in a
requires more effort. “over-reporting” on the matter could very peaceful setting, “strengthened safety
“Tourism is a very sensitive industry and endanger the already precarious lives of the measures were in place for both the local
this incident just frustrates all the efforts victims. residents and visitors.”
that are being made to develop the tourism Enanga said in the early afternoon of Baguma had earlier told The Independent
industry,” she said, “Going forward we April 06 when The Independent asked him that as soon as such incidents happen, UTB
need to strengthen our efforts that are being for an update on the kidnap that there was a should have been passing out re-assuring
geared towards making the tourism sector continuous man-hunt operation going on. messages in the media showing how the
the heartbeat of the economy.” Following news of the kidnapping, a joint government is responding to the incident
Cuthbert Baguma; a former executive security operation by the Uganda Police, and showing how tourism activities are still
director of UTB, said much as this is Uganda People’s Defence Forces (UPDF) going in Queen Elizabeth National Park and
an isolated incident, it should help the and Uganda Wildlife Authority game other parks around the country.
government to create a Crisis Management wardens was mounted to rescue Endecott Dr. Akankwasah Barirega, the
Unit that ably responds to incidents like this and her guide. commissioner for wildlife conservation
one. He says Kenya which often suffers An April 03 statement signed by deputy in the Ministry of Tourism, Wildlife and
such incidents has done this very well by Police Spokesperson Polly Namaye said Antiquities was one of many who told The
partnering the Kenya Wildlife Service with police had dispatched an elite squad from Independent that the Queen Elizabeth Park
the Kenya Tourism Federation. the Tourism Police to reinforce the security incident should be viewed as an isolated

14 April. 12 - 18 2019
news analysis
savannah grasslands, dense forests,
dazzling lakes and the mashy wetlands,
make it the ideal habitat for big game,
primates including chimpanzees and
hundreds of bird species.
Among its other attractions are
several dozen enormous craters carved
dramatically into rolling green hills,
panoramic views of the Kazinga
Channel with its banks lined with
hippos, buffalo and elephants. These
attractions make the park easily one of
Uganda’s most popular conservation
spots and it is the reason it receives
thousands of visitors every year.
Data from the Uganda Tourism
Board, the national tourism marketing
agency shows Uganda recorded a 1.5%
growth in international tourist arrivals
to 1.32 million in the 2016/17 financial
The U.S is said to have contributed
the biggest number of visitors to
Uganda with 57,959, followed by the
U.K (39,539), India (30,210), China
(19,179) and Germany (10,586).
Among visitors from Africa, Rwanda
contributed the biggest number of
visitors (362,865), followed by Kenya
(352,817), DR Congo (90,148), Tanzania
(86,091) and Sudan (35,353).
Of all the total arrivals during the
year, 18% visited for purposes of leisure,
recreation and holiday, 22% visited for
business and professional conferences,
38% visited for other reasons such as
transit, education and medical.
As a result, tourism remains the
country’s leading foreign exchange
earner bringing in U.S $ 1.4bn (about
Shs 5.1 trillion) that year. This is almost
case. from this kind of crime. three times the revenue Uganda earned
He said tourism activities were still going The only such incident he could recall a decade earlier (US $498.3 million).
on in Queen Elizabeth National Park and happened 20 years ago when Rwandan Executives in the sector link the
other conservation areas in the park and rebels known as Interahamwe ambushed sudden interest in Uganda as a top
that the world needed to know that this was and killed eight foreign tourists in tourism destination to the recent
not a case of degenerated security but an Bwindi; a park which is 150km south of recruitment of three marketing firms
isolated incident that can occur anywhere in Queen Elizabeth National Park and is that have been selling Uganda in Europe
the world. renowned for gorilla trekking. The rebels and North America.
“Uganda still remains a country with the were part of a militia group that was In the national budget for FY 2018/19
lowest crime rates in the region and even involved in the 1994 Rwandan genocide the Ministry of Finance, Planning
the continent; we hope that our prospective before fleeing to the jungles of the DR and Economic Development said the
visitors shall not cancel basing on this Congo. procurement of market destination
particular incident,” Barirega told The Hangi also told The Independent that representation firms has so far
Independent. the Queen Elizabeth Park incident is a yielded good results. As a result the
wake-up call for all the tourism sector government expected to rake in twice as
Parks safe from crime players. much as much (U.S $ 2.7bn) every year
The kidnap happened when “This is not only about UWA; it is for by 2020 from the sector. The projection
the government was announcing the entire tourism sector; it is a pointer to was that tourist arrivals will have hit
unprecedented surges in tourist numbers how we are working with our colleagues four million.
over the recent years with thousands more in the private sector and the government It is not clear now how the kidnap
visitors coming in from the key source agencies.” and rescue of the American will affect
markets of the U.S, the U.K and Germany. those plans. Members of the Association
It remains to be seen how the latest setback Popular tourist destination of Uganda Tour operators have in the
will impact the industry. Queen Elizabeth National Park past spoken about how unrest and
Bashir Hangi, UWA’s communications is Uganda’s most popular tourist similar incidents scare away tourists
manager told The Independent that destination. The park’s diverse who suddenly cancel their trips.
Uganda’s game parks have been safe ecosystems, which include the sprawling

April. 12 - 18 2019 15
news analysis

Inside the ransom business

Why kidnapping rarely pays
By Anja Shortland So, the best response to a ransom demand hostage exceeds what they expect to gain

is never to agree immediately to a kidnap- from the next ransom increment.
kidnapper’s phone call announc- per’s demands. If the kidnappers have time, Some describe this process as wringing
ing that a family member or they will keep doubling the price and judge the towel dry: kidnappers squeeze and
employee has been abducted is the response to this accordingly. If the kid- squeeze until the victim’s representatives
the stuff of nightmares – as is the nappers agree to the first ransom offer they stick to their answer, “there is no more”. If
eye-watering ransom demand that often are given, they are probably negotiating those paying the ransom permit the kid-
accompanies this news. How should you from the back of a car and are desperate to nappers to literally squeeze them dry, they
respond? return the hostage already. If the victim’s will pay all they can afford. But knowing
Most kidnappings take place in countries representatives prevaricate, the case will that they will have to endure all the painful
where governments are weak and territory most likely end with the victim withdraw- squeezes (replete with horrendous threats)
is disputed. Without a police force able to ing whatever cash they can from an ATM anyway, they can also set a lower limit and
help, you will need to negotiate to get your once before and once just after midnight: hide some resources from the criminals. If
loved one back. So, what is the “right” the so called “express kidnap” or “million- they stick to their guns, they often achieve
price for their life? When I ask my students aire’s ride”. By contrast, a swiftly agreed, a release for a small fraction of the first ran-
this question, their answers range from “I overgenerous ransom puts a bulls-eye tar- som demand.
When foreigners are abducted in a kid-
nap prone area, there is often another actor
and that’s the professional ransom negotia-
tor. For kidnap insurers it is of paramount
importance that hostage markets develop
norms of non-violence and ways of nego-
tiating ransoms that facilitate swift and
reliable releases – while at the same time
ensuring that kidnapping is not an easy
way to riches.
Firms that purchase kidnap insurance
for their employees operating in dangerous
places are therefore advised and coached in
how to handle the ransom negotiation, how
to react to threats, and when to stay firm.
They learn to barter the kidnappers down
to a price that just about covers the costs
of staging the kidnap and conducting the
get on your wider family, your firm’s other The result is an orderly but very lim-
would never pay a criminal or terrorist” employees (if you’re travelling with work), ited market for foreign hostages in which
to “I’d pay whatever they’re asking for” or and fellow nationals. News of easy profits the crime barely pays. The kidnapping
“everything I could possibly spare”. Some spread quickly in criminal communities of expatriates, tourists, and foreign firms’
point to their government’s responsibility to and can cause local or regional kidnapping local staff is discouraged by the unhurried,
help. Depending on the family’s, employer’s booms. firm approach to negotiations and hostage
or government’s attitude and means, the The case of Somali piracy is an excellent incidents resolved by professional crisis
kidnappers might make several million dol- example. Somalis had hijacked a few ships responders result in the safe return of more
lars here – or nothing at all. a year for decades, releasing hostages after than 97% of kidnap victims. For the few
In my book “Kidnap: Inside the Ransom a few months for low six-figure sums. Yet cases that go awry, the main problems are
Business” I analyse the tricky question of when nervous negotiators tried to accelerate pre-existing medical conditions and escape
how much to pay using the tools of eco- this process by offering million-dollar ran- attempts.
nomics and look at the problem from the soms, Somali piracy escalated and became The vast majority of insured hostage
perspective of all parties. The kidnappers a threat to global trade. It is therefore in negotiations conclude in less than a week
want to extract the maximum amount of the financial interest of those being issued and generally with ransoms that don’t
profit, subject to not being caught. If they ransom demands, as well as their moral break the bank, keeping other travellers
have time, they will want to probe how responsibility, to try to limit the payments. and expatriates safe. By contrast, if people
much the victim is really worth: starting follow their gut instinct, fundraise aggres-
with a demand beyond their dreams of Haggling a compromise sively, mobilise the media, or lobby politi-
avarice. Getting the right price requires haggling cians to get involved they most likely put
Depending on how the victim’s represen- out a compromise that both satisfies the their loved one in greater peril and more
tatives respond, the kidnappers will either kidnappers and is affordable (and ethically people at risk.
revise the ransom upwards or downwards. acceptable) for the victims’ representatives.
If they are offered a large amount, say a Economic reasoning tells us where this Anja Shortland is a Reader in Political
million dollars, straight away, the kidnap- undignified bartering ends: kidnappers will Economy, King’s College London
pers will believe there is a lot more they can release when the cost of holding on to the

16 April. 12 - 18 2019
news analysis

Youth wait for the arrival of Rwanda’s PresidentPaul Kagame to perform as part of the 25th
Commemoration of the 1994 Genocide at the Amahoro stadium in Kigali, Rwanda, on April 7./ AFP

Rwanda 'a family again'

President Kagame sees hope, 25 years after genocide
By Cyril Belaud The killings lasted until Kagame, then the continent.

36, led the mainly Tutsi Rwandan Patriotic Former colonial ruler Belgium sent Prime
resident Paul Kagame said on April Front (RPF) into Kigali on July 4, ending the Minister Charles Michel.
07 that Rwandans had become a slaughter and taking control of the devas- French President Emmanuel Macron did
family again; 25 years after more tated country. not attend, but expressed his “solidarity
than 800,000 people were slaugh- Kagame, now 61, and in power ever with the Rwandan people and his compas-
tered in a genocide that shocked the world. since, is leading the memorial to the dead. sion to the victims and their families” in a
Kagame lit a remembrance flame at the After his speech, Kagame led hundreds statement on April 07.
Kigali Genocide Memorial, where more of people on a walk to the country’s main The statement said Macron would like
than 250,000 mainly Tutsi victims are football ground. The Amahoro National to make April 7 a “day of commemoration
believed to be buried, as the country began Stadium -- whose name means “peace” in of the genocide” in France, without giving
its annual 100 days of mourning that coin- Rwanda’s Kinyarwanda language -- was further details.
cides with the length of the slaughter. used by the UN during the genocide to France was represented by Herve Ber-
“In 1994, there was no hope, only dark- protect thousands of Tutsis from being mas- ville, a 29-year old Rwandan-born member
ness,” said Kagame, at the Kigali Conven- sacred on the streets outside. of parliament in Paris. Rwanda has accused
tion Centre, a dome-shaped auditorium in Dignitaries lit a candle which they used France of being complicit in the genocide
the centre of the capital, a modern building to light candles held by the youth, a sym- through its support for the Hutu-led gov-
emblematic of the regeneration of Rwanda. bolic passing of the baton to the younger ernment and of helping perpetrators escape.
“Today, light radiates from this place ... generation, before the stadium turned into a Paris has consistently denied complicity
How did it happen? Rwanda became a fam- sea of flickering lights. in the bloodshed, though former president
ily once again,” he added. Two thirds of Rwanda’s population was Nicolas Sarkozy in 2010 acknowledged
“The arms of our people, intertwined, born after the genocide. France had made “serious errors of judge-
constitute the pillars of our nation. We hold “Our children enjoy the innocence of ment”. On April 05, Macron appointed an
each other up. “Our bodies and minds bear peace. They know trauma and violence only expert panel to investigate France’s actions
amputations and scars, but none of us is from stories. Our aspirations rest in this at the time.
alone. Together, we have woven the tattered new generation,” Kagame said. Macron was not the only notable absence;
threads of our unity into a new tapestry.” former ally Ugandan President Yoweri
The genocidal Hutu forces, members of Deep trauma Museveni was also absent, amid a diplo-
the old army and militia forces called the For many survivors, forgiveness remains matic spat between the two nations.
“Interahamwe”, began their campaign of difficult when the bodies of their loved ones During his speech, Kagame sent out a
killing on April 7, 1994, the day after the have not been found and many killers are warning to those who interfered in Rwan-
assassination of President Juvenal Habyari- still free. A quarter of a century on, the east dan affairs.
mana, a Hutu. African nation has recovered economically, “For those from here or from outside who
Some were shot, but most were beaten or but the trauma still casts a dark shadow. think our country has not seen enough of a
hacked to death with machetes. Kagame has kept an authoritarian hold as mess and want to mess with us ... I want to
“Our people have carried an immense he steers the small, landlocked East African say, we will mess up with them big time.
weight with little or no complaint. This has nation through economic recovery. Growth “No adversary should underestimate
made us better and more united than ever in 2018 was a heady 7.2 percent, according what a formidable force Rwandans have
before,” Kagame said. to the African Development Bank (AfDB). become as a result of circumstances.”
“The fighting spirit is alive in us. What Some 10 leaders were expected to pay
happened here will never happen again.” their respects, mostly from nations across Source: AFP

