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Control of DoublyFed Induction Generator System
for Wind Turbines
Viorica Spoială
*
, Helga Silaghi
*
and Dragoş Spoială
*
*
Department of Electrical Drives and Automation,
University of Oradea, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology,
Universităţii Street, 1, Oradea, Romania, EMail:vspoiala@uoradea.ro
Abstract – The paper realizes the analysis, modelling and
control of the doublyfed induction generator (DFIG) for
wind turbines. Different control methods are investigated
with the objective of eliminating the influence of the back
electromotive force (EMF), which is that of, in control
terminology, a load disturbance, on the rotor current.
Keywords: Doublyfed induction generator, wind turbine,
wind energy, current control
I. INTRODUCTION
Some methods of conventional power production
shall be replaced in the future by improving the efficiency
of electricity use, conversion to renewable forms of energy
and other environmentally acceptable electricity production
technologies. One of the solution in this case is the wind
power use. Wind turbines (WTs) can either operate at fixed
speed or variable speed. For a fixedspeed wind turbine the
generator is directly connected to the electrical grid. For a
variablespeed wind turbine the generator is controlled by
power electronic equipment. There are several reasons for
using variablespeed operation of wind turbines; among
those are possibilities to reduce stresses of the mechanical
structure, acoustic noise reduction and the possibility to
control active and reactive power. Most of the major wind
turbine manufactures are developing new larger wind
turbines in the 3to5MW range [1]. These large wind
turbines are all based on variablespeed operation with
pitch control using a directdriven synchronous generator
(without gearbox) or a doublyfed induction generator
(DFIG). Today doublyfed induction generators are
commonly used by the wind turbine industry for larger
wind turbines.
The major advantage of the doublyfed induction
generator, which has made it popular, is that the power
electronic equipment only has to handle a fraction (20
30%) of the total system power. This means that the losses
in the power electronic equipment can be reduced in
comparison to power electronic equipment that has to
handle the total system power as for a directdriven
synchronous generator, apart from the cost saving of using
a smaller converter.
Control of the DFIG is more complicated than the
control of a standard induction machine. In order to control
the DFIG the rotor current is controlled by a power
electronic converter. One common way of controlling the
rotor current is dy means of fieldoriented (vector) control.
Several vector control schemes for the DFIG have been
proposed. One common way is to control the rotor current
with statorflux orientation or with airgapflux orientation
[2]. If the stator resistance can be considered small, stator
flux orientation gives in principle orientation also with the
stator voltage (gridflux orientation) [4].The stability of the
DFIG was investigated analitically, showing that the
dynamics of the DFIG have poorly damped eigenvalues
(poles) with a corresponding natural frequency near the line
frequency, and, also, that the system is unstable for certain
operating conditions, at least for a statorfluxoriented
system. These poorly damped poles influence the rotor
current dynamics through the back electromotive force
(EMF).
The flux oscillations can be damped in some
different ways: reducing the bandwidth of the current
controllers, introducing a flux differentiation compensation
or an extra converter that substitutes the Y point of the
stator winding, the last two solutions being the best.
The response of wind turbines to grid disturbances
is an important issue, especially since the rated power of
windturbine installations steadily increases. New grid
codes will require WTs and wind farms to ride through
voltage sags, meaning that the normal power production
should be reinitiated once the nominal grid voltage has
been recovered. These grid codes will influence the choise
of electrical system in future WTs, which has initiated
industrial research in order to comply. Today, the DFIG
WT will be disconnected from the grid when large voltage
sags appear in the grid. The DFIG system of today, has a
crowbar in the rotor circuit, which at large grid
disturbances has to shortcircuit the rotor circuit in order to
protect the converter. This leads to that the turbine must be
disconnected from the grid, after a large voltage sag.
214
The paper is structured as follows: first are
presented the mathematical models of the DFIG system,
then the field orientation, the control of machineside
converter and finally the control of gridside converter,
some conclusions and references.
II. MATHEMATICAL MODELS OF THE DFIG
SYSTEM
The system is presented in figure 1. It consists of a
wind turbine with doublyfed induction generator. This
means that the stator is directly connected to the grid while
the rotor winding is connected via slip rings to a
converter.
Fig.1. Variablespeed wind turbine with a doublyfed
induction generator (DFIG)
This system have recently become very popular as
generators for variablespeed wind turbines. A more
detailed picture of the DFIG system with backtoback
converter is presented in figure 2.
