You are on page 1of 11

The Romantic Era and

Its Composers
– From 1780 to 1910
– Related to the Romantic movement, an artistic movement in
response to the Industrial Revolution.
Background – Emphasized emotion and passion in all works of art.
– Originated in Germany, but inspired artists and musicians in other
countries.
Instrumentation
– Addition of valves allowing for more flexibility.
– Addition of the tuba, piccolo, bass clarinet, and contrabassoon to the
Defining orchestra, allowing for more advanced harmony.
Qualities – String sections grew larger to support the added instruments.
– Piano became more prominent than the organ and harpsichord.
– Percussion instruments became more diverse.
Orchestral
Layout
Composition Forms
– Romance: short and lyrical, for solo instrument with piano
accompaniment or solo piano.
Defining
– Etude: technical piece meant to enhance the playing of the
Qualities performer.
(cont.) – Program Music: Instrumental music that either follows or tells a story
– Other forms: waltz, nocturne, ballad, prelude, intermezzo, and
overture.
Musical Techniques
– Chromaticism: using notes outside of the intended key
Defining – Rubato: stretching or quickening the tempo of a piece for a short period
of time.
Qualities
(cont.)
Sound
– Dynamics and tempo had wider ranges, allowing for a larger, more epic
sound.
Early Romantic
– Beethoven (Fur Elise and Symphony
No. 5)
– Felix Mendelssohn (A Midsummer
Notable Night’s Dream)
Composers – Frederic Chopin (numerous solo piano
pieces)

Beethoven’s Symphony No. 5

A Midsummer Night’s Dream


Mid-Romantic
– Georges Bizet (the opera Carmen)
– Johann Strauss II (Blue Danube
Notable Waltz)
Composers

Carmen Overture

Blue Danube Waltz


Late Romantic
– Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (The
Nutcracker, 1812 Overture)
Notable – Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov (Flight of the
Bumblebee)
Composers – Edward Elgar (Pomp and
Circumstance)

Dance of the Sugar Plum Fairy

Flight of the Bumblebee


Post Romantic
– Gustav Mahler (Symphony No. 5)
Notable – Jean Sibelius (Finlandia)

Composers

Mahler’s Symphony No. 5

Finlandia
– The Romantic Era spanned from roughly 1780 to 1910.
– Emphasized emotion and passion and the extremes of dynamics
Summary and instrumental ranges.
– New instruments in the orchestra created a different, bigger
sound than the previous eras.