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Dr. Yanga’s Colleges, Inc.

College of Maritime Education

MacArthur Highway, wakas, Bocaue, 3018 Bulacan



Fernando Tagumpay H. Cruz Jr.
BSMarE Bravo 2-A

Purifier Maintenance

Establish and maintain a regular cleaning schedule, considering the following factors:

1. Accumulation of a large quantity of heavy solids in the bowl shell will cause the bowl to run rough.
The bowl must be cleaned before the wet cake exceeds 30pounds or 1 1/2-inch thickness at its thickest

2. If the purifier is to be inactive for less than 12hours, it must be flushed out with freshwater while it is
still operating, by using the priming water.

3. If the purifier is to be inactive longer than 12hours, it must be disassembled and thoroughly cleaned.

4. In any event, the bowl must be disassembled and thoroughly cleaned at least once a week. The purifier
bowl should be inspected for corrosive pitting. If pitting is found, the bowl should be thoroughly cleaned
with a mild abrasive cleaner in combination with stainless steel sponges. If pitting continues, the bowl
should be reconditioned at the earliest opportunity .Where pitting has progressed to 1/4-inch in depth,
replace the bowl.


Recommended Preventive Maintenance Checks for Your Compressor

On an industrial air compressor, preventive maintenance is crucial to ensure the functionality of the
system and its various attachments. The key parts to check include the filters, vents, belts and bearings, all
of which could become troublesome to the system if dirt and grime build up. Moreover, you must apply
and reapply lubricant at timely intervals on all applicable parts of an air compressor.

The following components are the most important to inspect and clean and/or lubricate according to

1 .Air Filter

The purpose of an air compressor is to produce clean, pure, compressed air that will ultimately power
numerous functions. To ensure the quality of air that comes out at the end, the ambient air that goes into
the compressor must be filtered of impurities before it leaves the machines. None of that could be possible
without a clean air filter.

If the air filter is dirty, impurities and particulates could corrupt the compressed air and degrade the
quality of end-point applications. Therefore, clean the air filter regularly. Change it out at regular
intervals, which vary based on the environment.

2. Oil Filter

Oil can degrade the quality of compressed air if it passes through the system and gets carried to the end of
an application. Some of the worst-affected processes would include pneumatic spray painters, air cleaners
and anything else where oil could corrupt the surface in question. Therefore, it is crucial to ensure oil,
when present in the system, is removed from the compressed air before the air leaves the machine.

Check oil filters weekly, regardless of whether the compressor is lubricated or non-lubricated. Moreover,
replace the oil filter entirely at recommended intervals, which can range from 4,000 to 8,000 hours of use
depending on your unit. If the oil filter gets heavily covered in oily residue before that time, replace it

3. Lubricant

Lubricant is one of the most vital elements in the function of an air compressor. On all the internal metal
parts and joints, lubricant allows for smooth, non-corrosive movement. Without lubrication, tension
occurs between the touching metal surfaces, which leads to the corrosion of parts and joints. Once
corrosion takes hold, rust is liable to spread and eat through certain mechanical parts.

However, even when lubricant is present, it can lose its viscosity and become corrosive if it gets too old.
Check the lubricant level daily to ensure the health of your air compressor. Every three to six months,
wipe off old lubricant and reapply a fresh coat. Each time you replace the lubricant, be sure you also
change out the separator element.
4. Motor Bearings

For a motor to run, the bearings must have proper lubrication. The tiny metal balls are constantly rolling
against each other, as well as against the interior walls of the round encasement. Consequently, rust could
form on the bearings without proper lubrication. If rust forms, the bearings will gradually slow and
ultimately become stuck in place. When this happens, the motor fails.

To protect the health and performance of the air compressor motor, grease the bearings every 4,000 hours.
Be sure to inspect the bearings at quarterly intervals between each greasing to ensure they remain
sufficiently lubricated.

5. Belts

For an air compressor to go about its internal motions, it is crucial for the belts to have proper tension.
The rubber of each belt must also remain firm, yet flexible, to ensure balanced movement between the
pulleys of connected parts. Over time, however, the rubber on a belt will inevitably wear down and crack
in certain places. Therefore, it is crucial to replace the belts before they lose their tension or, even worse,
snap in the middle of an operation.