Fig.2. DFIG system with a backtoback converter
With the machineside converter it is possible to
control the torque and the speed of the DFIG and also the
power factor at the stator terminals, while the main
objective for the gridside converter is to keep the dclink
voltage constant. The speedtorque characteristics of the
DFIG system can be seen in figure 3. As also seen in the
figure, the DFIG can operate both in motor and genrator
operation with a rotorspeed range of
max
r
ω ∆ ± around the
synchronous speed, ω
1
. A tipycal application for DFIG is
wind turbines, since they operate in a limited speed range
of approximately ±30%.
Fig.3. Speedtorque characteristics of a DFIG
A. MACHINE MODEL
In figure 4 an equivalent circuit of the DFIG system can be
seen [3]. Due to its simplicity for deriving control laws for
the DFIG, the Γ representation of the IG model will be
used. From a dynamic point of view, the rotor and the
stator leakage inductance have the same effect. Therefore,
it is possible to use a different representation of the Park
model in which the leakage inductance is placed in the
rotor circuit, the socalled Γ representation of the induction
machine.
Fig.4. Equivalent circuit of the DFIG system
This model is described by the following space
vector equations in stator coordinates:
dt
d
i R v
s
s s
s s
s
s
Ψ
+ = (1)
s
R r
s
R s
R R
s
R
j
dt
d
i R v Ψ ω −
Ψ
+ = (2)
where superscript s indicates stator coordinates. The model
can also be described in synchronous coordinates as:
s 1
s
s s s
j
dt
d
i R v Ψ ω +
Ψ
+ = (3)
R 2
R
R R R
j
dt
d
i R v Ψ ω +
Ψ
+ = (4)
where the notations are well known.
215
The stator flux, the rotor flux and
electromechanical torque are given by:
) i i ( L
R s M s
+ = Ψ (5)
R s s M R M R
i L i L i ) L L (
σ σ
+ Ψ = + + = Ψ (6)
] i Im[ n 3 T
R s p e
∗
Ψ = (7)
where L
M
is the magnetizing inductance, L
σ
is the leakage
inductance and n
p
is the number of pole pairs. Finally, the
mechanical dynamics of the induction machine are
described by:
s e
r
p
T T
dt
d
n
J
− =
ω
(8)
where J is the inertia and T
s
is the shaft torque. The
quantities and parameters of the Γ model relate to the Park
model (or the T representation) as follows:
m
m s
r R
r
R r R
L
L L
; ;
i
i ; v v
+
= γ Ψ γ = Ψ
γ
= γ =
γ
m M r
2
s r
2
R
L L ; L L L ; R R γ = γ + γ = γ =
λ λ σ
B. GRIDFILTER MODEL
In figure 5 the equivalent circuit of the grid filter
in stator coordinates can be seen.
Fig.5. Gridfilter model in stator coordinates
The model in sychronous coordinates is:
f
f
f f f 1 f g
v
dt
di
L i ) L j R ( E + − ω + − = (9)
where E
g
is the grid voltage, i
f
is the gridfilter current and
v
f
is the gridfilter voltage supplied from the gridside
converter.
The transfer function G
f
(p), of the grid filter can
be expressed as:
f f
s
f
s
f
f
R p L
1
) p ( v
) p ( i
) p ( G
+
= = (10)
This means that the damping of the grid filter is
given by:
2
f
2 2
f
f
R L
1
) j ( G
+ ω
= ω (11)
If L
f
ω » R
f
, the gain can be approximated as
). L /( 1 ) j ( G
f f
ω ≈ ω
C. DCLINK MODEL
The energy, W
dc
, stored in the dclink capacitor,
C
dc
, is given by:
2
dc dc dc
v C
2
1
W = (12)
where v
dc
is the dclink voltage. In fig. 6 an equivalent
circuit of the dclink model, where the definition of the
power flow through the gridside converter (GSC) and the
machineside converter (MSC) can be seen.
Fig.6. DClink model
The energy in the dclink capacitor is given by:
r f
2
dc dc
dc
P P v
dt
d
C
2
1
dt
dW
− − = = (13)
This means that the dclink voltage will vary as:
r f
dc
dc dc
P P
dt
dv
v C − − = (14)
which means that P
f
=  P
r
for a constant dclink voltage.
