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ED 415 Assessment Project

Emily Gabur

Background:

Groton Elementary is located in the northeastern corner of South Dakota.

The population of this small town is 1400, and it is increasingly rapidly according to

recourses. It is known for a “healthy” school and business district, and has amenities

including a swimming pool, ice rink, a baseball/softball complex, as well as a soccer

field. There are tennis courts and walking paths in the city park, as well as a nine-

hole golf course. Groton is located in Brown County, and stretches 872 square miles.

The enrollment as of the fall of 2017 was 577 students PK-12th grade. The percent of

student with special needs sits at 13.1% and 14.5% of the student population is

eligible for free/reduced lunch. The district drop out rate is .4%, and the distract

attendance is 95.0%. The student to staff ratio is 12.7% and there was 31 graduates

in the fall of 2017. The ACT scores for the district are as follows: 20.6 in English, 22.7

in Math, 22.1 in Reading, 21.8 in Science, and a 22.0 composite score, and there was

23 students who took the American College Test.

Classroom Setting

There are a total of 10 students in the North Central Special Education

Cooperative located in Groton and they range from ages 3 to 4 years old. They are all

receiving special education services, and they come to school from 8:30-11:45. The

classroom is a brand new classroom, and there are two ways to enter it. There are

two large windows in the corner of the room where the reading corner is located
and circle time takes place. There is two mini blue couches for the students to look

at books on, and also used as an incentive for those who follow directions and are

attentive during circle time. Boxing off the reading corner is the dramatic play

center. This center is changed out weekly, and goes along with the week’s theme. It

has a kitchen, mirror, mini table and two chairs. Depending on the theme of the

week, there are large manipulatives and interchangeable items that are pulled in

and taken out to increase social interaction and imaginative play for the students.

Next to the dramatic play center is the teacher’s desk. She has a bookshelf with

resources on it, that block off her portion of the room. Flowing next to her desk is

the writing center. This is filled with two students desks and many materials like

pencils, markers, colored pencils, mini whiteboards, and crayons for the students to

independently practice the letter of the week they are learning about. There are also

dry erase markers to practice with as well. Directly in front of the writing center is a

long table, one going horizontal, and the other going vertical. They form a ‘T” and

this is where the students complete table activities, and where the lessons are

delivered. There are assigned seats with the students name tags on the tables AND

chairs as to where they are supposed to be seated. The chairs of course are mini as

well sense to fit the students properly. At the end of the “T” is the large whiteboard

and smartboard sitting next to each other that the teacher uses for providing

examples and expectations. On the other side of the tables is a wall filled completely

with storage cabinets. At the end of the rows of cabinets, there is a small sink and a

mirror for the students to practice hand washing and to clean up after messy table

activities. Smack dab in the middle of the room sits the sensory table, and this too is
filled with many different types of sensory activities to enhance learning. The

sensory materials have consisted of water beads, sand, corn, snow, and dirt to go

with the interchanging theme of the week. The classroom paraprofessional works at

the end of the T table when she is preparing materials for the students, and both the

teacher and paraprofessional move around the tables while during instruction time

to assist those who need it.

Student Characteristics

 Student A is a four-year-old boy who likes having control, and dictating what his

friends should do. He likes to finish things first, and gets agitated when others finish

before him. He enjoys playing in the block area, and for the most part plays well

with one other peer present. He is on medication for his behavior, and is working on

using his inside voice. He goes to speech twice a week, as well as OT one time

weekly. He understands the letters of his name, and can rote count to 13. Student A

is becoming better at not talking when the teacher is talking, as well as using his

manners when communicating what he wants/needs. Student A can also identify

colors red, orange, yellow, green, brown, and black; as well as all shapes. Student A

is on an IEP for Developmental Delay.

 Student B is a four year old boy who is friendly, and enjoys being silly with his

classmates. He is pulled from class for speech therapy twice a week. He loves the

color green, and takes his time to complete his work. He loves listening to books

being read to him, and plays appropriately with his peers. He knows numbers 0,1,2,

and 3, and can trace the letters of his name with guided support. He needs
supplemental help when completing group table time activities, and uses

appropriate communication skills when he needs something. Student B can become

frustrated when something gets difficult for him, but with guidance persists through

the activity. This student can identify all shapes except oval. Student B is on an IEP

for Speech, and is being evaluated for an emotional disorder as well.

 Student C is a five year old girl who communicates well what she wants. She

understands the letters of her name when prompted, shapes, and can identify

numbers 1-5,7, and 8. This student is friendly, and enjoys playing in the dramatic

play center the most. I know when this student is not feeling well, or herself because

she becomes very clingy and demands she needs attention on specific things she

wouldn’t normally. (Ex: coloring in a shape, knowing where she is supposed to sit)

She is attentive at circle time, and likes when we sing and dance. Student C is on an

IEP for Developmental Delay.