Inspect each belt once per week to verify they are free of wear. Adjust the tension if necessary and replace
each belt once wear takes hold.

Intake Vents

An air compressor performs the magic feat of transforming ambient air into something that can power
heavy-duty machinery and effectively serve as a replacement for electrical power. That said, the
compressor itself can only do so much to turn mundane air into something powerful. While internal
components do their job to purify the air for end-point use, that job is harder for the machine to perform if
the intake vents become lined with dirt and grime.

To ensure the incoming air remains as clean as possible and to prevent dirt from getting sucked into the
system, inspect the intake vents weekly and clean them when necessary.

Other Parts and Things to Check

In addition to the periodic cleaning, lubrication and replacement of parts, check various points along the
air compressor and its attachments at regular intervals. Inspect the following on a weekly basis:

 Air dryer performance

 Amps
 Oil level
 Temperatures
 Vibration
 Voltage

Inspect the air compressor for signs of oil or air leaks. Also check the pneumatic hoses for air leaks, as
leakage severely reduces the efficiency of an air compressor. Furthermore, make sure the coolers are free
of dirt.


Refrigeration Preventative Maintenance Checklist: Tasks you can tackle yourself

Let’s take a look at tasks on the refrigeration preventative maintenance checklist that you and your staff can and
should perform on a daily or weekly basis.


Though the fast pace of your kitchen lends itself to food and beverage spills and little time for prompt cleanup, it is
an imperative that you clean drips and splatters on a timely basis as part of your daily commercial refrigerator
maintenance program. Be careful not use steel wool and other abrasives and chemicals, such as bleach, that can
damage your appliance’s finish. The longer you let a spill settle, the harder it will be for you to clean it without the
use of a potentially harmful cleaning agent. Uncleaned spills can lead to unpleasant odors effecting the quality of
your ingredients and mold growth that can jeopardize the safety of your food.


Another simple item on your refrigeration preventative maintenance checklist is to check your temperature and
defrost frequency settings daily. If the temperature is set lower than necessary, your system will be working too
hard, which can shorten its life. If the unit is too cold, ice could form, especially on liquids. On the other hand, if
your temperature is not cool enough, your food could spoil.


Make sure you follow the manufacturer’s recommendations for defrosting. Defrosting your unit too often is creating
unnecessary work for your refrigerator.


No one likes to be packed in like sardines; even the sardines. When coming up with a refrigeration preventative
maintenance checklist, make sure to include a reminder on overcrowding. The air will not be able to freely circulate
in a refrigerator packed to the gills, which will make the unit work harder to maintain its set temperature.


Besides the proper interior airflow, do not overlook exterior airflow issues. Unfortunately, kitchens are often
cramped spaces. Although you may have little room to spare, it’s important that you don’t block the air intake and
exhaust vents. If you do, your unit will have to work harder to cool the food stored inside. This not only chews up
electricity, it could bring about the premature end to your system. That’s why this item on the routine refrigeration
preventative maintenance checklist is vital.

Another regularly performed task on your refrigeration preventative maintenance checklist should be air leak
inspections. When the gaskets or seals on your doors are ripped or loose, air can escape, which is another reason
why your unit might be overworked and your electric bill on the rise.

Minor gasket leaks can be repaired with silicone caulk. Also, make sure your unit’s door hinges and latches are
tightly secured. If the doors are not properly aligned, cool air is likely escaping. This should be a monthly activity.


A lights-out refrigeration preventative maintenance checklist item is remembering to shut off the lights in your
freezer or cooler. It may seem trivial, but lights generate heat, which again is another reason your refrigeration units
might be working harder than necessary.


1. Check Salinity Alarm

The salinity alarm or salinity indicator needs regular checks as it allows only pure fresh water to flow into the fresh
water tank and critical for FWG operation. The electrodes of salinity alarm must be cleaned on monthly basis to
remove dust or scale deposits. Alarm settings must be verified before putting the Fresh Water Generation system
into operation after cleaning.

2. Stop Fresh Water Generator properly and at a right time

When a vessel approaches a port, land or estuary, the Fresh Water Generator must be stopped as at such places the
sea water is heavily infected with bacteria and contaminated.