April. 12 - 18 2019 17

Nicholas Kamukama (in handcuffs) the deputy RDC of Kiruhura district and Kangume Kosea (R) a district councillor who were arrested by the Anti-
Corruption Unit for allegedly soliciting a bribe.   COURTESY PHOTO

Museveni's commando
war on corruption
Is the Nakalema Anti-Corruption Unit driven by
media frenzy or is it getting good results?
By Ian Katusiime Also unusual was the way the Unit cited (CIID) are in the loop. But the question

the law under which it entered into Post remains: If that is their mandate, why did
n April 06, the State House Bank; Article 99 (4) of the Constitution of they not act? Why did Nakalema have to
Anti-Corruption Unit sent out Uganda – “Subject to the provisions of this step in? And Post Bank is not the only case
an unusual press statement. It Constitution, the functions conferred on begging this question.
announced that it had carried the President by clause (1) of this article Since President Yoweri Museveni
out a special investigation on Post Bank may be exercised by the President either launched it in December last year,
Uganda. That meant there had been a directly or through officers subordinate to Nakalema’s unit has instilled panic among
swoop. the President”. public officials. The former personal
“The matter under investigation is for It was an acknowledgement that the assistant to President Museveni has
abuse of office and a number of senior Unit’s style is unconventional – without raided districts; swooping on Residential
bank personnel are under investigation. much locus in the either typical corruption District Commissioners (RDCs), Chief
Bank operations remain uninterrupted,” investigation or prosecution. In the case Administrative Officers (CAOs), engineers,
said the statement signed by Lt. Col. Edith of Post Bank that mandate is with Bank of town clerks. She has swooped on tax
Nakalema; the head of the unit. Uganda. officials, district administrators and Lands
While the statement to the press was So Nakalema made a point of saying BoU ministry technocrats. Her unit appears to
unusual, the operation was typical: Make and the Ministry of Finance, Planning and be making gains and Ugandans; ever wary
an unexpected swoop, interrogate suspects, Economic Development, and the Criminal of bureaucratic lethargy in anti-corruption
arrest culprits. Investigation and Intelligence Directorate cases, are applauding.

18 April. 12 - 18 2019
Unlike the Inspectorate of Government, before the Anti-Corruption Court on March Franca Akello, Agago Woman MP
which has been criticised for apparent 29 on charges of corruption, diversion of and the new chairperson of the Public
lethargy, Nakalema’s unit reportedly acts public resources and false accounting. Accounts Committee on Local Government
fast on whistleblower calls from concerned says enough time should be given to the
citizens about corrupt leaders. It arrests first A frenzy without impact? new unit. However she says the team is
and investigates later. However some observers say that doing the right thing because that is what
This could have been what President whereas the operations of the unit are Ugandans have been waiting for, for a long
Museveni demanded during the State of the commendable, it should see these actions time. She agrees though with Kagaba on
Nation Address in June 2018 when he said to their logical conclusion if the war on one thing. “We should ensure that for the
the Inspector General of Government (IGG) corruption is to be won by the new entrants. kind of people who are found culpable of
was not as effective. The IGG investigates, Cissy Kagaba, the executive director swindling government resources, recoveries
arrests, and prosecutes. It takes time. of the Anti-Corruption Coalition Uganda of money are made.”
Nakalema’s unit is militaristic; conducting (ACCU), says the process on fighting She adds that they should not just end up
commando-like raids. corruption should be more than just a in jail. Akello says that when in a few days,
From its first operation in the Wakiso “frenzy” for it to have impact. her committee starts conducting hearings
land offices on December 20, 2018 up to the “The arresting does not amount to of accounting officers, she hopes she will
end of March, the unit has arrested close to prosecution. The suspects can be released collaborate with Nakalema’s unit.
40 people after tip offs. That is an average on police bond, but then again there are There are concerns about the proverbial
of 10 arrests made per month. The IGG investigations to be made and a court big fish when it comes to fighting
office makes an average of three arrests in a process.” corruption in Uganda. Going forward,
month according to informed sources. Kagaba says such cases are usually scrutiny may be placed on the unit for
But it appears too early to make a frustrated by the typical case backlog and the big shots it can fell such as ministers,
proper critique of the unit. How many judicial corruption. “What’s the end game? permanent secretaries or even MPs.
of those arrested end up in jail? Can the Abbas Agaba, MP for Kitagwenda
unit maintain the momentum? At what County tells The Independent he appreciates
financial cost? And there are allegations that the President’s efforts on dealing with
Nakalema’s unit does not have clean hands. corruption and he thinks different tactics
should be employed although he thinks
Nakalema’s style every effort can be improved.
Nakalema’s unit typically starts with “We do not want it to act in a disjointed
a public meeting in an area. The unit’s manner but sometimes people respond to
counsel interrogates technocrats like situations that scare them,” he says. He says
engineers, internal auditors and chief the unit should be beefed up that it has a
financial officers as members of the public proper legal status. He cites other dangers
look on. Nakalema chips in when progress that the unit may come into when it does
is slow. not have a well-established status.
Edith Nakalema Cissy Kagaba
The public questioning could be about “There are times when the State House
misappropriation of funds for schools, or Health Monitoring Unit would victimise
using money meant for the district health Most likely they will get out,” she says. people. For instance they would arrest
department for road or even a delay to Kagaba says the unit is doing good work an innocent doctor and cause them
install lightning arrestors as was the case but cautions that the new team needs to humiliation”, he adds that the lack of
in Bataebwol Primary School in Dokolo avoid doing work amidst a media frenzy. professionalism may be a liability.
district. Officials who fumble or are accused After all everyone is innocent until proven Agaba stresses that Nakalema’s unit
by members of the public are grilled further. guilty. “The unit does not have its own ought to be linked to a legal unit. “Having
Some are arrested. In January and February, police or judiciary. It has to work within a counsel is not enough. There must be a
Nakalema and her ‘small army’ carried existing structures.” more able bodied team to assess the case.
out operations in Tororo, Arua, Gulu, Jinja, She adds, “Right now there are some bits Right now they are doing the work of a
Kiruhura, Mbarara. In mid-March, the unit of arrests and there is fear in public servants state attorney and a trial magistrate.”
visited Amolatar and Dokolo districts in the but we need to look at the bigger picture.” He says it is important to deal with
Lango sub-region. For Kagaba, what is even more important is people respectfully without jeopardising
In terms of making arrests and practically to ensure that stolen monies are returned. their work. “SIU in Kireka has long
waging war on corruption, some observers Since the Anti-Corruption is just getting ceased to be credible. People would
say Nakalema’s outfit is doing very well. started, it usually hands people of interest to spend five days in detention and suffer
In one of their impromptu raids recently, the CIID to aid with investigations although all the embarrassment before meaningful
the unit arrested Nicholas Kamukama, a number of suspects have also appeared prosecution could take place.”
the deputy RDC of Kiruhura district, and before the Anti-Corruption Court. For now, Nakalema and her unit
Kangume Kosea, a district councilor for The State House Anti-Corruption unit are operating with the ammunition of
allegedly soliciting a bribe to aid the illegal does not respond to queries from the media having the blessing from the highest
operation of an unlicensed money lending although it regularly shares news of its raids office in the land. District officials whom
company. The police are set to charge the on its Twitter page. The Independent spoke to about possible
two with bribery and extortion. Police spokesperson Fred Enanga says operations in their territory were coy on
A few days before the Kiruhura raid, the the unit has a police component attached to commenting the work of the unit.
unit arrested Ruth Etibot Achimo, Soroti it and that it works with police in a gazette “You may comment today and the
University secretary, amid accusations area. “They have an arm that gathers next day you are the victim,” one CAO
of misappropriating Shs1.6billion meant intelligence which is what coordinates with said, another one commented. “Up to
for payment of employee allowances, the public,” he says. To him, they are there now, I don’t understand the mandate of
rent, retainer fees and inland travel to support the work of the CIID and the that unit.”
disbursement. Achimo was arraigned Anti-Corruption Court.

April. 12 - 18 2019 19

Japanese versus
European colonialism
How Japanese colonialism in East Asia was transformative
compared to its European counterpart in Africa

By Andrew M. Mwenda diplomats bellicose. Transformative colonialism

It is this Japan that invaded and colonised I, however, believe Japanese colonialism
spent about ten days between late Feb- Taiwan in 1895 and Korea in 1910. Then it in East Asia was transformative compared
ruary and early March in Japan; talk- invaded China, occupying Manchuria and to its European counterpart in Africa.
ing to government officials, academics annexing it in 1937, marking the beginning I will select a few factors to illustrate my
in universities, policy wonks in think of the Second World War – according to the point. But we must recognise that there are
tanks, tasting Japanese cuisine, visiting tech- Chinese; the European war that began in many other factors that shaped the develop-
nology museums and art galleries. 1939 simply joined the Asiatic war to make ment outcomes of Korea and Taiwan than
I was intrigued that the Japanese do not it a world war.  can be compressed in one article.
want to speak about their role as colonisers According to Western reports and Korean For instance, by the time of European
because many of them think it was their and Chinese records, the Japanese were intrusion into the region, the societies of
nation at its worst. brutal. They conducted their colonisation East Asia (Japan, China, Korea) had enjoyed
Japanese today are polite socially and with unprecedented violence and unmerci- fairly advanced civilisations for millennia
pacifist politically. They hate war; some- ful harshness. They killed, pillaged, looted and the process of state formation; complete
thing taught from nursery school to univer- and exploited. They took young Korean with meritocratic bureaucracies and the
sity. It is what they are taught at home and and Chinese girls into sex slavery to serve as development of common national con-
told in temples and shrines. Of course there entertainment for Japanese generals. They sciousness, had deep roots.
is a right wing margin that talks of Japa- grabbed land, extracted forced labour and The East Asian peoples already had
nese rearmament. But overall pacifism is a imposed extortionate taxes.   widespread formal education and technol-
totem. Yet the Japan of the first half of the Most Koreans, Taiwanese and Chinese ogy was diffuse. Therefore, whatever Japa-
20th century was a war-mongering nation: – and their scholars, poets and politicians – nese colonialism achieved was only possible
its people were militant, its generals aggres- think Japanese colonialism was an evil that because of these initial conditions in these
sive, its political leaders belligerent and its only wrecked their lives.  societies.