The total model of the DFIG system, presented in
fig.4 can be summarized in synchronous coordinate, as:
s 1 s s g
s
j i R E
dt
d
Ψ ω − − =
Ψ
(15)
R 2 R R R
R
j i R v
dt
d
Ψ ω − − =
Ψ
(16)
216
g f f 1 f f
f
f
E i ) L j R ( v
dt
di
L − ω + − = (17)
r f
dc
dc dc
P P
dt
dv
v C − − = (18)
s e
r
p
T T
dt
d
n
J
− =
ω
(19)
where:
) i i ( L
R s M s
+ = Ψ (20)
) i i ( L i L
R s M R R
+ + = Ψ
σ
(21)
 
∗
Ψ =
R s p e
i Im n 3 T (22)
] i v Re[ 3 P
R R r
∗
= (23)
] i v Re[ 3 P
f f f
∗
= (24)
In (15) the stator voltage, v
s
, has been changed to the grid
voltage, E
g
.
D. FIELD ORIENTATION
In order to control the rotor current of a DFIG by
means of vector control, the reference frame has to be
aligned with a flux linkage. One common way is to control
the rotor currents with stator–flux orientation or with air
gapflux orientation. If the stator resistance is considered to
be small, statorflux orientation. Pure statorvoltage
orientation can be done without any significant error. In
this paper, the statorvoltage orientation will be referred to
as gridflux orientation, then the machine is aligned with a
virtual grid flux. Fig.7 shows an example of the space
vectors of the grid voltage and the stator flux. As illustrated
by the figure there is only a small angular difference
between the gridvoltage and statorflux space vectors in
the statorflux reference frame compared to the gridflux
reference frame.
Fig.7. Spacevector diagram of grid voltage and stator flux.
a) Statorflux orientation. b) Gridflux orientation.
D1. STATORFLUX ORIENTATION
For a statorfluxoriented system the synchronous
angle θ
1
is defined as:
s
s 1
Ψ ∠ = θ (24)
where
s
s
Ψ is the stator flux in stator coordinates. Then the
stator flux can be transformed to synchronous coordinates
as:
1 1
j
s
ˆ
j s
s s
e e
θ θ −
ψ = Ψ = Ψ (25)
where
1
ˆ
θ is the estimate of
s 1
, ψ θ is the stator flux
magnitude and
1 1 1
ˆ
~
θ − θ = θ is th error between the
synchronous angle and its estimate. This means that for
perfect field orientation, i.e.
1 1
ˆ
θ = θ , that
s s
ψ = Ψ , i.e.
the space vector of the flux is real valued.
D2. GRIDFLUX ORIENTATION
The idea behind gridflux orientation is to define a
virtul grid flux,
s
g
Ψ , as:
g
j
g
g
s
g
s
g
g
e jE
j
E
ω
− =
ω
= Ψ
θ
(26)
where ω
g
is the frequency of the grid voltage and θ
g
is the
corresponding angle. The grid voltage can be transformed
to synchronous coordinates as:
1 1
~
j
g
ˆ
j s
g g
e jE e E E
θ θ −
= = (27)
where E
g
is the grid voltage magnitude. The gridflux
orientation is equal to the statorflux orientation in the
steady state, if the stator resistance is neglected, since then:
s 1 s 1
s
s s g s
j j
dt
d
i R E v Ψ ω ≈ Ψ ω +
Ψ
+ = = (28)
and ω
1
= ω
g
.
E. CONTROL OF MACHINE  SIDE
CONVERTER
The main task of the machineside converter is to
control the machine. This is done by having an inner fast
fieldoriented current control loop that controls the rotor
current.
E1. CURRENT CONTROL
217
It is common to control the rotor current with
either statorflux orientation or gridflux orientation. In
order to derive the rotorcurrent control law, it is
advantageous to eliminate i
s
and Ψ
R
from (3) and (4),
which yields:
s 1
M
s s
R s s
j
L
R
dt
d
i R v Ψ


.

\

ω + +
Ψ
+ − = (29)
E
dt
di
L
i ) L j R R ( j
dt
d
dt
di
L i ) L j R ( v
R
R 2 s R s 2
s R
R 2 R R
+ +
+ ω + + = Ψ ω +
Ψ
+ + ω + =
σ
σ
σ σ
(30)
s r
M
s
s
j
L
R
v E Ψ


.