3. Open Separator shell as per PMS or when production drops

The separator shell and heat exchanger covers can be opened up and inspected during scheduled inspections for
scale formation or if cooling tubes are fouled with any sludge formation. As per recommended in Safety
Management System Manual or Flag State Requirements, the Fresh Water Tanks are generally cleaned once in six
months or on yearly basis.

4. Clean the Heating Tubes as per PMS or when production drops

Cleaning or descaling of the inside of heating tubes should be made twice or three times in a year physically or
dissolved by chemical methods. Scaling can be prolonged by not operating the plant at contaminated water areas
such as in harbors or ports.

5. Use scale inhibitors

Scale inhibitors are used to prevent scale formation by dispersing scale deposits and delaying reaction. This also
prevents scale deposits from adhering to heat transfer surfaces. Scale formation inside heat exchanger requires
cleaning if specific temperatures cannot be obtained for inlet and outlet of fresh water.

6. Repair damaged coating

In case coating inside the fresh water generator is damaged, the damaged covering is to be scraped off and the
surface should be then thoroughly dried. After putting the undercoat on the steel surface, epoxy-resin or food coating
(as prescribed by FWG manufacturer) is to be applied.
7. Inspect Impeller Periodically

The impeller of ejector pump wears out and its surface also gets damaged due to high-speed revolution. This is
inevitable due to continuous operation of the pump. The condition of the impeller should thus be inspected

8. Keep the FWG daily production log

The FWG production log is very important for early detection of production drop which means that Fresh Water
Generator requires cleaning.

9. Monitor the FWG vacuum

If vacuum inside the FWG decreased this may indicate the worn ejector pump or insufficient sealing of the casing.





1. General

We should recognize that if the vessel has many opportunities to anchor, the brake lining will soon be lost. Mean
while, if the vessel seldom used the anchor, each moving part will become easily stuck.

It is important to be sure always to keep the windlass in good condition, and to keep a record of every check point,
contents of adjustment and use of the anchor.

2. Condition check before anchoring

Following items should be confirmed;

(1) Condition of brakes;

(2) Moving parts, clutches, gears;

(3) The oil level inside of the gear case;

(4) Purge air from hydraulic line ; and

(5) Make a trial run of hydraulic pump and windlass motor, then confirm motor ampere, sound, etc.
3. Periodical check and maintenance.

Periodical checks should be carried out including the following items.(Refer to attached sample checklist)

(1) Brake leverage

1) Check the working conditions and the indicator of the brake leverage, If any trouble is found in the brake
leverage, adjust it to get the efficient brake force.

Especially the NIPPON PUSNES windlass, the brake arm must be kept in horizontal, when the brake arm is in bad
position, the regulating screw must be adjusted (see attached Fig.)

2) With the hydraulic brake system, check the up-down range of the brake leverage position, and mark/record the
adequate position.

(2) Brake lining

1) Check fitting condition of brake lining.

2) Measure the thickness of the lining and when you recognize the real thickness and its thickness comes near the
screw height, the lining must be renewed.

(3) Brake drum(when renewing brake lining)

1) Remove the rust, oil, dust, etc.

2) Measure the diameter of the brake drum, and record it.

(4) Moving parts

1) Remove rust from everywhere, especially on each link system, and the pins and threads by applying grease.

2) Apply gear compound to open gears.


1. Make Checks Prior Mooring – After an extended sea passage or a passage undertaken in heavy seas
and prior to mooring operation, ensure to check the following –

i. Any physical damages to the mooring mechanism.

ii. All controls, linkages and the operating levers are well oiled, greased and free / easy to use.

iii. Ensure that all the brake drums and linings are suitably dried and clean of salt deposits.

2. Do Frequent Greasing of Moving Parts – All rotating parts of the mooring equipment, which would
include rollers, fairleads, winch drums, deck stands etc. must be moved and lubricated on a frequent basis.
Multipurpose grease is the best lubricant for such applications (check the vessel’s lubricating chart for the
right application). Normally, high pressure grease guns are used for this kind of work. Particular attention
must be given to the roller fairleads and deck stands as these often suffer from little use and thereby are
neglected. Rollers should turn smoothly and must be checked for integrity as corrosion may have
weakened them.

Tip – Always check the grease nipples before application and make sure the nipples are free of rust, salt
and grit. Change the nipples if necessary.