20 April. 12 - 18 2019
For instance, Taiwan and South Korea senior secondary and technical education. associations, which accelerated the spread
were poor in 1960 in terms of per capita In fact, student enrolment as a percentage of technical knowledge.
income, but many studies show that their of overall population in South Korea in 1954 Wade also shows that in case of industrial
social indicators placed them among the (at the end of the civil war) was 17%; higher development, Japanese colonialism differed
ranks of countries at several times their than England and Wales (15%), Germany from others by bringing industry to labour
income levels. In 1967, Adelman and Morris (13%) and only lower than USA (22%) and and raw materials rather than the other way
did an index of social-economic develop- Japan (23%). round. During the 1930s, prompted by rais-
ment for a range of countries as measured After annexing Korea, Japan expanded ing wages in Japan and by the government’s
in the late 1950s and 60s. The index was the number of public education institu- plan for war, the Japanese in Taiwan devel-
derived from factor analysis and was based tions. By 1939 a total of 2,727 public schools oped such industries as fruit processing,
on a large number of indicators meant to had been built and student enrolment has textiles, pulp and paper, cement, chemical
capture characteristics such as social struc- grown from 110,000 in 1910 to 1.4 million fertilisers, aluminium and copper smelting,
ture and social organisation. They included in 1939. The number of students registered petroleum refining, and ship building.”
the level of urbanisation, importance of an in high schools rose from 1,100 in 1910 to Thus, manufacturing grew in real terms
indigenous middleclass, social mobility, lit- 69,200. at 6% per year during the long period from
eracy levels (availability of human capital), The number of students in Korea enrolled 1912 to 1940 and by more than 7% per
mass communications, cultural and ethnic in industrial and professional schools rose annum in the 1930s. Both Taiwan and Korea
homogeneity, national integration, and a from 1,100 to 34,100 between 1910 and had a higher rate of GDP growth than Japan
sense of national unity and modernisation 1939. Compare this with Uganda, which in between 1911 and 1938 (Japan 3.4%, Korea
outlook. 1962 had only 343 students enrolled in high 3.6 and Taiwan 3.8%).  Between 1911 and
Aldeman and Morris’ index placed Tai- school (S5 and S6). 1940 the share of manufacturing to GDP in
wan and South Korea in the most advanced Secondly Korea and Taiwan under Japa- Korea rose from 6% (where Uganda and
group of countries even though their per nese colonialism went through land reform most of Africa is today) to 28% while the
capita income was con- share of agricul-
siderably below average. ture fell from 76%
The study concluded to 41%.
that they had “initial On infrastruc-
conditions” necessary ture, the Japanese
for rapid development; invested heavily.
their governments only It is true that even
needed to remove coor- before 1905 (the
dination bottlenecks. year Japan took
As one can see, over manage-
cultural and ethnic ment of Korea
homogeneity, national before annexing it
integration and a sense officially in 1910),
of national unity were Korea had a
not a Japanese legacy fairly well devel-
but the inherited civilisa- oped telegraph
tion of these societies. network. How-
However, factors such as ever, the Japa-
the level of urbanisation, nese increased
importance of an indig- telephone lines
enous middleclass, social from 500km
mobility, literacy levels to 13,000km
(human capital), trans- between 1905
port and energy infra- and 1943; tele-
structure plus mass com- graph lines
munications were much from 5,500km
more developed than to 8,800km and
other poor countries in large part because of that swept away the power of absentee railway from 39km to 3,400km and private
the nature of Japanese colonialism. landlords while in Uganda, the British cre- rail tracts and spur lines grew from zero to
All Sub Sahara African countries in the ated this feudal system. According to Robert 1726km. Utilisation of rail was so high that
study were at the bottom of the pile in the Wade, a good communications infrastruc- by 1940 it carried 100 million passengers
index. One illustrative factor, which shows ture was laid down in Taiwan and Korea per year – and 28 million tonnes of freight.
the difference between European and Japa- during Japanese rule designed not with the Investment in electricity generation in Korea
nese colonialism, was school enrolment and narrow purpose of extracting some primary grew to 2,800MW of electricity in 1940; elec-
literacy rates (human capital), which we can raw materials but with the aim of increasing tricity consumption per capita was higher
use as a proxy for availability of technical production of smallholder rice and sugar, than Italy.
and managerial skills but also an important that were demanded in Japan. As a result of these Japanese investments
basis for sustaining progressive politics. Wade’s study shows that in Taiwan, the in communication, transportation and
By 1940, Taiwan had 60% of primary Japanese expanded irrigation and drainage, energy infrastructure, industrial growth
school age going kids (both girls and boys) disseminated improved or better seeds and in Korea took apace. There was even a
enrolled in school, similar to South Korea, spread the use of fertilizers and manures noticeable shift from light industry (food
which also had 43% secondary school enrol- energetically, sometimes even with the aid processing, textiles, book binding, printing,
ment. Uganda (among the best educated in of the police. He also shows that farmers ceramics etc.) to the heavy and chemical
Africa) had 10% primary school enrolment were grouped into farmers’ cooperatives, industry (metals, machinery and equip-
in 1940, 2% in junior secondary and 0.3% in irrigation associations and landlord-tenant ment) during this period between 1910 and

April. 12 - 18 2019 21
1940. Consequently, the country became showing limited managerial skills. four banks jointly owned by the Koreans
more industrialised; with growing steel and On Taiwan, studies show the welfare of and Japanese.
iron production, machine and tool manu- the Taiwanese peasant under Japanese colo- In industry, Japanese invested in joint
facturing. In shipping, tonnage bottoms nial rule in the first half of the 20th century venture companies most of which were
multiplied 14 fold between 1910 and 1937; may have exceeded that of the Japanese owned and operated with Koreans. Kore-
and tonnage of ships entering Korean ports peasants. This was largely because, as part ans established their own industrial firms.
grew to 15 million. of the agricultural development effort, the There were only eight Korean industrial
Thus, the interaction of investment in Japanese instituted agriculturally oriented companies in 1913, which grew to 202 in
education; especially technical education, two-year secondary schools in the more 1923, 445 in 1931 and 740 in 1938. Korean
with highly developed transport, energy populous parts of the country – one in each owned and operated manufacturing busi-
and communication infrastructure, led to township. nesses increased from a negligible number
rapid change. Indeed, this is the reason Nor were Taiwanese excluded from mod- in 1905 to 2,652 in 1938, exceeding that of
why in South Korea in 1960, there were ern professions as was happening in Euro- the Japanese, which was 2,144 – even those
51,000 engineers and technicians – in the pean colonies in Africa. By 1940, there were output from Japanese firms was many times
manufacturing sector alone there were 4,424 five times as many Taiwanese managers as higher.
engineers, 31,350 managers, 5,025 sales there were Japanese, three times as many Many Africans with knowledge of colo-
executives, 13,660 white collar workers, agricultural technicians and medical techni- nial experience would be surprised by how
17,330 workers classified as “clerical” and cians and the same number of professional much a colonial power allowed “natives”
404,735 workers in industrial plants (blue workers. By 1945, Taiwan was probably to own and operate businesses in practi-
collar jobs). This only reflects investments in the most agriculturally, commercially and cally every sector, some as joint ventures
human capital that had been done decades industrially advanced of all the provinces with colonial masters. At independence,
earlier under Japanese colonial rule. of China. there is not a single Ugandan who owned
For Korea, the level of participation in the a manufacturing firm, a bank, an insurance
Comparing with sub-Saharan Africa management of the country and ownership company, a trading company etc. – any-
Compare this with any thing. Worse than that,
country in Sub Sahara Africa, there was not a single
and the differences would Ugandan who was even
be humongous. Take the a junior manager in such
example of Uganda, among business – we were only
the most educated nations in hired as clerks and officer
the region. messengers.
A survey was done in 1963 More critically, under
on Uganda’s stock of “high Japanese colonialism, Tai-
level manpower.” It set out wan and Korea got even
to cover all people in Uganda more involved in interna-
who had a minimum of 12 tional trade. By the end
years of formal education or of the 1930s, Taiwan was
who were in posts that, for the biggest trader in East
replacement purposes, would Asia even though most of
be filled by someone with 12 this was with Japan. The
years of formal education. annual per capita trade
Note: 12 years corresponded of Taiwan was $39, Korea
with 6 years primary, 2 years $26 and Japan $23, Philip-
junior secondary and 4 years pines $18 and China $1.
senior secondary schooling. For Korea, the proportion
The survey covered all sectors of the econ- of the economy under Japanese colonialism of international trade to GNP in 1929 was
omy except the army i.e. it included central was very high. For example, at the end of 69.6%; in 1920s, the proportion of interna-
and local government, parastatal bodies, World War Two, Korea had nine (9) gener- tional trade to GNP in UK was 38%, France
the private sector, the self-employed and als in the Japanese army; the man who later 51%, Japan 35%, USA 11%, Germany 31%,
churches and missions. The total came to became president (1961-79) and presided Denmark 57% and Norway 53%.
20,440 people; most of who were non-Ugan- over its rapid transformation, Park Chung I have seen studies (one of them by Dani
dan and left the country after independence. Hee, was a colonel in the Japanese army Rodrick – `How South Korea and Taiwan
In other words, Uganda was without skilled in 1945. Compare this with the British in Grew Rich’), which, relying on economic
manpower. Uganda. At independence, the highest- regressions suggests that 90 of the growth
In 1960, Uganda’s entire public service; ranking Ugandan officer in the army was of Taiwan and South Korea after 1960 was
excluding nurses, police and all but a few Idi Amin; an illiterate soldier, at the rank of a result of these “initial conditions”, many
hundred teachers was a little more than sergeant. of which were established by Japan. As I
5,000 strong in a country of more than six Indeed, in practically every field – manu- have already noted above, many of these
million people. Out of the top 10% of the facturing, banking, insurance, trade, min- achievements are partly a result of the level
civil service jobs categorised as “profes- ing, transportation – although the Japanese of the social development of Korean and
sional”, Ugandans occupied only 10% i.e. dominated, there was substantial Korean Taiwanese societies at the time of colonial
90% were non-nationals – Europeans and participation and ownership. For instance conquest, and, therefore, may not accurately
Asians. Then out of the next tier 30% cat- the number of Korean owned transport be said to be a result of Japanese benevo-
egorised as “technical” jobs, only 40% were companies increased from two in 1913 to lence. However, it is hard to deny that the
Ugandans; and out of third tier 30% catego- 18 on 1923 to 258 in 1938. In 1906, Kore- Japanese, even though brutal, brought with
rised as “sub-technical”, 65% were Ugan- ans owned six commercial banks. This them a more benign colonial attitude to
dans. The rest of the jobs categorised as increased to nine in 1921, and 12 in 1923 – their subjects compared to their European
clerical were largely occupied by Ugandans; double that of the Japanese. And there were counterparts.

22 April. 12 - 18 2019

Best sleep position

for pregnant women
Mega study confirms sleeping on
the side reduces risk of stillbirth

By Lesley McCowan & Robin Cronin Existing common risk factors for late still- responds by increasing the flow through
birth are not easily modifiable. They include other veins, this does not fully compensate.
New Zealand-led inter- advanced maternal age (over 40), obesity, The mother’s aorta, the main artery which
national study published continued cigarette smoking and an unborn carries oxygen-rich blood from her heart,
today provides the strongest baby that is growing poorly, especially if the is also partly compressed when the mother
evidence yet that women can poor growth is not recognised before birth. lies on her back. This decreases blood flow
more than halve their risk of Women also have a higher risk during their to the pregnant uterus, placenta and baby.
stillbirth by going to sleep on first pregnancy, or if they have already had We speculate that while healthy unborn
either side during the last three months of three or more babies. Women of Pacific and babies can compensate for the reduced
pregnancy. South Asian ethnicity also have an elevated blood supply, babies that are unwell or vul-
This mega study (known as individual risk of late stillbirth, compared with Euro- nerable for some other reason may not cope.
participant data meta-analysis) has also con- pean women. For example, our mega study showed that
firmed the risk of stillbirth associated with If modifiable risk factors can be identi- the risk of stillbirth after 28 weeks of preg-
sleeping on the back applies to all pregnant fied, some of these baby deaths could be nancy is increased approximately 16 times
women in the last trimester of pregnancy. prevented. Importantly, our mega study has if a mother goes to sleep lying on her back
In New Zealand, stillbirth is defined as shown that if every pregnant woman went and also is pregnant with a very small baby.
the loss of a baby after 20 weeks of preg- to sleep lying on her side after 28 weeks of
nancy. An estimated 2.64 million babies die pregnancy, approximately 6% of late still- What to do
before birth globally each year, and around births could be prevented. This could save New Zealand research has shown that
300 babies are stillborn in Aotearoa New the lives of about 153,000 babies each year pregnant women can change their sleeping
Zealand each year. About one in every 500 worldwide. position. In a recent survey conducted in
women in New Zealand will experience pregnant women from south Auckland, a
the tragedy of a late stillbirth and lose their Reduced blood flow community that has a high rate of stillbirth,
baby during or after 28 weeks of pregnancy. The relationship between the mother more than 80% of women surveyed stated
We have analysed all available data going to sleep lying on her back and still- that they could change the position they
worldwide from five previous studies, birth is biologically plausible. A supine went to sleep in with little difficulty if it was
including our earlier research, the 2011 position in late pregnancy is associated with best for their baby. Our advice to pregnant
Auckland Stillbirth Study, which first reduced blood flow to the womb. Hence, women from 28 weeks of pregnancy is to
identified a link between mothers’ sleeping women in labour and women having a cae- settle to sleep on their side to reduce the
position and stillbirth risk. The main finding sarean section are routinely tilted onto their risk of stillbirth, and to start every sleep,
in the mega study, which included informa- side to improve blood supply to the baby. including day-time naps, on the side. It
tion from 851 bereaved mothers and 2,257 Recent research carried out at the Univer- does not matter which side. It is common
women with ongoing pregnancies, was that sity of Auckland has provided sophisticated to wake up on the back, but we recom-
going to sleep lying on the back (supine) evidence about how the mothers’ position mend that if this happens, women should
from 28 weeks of pregnancy increased the influences blood flow. Results obtained simply roll back on to either side.
risk of stillbirth 2.6 times. using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
This heightened risk occurred regardless demonstrate the major vessel in the moth- Lesley McCowan is Professor, Obstetrics &
of the other known risk factors for stillbirth. er’s abdomen, the inferior vena cava, being Gynecology, University of Auckland and Robin
However, the risk is additive, meaning that compressed by the pregnant womb when Cronin is midwife researcher, University of
going to sleep on the back adds to other she is lying on her back. This reduces flow Auckland
stillbirth risk factors, for example, a baby through this vessel by 80%. Source: theconversation
who is growing poorly in the womb. Although the mother’s circulation

April. 12 - 18 2019 23

How Uganda built best

prison service in Africa
The Uganda Prisons Service has reformed over the years and has won praise
for the best correctional system for prisoners in Africa. Canon Dr. Johnson
Byabashaija, the Commissioner General of Prisons spoke to The Independent’s
Ronald Musoke about running a human-rights based correctional service .