\

ω + − = (31)
where E is the back EMF. An estimate of the whole back
EMF, E
ˆ
, will be used:
∫
+ − ω + + =
+ − ω + ′ =
σ
σ
E
ˆ
k i ) R L
ˆ
ˆ j ( edt k e k
E
ˆ
k ) R L
ˆ
ˆ j ( v v
E R a 2 i p
E a 2 R R
(32)
where "^" indicates an estimated quantity. A coefficient k
E
is introduced in order to make the control law more
general:
¦
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
=
E of
forward feed with control for 1
E of forward
feed without control for 0
k
E
(33)
In (32) an "active resistance", R
a
, has been introduced. The
"active resistance" is used to increase the damping of
disturbances and variations in the back EMF. Substituting
(32) in (30), the rotor current dynamics formed by the inner
loop in fig.8 are given by:
R a s R R
R
i ) R R R ( v
dt
di
L + + − ′ =
σ
(34)
The transfer function from
R
v′ to i
R
is:
a s R
R R R pL
1
) p ( G
+ + +
=
σ
(35)
where the controller is an ordinally PI controller, using an
internal model control (IMC) [3]:
p
k
k ) p ( F
i
p
+ = (36)
So, ) R R
ˆ
R
ˆ
( k ; L
ˆ
k
a s R c i c p
+ + α = α =
σ
(37)
where α
c
is closedloop bandwidth of the current dynamics,
giving:
c
cl
p
p
) p ( G
α +
= (38)
Fig.8. Block diagram of the current control system. The
dashed box is the model for the doublyfed induction
generator
E2. TORQUE CONTROL
The electromechanical torque can be found from
(7) as:
 
Rq s p R s p e
i n 3 i Im n 3 T ψ − ≈ Ψ =
∗
(39)
For a statorfluxoriented system the stator flux, ψ
s
, is
almost fixed to the stator voltage, then the torque can be
controlled by the q component of the rotor current, i
Rq
.
Since it is difficult to measure the torque, it is most often
controlled in an openloop manner. Therefore the
component reference current,
ref
Rq
i , can be determined from
the reference torque,
ref
e
T , as:
s p
ref
e ref
Rq
ˆ n 3
T
i
ψ
− = (40)
Figure 9 shows the block diagram of the openloop torque
control scheme.
218
Fig.9. Block diagram of the openloop torque control
E3. SPEED CONTROL
Since the current dynamics should be set much
faster than the speed dynamics, the speed can be controlled
in cascade with the current. The mechanical dynamics are
described by (19). Using IMC, the following PI controller
can be found:
p
B
n
J
ˆ
p
k
k ) p ( G
p
) p ( F
s a
p
s
i
p
1 s
α
+
α
=
= + =
α
=
−
(41)
whereα
s
is the desired closedloop bandwidth of the speed
control loop, B
a
is an "active damping" term and the
notation "^" indicates an estimated quantity. Fig. 10 shows
a block diagram of the speed control system.
Fig.10. Speed control loop
where
ref
e
T is the reference torque. Figure 11 shows a
simulation of the speed control loop with rated driving
torque.
Fig.11. Simulation of the speedcontrol loop. a) Rotor
speed. b) Rotor current (q component)
E4. CONTROL OF GRIDSIDE CONVERTER
The main objective of the gridside converter is to
control the dclink voltage. The control of the gridside
converter consists of a fast inner current control loop,
which controls the current through the grid filter and an
outer slower control loop that controls the dclink voltage.
The reference frame of the inner current control loop will
be aligned with the grid flux. A block diagram of the dc
link voltage controller is presented in figure11.
Fig.11. DClink voltage control loop
where
p
G
E 6
C
ˆ
) p ( G
p
) p ( F
a w
nom , g
dc w 1 w
α
−
α
− =
α
=
−
(42)
and α
w
is the bandwidth of the dclink voltage controlloop.
2
w dc
w
PW
) p ( C
p 2
) p ( G
α +
α −
= (43)
which means that a disturbance is damped with the same
bandwidth as the dclink voltage controlloop.
III. CONCLUSIONS
The paper presented some vector control schemes
of the doublyfed induction generator systems used to the
wind turbines: current control, torque control, speed control
and dclink voltage control. The controllers used in this
control schemes are PI controller designed with internal
model control method.