3. Check Brake Liners – Regular inspections must be made of the winch / windlass brake linings for wear
and tear. Oil, heavy rust and moisture on the brake linings or the drums could seriously reduce the brake
holding capacity of the winch and in some cases as much by 75%. To remove the moisture in the linings,
apply the brakes lightly while running the winch (remember to avoid excessive wear and tear during this
operation). Oil has the tendency to get impregnated into the lining itself which is difficult to remove. Thus
the only option would be to change the lining as early as possible. Remember that the brake holding
capacity of the winch is dependent upon the type of mooring pattern used.

4. Check Break Drums : Whenever brakes are opened up for any reason, ensure that the brake drum is
thoroughly checked / examined for buildup of rust or other worn out brake material. The part to be de-
scaled and fitted with the replacement as required.

5. Check Brake Linkages – The brake linkages should be checked for free movement. If the linkages are
not free then there would be a loss of brake holding capacity. This would create a wrong impression to the
operator that the brake has been applied fully, but in fact has not or the brake mechanism is hardened up
from lever bars ,which have a tendency to build up high stresses on some mechanical parts of the brakes.

6. Inspect Gear / Hydraulic Oil – Inspect the gear oil regularly through the inspection cover in the winch /
windlass. Whitish color of the liquid means the liquid is contaminated and requires to be changed
immediately. Use the replacement oil that is recommended by the manufacturers.

7. Carry Out Regular Visual Inspection: Ensure that regular inspection of the synthetic mooring hawsers,
heaving lines, messenger ropes, etc. is carried out for damages, chafed areas, kinks and loose ends. Also
make sure that each mooring rope carries a certificate from the manufacturer. Additionally, check that the
ID number of each certificate is conspicuously marked / embossed on an identification plate and
subsequently attached to the end of the corresponding mooring hawser. If the hawser is not supplied with
the certificate, then the vessel has all the right to reject such a supply and inform the office / purchasing

8. Clear Walkway: An important part of the mooring operation is to have the deck completely free of
obstructions and oily residues. Therefore, it is essential to keep the decks clean, dry and if possible have
anti-slip paint coatings over the deck surface, as and how required. Often there have been cases where the
support brackets for the gratings (for winch operation) have been found neglected and therefore are
heavily corroded making the area most unsafe to step on. Officers should include such neglected yet
critical areas for planned maintenance in order to prevent an unforeseen event when least expected.

9. Do Proper Marking and Labeling: Marking the mooring equipment is another important aspect for a
safe and effective operation. The ship’s officers should ensure that the bollards, fairleads, rollers, etc. are
marked with their safe working limits. Additionally, the winches and windlass shall be marked for
rotating direction of the drums (render / heave), braking capacity, test dates and ID numbers of the
equipment subsequent to the certificates carried onboard.

10. Maintenance of Steel Wire Mooring Ropes – It is essential to grease and lubricate the steel wire
mooring ropes at regular intervals as rust will reduce the strength of the wire in a very short period of
time. Lubricating such ropes require special grease, normally oil based compounds. An effective greasing
is carried out by removing the entire wire out of its stowed position and applying the lubricant generously
throughout the length of the rope. It is also important to note that the wire should be turned end to end
regularly to reduce wear and prevent corrosion. Visual inspections are equally important and should be
carried out regularly with special attention to areas with dark patches. Any wire shall be replaced if it is
damaged to the extent that more than 10% of the visible strands in a length of a wire equal to 8 diameters
are broken.


Keeping all of the above in mind, following are the 7 points to remember with regard to manning of survival craft
and supervision:

1. The number of trained personnel for the purposes of mustering and otherwise must be sufficient. The same is
important in assisting the untrained persons. Assigning the right spots at the muster station helps demarcate the new
from the seasoned, making it an easier way to monitor the untrained persons. No one gets on ship knowing
everything and therefore it is important that the ones that are no so thorough are trained without judgment and with
full effort.

Read – Measures To Stop Accidents On Lifeboats

2. The number of crew operating the craft and its arrangements for embarkation and launching must be sufficient.
As it is we have a set number of people with not much manpower to spare. At the time of crisis, the last thing
required would be paucity in the number of persons associated with a certain job. For example, you cannot have the
embarkation ladder setup by a single person.