Uganda’s prisons system has been praised just behind Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Tell us about the core values of Uganda
as the best in Africa when it comes to of- Singapore. Prisons Service?
fering correctional programmes. How have Once you talk about prisons service, you
you managed to achieve this over the last What motivates you to maintain these are talking about discipline. We are the

decade? high standards in Uganda Prisons Service? most disciplined uniformed outfit you have
t is just commitment from all of us. We I joined Uganda Prisons Service as a in the country. This is why we shall take
are not the most resourced government young cadet officer from the university inmates to court even if it means
institution but we became committed to in 1983 and I rose through all the ranks to walking
what we were doing because we grew head the institution. I have competent staff there.
up in the system. My predecessor (the late that have been recruited on merit. You
Joseph Etima) is the one who started re- can never break those people who
forms not only in Uganda but in Africa. Eti- were recruited on merit. I actu-
ma called for a conference here (Kampala) ally pay tribute to my staff and
of all commissioners of prisons in Africa in middle managers; they are
1996 and they came up with what is called recruited on merit, they are
the Kampala Declaration on Prison Condi- competent and we have
tions in Africa. The Kampala Declaration trained them well. I don’t
recognized that prisons in Africa had poor have an Assistant Com-
conditions. This was the first reform that missioner who has not
Etima advocated for. Then he advocated for gone through Uganda
the education of inmates. With a little more Management Institute’s Post
resources, we improved the system and we Graduate Diploma in Public
are now part of the education system in the Administration and Management.
country. You cannot miss basic education So I also have competent managers.
because you are in prison. Etima was also I have also recruited professionals;
the first advocate of the humane treatment electrical, agricultural and mechanical
of prisoners and now I have no major hu- engineers who can do some of these
man rights cases. Haven’t you heard prison- things which we are doing. So nothing
ers in court saying, ‘take us to Luzira?’ It is in prisons has come by chance.
unbelievable for inmates to request to go
into an institution. It says a lot.

What explains this commitment in Ugan-

da Prisons Service that is so rare these days
in public service?
We have always been systematic in what-
ever we do. The prisons standing orders
which we inherited from Her Majesty’s
Prisons Service in 1962 have not changed
much. The way prisons are managed in the
U.K— the systems in place for admission,
discharge and rehabilitation are the same. I
think we have just perfected them and we
have ended up being one of the best cor-
rectional services in Africa and the fourth
best in the world.We still maintain those
systems which are sound systems of man-
agement of prisons but for us, we gave it a
human face. I can tell you that out of 100
convicted prisoners they give me; only
20 re-offend and come back. This is
the best rate of recidivism on the
continent and fourth in the world—

24 April. 12 - 18 2019
Inmates walk to court because I am yet to Parliament is made by Uganda Prisons Ser- have two convicted staff; one is actually
provide vehicles for all the 254 institutions vice. Most of the furniture in the President’s sentenced to death and two are still under-
around the country. But they walk there office is made by Uganda Prisons. Those big going trial for assault and causing death of
because we are committed to justice. We are maroon chairs you see during important inmates. We have generally only improved
also a very accountable institution. Have ceremonies are made by Uganda Prisons what was already here. I am sure once I
you seen our maroon vehicles? There is Service. We also do brick making. When the leave, those who come after me, will carry
no vehicle which leaves a station to go to president passed out our warders in Janu- on with the process of transformation. I
another without a marching order. That ary, 2018; he also commissioned a project have no doubt about that unless somebody
is why we have almost unequalled main- for low-cost housing. Those houses were is appointed from outside because he or she
tenance of vehicles. I can proudly say that built by prisoners and prison staff without will not know the philosophy and culture of
we have never had ghost staff in prisons. external assistance at a cost of Shs27, 000 per handling corrections.
My officers in the field have to make a staff sq metre. We are also doing metal works.
casualty return every week. They tell me You must have noticed recently when the How have you managed to achieve all this
how many staff they have and where they Prime Minister commissioned houses for success with a meager budget?
are deployed and every month a nominal the Bulambuli project of housing the land- We have partnered with NGOs like
roll is sent to the headquarters to verify all slide victims in eastern Uganda. Prisons was the Africa Prisons Project, Foundation for
these things. Those things we have main- showcasing the window and door frames Human Rights Initiative, Penal Reform
tained and that is what makes us Prisons. which are going to be put in those houses International and many more. We have
These are the values I am talking about: fabricated in Luzira. All this is because of had a deliberate partnership with all these
discipline, accountability, and unity. the skills we have imparted in the prisoners. organisations to make sure that things are
We discovered that people who go through very good.
What explains the success you have reg- these rehabilitation programmes do not
istered with some of the rehabilitation come back to prisons. People in Busoga What plans do you have to solve the
programmes that are aimed at helping ex- grow a lot of maize but the Ministry of overcrowding problem at Luzira and the
convicts re-integrate into their communi- Agriculture did a study which found out upcountry jails?
ties with ease? that 90% of those people who grow maize Overcrowding in Ugandan prisons is
It is because of the programmes Uganda in lines are our graduates from our prison mainly a (result of) the criminal justice
Prisons Service has adopted. These include farms. These are the only people in the system. If the police were doing thorough
the rehabilitation tools and the vocational country who know how to apply fertilizer investigations, the DPP would just prefer
skills which we have adopted and empha- manually. charges and then the judges would have
sized. This uniform you see me putting on very simple work in taking decisions and
is tailored by inmates; all the uniforms of How important is your prison farm sys- then I would have the convicts. Overcrowd-
my staff are tailored at Luzira Maximum tem which is probably your most famed ing is caused by the people on remand who
Security Prison and all the uniforms of my programme where prisoners work to grow are still attending court. On a happy note,
prisoners all over the country—are tailored their own food while gaining agricultural for the first time, I have more convicts (those
in Masindi. At Luzira, we have a screen skills? who have gone through the full cycle of the
printing department which does screen For a long time, we have been grow- court process) than those on remand. I have
printing and we are the ones who produce ing maize but in 1998, we decided to end been having more remands (60%) but this
mast flags and car flags like the presidential the peasantry ways of farming. We got a has now fallen to 48%. I think the judiciary
flags. We also do furniture after training consultant and we started implementing. is beginning to do better. Even our infra-
inmates in carpentry skills. The President You know Uganda is a country with two structure is catching up. We are building a
has given us some capital and directed planting seasons. So we realized we could mini-max prison somewhere which is very
us to produce furniture for the ministries, produce food for ourselves and we started significant because this is the first time since
departments and agencies. We are now on doing commercial agricultural farming fol- colonial times that the government is build-
the path of revamping our six workshops lowing commercial agricultural principles. ing a prison which will hold about 2000
around the country. The first thing we have We have since mechanized the process of inmates. Our maximum security prison was
done is invest in a kiln for drying timber. In planting. We have planters and we use her- built in 1927 with a capacity of 600; now it
the old days, we never used to do that. bicides. I have reached about 10,000 acres a has about 3000 people. With a stroke of a
We would buy timber and keep year (Uganda Prisons has about 40,000 acres pen, we are going to finish congestion in
it for five years and then of arable land) which gives us 180,000 met- Luzira and when you finish congestion in
start using it. So our fur- ric tonnes but this is only about two-thirds Luzira, the effect it will have is quite magi-
niture was made out of what I require to feed my prisoners. We cal. This is going to be a game changer.
of timber which are now going to mechanize the harvesting,
was air-cured. the cleaning, drying and storage. In one You are 62 and you are probably on your
That is why year’s time you will see these production way out. What will be your proudest mo-
our furniture processes. ment when you eventually retire?
you see is My contract is ending next year in
durable. Human rights abuse in Uganda’s armed May, and depending on the appointing
The furni- forces remains a big challenge. How have authority, whether he renews it or not, I
ture you you handled it at Uganda Prisons Service? will go out of prison with my head held
see in For us we are observers of human rights high— that we have transformed prisons
and we have trained our warders in this from the gutter to a proud institution of
area. We now almost have no cases with the government. That is why when my officers
Uganda Human Rights Commission. The walk on the streets in town here, they are
only cases we have date back to before 1998. not taunted. Actually when the public
We now have the anti-torture law (Pre- see our uniform, they only talk about
vention of Torture Act, 2012). When you (Stephen) Kiprotich. So why shouldn’t I be
abuse a prisoner, you stand trial. I already proud when I eventually leave?

April. 12 - 18 2019 25
Uganda Airlines: Good
investment, wrong timing
Economists support its revival but remain
skeptical about its success as a business

By Julius Businge carefully analyse the events that unfolded think of business management strategies
18 years ago that included but not limited that are in line with tight competition
ganda Airlines will soon to mismanagement of the Airline connect- in global aviation space and high safety
be back in the skies again ed to unnecessary government interference standards. He also said they should avoid
but the questions remain and uncontrollable accumulation of debts the confusion that was recently exposed
on how the national carrier that led to the closure of Uganda Airlines regarding ownership and registration of
will avoid the past mistakes in May 2001. the company. He also said that players
that led to its liquidation 18 “…what they are now doing is promot- should avoid politicising the process of
years ago. ing stubborn nationalism and trying to reviving the airline and its whole opera-
Economists who spoke to The Indepen- reclaim our turf,” Ggoobi said. tions.
dent on April 4 said starting operations of Does this therefore suggest there is Beyond the above challenges, sector
the national carrier is a good idea but will no sense in reviving the national carrier experts say airlines globally have to be
not be profitable in the foreseeable future under the name Uganda National Airlines mindful about corporate governance, fuel
and could most likely fail unless a miracle Company Limited? While answering this prices, and unfriendly customs regimes if
happens. question, Ggoobi said the government they are to run profitable ventures.
“It is a mistake to build infrastructure should as much as possible avoid using a The International Air Transport Associa-
and let the managers run a non-profitable business model centred on borrowing to tion (IATA) in its recent forecasts predicts
venture,” Ramathan Ggoobi, a researcher fund the company because the latter will that Africa would remain the weakest air-
and senior economics lecturer at Makerere not easily make profits to meet borrowing line region in the world in 2019.
University Business School said. obligations. It says that African carriers are expected
Ggoobi said the government needed to He added that those in charge should to report US$300 million net loss in 2019 —