 Student D is a five year old boy who is very hyper, and active. This student

understands how to trace the letters in his name, assemble it, and can identify all

colors. Student D needs action and movement after sitting for a period of time, and

enjoys being silly with his friends. This student gets pulled from the classroom for

Speech twice a week. This student listens well to instruction and when re-directed,

he does what is asked of him. His favorite center is the block center, and loves

playing with magnetic tiles to build skyscrapers. He needs more verbal prompts for

behavior than the other students do, and likes to compare his work to his friends. He

uses his manners, and is on an IEP for Speech and Developmental Delay.

 Student E is a four year old boy who is quiet, and well behaved. The student is shy,
and most times will not verbally say what he needs help with. This student can

identify the letters in his name, and trace them. He can also identify all colors, and

numbers 0,1,2,3. This student participates willingly, and is engaged throughout

circle time. This student can identify the shape of a circle, square, rectangle, and

triangle. He plays well with his friends, and especially likes participating in gross

motor activities. Student E is on an IEP for Developmental Delay.

 Student F is a five-year-old boy who is energetic and enjoys playing with his friends.

He can identify all shapes, and colors. He knows numbers 0-5,7,8, and 10. He can

rote count to 12 and can identify the letters of his name, as well as trace them. He

actively participates in table time activity, and circle time. He is engaged throughout

instruction, and follows verbal re-direction well. Student F gets pulled for speech

once a week. This student communicates what he needs and wants, and has good

fine motor skills. Student F is on an IEP for Developmentally Delay, Speech, and

Language.

 Student G is a three-year-old boy. He can identify the colors red, orange, yellow,

green, blue, pink, and purple. He can identify a circle, square, and triangle. He lives

on a dairy farm and enjoys playing in the dramatic play center the most. He is shy to

new faces, and verbally states what he wants well. I have seen an increase in anger

with him recently, so I have started documentation so I can perform a functional

behavior assessment to better meet the needs of the student. Student G is on an IEP

for Speech and Developmental Delay.

 Student H is a three-year-old girl. She can correctly identify the colors yellow, blue,

purple, and red. She can identify shapes circle and square. She goes to speech
therapy twice a week, and loves to play in the dramatic play center. She has some

sensory issues. She does not like her hands wet, and refuses to participate in

sensory activities that would get her hands sticky or dirty. Student H is on an IEP for

Speech and Developmental Delay.

 Student I is on an IEP for developmental delay, speech, and is currently being

evaluated to see if he qualifies for Occupational Therapy due to his low muscle tone,

and gross motor skills. He can correctly identify colors read, orange, green, blue,

purple, and black. He can also rote count to five, and is pulled for speech twice a

week. He also goes to Physical Therapy once a week. He is a very active, chatty boy

who loves to sing, dance, and play with his friends in any center he is placed at.

 Student J is a four-year-old boy. He can correctly identify colors red, orange, yellow,

green, blue, purple, and black. He can identify a circle, triangle, square, and oval.

Student D gets pulled for Speech Therapy twice a week. Student D is very quiet, but

full of personality when he is playing with his friends at centers time. Student J is on

an IEP for Speech and Developmental Delay.

Instructional Implications

The classroom has a wide range of abilities presented throughout this

classroom, and it takes precise planning to differentiate instruction and plans to

meet each individual need my students have. I will use a variety of verbal prompts

and gestures to aid and guide my students through table activities. Sense there is

multiple learning disabilities prevalent I will also utilize direct instruction. How I

plan to do this is to make myself a center being the “teacher center” where the

students will come to me individually throughout centers time and we will practice
and work on their individual goals and objectives listed on their IEP’s. During this

time I will also provide direct instruction pertaining to our table activities that the

student may not have comprehended throughout this time. I will use a sequential,

simultaneous, structured approach when delivering the content. This will be clear

through “first, second, third, and last” directions that are visually displayed on the

large smartboard behind me. I will provide visual aids such as graphics and pictures

they use in their normal, everyday lives to manage and instruct what I expect the

students to do. Lastly, I will provide supplement instruction individually, and

scaffold my higher-level learners, giving them a more challenging task to perform;

one way I will do this is to either provide or not provide a visual representation of

their name in order for this project. Without the aid, it will challenge my higher-level

learners, and with the aid it will guide and support my lower level learners.
Before Instruction begins