REFERENCES
[1] Andreas Petersson:"Analysis, modeling and control of
doublyfed induction generators for wind turbines";
Goteborg; ISBN 9172916001; 2005.
[2] I. Boldea and S. A. Nasar, electric Drives, CRC Press LCC,
1999
[3] L. Hannefors and H.P.Nee: "Modelbased current control of
ac machines using the internal model control method";
IEEE Trans. Ind . Applicat., vol.34, no.1, pp.133141, Jan./
Feb. 1998
[4] M. Heller and W. Schumacher, "Stability analysis of doubly
fed induction machine in stator flux reference frame"
in Proc. of 7
th
European Conference on power Electronics
and Applications, vol.2, Brussels, Belgium, 1997, pp.707
710.
From a dynamic point of view. MATHEMATICAL MODELS OF THE DFIG SYSTEM The system is presented in figure 1. ω1.3.2.The paper is structured as follows: first are presented the mathematical models of the DFIG system. Variablespeed wind turbine with a doublyfed induction generator (DFIG) This system have recently become very popular as generators for variablespeed wind turbines. Fig. MACHINE MODEL In figure 4 an equivalent circuit of the DFIG system can be seen [3]. The model can also be described in synchronous coordinates as: vs = R sis + vR = R RiR + dΨs + jω1 Ψs dt dΨR + jω 2 ΨR dt (3) (4) where the notations are well known. some conclusions and references. A more detailed picture of the DFIG system with backtoback converter is presented in figure 2. 214 . the DFIG can operate both in motor and genrator operation with a rotorspeed range of ± ∆ω around the synchronous speed. then the field orientation. the rotor and the stator leakage inductance have the same effect. Therefore. the control of machineside converter and finally the control of gridside converter.1. Fig. the Γ representation of the IG model will be used. since they operate in a limited speed range of approximately ±30%. This means that the stator is directly connected to the grid while the rotor winding is connected via slip rings to a converter. As also seen in the figure. the socalled Γ representation of the induction machine. Due to its simplicity for deriving control laws for the DFIG. The speedtorque characteristics of the DFIG system can be seen in figure 3.4. max r where superscript s indicates stator coordinates. while the main objective for the gridside converter is to keep the dclink voltage constant. it is possible to use a different representation of the Park model in which the leakage inductance is placed in the rotor circuit. Speedtorque characteristics of a DFIG A. A tipycal application for DFIG is wind turbines. It consists of a wind turbine with doublyfed induction generator. Fig. II. Equivalent circuit of the DFIG system This model is described by the following spacevector equations in stator coordinates: v s = R si s + s s s R s R R dΨss dt (1) s dΨR s v =R i + − jωr ΨR dt (2) Fig. DFIG system with a backtoback converter With the machineside converter it is possible to control the torque and the speed of the DFIG and also the power factor at the stator terminals.
In fig. The quantities and parameters of the Γ model relate to the Park model (or the T representation) as follows: where vdc is the dclink voltage. if is the gridfilter current and vf is the gridfilter voltage supplied from the gridside converter. L M = γL m B. DClink model The energy in the dclink capacitor is given by: dWdc 1 d 2 = C dc v dc = − Pf − Pr dt 2 dt This means that the dclink voltage will vary as: Fig. of the grid filter can be expressed as: dΨs = E g − R s i s − jω1 Ψs dt dΨR = v R − R R i R − jω 2 ΨR dt (15) (16) i s ( p) 1 G f (p) = fs = v f ( p) L f p + R f (10) 215 . Lσ is the leakage inductance and np is the number of pole pairs. stored in the dclink capacitor.6. presented in fig. DCLINK MODEL The energy.The stator flux. i R = L sγ + L m ir . the mechanical dynamics of the induction machine are described by: J dω r = Te − Ts n p dt (8) Wdc = 1 2 C dc v dc 2 (12) where J is the inertia and Ts is the shaft torque. C.4 can be summarized in synchronous coordinate. The total model of the DFIG system. is given by: where LM is the magnetizing inductance. 6 an equivalent circuit of the dclink model. Finally. v R = γv r . ΨR = γΨr . γ = γ Lm R R = γ 2 R r . as: di E g = −(R f + jω1 L f )i f − L f f + v f (9) dt where Eg is the grid voltage. Fig. the rotor electromechanical torque are given by: flux and (5) This means that the damping of the grid filter is given by: Ψs = L M (i s + i R ) G f ( jω) = 1 L2f ω 2 + R f2 (11) ΨR = (L M + L σ )i R + L M i s = Ψs + L σ i R (6) Te = 3n p Im[Ψs i ∗ ] R (7) If Lfω » Rf.Pr for a constant dclink voltage. the gain can be approximated as G f ( jω) ≈ 1 /(L f ω). GRIDFILTER MODEL In figure 5 the equivalent circuit of the grid filter in stator coordinates can be seen. Cdc. The transfer function Gf(p). Gridfilter model in stator coordinates The model in sychronous coordinates is: (13) C dc v dc dv dc = − Pf − Pr dt (14) which means that Pf = . Wdc. L σ = γL sλ + γ 2 L rλ . where the definition of the power flow through the gridside converter (GSC) and the machineside converter (MSC) can be seen.5.