26 April. 12 - 18 2019
slightly improved from the US$400million Government’s views below the minimum threshold required
net loss in 2018, with an expected net loss The feasibility report compiled by the for investment decision. In particular, it is
per passenger of US$3.51. National Planning Authority that is being only the case of leasing aircraft for regional
Similarly, Fred Muhumuza, a senior used to operationalise the Uganda Nation- operations that marginally meets the
economics lecturer at Makerere Univer- al Airlines recommends that government threshold for investment.
sity and former adviser to the Minister of implements the investment option for The report says that total cash [equity] of
Finance said the timing of this venture is aircraft purchase with a combination of US$140million will be required to replace
wrong because most carriers are making regional and international operations that the option of using aircraft as the asset
losses. gives greatest financial and economic ben- base.
He said that the best option would be, efits. Government officials believe that the
forming a partnership with the already It also recommends that the investment national carrier will help the country save
existing Airline to minimise initial costs in the national carrier should be consid- about US$540 million (Shs2trillion) annu-
and avoid the would-be likely big losses. ered as an infrastructure for enhancing the ally which is being incurred in form of
“We have been advising government country’s global connectivity and com- higher transport costs (extracharges) to
on this matter for the last 3-4 years…but it petitiveness, beyond the direct financial passengers originating and terminating
has not listened,” Muhumuza said adding, benefits. at Entebbe International Airport, due to
“those involved are only talking politics In addition, the carrier will play a criti- absence of a national carrier.
and not business.” cal catalytic role in tourism development The feasibility report says that the
He added that leasing aircrafts would and promotion, export growth, investment best-case investment scenario (combined
have been a better option instead of buy- in various priority sectors and global net- regional and international aircraftpur-
ing. This would also cut initial costs. working. chase) would generate a direct net present
He also supports the idea of starting value economic benefit of US$580 million,
small – with domestic and a few regional after taking care of all the investment and
flights – then grow bigger in years to come operating costs, over a 15-year period.
– with international flights. The study recommends operation of
Regrettably, Muhumuza said the gov-
ernment has already made commitments The carrier will domestic air transport routes through fran-
chising and or partnerships with domestic
towards procurement of aircrafts and
related processes which means there are play a critical private operators.

limited cost cutting options other than the

government waiting to face the tough real-
catalytic role Going forward
In an advisory tone, a senior economist
ity on the ground.
“We are at a point of no return,” he said.
in tourism at the World Bank Uganda office told The
Independent on April 03, that as the govern-
He advised that going forward govern-
ment should think of a business combi-
development ment hurries to operationalise the carrier,
it must take into consideration the risks
nation involving passenger travel, cargo and promotion, involved and use a business model that

export growth,
and ground handling which could make will not only see it operational but become
money for the company. a valuable company to its shareholders –
On March 31, Parliament approved
government’s supplementary schedule investment in the taxpayers.
Ggoobi said the idea of having a nation-
for an additional Shs280billion to cater for
investment costs for the revival of Uganda various priority al carrier supporting growth sectors of
tourism, agriculture and exports of goods
Part of this money would help secure
sectors and global is good for the entire economy.
However, he said that the best idea now
four Bombardier CRJ planes each cost-
ing US$27.7m (Shs102.5billion) and two
networking is to fund the Airline using public finance
even if it means forfeiting a few roads and
A330-800neo made by Airbus each costing political activity funding.
US$108million. He also said that the government could
Last year, the government forwarded also opt to use some of the funds meant for
US$1.2 million to the carrier so that Airbus On the type of aircrafts, the report says development projects whose absorption
could start production of the two A330neo that a comparative technical evaluation of capacity is low to fund the national carrier
aircraft. the different aircraft types based on market activities.
Bombardier Commercial Aircraft recent- suitability, aircraft cost, efficiency, reliabil- “We should not be borrowing to invest
ly extended the final payment schedule for ity and resilience, cargo capacity and con- in the Airline because it won’t make mon-
the planes to March 29 after government figuration, cabin comfort and technology, ey to pay back the loans,” he said.
failed to meet the first deadline of Decem- among others, the team identified the CRJ He added that the government is mak-
ber last year. 900 and Airbus A300-200 series as the most ing a mistake to operationalise the Airline
The first jet that was supposed to be in appropriate aircraft types for the national basing on recommendations made by the
the country early this year has now been carrier’s regional and international opera- National Planning Authority top officials,
extended to April 23. tions, respectively. who he said, are merely planners, theorists
Beyond a funding gap, there have been “The scenario to purchase aircraft for and bureaucrats, with unknown aviation
challenges related to registration and share both regional and international operations expertise.
allotment of the company, recruitment of gives the highest financial and economic “Cumulatively we are making mistakes;
technical staff and political disruptions benefits to Uganda compared to all the someone needs to call this thing to order,
that government technocrats, say are being options under the scenario of leasing air- run it in an orderly way…it is not too late
dealt with to have the airline in the sky by craft,” the report further reads in part. to halt the process.”
end of year. It adds that all leasing options give
financial and economic results that are

April. 12 - 18 2019 27

FAO Representative to Uganda, Antonio Querido, launches the 5- year programme on Climate Resilient Livelihood Opportunities for Women Economic
Empowerment at Muni University on April 2. Looking is Parliamentary Forum on Climate Change Committee Chairperson, Lawrence Biyika Songa (R)
and State Minister for Northern Uganda, Grace Kwiyucwiny.   COURTESY PHOTO.

FAO moves to boost

income for women
The challenge is that only two sub counties
will be selected from each district
By Isaac Khisa bands saunter aimlessly in their villages. go to the market to simply ‘pass time’ and

“More than 80% of women in Yumbe only return home late in the night, some-
ike in most communities in Uganda, District now bear most of the burdens in times pretending to be having stomach
rural women in West Nile and Kar- their homes,” Alia Kadala from the Uganda ache, so that their wives do not ask them
amoja regions have limited access to Muslim Supreme Council- Yumbe told The for food.”
resources to cater for their families. Independent in an interview. Kadala is not happy with this situation.
They have to search for food, school fees “A section of husbands have gone to as “I always prayed that something happens
for their children as a section of their hus- far as resorting to leaving home early to in our communities so that we all partici-

28 April. 12 - 18 2019
cattle corridor starting from Nakasongola to
Karamoja in the next five years.
Antonio Querido, the FAO representative
for Uganda said the links between climate
“Prospective change and sustainable developments are
undeniable and that poor countries will be
beneficiaries among those most affected and least able
to cope with the anticipated shocks to their
who, for social, economic and natural systems.
“However, climate change can be tackled
instance, want by addressing the root causes of poverty
and inequality…,” he said.
to venture He said although Uganda has 20% of the

into poultry or
land covered with water resources, there are
still investments in hydrological infrastruc-

cattle, will be
ture to capture and deliver water where
it is needed for domestic and production
trained and purposes.
Statistics from the Ministry of Waster and
given birds or Environment shows that the country’s pop-
ulation still depends on rainfall for agricul-
heads of cattle ture and water for domestic, use with only
0.2% of the estimated 8.85million hectares of
farm land being under irrigation.
Querido said FAO’s invention in West
Nile and Karamoja regions in commercial
vention aims to increase production and forestry, refugee response, agricultural
income while attempting to ease burden to water for production, livestock health and
the already over-burdened women. disease support and management of Fall
He said the project has three result areas Armyworm, among others will comple-
that include; improved women’s access ment and enhance the impact of this new
to and control of productive resources, project.
improvement of household incomes and Ola Hallgren, the head of cooperation at
climate resilience livelihood as well as pro- the Swedish Embassy in Kampala said Swe-
mote bioenergy plantations, biogas models den prioritises five perspectives in develop-
and energy saving technologies to enhance ment cooperation: The perspective of poor
climate adaption. people, rights, environment and climate,
“The project will be implemented in such gender and conflict perspectives.
a way that once an individual has been He said the Swedish government is
selected, they will be trained and given seed committed to support Uganda to increase
capital to start and grow their ventures,” he economic empowerment of rural women
told The Independent in an interview. through support to production, productiv-
“Prospective beneficiaries who, for ity and productive employment in the agri-
pate in various economic activities and that instance, want to venture into poultry or cultural sector, particularly in West Nile and
none is burdened,” she added. cattle, will be trained and given birds or Karamoja regions.
Indeed, part of Kadala’s dreams seem heads of cattle.” “The government of Sweden recognises
to have come true on April 02 as the Food He revealed that with the help of the the need to address a number of bottle-
and Agriculture Organization of the United district officials, two sub counties in every necks such as the use of rudimentary tools
Nations in partnership with the Swedish selected districts have been selected based and technology in production, impacts of
Embassy in Uganda and the government on the poverty levels and refugee influx. climate change and environmental degra-
launched a US$9million project dubbed Data from the Uganda Bureau of Statis- dation, lack of markets and market infor-
‘Climate-Resilient Livelihood Opportuni- tics (UBOS) shows that all the sub-counties mation, limited access and ownership of
ties for Women Economic Empowerment with the highest poverty rates—ranging production assets for women and youths,
(CRWEE) at Muni University in Arua. from 65% to 95% — are located in Karamo- limitations to financial access and vulner-
The project will also benefit youths aged ja. Poverty rates are also extremely high in abilities to shocks,” he said.
18-30 including women living with dis- the West Nile sub-regions. State Minister for Northern Uganda and
abilities, and people living with HIV and More than 52,500 direct beneficiaries Woman MP for Zombo District, Grace Kwi-
AIDS as well as school dropouts of working organized in 250 Farmer Field Schools will yucwiny, said the emphasis now needs to
cohort of 14-17 years. be selected in a group of ten, of which, six be on production, employment and income
The five-year project is to be imple- will have to be women, Igbokwe said. to improve status of our livelihood.
mented in eight districts of West Nile that He added that FAO will also enter into Cultural leaders from the region,
include; Nebbi, Zombo, Arua, Maracha, partnership with relevant government including Stephen Drani of the Madi
Koboko, Yumbe, Moyo and Adjuman and departments, research institutes, universi- community and Phillip Ubim of Alur
four districts in Karamoja sub-region that ties, civil society organisations and private Kingdom pledged to mobilise communities
include Abim, Napak, Moroto and Naka- sector in the implementation of the project. and leaders to support women in accessing
piripirit. This development comes as the food resources for development.
Kennedy Igbokwe, the project manager agency also plans to invest US$9million in
for Climate Resilience at FAO said the inter- up scaling valley tank technologies in the

April. 12 - 18 2019 29

Centenary Bank unveils “Kwasa with Cente Visa” campaign. Jumia launches

n April 02, Cen- a month in order to enter mobile phones week

tenary Bank the weekly draw and stand
unveiled a week- a chance to win from the nline shop, Jumia
long “Kwasa with numerous prizes to be won has launched this
Cente Visa” customer re- including a chance to be one year’s ‘mobile week’
ward campaign to reward of 10 grand prize winners of running from April
its customers who use a fully paid trip to the Afri- 8-21. During this period, its
Cente Visa card to transact can Cup of Nations games clients will purchase mobile
business across its digital slated for 21 June to 19 July, phones with discounts of up to
platforms except ATMs. 2019,”he said. 60%.
The Bank’s Managing The cente visa card was Ron Kawamara, the CEO
Director, Fabian Kasi, said Centenary Bank’s MD, Fabian Kasi, unveils introduced mid last year to Jumia Uganda said on April
the lender is enthusiastic CenteVisa campaign to reward customers who ease access of services for 02 that the move is intended to
use their CenteVisa Cards.   COURTESY PHOTO.
about the transformation their customers. With over, benefit customers.
that the new campaign will and other digital services. 1.6 million customers, the “Mobile device has become
bring to the lives of ordi- “To participate in this cam- bank has so far issued and an integral part on how people
nary Ugandans who have paign, customers will need distributed 725,000 visa interact and trade with each
embraced its CenteVisa card to transact at least four times cards. other,” Kawamara said.
He added that the mobile
TRADE week is one of the initiatives
aimed at driving e-commerce
Dry spell dampens private sector activity transactions that are currently

reported at 2% in Uganda,
he continued dry Economist East Africa at Stan- pick up as the long rains poten- lower than an average of 15%
spell into March hurt bic Bank said, the decline in the tially come through in April,” recorded in developed markets
farming which in turn PMI, similar to last month is he said. of North America and Europe.
dampened general mainly due to weaker agricul- Now in its 26th month, Jumia’s 2019 mobile
business activity and pushed tural productivity owing to the the PMI is a monthly survey, report shows that 42% of
down the Stanbic Purchasing dry weather conditions. sponsored by Stanbic Bank the population in Uganda is
Managers Index from 54.4 in “That said, delayed pay- Uganda and produced by IHS connected to the internet, which
February to 51.7 in March. ments both from the public and Markit. It covers the agricul- is equivalent to 19 million out of
However, experts say the sea- private sector continue to hold ture, industry, construction, slightly above a population of
sonal rains are expected soon. back domestic demand. In any wholesale and retail and ser- 40million people. 
Jibran Qureishi, the Regional case, activity should start to vices sectors.