3. A certified/authorized person, preferably a deck officer (as is the case usually) must be assigned as the
in-charge of the survival craft(s) with the duties designated to each member of each station. Assigning the
duties is a task given to the third mate which should be undertaken keeping in mind each member’s
strengths and knowhow. The person in charge should also be vehement in his explanation at every drill so
as to avoid any confusion later on. For example, a lot of people mention the ‘painter’ when asked but
don’t really know what it is. Every aspect should be pointed out properly at least once.

4. The officer in charge of a respective station must have a list of the individuals that belong to that
station along with their assigned duties. To ensure that the crew is well acquainted with their duties, the in
charge must explain each person their duties and ensure that the individual is thorough with it. A
crewmember, say an OS, might not be familiar with the duty of fetching the SART from the bridge. Such
things should be kept in mind when assigning duties.

5. Qualified personnel capable of handling communication equipment such as the radiotelegraph,

handheld VHFs and whatever else might be in place.
6. Power driven crafts must have a capable individual who can handle and operate the engine as well as
possess a basic knowhow of carrying out minor adjustments to the machinery. In any case, every craft
will have a certified engineer with a robust knowhow of the craft’s engine.

7. The distribution of personnel between (or among) the survival crafts must be done in a way that each
station has a fair share of qualified and capable individuals who are trained in the handling and operation
of the survival craft. It should not be the case that the one station is ripe with all the able individuals while
the other isn’t so. The Master, via the third mate, should ensure that this distribution is maintained.
Experience beats everything else during the time of crisis.


Maintenance for Hatch Covers

Hatch covers of cargo hold are generally made from light weight steel or high tensile steel. They are fitted
over a steel bar of the hold with a rubber packing inserted in between them to avoid water ingress.

A proper routine maintenance to be performed by qualified officer on ship which must includes-

 Examination of hatch cover, hatch beams for corrosion, cracks and material failure
 Keep Cleats, hauling wire, rollers, chains and wedges in operational condition at all time
 Keep clean hatch cover tops and all drainage holes to be kept clear
 Look for any broken or missing gasket and replace it immediately. The length of renewed gasket
must be minimum 1 m
 Before renewing rubber gasket, check and rectify steel to steel fault
 Gasket rubber to be of approved type by class
 Grease all the moving parts
 Check for any hydraulic system leakage if cover is oil operated
 Oil test to be performed for hydraulic system
 Call surveyor after any major repair in the cover and its concerned parts


What are steering gear tests & maintenance ?
Control test

Just prior to 1 hour before departure of vessel.

 12 hour before departure

 Operation of main & auxiliary steering gear.

 Operation of remote control system.
 Operation of emergency power supply.
 Alarm test.
 Actual rudder angle & indicator.
 Communication system.(Bridge, Engine room & Steering gear room)

Every 3 months interval

 Emergency steering gear drill at steering gear room to bridge with sound communication system.


Types of Electronic Testing Equipments

The Basic Electronics Testing Equipments Under this Category Include the Following:


A basic electronics device or instrument used to measure voltage or electrical potential difference
between two points in electrical circuits is known as voltmeter. There are two types of voltmeters: analog
and digital. An analog voltmeter moves a pointer across a scale in proportional to the voltage of the
electrical circuit. A digital voltmeter measures an unknown input voltage by converting the voltage to a
digital value by using a converter and then displays the voltage in numeric form.


An electrical instrument that measures electrical resistance is known as an ohmmeter. The instrument
used to measure small value of resistance are micro-ohmmeters. Similarly meg-ohmmeters is used to
make large resistance measurements. Resistance values are measured in ohms (Ω). Originally, ohmmeter
is designed with a small battery to apply a voltage to a resistance.

It uses a galvanometer to measure the electric current through the resistance. The scale of the
galvanometer was marked in ohms (Ω), because the fixed voltage from the battery assures that the
resistance decreases and the current through the meter increases.

A measuring instrument which is used to measure the electric current in a circuit is known as an ammeter.
The units of measurement for electric current is amperes (A) Earlier ammeters were laboratory
instruments which depend on the earth’s magnetic field for operation. In an era of the 19th century,
improved instruments were designed which could be placed in any position and allows accurate
measurements in electric power systems.

The smaller currents can be measured by using milliammeters or micro ammeters, units of measuring the
smaller current are in the milliampere or micro-ampere range. There are different types of ammeters such
as moving-coil, moving magnet and moving-iron, etc.