Pre/Post Assessment on Name Letter Recognition

1. (Verbally read and restated by me) With your pencil, write the lowercase letter next

to the capital letter: ½ point each *Measuring letter association

A ____ B____ C____ D____ E____ F____ G____ H____ I____ J____ K____ L___

M____ N____ O____ P____ Q____ R____ S____ T____ U____ V____ W____ X__

Y____ Z____

2. (Verbally read and restated by me) Look at the letters below, find and circle the

letters that are in your name: *Measuring letter identification

a. if all correct=5/5, one missing=4/5, two missing=3/5, three missing=2/5,

four missing=1/5, no letters in name found=0/5

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O

PQ R S T U V W X Y Z
3. On the line provided below, correctly order and write the letters horizontally to

form your name: *Measuring letter sequencing horizontally (generalizing the skill)

a. if all correct=5/5, one missing/out of order=4/5, two missing/out of

order=3/5, three missing/out of order=2/5, four missing/out of order=1/5,

no letters in name found/all out of order=0/5

________________________________________________________________________________________________
4. On the lines below, correctly order and write the letters vertically to form your

name: 0 points if can’t complete 5 points if student can complete*Measuring letter

sequencing vertically (generalizing the skill)

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________
This last question checks for understanding the letters of their name (letter

recognition), the order of their letters (letter sequencing) and blocks rote

memorization of writing their name by challenging them to write it vertically.


Total: ______/28 Comments/notes:

Objectives to Pre/Post Assessment:

1. Students will be able to correctly write the lowercase letter next to the capital letter

2. Students will be able to locate the letters in the name when shown all the letters in

the alphabet

3. Students will be able to circle the letters that are found in their name while looking

at the letters in the alphabet

4. Students will be able to correctly order the letters to form their first name, and write

it horizontally on the line

5. Students will be able to correctly order the letters to form their first name, and write

it vertically

Results:
Pre-Assessment
50
45
40
Overall Test Results

35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
A B C D E F G H I J
Student

Pre-Test Mean: 35% Pre-Test Mode: 40% Pre-Test Median: 37.5%

Summary of Pre-Assessment results

According to the results of the pre-assessment, I am going to have to revamp

my lesson and spend a lot of time on letter recognition. None of my students got

above a 45% on the pre-test, and the part that most of my students did the worse on

was when presented with the letters of the alphabet, they were to locate and circle

the letters found in their name. The students got most of their points either writing

their own names horizontally. So I realized that I would have to do some more

instruction delivery on letter identification. How I planned to do that was to grab the

letter cards and break the students into small groups. Those who got a higher score

on the pretest were in one group, those who between a 30-40% were in a group

with my paraprofessional, and I took the students who scored less than a 30% on
the pretest to provide supplemental, individualized instruction. Each group played

the “I have, who has” game to help them come more familiar with letter

identification. I will also provide examples and non examples on the board when we

come back together, and I will provide lots of time for multiple opportunities to

practice the identification of these letters.

Plan of Instruction

South Dakota State Standards

 Construction Of Knowledge: Thinking and Reasoning: Goal CD-2: Through

their explorations, play, and social interactions, children recall information

and apply it to the new situations and problems

 Approaches To Learning: Initiative, Effort, Engagement, and Persistence: Goal

AL-3: Children demonstrate initiative and effort in play and everyday tasks

 Approaches To Learning: Risk-Taking, Problem-Solving, Flexibility and

Resilience: Goal A-6: Children are willing to try new and challenging

experiences in play and everyday tasks

 Approaches To Learning: Goal AL-9: Children demonstrate creativity,

imagination, and inventiveness in play and everyday tasks

Objectives:

 Students will be able to:

o Write the lowercase letter next to the capital letter given in visual format

o Find the letters that are in their name when given the letters of the alphabet

in visual format

o Correctly order the letters of their name, and write it on the line
o Correctly order the letters of their name vertically

o Utilize their fine motor skills and cut out the small circles of the snowman,

knowing how many they need to cut out for each circle to represent one

letter in their name

o Practice their social skills alongside their peers to ask for a specific item they

need, or verbally ask or state they need help from the teacher

o To create their art project of making a snowman. Students will write one

letter on one snowball, and then glue them down in the correct order. They

will then utilize their fine motor skills to decorate their snowman with

markers, stickers, glitter glue, and sequence beads

Accommodations:

The accommodations I will provide will depend on each student’s individual

needs. These accommodations include verbal prompts to assist students in

following the directions given to succeed throughout the project. I will provide

physical prompts and gestures of pointing and cuing, these gestures will provide

context clues to help students comprehend what comes next, or to keep students on

task. This accommodation will also provide meaningful feedback for the students to

utilize throughout the project. I will scaffold the students learning, and help the

lower level-learning students’ organize their letters correctly when creating their

snowman. For my low muscle tone students, I will provide hand over hand

assistance on cutting long the lines of their snowballs for their snowman. I will use

visual supports and examples for the students who need extra, and individual

support in understanding the directions.


During Instruction:

Formative assessment/performance task objectives:

 Students will make a snowman project. They will use letter identification to write

down the letters of their name on each snowball

 Students will then write each letter of their name on an individual snowball, cut the

snowballs all out, and then glue them down in the correct order of their name

 Students will use fine motor to cut out their circles, draw their letters, and then

decorate the snowman.