Centenary Bank, Rotary boosts Rwandair starts flights to Kinshasa

health sector in northern Uganda wanda’s na- Wednesdays, Fridays return flights will be on

tional carrier, and Sundays. Friday and Sunday.
early 100,000 Ugandans suffering from dif- RwandAir, will These will be com- Departures from
ferent health diseases are set to receive free start a thrice plemented by another Cairo will be at
medical care following the launch of the weekly services to Kin- three night time flights 9.40pm local, arriving
2019 Rotary Family Health Days (RFHDs) shasa in DRC starting starting May. The night in Kigali at 2.40am
by Rotary Uganda and Centenary Bank. The benefi- April 17 while Egypt service will be operated local. The aircraft will
ciaries will receive free medical treatment and check- Air will start a twice using a Bombardier turnaround at 3.20
ups in Kochko in Gulu District till April 30. The ser- weekly flight to Kigali CRJ-900 NextGen. am Kigali time for the
on April 27 this year. In a related devel- return leg which will
vices will range form specialized and general services
RwandAir said the opment, Egypt Air’s touch down in Cairo at
in the areas of cancer screening (cervical, breast, and
weekly daytime service rotations to Kigali will 9.35am local, Egypt Air
prostate); child immunization and nutrition; family
will start with a Boeing be on Thursdays and said on April 3.
planning and maternal health; HIV/AIDs counseling
737NG, operating on Saturday’swhile the
and testing; dental services, among others.
Centenary Bank’s General Manager Business Devel-
opment and Marketing, Beatrice Lugalambi said the
bank together with Rotary Uganda have screened
over 10,000 women and enlightened millions through
cancer parades, the cancer runs, brochures, and media.
She handed over the bank’s sponsorship of up to
shs30 million towards the health days and announced
a commitment of shs230 million towards cancer
related initiatives in Uganda this year. The money
shall be channeled to Rotary. Last year, 70,000 patients
benefited from the initiative.

30 April. 12 - 18 2019

Jubilee insurance
unveils new product
By Isaac Khisa Ibrahim Kaddunabbi

Lubega, the chief executive
ganda’s insurance officer at the Insurance Regula-
firm, Jubilee, has tory Authority of Uganda
unveiled a wedding commended Jubilee Life Insur-
product dubbed ance for the innovation that
Kwanjula Plus. will allow insurance operators
The product is targeting and practitioners respond to
individuals who wish to growth and competition.
finance their wedding plan or He encouraged all players to
celebrating their wedding an- invest heavily in new products
niversaries. and services and make strides
Besides offering life cover in technological innovations
during the policy term, the to reach a wider population
product among others will by striving to become trusted
enable the policyholder build partners for our stakeholders,
(L-R) Airtel Uganda’s Remmie Kisakye, Kabaka of Buganda, Ronald up a fund to cater for visits,
Muwenda Mutebi II, Airtel Uganda Managing Director V.G. Somasekhar drive significant increase of
(Kukyala), traditional wed- customer’s loyalty, leverage on
and Airtel’s Amit Kapur at this year’s Kabaka Birthday run at Bulange dings (Kwanjula), dowry, wed-
Mengo on April 7.   COURTESY PHOTO. the multi- channel distribution
ding day, honey moon, gifts channel system and address
and home start-up. emerging customer needs.
Patrick Kimathi, the com- “To do this, I challenge the
pany’s life manager said the stakeholders in the insurance
policyholder will be paid 25% industry to deploy a combina-
of the sum assured two years to tion of strategies,” he said.
the maturity of the policy, 25% He said the Authority is
a year to maturity period and committed to create an en-
full amount of the sum assured abling environment for innova-
upon maturity of the policy. He tions in the insurance sector to
said an individual will have to deepen the penetration levels.
save for a minimum of 5-years, Currently, Uganda’s
with the minimum sum as- insurance penetration is the
sured set at Shs10million. Ajit lowest in the East African
Kumar, the CEO Jubilee Life region at 0.85%. Kenya’s
Insurance said the new product insurance penetration stands
will inculcate saving habits at 3.4%, Tanzania’s 2.3% and
amongst the young population. Rwanda’s 1%.
MTN Uganda acting CEO, Gordian Kyomukama (R ), handover a dummy
cheque to CoRSU Hospital CEO, Dr. Davide Naggi, to improve the quality
of life for children with disabilities in Uganda. The donation will see 60
children and 20 youth drawn from different parts of the country benefit
from this initiative starting this month.

Weekly share price movement (April 05)

Security April 05 March 29 Movement
BATU 30,000 30000 00
BOBU 130 130 00
CENT 1,178 1,182 0.3
QCL 180 190 5.2
DFCU 670 670 00
EABL 7,758 7,610 1.9
EBL 1603 1,487 7.8
JHL 15,045 15,202 1.0
KA 180 185 2.7
KCB 1,656. 1,619 2.2
NIC 14 13 38
NMG 2,297 2,214 3.7
NVL 334 334 00
SBU 30 30 00
UCHM 19 22 00
UCL 16 16 00
Customers push trolleys full of drinks outside the newly opened Shoprite UMEME 297 298 0.3
outlet at Village Mall, in Kampala.   INDEPENDENT/ SILVER OFWONO ALSI -- -- --

April. 12 - 18 2019 31
By Julius Wandera
Uganda’s increased power generation
What are the implications of the commissioning
of the 183MW Isimba dam for end-user tariffs?

he installed capacity of Uganda’s The generation Tariff for Isimba Hydro- This project is at mobilisation stage and
electricity generation increased to power Plant is lower than the Weighted once implemented, all sub counties
1,177 MW in March 2019, following Average Generation Tariff. Increase in elec- shall be connected to electricity.
the commissioning of the Isimba tricity consumption (for both Domestic and  In August 2018, the Government of
Hydro Power Plant (HPP) that added Industrial customers) will lead to increase in Uganda launched the Electricity Con-
183 MW to the National Grid. The Isimba dispatch/utilisation of Isimba Hydropower nections Policy to accelerate access to
Hydro Power Project was developed by the Plant. This will result into reduction in the electricity across the country. The policy
Government of Uganda; with 85% of the Weighted Average Generation Tariff and targets to promote mass electricity
project costs financed with a loan from the therefore reduction in the End-User Elec- usage by all Ugandans with a connec-
EXIM Bank of China, and 15% financed by tricity Tariffs. tion target of 300,000 Domestic Custom-
the Government of Uganda. In support of the Demand Growth ers per year.
The Isimba Hydropower Plant’s addition agenda, the Government of Uganda,  In order to support the Electricity Con-
to the National Grid is timely for support of working with several stakeholders, has initi- nections Policy, the Government of
government policy on accelerated access to ated several measures aimed at growing Uganda has obtained funding worth
clean energy and industrialization for the demand and increasing the consumption of United States Dollars 200,000 from the
country’s socio-economic transformation. electricity. These include: World Bank, for the Energy for Rural
However, some stakeholders have used  Heavy investment in Industrial Parks Transformation (ERT) Program (Phase
different media platforms to cast doubt on where industries are expected to con- III). Part of this funding will be utilised
the possible reduction in Electricity End- sume a substantial amount of energy. to improve electricity connection, tar-
User Tariffs following the commissioning Out of the 25 planned Industrial Parks, geting growing the number of Certified
of the Isimba HPP in March 2019, and the works on four electricity substations Wiremen/women and contractors.
600 MW Karuma HPP expected later in in Mukono, Iganga, Namanve, and These will provide sufficient manpower
December 2019. Luzira are at advanced stages, with to connect houses and factories in a
In light of the several assertions and dis- commissioning expected by June 2019. timely manner.
cussions about the expected Tariff trajectory The 25 Industrial Parks are projected to  For Industrial Customers, the Electricity
due to these projects, the Electricity Regula- consume upto 1000 MW in eight years’ Regulatory Authority is implementing
tory Authority clarifies as follows: time (by 2027). an incentive for accelerated connection
The Isimba and Karuma Hydropower  Electrification of all sub-counties across through the Energy Rebate Mechanism.
Plants have been developed by Government the country and all potential consumers The Rebate mechanism ensures that
of Uganda, with Government being the bor- along the sub county electricity lines. Industrial Customers who use their
rower of the project debt. Compared to pri- own resources to fund an electricity
vately-developed power plants, Isimba and connection to a plant/industry recover
Karuma will generate electricity at relatively their money over a period of three years
lower tariffs over the term of the licence.
The Electricity Tariff for the two plants
Government through consumed energy rebates.
 The Government of Uganda is fast-
will reduce over time, in a phased manner,
from US Cents 4.16/kWh (year 1 to year 15)
of Uganda has tracking the implementation of regional
interconnection projects, which will
to US Cents 1.01/kWh (after year 15) for
Isimba Hydropower Plant. For the Karuma
obtained funding boost export of power within the East
African region, with an export poten-
Hydropower Plant, the Electricity Tariff worth United tial of 690 MW, to countries such as

States Dollars
will reduce from US Cents 4.97/kWh (year Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania,
1 to year 10) to US Cents 2.7/kWh (year 11 Democratic Republic of Congo, and
to year 15), and US Cents 1.17/kWh (after
year 15). The changes in the generation tar- 200,000 from the South Sudan.
With these initiatives aimed at massive
iffs for the respective plants are on account
of fluctuation in the debt service obliga- World Bank, for the electricity consumption in both homes
and industries, the revenue base of the
tions. Basing on these generation tariffs
and the utilisation of the power plants, the
Energy for Rural Electricity Supply Industry will grow,
subsequently leading to reduction in the
Weighted Average Generation Tariff is pro-
jected to reduce.
Transformation End-User Tariffs. Ugandans are, therefore,
encouraged to use electricity productively
Following the commissioning of the
Isimba and Karuma Hydropower Plants,
(ERT) Program and in large quantities so that the End-User
Tariffs can reduce across all categories.
a critical factor for the reduction of Elec-
tricity End-User Tariffs will be growth in Julius Wandera is Manager Communication of
Demand for/Consumption of electricity. the Electricity Regulatory Authority

32 April. 12 - 18 2019
By Alex Turihohabwe
Wastage on road drainage structures
Ministries responsible must ensure that for any road to be
worked on, it should be well designed by technical people

oads existence and ring costs Shs150, 000 and six
sustenance depend on culvert rings cost Shs900, 000,
three major aspects; these and 100 culvert lines cost Shs.90

The major
are drainage; drainage and million. If 80% of them are
drainage; that may be called 3Ds. unfunctional; that is wastage of
1 st D is the camber, 2nd D are the
road side drains, and 3rd D are the use of these Shs.72 million. The above cost
only considers the purchase
drainage road structures.
Of the 3Ds, the 3 rd D has been structures is prices; excluding the cost of
transportation, excavation, and
done unprofessionally on most of
the district and community access
to carry water installation.
Further is analysis at the
roads. Below we illustrate how this
comes about and how it has led to
from one side national level for the length of
mentioned district roads. We
wastage of resources in terms of
funds, materials and time.
of the road to assume the culverts lines are
not installed and are therefore
Drainage road structures that are the other and lacking or they have been

this is known
basically known by us in the road installed at three culvert lines
infrastructure include culvert lines, for every kilometer of road. A
vented drifts, bridges, and box
culverts. to everyone total of approximately 100,000
culvert lines are installed but
The major use of these structures non-functional. This translates to
is to carry water from one side Shs7.2 trillion.
of the road to the other and this If the drainage system is not
is known to everyone. Because functional, it means that you
of this there is a lot assumption have no road. This is because
that the laying, location and mention a few cases that can give the moment it rains, the road is
construction can be done by a highlight of what is happening washed away.
everyone without an input of in this road industry; it is known To avoid these loses the ministry
experienced Engineers. to us that the district roads in responsible for policies and those
The above structures have the entire country are towards implementing projects must ensure
different sizes and these depend 35,000Km while community access that for any road to be worked on,
on what volumes of flow they are roads are far above 70,000 Km. it should be well designed. For a
to carry. This concept is known Travelling along district and developing country like Uganda
to both the technical and non- community roads in West Nile and every shilling counts; whether it is
technical people. But the technical some other districts in Northern from a donor or not.
are able to calculate and determine Uganda; where hosting of refugees
the volume of the flow while the is common and hence there are
non -technical do not. operations of NGOs, this is what Eng. Alex Turihohabwe is The Past
It is assumed that using the we saw: a road of approximately chairman Uganda Association of
experienced professional technical 27Km had about 100 culverts lines Consulting Engineers and Continental
staff is very expensive on the of different sizes. Most of them finalist 2017 CEO Global in the
surface of it and this has led to had poorly built head and wing Business and Professional Sector.
some organisations using non walls. Over 80% of these were
-technical or inexperienced non-functional; this meant that
technical staff in laying and they were either blocked/silted or
construction of these drainage had no outlet. Others had broken
structures. because of less culvert cover
Move along the roads; especially material.
the district and community access Now, let’s analyse the cost of
roads, and what you find and a culvert line; say of a 600mm
observe is quite threatening in diameter consisting of an average
terms of wastage of resources. To of six culvert rings. One culvert