In this paper. ψ s is the stator flux ˆ magnitude and θ1 = θ1 − θ1 is th error between the synchronous angle and its estimate. Spacevector diagram of grid voltage and stator flux. has been changed to the grid voltage. the space vector of the flux is real valued. dΨs + jω1 Ψs ≈ jω1 Ψs (28) dt E. as: s [ ] Pr = 3 Re[ v R i ∗ ] R Pf = 3 Re[ v f i ∗ ] f In (15) the stator voltage.7. This is done by having an inner fast fieldoriented current control loop that controls the rotor current. D. FIELD ORIENTATION In order to control the rotor current of a DFIG by means of vector control. Pure statorvoltage orientation can be done without any significant error. D2. i. As illustrated by the figure there is only a small angular difference between the gridvoltage and statorflux space vectors in the statorflux reference frame compared to the gridflux reference frame. then the machine is aligned with a virtual grid flux. that Ψs = ψ s . Then the stator flux can be transformed to synchronous coordinates as: Ψs = L M (i s + i R ) ΨR = L σ i R + L M (i s + i R ) Te = 3n p Im Ψs i ∗ R (20) (21) (22) (23) (24) Ψs = Ψss e − jθ1 = ψ s e jθ1 ~ ˆ (25) ˆ where θ1 is the estimate of θ1 . If the stator resistance is considered to be small. The gridflux orientation is equal to the statorflux orientation in the steady state. b) Gridflux orientation. CURRENT CONTROL 216 .7 shows an example of the space vectors of the grid voltage and the stator flux. CONTROL CONVERTER OF MACHINE  SIDE The main task of the machineside converter is to control the machine.e. Eg. since then: vs = E g = R sis + and ω1 = ωg. θ1 = θ1 . Ψg . Fig.e. the reference frame has to be aligned with a flux linkage. i. One common way is to control the rotor currents with stator–flux orientation or with airgapflux orientation. a) Statorflux orientation. if the stator resistance is neglected. vs. STATORFLUX ORIENTATION For a statorfluxoriented system the synchronous angle θ1 is defined as: (18) s θ1 = ∠Ψss (24) J dω r = Te − Ts n p dt where: (19) where Ψs is the stator flux in stator coordinates. E1. statorflux orientation.Lf di f = v f − (R f + jω1 L f )i f − E g dt C dc v dc dv dc = − Pf − Pr dt (17) D1. Ψ = s g Es g jω g =− jE g e ωg jθ g (26) where ωg is the frequency of the grid voltage and θg is the corresponding angle. GRIDFLUX ORIENTATION The idea behind gridflux orientation is to define a virtul grid flux. the statorvoltage orientation will be referred to as gridflux orientation. The grid voltage can be transformed to synchronous coordinates as: E g = E s e − jθ1 = jE g e jθ1 g ˆ ~ (27) where Eg is the grid voltage magnitude. Fig. This means that for ˆ perfect field orientation.