A multimeter is an electronic instrument used to measure the three basic electrical characteristics: voltage,
current and resistance. It has multiple functions and acts like ohmmeter, voltmeter and ammeter and also
used for household wiring, electric motors, testing batteries and power supplies. The multimeter is a
handheld device with a needle over a numeric LCD digital display for indication purpose. It is also used
to test continuity between two points in an electrical circuit. There are three types of multimeters made
available in the market such as: digital multimeter, analog multimeter and fluke multimeter.

SOLAS Regulations for Emergency Generator of the ship-

 All passenger and cargo vessels shall be provided with emergency sources of electrical power, for
essential services under emergency conditions.
 Emergency generator and emergency switchboard of the ship should be located above the uppermost
continuous deck, away from machinery space, behind the collision bulkhead.
 The main switchboard of the ship should not interface with supply, control, and distribution of emergency
 Emergency source of power should be capable of operating with a list of up to 22 ½ ° and a trim of up to
10 °
 The generator should have independent fuel supply having flash point not less than 43°C.
 Emergency generator should be capable of giving power for the period of 18 hours for the cargo ship and
36 hours for the passenger ship.
 Emergency generator should start at 0°C and if temperature fall below this then there should be heating
 Emergency generator should come on load automatically within 45s after the failure of main power
 If the emergency generator fails to come on load the indication should be given to ECR.
 Emergency generator should have two different starting arrangement
 Primary may be the battery, should fully charge all time and capable of providing 3 consecutive Start.
 Secondary may be pneumatic or hydraulic, capable of providing 3 consecutive starts within 30 mint, and
1st start within 12 mint.

Regulation 42- the Emergency source of electrical power in Passenger Ship-

 The emergency generator shall be automatically started and connected within 45 sec
 Capable of supplying simultaneously at least the following services for the period of 36 hours
 Emergency lightening (at the alleyway, stairways, and exits, muster and embarkation stations,
machinery space, control room, main and emergency switchboard, firemen’s outfits storage positions,
steering gear room)
 Fire detecting and alarming system
 Internal communication equipment
 Daylight signaling lamp and ship’s whistle
 Navigation equipment
 Radio installations, (VHF, MF, MF/HF)
 Watertight doors
 One of the fire pumps, emergency bilge pump
 The emergency generator shall be automatically started and connected within 45 sec
 A set of automatically connected Emergency batteries must be capable of carrying certain essential
services for the period of 30 min
 Emergency Lighting
 Navigational Light
 Fire detecting and Alarm System
 Internal communication equipment
 Daylight signaling lamp and ship whistle

Regulation 43- the Emergency source of electrical power in Cargo Ship-

 The emergency generator shall be automatically started and connected within 45 sec
 Capable of supplying simultaneously at least the following services for the period of 18 hours
 Emergency lightening (at the alleyway, stairways, and exits, muster and embarkation stations,
machinery space, control room, main and emergency switchboard, firemen’s outfits storage positions,
steering gear room)
 Navigational Light
 Fire detecting and Alarm System
 Internal communication equipment
 Daylight signaling lamp and ship whistle
 One of the fire pumps, emergency bilge pump
 Radio installations, (VHF, MF, MF/HF)

SOLAS Regulations for Battery of the ship –

 The ship where the emergency source of electrical power is an accumulator battery, it shall be capable
of carrying loads without recharging and battery voltage throughout discharge period must be
maintained within 12% above or below its nominal voltage.
 The battery system is automatically connected to the loss of main power.
 Batteries are required as the transitional power source for 30 min for following items-
 Fire detecting and fire alarm
 Navigational Light
 Emergency Lighting
 Internal communication equipment

List of equipment connected to the Emergency Power source on the ship-

 Emergency Lighting
 Emergency steering motor
 Emergency fire pump
 Emergency air compressor
 Necessary machines to start one generator
 Emergency alarms
 Engine room ventilation fan
 Watertight door
 Communication
 Fire detecting and fire alarm
 Bridge control console
 Cargo control console
 Engine room control console
 Battery charger for emergency generator
 Foam pump
 The rescue boat, life raft davit & Lifeboat
 Navigational and signal lights
 Battery charging panel
 The compressor of breathing apparatus
 GMDSS radio console
 Remove control Valves
 Navigational Equipment