April. 12 - 18 2019 33
By José Antonio Ocampo
Time for a true global currency
Turning the SDR into a global currency would yield
benefits for the world’s economy and monetary system

his year, the world commemorates become the basic instrument to finance IMF itself have estimated that the Fund could
the anniversaries of two key events programs. Until now, the Fund has relied issue $200-300 billion in SDRs per year.
in the development of the global mainly on quota (capital) increases and bor- Moreover, this would spread the financial
monetary system. The first is the cre- rowing from member countries. But quotas benefits (seigniorage) of issuing the global
ation of the International Monetary Fund at have tended to lag behind global economic currency across all countries. At present,
the Bretton Woods conference 75 years ago. growth; the last increase was approved in these benefits accrue only to issuers of
The second is the advent, 50 years ago, of 2010, but the US Congress agreed to it only national or regional currencies that are used
the Special Drawing Right (SDR), the IMF’s in 2015. And loans from member countries, internationally – particularly the US dollar
global reserve asset. the IMF’s main source of new funds (par- and the euro.
When it introduced the SDR, the Fund ticularly during crises), are not true multilat- More active use of SDRs would also
hoped to make it “the principal reserve eral instruments. make the international monetary system
asset in the international monetary sys- The best alternative would be to turn the more independent of US monetary policy.
tem.” This remains an unfulfilled ambition; IMF into an institution fully financed and One of the major problems of the global
indeed, the SDR is one of the most under- managed in its own global currency – a pro- monetary system is that the policy objec-
used instruments of international coopera- posal made several decades ago by Jacques tives of the US, as the issuer of the world’s
tion. Nonetheless, better late than never: Polak, then the Fund’s leading economist. main reserve currency, are not always con-
turning the SDR into a true global currency One simple option would be to consider the sistent with overall stability in the system.
would yield several benefits for the world’s SDRs that countries hold but have not used In any case, different national and
economy and monetary system. as “deposits” at the IMF, which the Fund regional currencies could continue to cir-
The idea of a global currency is not can use to finance its lending to countries. culate alongside growing SDR reserves.
new. Prior to the Bretton Woods negotia- This would require a change in the Articles And a new IMF “substitution account”
tions, John Maynard Keynes suggested the of Agreement, because SDRs currently are would allow central banks to exchange their
“bancor” as the unit of account of his pro- not held in regular IMF accounts. reserves for SDRs, as the US first proposed
posed International Clearing Union. In the The Fund could then issue SDRs regu- back in the 1970s.
1960s, under the leadership of the Belgian- larly or, better still, during crises, as in 2009. SDRs could also potentially be used in
American economist Robert Triffin, other In the long term, the amount issued must be private transactions and to denominate
proposals emerged to address the growing related to the demand for foreign-exchange national bonds. But, as the IMF pointed
problems created by the dual dollar-gold reserves. Various economists and the IMF out in its report to the Board in 2018, these
system that had been established at Bret- “market SDRs,” which would turn the unit
ton Woods. The system finally collapsed into fully-fledged money, are not essential
in 1971. As a result of those discussions, for the reforms proposed here. Nor would
the IMF approved the SDR in 1967, and
included it in its Articles of Agreement two SDRs SDRs need to be used as a unit of account
outside the Fund.
years later.
Although the IMF’s issuance of SDRs
could also The anniversaries of the IMF and the
SDR in 2019 are causes for celebration. But
resembles the creation of national money
by central banks, the SDR fulfills only some
potentially be they also represent an ideal opportunity
to transform the SDR into a true global
of the functions of money. True, SDRs are
a reserve asset, and thus a store of value.
used in private currency that would strengthen the inter-

national monetary system. Policymakers
They are also the IMF’s unit of account. But should seize it. 1. Kidnap

and to
only central banks – mainly in developing
countries, though also in developed econo- José Antonio Ocampo is a board member of
mies – and a few international institutions
use SDRs as a means of exchange to pay denominate Banco de la República, Colombia’s central
bank, professor at Columbia University,
each other.
The SDR has a number of basic advan- national Chair of the UN Economic and Social
Council’s Committee for Development Policy,
tages, not least that the IMF can use it as
an instrument of international monetary
bonds and Chair of the Independent Commission
for the Reform of International Corporate
policy in a global economic crisis. In 2009, Taxation.
for example, the IMF issued $250 billion in
SDRs to help combat the downturn, follow- Copyright: Project Syndicate, 2019.
ing a proposal by the G20.
Most importantly, SDRs could also

34 April. 12 - 18 2019

In memory of Serulyo
The master of anatomy and individual proficiency lives on
By Dominic Muwanguzi and forms.

They sought to detach
he sculpture in stained themselves from western
glass depicts rural modernist art. To be skilled
scenery. A herdsman and technically competent
stands; leaning on was not enough; each sought
a stick, while another man; a degree of individuality in
squatting, milks a cow with their work. He eagerly inte-
birds hovering nearby. The grated indigenous lifestyles
sculpture is considered a mas- within his practice creating a
terpiece and is admired for constellation of cultures in one
showing the studio dexterity artwork.
of the artist in exploring con- Dr. George Kyeyune, art
cepts of form and proportion- historian and sculptor, says
ality of the human figures. through Serulyo’s work one
The artist is Ignatius Seru- sees that “as much as he was
lyo; a former student and lec- formally trained, his tutors
turer at the Margret Trowel Cecil Todd and Jonathan
School of Industrial and Fine Kingdon were liberal enough
Art at Makere University to allow him to explore him-
Kampala where the sculpture self through the art”.
stands in the façade of the Kyeyune says “it is not
sculpture studio. enough as an artist to be
Serulyo died in 2018, years skilled technically, but indi-
after he left the school, but his vidual proficiency is key in
name still reverberates across establishing a unique artist
the walls and spaces and in because after all, art is not
the minds of the art commu- just about being able to draw
nity at this most prestigious someone, but it should ask
institute in the East and Cen- questions and be relevant to
tral Africa region. the public”.
A few metres away from While the artist may have
the sculpture studio, is the passed on, his outstanding
art gallery; and sitting within approach to art making con-
the gardens of the art space, tinues to inspire many artists
on the left as one enters the including Dr. George Kyeyune
gallery, is a somewhat disfig- argues the complexity of old and vibrancy. and Dr. Kizito Maria Kasule
ured human figure with sag- age and beauty. At the same He grew up in the rural both of Makerere University
ging breasts seated on a dais. venue is `Frog (undated)’ that south eastern district of Masa- where the deceased artist
Titled ` Old Woman 1963’, it was built in stone and also ka; a place of verdant savan- taught for thirty years. They
is another Serulyo piece. This illustrates the artist’s skilled nah vegetation which, in his say Serulyo’s “individual pro-
one interrogates the subject of approach and obsession with work, became symbolic of the ficiency” observed through his
anatomy; proficiently execut- anatomy. vitality of the African people work makes him stand out of
ed under the theme of old age. Serulyo had passion for tex- and their hospitable nature. the crowd.
In this sculpture, the artist ture and modeling of colours He composed a mural
vividly captures the physical that spilled into his sculptures. painting at the sculpture Ignatius Serulyo passed on
problems that can affect an His series of paintings on the studio as a response to the December 2018 and remains one
older person. The artist skill- ceiling of St. Francis Chapel, vitality of the immediate post- of the most important artists of
fully shows that the physi- Makerere University and a independence years. He was his time. His work is collected by
cal decline in old age in not large artwork that resides part of a movement of art- private collectors in Uganda, but
inability. In fact, the old wom- within Mary Stuart Hall bear ists on the continent eager to mostly in Germany.
an exudes dignity and pride. the same hallmarks. His lush decolonise art with the inclu-
The `Old Woman’ explicitly palette evokes a rustic energy sion of indigenous lifestyles

April. 12 - 18 2019 35
Jeff Bezos wife gets Shs13 trillion divorce settlement
The world’s richest man, MacKenzie said she is is valued at roughly $36
Amazon founder Jeff Bezos, “happy” to be giving her billion based on Amazon’s
and his wife MacKenzie ex-husband all of her inter- current share price. That
have agreed a record-break- ests in the Washington Post makes her the fourth richest
ing divorce settlement of and rocket developer Blue woman in the world. Bezos
at least $35billion (Approx. Origin and granting him vaulted ahead of Bill Gates
Shs13 trillion – Uganda’s 75 percent of their shared this year to capture the title
proposed 2019/20 budget Amazon stock, including of the world’s wealthiest
is Shs40 trillion). They took voting control. Mrs. Bezos’s person worth a mind-
to social media on April 04 exact net worth is hard to boggling $112 billion. The
to announce the terms of estimate, but her four per- Bezoses met in New York
their high-profile divorce. cent stake in Amazon alone in the early 1990s.

Nurse swapped Zimbabwe spend Shs575m on judges’ wigs Identical twins fool
5,000 babies in Lawyers in Zimbabwe cost of £118,400 (Approx. girl but not judge
12 years for fun have hit out at a
government decision to
Shs575 million). The
move has been criticized When Valeria started dating a
spend thousands of pounds as unnecessary when man named Fernando, she did
The former nurse who on wigs made in England courtrooms are cramped not know he had an identical
is suffering from cancer for local judges, saying the and ill-equipped, the twin brother named Fabricio.
revealed she exchanged about
tradition evokes a colonial national economy is Things got tricky when she got
5,000 babies while working
past that should not exist crumbling and 63% of the pregnant and Fernando denied
at the University Teaching
in modern Zimbabwe. population lives below the responsibility although a DNA
Hospital (UTH) in Zambia.
Zimbabwe’s judicial poverty line. The use of test showed there was a 99.9%
The Zambian nurse, Elizabeth
services commission has wigs has been abandoned probability that he was the
Mwewa, said it became a
habit and she used to do it for placed an order for 64 wigs in South Africa, Kenya, father. Fernando claimed his
fun over 12 years. According from Stanley Ley Legal Britain and several other brother Fabricio was the father.
to the elderly woman, she is Outfitters in London, at a Commonwealth countries. Since the twins have virtually
now born again and did not the same genetic code, Fabricio’s
want to hide anything that DNA test also showed there
would stop her from visiting was a 99.9% probability that
the land of honey and milk. he was the father. But he also
“I know I sinned against God denied being the father. Valeria
and may he forgive me for was confused but not foolish.
that. I am also asking Zambi- She headed to court. After hear-
ans to forgive me for the evil ing the case since August 2017,
things I was doing to innocent Judge Filipe Luís Peruca of the
children. I have caused some Brazilian state of Goiás, ruled
faithful couples to divorce that the two men were blatantly
after going for DNA Tests,” attempting to escape responsibil-
she said. Mwewa also added ity. He ordered each pay 30% of
that kids born between 1983 the minimum wage as child sup-
and 1995 at the hospital port. He had been shown evi-
should check themselves. dence that the twins had always
impersonated each other to date
women and deny.

Harry Potter books burnt over witchcraft

Catholic priests from sorcery by burning various brought in by parishioners,
an evangelical group in “sacrilegious” items, who were encouraged by
northern Poland recently including Harry Potter and the priests from the SMS
sparked a heated online Twilight books, traditional from Heaven Foundation,
debate after staging a masks and idols, and even to clean their homes of such
controversial protest against a Hello Kitty umbrella. The evil items.
occultism, idolatry and objects were reportedly

36 April. 12 - 18 2019
The 2020 Jeep Gladiator
5 things you need to know about

he Jeep Gladiator went on also has higher ground clearance. is rated to tow between 1800kg
sale in the US this month, and 3469kg and that’s hardly
and if you are looking out Let’s look at the tray segment-best towing.
for it; here are the 5 things The Gladiator tray has some
you need to know about it. clever touches that clearly show Can it still off-road?
how Jeep thinks this thing will It offers up to 283mm of ground
Looks matter be used and who will be buying clearance; from the ground to the
Starting with the front of the it; those who tow and tradies. lowest part of the vehicle (usually
Gladiator it would be easy to The tailgate can be easily opened the diff pumpkin), with standard
point and say, that’s just the with just one hand and partially on 33-inch tyres (but it’s capable
front from a Wrangler. And it opened and locked in three of taking 35-inch tyres). All
kind of is. I mean, the Wrangler’s different positions. The width of sounds very good. Water fording
seven-slot grille was the starting the tray is intended to hold loads is a claimed 762mm.
point, but because Jeep reckons on wheel arches and within the
Gladiator buyers will want to tow tray. The spare wheel is mounted What’s it like on the inside?
they widened the slot gaps for under the tray. The Gladiator The interior follows in the
improved airflow into the engine engineering for load carrying same vein as the Wrangler with
when towing. The other thing that ensures the tray optimally load its heritage-inspired design.
instantly stands the two apart is balanced. Everything inside is designed to
the length of the Gladiator and be weather proof and you can
its tray. The Gladiator is a longer How much can it tow? choose from either cloth or leather
vehicle with much of that extra Depending on the variant, the seats, the front seats and steering
room gone into the backseat. It Gladiator, based on U.S. specs wheel can be heated too.