it is advantageous to eliminate is and ΨR from (3) and (4). is almost fixed to the stator voltage. as: ref ref Lσ di R = v ′R − (R R + R s + R a )i R dt (34) i ref = − Rq The transfer function from v ′ to iR is: R Teref ˆ 3n p ψ s (40) Figure 9 shows the block diagram of the openloop torque control scheme. iRq.8 are given by: Te = 3n p Im Ψs i ∗ ≈ −3n p ψ s i Rq R [ ] (39) For a statorfluxoriented system the stator flux. k p = α c L σ . Block diagram of the current control system. A coefficient kE is introduced in order to make the control law more general: Fig. i Rq . Ra. 217 . k i = α c ( R R + R s + R a ) (37) + jω 2 Ψs = (R R + R s + jω 2 L σ )i R + + Lσ di R +E dt R E = v s − s + jω r Ψs L M where αc is closedloop bandwidth of the current dynamics. will be used: ˆ ˆ ˆ v R = v′R + ( jω 2 L σ − R a ) + k E E ˆ ˆ ˆ = k p e + k i ∫ edt + ( jω 2 L σ − R a )i R + k E E (32) where "^" indicates an estimated quantity. E . ψs. giving: G cl (p) = (31) p p + αc (38) where E is the back EMF. it is most often controlled in an openloop manner. TORQUE CONTROL The electromechanical torque can be found from (7) as: 0 for control without feed forward of E (33) kE = 1 for control with feed forward of E In (32) an "active resistance". The "active resistance" is used to increase the damping of disturbances and variations in the back EMF. The dashed box is the model for the doublyfed induction generator E2. can be determined from the reference torque. An estimate of the whole back ˆ EMF. the rotor current dynamics formed by the inner loop in fig. In order to derive the rotorcurrent control law. Substituting (32) in (30). Te .8. Since it is difficult to measure the torque. has been introduced. which yields: G ( p) = 1 pL σ + R R + R s + R a (35) where the controller is an ordinally PI controller. Therefore the component reference current. using an internal model control (IMC) [3]: v s = −R s i R + dΨs R s + L + jω1 Ψs (29) dt M F(p) = k p + ki p (36) v R = (R R + jω 2 L σ )i R + L σ di R dΨs + dt dt (30) ˆ ˆ ˆ So.It is common to control the rotor current with either statorflux orientation or gridflux orientation. then the torque can be controlled by the q component of the rotor current.
ISBN 9172916001. The reference frame of the inner current control loop will be aligned with the grid flux. speed control and dclink voltage control.nom p and αw is the bandwidth of the dclink voltage controlloop. vol. ˆ α w −1 α C α G G (p) = − w dc − w a (42) p 6E g .11. SPEED CONTROL Since the current dynamics should be set much faster than the speed dynamics. 1997.133141. Figure 11 shows a simulation of the speed control loop with rated driving torque.. Block diagram of the openloop torque control E3.P. Nasar. no. Fig. Simulation of the speedcontrol loop. b) Rotor current (q component) 218 . A. The mechanical dynamics are described by (19). CONCLUSIONS Fig. pp. CRC Press LCC. REFERENCES [1] Andreas Petersson:"Analysis. pp. Schumacher. modeling and control of doublyfed induction generators for wind turbines". CONTROL OF GRIDSIDE CONVERTER The main objective of the gridside converter is to control the dclink voltage.10. 2005. vol. Fig. III. IEEE Trans.Nee: "Modelbased current control of ac machines using the internal model control method". Using IMC. Heller and W. Ind . Goteborg. 1999 [3] L.9. Fig. A block diagram of the dclink voltage controller is presented in figure11. the following PI controller can be found: F(p) = α s −1 k G (p) = k p + i = p p ˆ Jα B α = s + a s np p (41) Fig.E4. Applicat. Boldea and S. Speed control loop where Te is the reference torque. ref The paper presented some vector control schemes of the doublyfed induction generator systems used to the wind turbines: current control. a) Rotor speed. electric Drives. 1998 [4] M. 10 shows a block diagram of the speed control system.1. torque control. Belgium. Jan. which controls the current through the grid filter and an outer slower control loop that controls the dclink voltage.2. of 7th European Conference on power Electronics and Applications. The control of the gridside converter consists of a fast inner current control loop. "Stability analysis of doublyfed induction machine in stator flux reference frame" in Proc./ Feb. Ba is an "active damping" term and the notation "^" indicates an estimated quantity. G PW (p) = − 2α w p C dc (p + α w ) 2 (43) which means that a disturbance is damped with the same bandwidth as the dclink voltage controlloop. DClink voltage control loop where F(p) = whereαs is the desired closedloop bandwidth of the speedcontrol loop.11. Brussels.34.707710. Hannefors and H. the speed can be controlled in cascade with the current. [2] I. The controllers used in this control schemes are PI controller designed with internal model control method.
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