 Students will stand up in front of the class to practice their social skills. They will tell

us how to spell their name, and two fun facts about their snowman.

Rubric for performance task:

Category 3 2 1

Letter Student know and Student can find Student can not
identification understand all the the letters in their identify the letters
letters of their name with the help of their name
name of the teacher or when shown
paraprofessional
Fine motor skills Student can cut Student can cut Student can cut
along the dotted along the dotted along the line with
circle without line, but veers off assistance, has no
veering off, more than once, control of
students can student has some squeezing the glue
control the glue control over bottle, and needs
bottle, students squeezing the glue help holding their
can place small bottle, student pencil to correctly
sequences on their needs less than form the letters of
project without two their name
challenge, students prompts/hands
can hold their over hand to help
pencil correctly to hold their pencil
write the letters of when writing the
their name letters in their
name

Social skills Students use Student are able to Student uses


appropriate social express what they appropriate
skills by using need by using their language when
appropriate manners, they expressing what
language, listen to their they need, but
expressing what peers when they does not listen
they need with are telling the well to their peers,
manners, not story, and use and and has no control
getting angry inside voice over their voice
quickly, listening throughout the
to their peers, and activity
using an inside
voice throughout
the activity
Comprehension of Student Student Student
understand what understand what understands what
material letters are in their letters are in their letters are in their
name, how to name, how to name, but can not
order them order them order them in
correctly, and how correctly, and can correct order, or
to form a story form one detail think of a detail to
about their about their say about their
snowman snowman to make snowman
a story
Total

This rubric will allow me to formally assess each category of the project, for

each student individually. This will allow me to see which students need individual

instruction, and on which part of the project. Some students may understand the

letters of their name, but need help holding their pencils to correctly form the

letters; some students may understand how to hold their pencils, but need help

controlling how hard they squeeze for just a small amount of glue to come out. This

rubric and formative assessment also allows me to provide immediate feedback and

instruction. Also, this rubric will allow students to understand the letters in their
name, how to use their fine motor skills to cut and glue, and gives them the change

to practice their social skills throughout their whole time completing this project. I

will judge the students comprehension of this project using this rubric, and will also

use it for documentation in my quarterly progress monitoring sense it is embedded

with multiple skills for them to practice.

After instruction:

Post-Assessment
100
90
80
Overall Test Results

70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
A B C D E F G H I J
Student

Pre-Test Mean: 84% Pre-Test Mode: 90% Pre-Test Median: 87.5%


Pre/Post Assessment
100
90
80
Overall Test Results

70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
A B C D E F G H I J
Student

After recording and analyzing the information of the pre-assessment, I

realize the students made a vast increase in progress. All students increased their

progress, and more than half of them doubled their assessment scores. Based on the

pre-assessment, I had my work cut out for me, and I think I underestimated what I

thought the students knew. After calculating the pre assessment results, I had to

differentiate more than I expected, and completely halt my lesson to help my

students understand the concept we were going to master throughout the lesson I

planned on delivering. Then, after calculating the results of the post test, I was so

proud of my students. Over half of them gained knowledge in letter recognition, and

once again over half of them doubled their score compared to their pre-assessment.

In the post assessment, the students increased comprehension in letter recognition,

letter sequencing, and letter association. The students also increased their

comprehension in generalizing the skill, proving to me that they could write their
names horizontally, and vertically as well.

Reflection and Self-evaluation

All in all, the assessment I gave for the pre assessment as well as the post

assessment was valid in my qualifications. It quizzed the students to see what they

already had knowledge of, and assisted me in understanding how to alter,

individualize, and differentiate my lesson instruction and delivery to best suit each

child’s needs. I was not planning on have to break into small groups, provide

examples and non examples, and almost 20 minutes of extra time to practice

recognizing the letters of their name, but that is what the pre-test called for. It

showed me that none of my students scored over a 50% on the test, so I knew I had

to do some altercations quickly, and immediately. At first, I was not expecting to

alter my lesson that much, but as the results showed me, I had no other choice but to

provide supplemental instruction on the spot.

The assessment measured multiple different things, and also measured the

level of the learners. I had to take into thought that each student’s IEP was different,

therefore completely comprehending that not one’s abilities would compare to their

classmates. In special education I feel like it is important to assess, observe,

implement, and teach multiple skills in one lesson. There is always ways to

incorporate fine motor, gross motor, cognitive processes and more to make sure

your lessons are packed full of practice for all different skill areas of weaknesses.

Lastly, the results of the post-assessment were also valid, beings the format

was the same as the pre-test, and the students showed significant progress in all
levels of the assessment through the completion of the project!