April. 12 - 18 2019 37
Josephine Mugerwa: From
child dancer to music icon
“Becoming a star despite my poor background wasn’t easy; but I am
grateful that the highs and lows in life had pushed me to become stronger”
By Agnes E Nantaba focus on school. That would be the schedule

until Senior Six Vacation when Mugerwa
osephine Mugerwa also known as failed to make it on government scholarship
Phina Mugerwa Masanyalaze is a and her parents could not afford private
Ugandan musician and dancer. Muger- sponsorship at the university. There was an
wa captivated Ugandan revellers and opening at Diamonds Ensemble for dancers
in 2006 was nicknamed ‘Uganda’s Shakira’ and Mugerwa was among the few selected to
after Colombian singer, songwriter, dancer, join the group in late 1990s. The role involved
philanthropist and businesswoman Shakira her dancing along in plays and musical
Isabel Mebarak Ripoll. Her stage name Ma- performances for different artistes. But she
yearned to pursue her dream of music and
sanyalaze relates to her first single ‘Masan-
dance. Her mother helped her money for the
yalaze’ and her energetic performance.
first recording.
Mugerwa says she chose and stuck
“I didn’t just want to record any song but
to such energetic and audience engag-
do it with the professional producers,” says
ing performance to cut through the
Mugerwa, “I booked with one of the produc-
competitive music industry.
ers who fixed me within recording breaks for
“Many Ugandan musicians could
well financed musicians in the wee hours of
only manage to sing and hire
the night”.
queen dancers to spice up their
Mugerwa finally recorded her first song
performances’, says Mugerwa.
‘Masanyalaze’ in 2006 and she has since
“Pursuing it was in one way
never turned back. The Pearl of Africa Music
of proving to some people
Awards (PAM) were an annual national
that a musician
music award event held in Uganda that
can also be a good
recognised efforts of musicians, producers
and others for their record efforts to promote
Growing up in the
the music industry. Mugerwa emerged win-
slums of Kawaala in
ner in the category of ‘Best New Artiste’. The
Kampala city, Muger-
boosted her profile in the music industry.
wa was exposed to
She says, “PAM awards were still a big
many opportuni-
thing for Uganda’s music industry and it was
ties of dance. She
the right time for me to shine”.
developed a love
Her next project would be featuring in
for musical perfor-
one of Bobi Wine’s songs in which she re-
mances. Her mother
awakened the once popular Calypso dance
appears to have
leap. That meant exporting her talent across
spotted the young girl’s
borders. For the greater part of her music
talent and took her to trade
journey, Mugerwa has been a solo perform-
shows and promotional events
ing artiste. But, until 2014, she was signed to
that featured musical perfor-
Fusion band of Water Front Beach.
mances. Her mother would raise
Mugerwa is the fourth of the five children
the hand as soon as MC’s called
of Francis Kiwanuka and Annet Komugisha
for volunteer dance competi-
born in 1984. She went to Namirembe Kin-
tors. The little Mugerwa was
dergarten and Namirembe Infants Primary
guaranteed to thrill while her
School for primary education before joining
mother collected any pro-
St Andrew’s Kaggwa and Daniel Secondary
motional goodies on offer.
School and Springfield College for Ordinary
She says, “The gifts kept
and Advanced level respectively.
pushing me to get back”.
Her latest release ‘Tonooba’ literally mean-
She did her gigs
ing ‘don’t divorce’ is a totally different style
outside school time; in
of music something she says rhymes well
the evenings, over the
with her age and role as a mother.
weekends or during
“Everything comes of age and so is mu-
holidays to allow for
sic,” she says.

38 April. 12 - 18 2019
news analysis

Josephine Mugerwa’s Liteside

children; I can fail to buy woman.
Any three things that we anything good for myself Which living person do

don’t know about you? but not for my children. you most despise? What is your favorite
am an open minded I don’t hate anyone occupation?
person; when I realise What is the greatest because we are made I love marketing
something about a thing you have ever different. What you may because it introduces me
friend or colleague, I done? despise about someone to different people. I also
openly tell them. I am a Becoming a star despite may be making him or enjoy speaking to people.
straightforward person my poor background. her happy. I appreciate
and I hate hypocrites. I The journey wasn’t easy the difference amongst What do you most value
am a workaholic some- but I am grateful that the us. in your friends?
thing that even one of highs and lows in life had Trust and knowing
my sons has complained pushed me to become What is the quality you that I have their back just
about. I don’t lie back stronger day by day. most like in a woman? as they have mine.
until I get something. God fearing.
What is your current Who are your favorite
What is your idea of per- state of mind? What is the quality you writers?
fect happiness? I am happy and con- most like in a man? I only got interested in
Happy moments with tented but still working God fearing. Harry Potter after my son
my mother and children towards achieving my requested to buy him a
dreams. What or who is the great- series of his books. I am
What is your greatest est love of your life? just learning to read and
fear? What do you consider My sons and parents. have realised that they
Losing my parents; I the most overrated vir- are the bestselling books.
have been disappointed tue? When and where were
by friends and have Curiosity and fair- you happiest? Who is your hero of fic-
since been left to lean mindedness; we spend 2011 and 2018 when tion?
on my parents. I fear the too much time finding I gave birth to my sons. I love Mel Colmcille
thoughts of having to lose out about how other I was also happy the Gerard Gibson; he is
them. people conduct or carry day my husband made unpredictable and keeps
themselves and at the a traditional visit to my the audience guessing.
What is the trait you end of the day, it doesn’t parents in 2017.
most deplore in your- help us much. I love to as- Which historical figure
self? sociate with people who If you could change one do you most identify
I get impatient; es- concentrate on carrying thing about yourself, with?
pecially with dishonest forth their vision as op- what would it be? Nelson Mandela was
people or liars who don’t posed to wanting to pull I am too good to very strong and deter-
deliver as promised. others down. change. mined; it only takes
What does being power- people with such charac-
What is the trait you ful mean to you? Where would you most ter to fight temptations
most deplore in others? Power is relative and like to live? and reach the peak.
Laziness and being dependant on circum- I am an African and I
slow; I don’t like it when stances. It is an inner love living in Uganda. What is your greatest
we set out to do some- feeling that amounts to regret?
thing and others take caring for others knowing What is your most trea- I don’t have regrets
their time to deliver. that our destinies are sured possession? because I believe that
different. I treasure my relation- everything happens with
Which living person do ship with God because God’s plan.
you most admire? On what occasion do He is everything.
I admire fellow Ugan- you lie? How would you like to
dan musician Joanita I don’t tell lies and I What do you regard die?
Kawalya; she is my other teach it to my children. as the lowest depth of Silently in my sleep
parent; especially in the misery? in old age when I have
music industry. At her What do you most dis- If there was a choice, accomplished whatever
age, she is still a very like about your appear- children should live God set me out to do.
good performer. ance? under the care and
I like myself and appre- support of both their What is your motto?
What is your greatest ciate God for everything parents. Single parenting Never give up because
extravagance? about me. is very challenging and I you never know your
I spend a lot on my wouldn’t wish it for any turning point.

April. 12 - 18 2019 39
Global comment
By Biniam Bedasso & Neil Cole
Fixing Africa’s budget problems
It requires understanding of local context and
management of political and administrative constraints

fricans had good reason to be and fragmented decision-making pro- tend to have multiple interlinked causes.
hopeful when all 193 United cesses can make this a highly uncer- True, some of these may be technical,
Nations member states ad- tain exercise. The most recent round and can be fixed by applying a known
opted the Sustainable Devel- of Public Expenditure and Financial solution, such as a robust information-
opment Goals in 2015. Alongside their Accountability (PEFA) assessments, technology system or a best-practice
ambitious pledges to end poverty by covering 40 African countries, points to norm. In many cases, however, the prob-
2030 and “leave no one behind,” world the likelihood that, in the typical African lems are more complex and rooted in
leaders aimed to mobilise a wide array of country, the existing budget calendar “is the local context; as a result, transferable
domestic and international resources to rudimentary and substantial delays may solutions often fail.
realise the SDGs. But rising national debt, often be experienced in its implementa- Such dysfunction is more pervasive in
a slowing global economy, and weakening tion.” the “downstream” tier of government,
multilateralism are preventing many Af- These delays are often accompanied by such as state-run schools and hospitals,
rican countries from making progress. poor budget execution, which leads to where tacit local knowledge is more crit-
Faced with these headwinds, African overspending, extra-budgetary transac- ical. This bodes ill for Africa’s prospects
governments must improve their own tions, and resources being shifted away of making progress toward the SDGs,
public financial management (PFM) from development priorities. Transpar- because much development depends on
to help realise the SDGs. This will ency and accountability suffer, too, not the performance of such institutions.
require governments and their develop- least because legislatures usually lack We need a different PFM approach, one
ment partners to rethink the standard the capacity to scrutinize budgets effec- that helps African governments prioritise
approaches to tackling Africa’s complex tively. The 2015 Budget Practices and better, improve planning and budgeting,
public-finance challenges. Procedures survey of 23 African coun- and deliver much-needed services to
Most African governments’ budgets are tries, for example, gives legislatures’ their citizens. Instead of relying on one-
already under stress, even before SDG- budget-research capacity an average size-fits-all solutions, such an approach
related spending is taken into account. score of just 11%. should acknowledge that PFM reform
And the situation for some could become There is no shortage of development requires careful management of political
even more challenging as commodity assistance to tackle these problems. and administrative constraints, together
prices fall and developed countries con- Development partners have spent an with a deep understanding of the local
sider whether to raise interest rates. estimated $20 billion worldwide since context.
To make reasonable strides toward 2002 to improve PFM in low- and Reform programs should therefore put
the SDGs in these circumstances, gov- middle-income countries. There is now government officials center stage and
ernments will need to deliver public an entire industry of PFM advisory aim for incremental change. Together
services more economically and effi- services, and hundreds of technical with Harvard University, for example,
ciently. Besides providing greater value advisers have crisscrossed the continent our organisation is using the Problem
for money, many of Africa’s developing trying to help struggling countries get Driven Iterative Adaptation approach
and low-income countries also need to their financial house in order. to help public-finance officials across
improve their policy design, planning Despite all that money and effort, Africa deconstruct complex problems
and budgeting, implementation, and Africa’s public-finance challenges per- and experiment with solutions. This
evaluation. sist. The Gambia, for example, has a “learning by doing” is the less-trodden
These adjustments may not be easy modern PFM regulatory framework, but path of PFM reform.
in countries that struggle to carry out the frequent shifting of funds between There is no shortcut to building effec-
basic state functions. For some, even line items continues to create discrep- tive public administrations, or to real-
the seemingly simple act of using bud- ancies between budget appropriations ising the SDGs. But by finding new and
geted resources to procure and deliver and actual spending. And off-budget improved ways to manage their public
textbooks to rural schools in time for the expenditures remain common in Liberia, finances, African countries can take big
start of the academic year could prove despite bilateral and multilateral assis- steps in the right direction.
to be a daunting task. And although tance aimed at boosting fiscal credibility.
many African countries have inadequate Many PFM investments in Africa have
budgets for much-needed capital invest- financed the rollout of costly integrated Biniam Bedasso is a researcher
ments, some governments spend as little financial-management information and public-finance specialist at the
as 2% of even these amounts, owing to systems, known as IFMIS. These com- Collaborative Africa Budget Reform
misaligned procurement policies and puterised systems were meant to solve Initiative (CABRI). Neil Cole is
insufficient administrative capacity. problems such as corruption, lack of Executive Secretary of CABRI.
The problem often starts with the transparency and accountability, and
preparation and presentation of the poor service delivery. But they have gen-
annual budget. Weak revenue fore- erally failed to do so. Copyright: Project Syndicate, 2019.
casting, unpredictable donor funding, This is because most PFM problems

40 April. 12 - 18 2019
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