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16

3.4 Hydrostatic Forces on Plane Surfaces

For a static fluid, the shear stress is zero and the only stress

is the normal stress, i.e., pressure p. Recall that p is a

scalar, which when in contact with a solid surface exerts a

normal force towards the surface.

Fp p ndA

A

consider the magnitude and line of action of Fp.

F p F pdA

A

center of pressure (xcp, ycp).

acts at liquid surface. Also, we will use gage pressure so

that p = 0 at the liquid surface.

57:020 Fluid Mechanics Chapter 3

Professor Fred Stern Fall 2005

17

Horizontal Surfaces

p = constant

F pdA pA

i.e., (xcp, ycp) = x, y

57:020 Fluid Mechanics Chapter 3

Professor Fred Stern Fall 2005

18

Inclined Surfaces g z

dp

dz

Dp Dz

F

(x,y) = centroid of A x

(xcp,ycp) = center of pressure

dF = pdA = y sin dA

p and sin are constants

F pdA sin ydA

A A 1

y ydA

yA A

p

= pressure at centroid of A

F pA

product of pressure at centroid of area and area of surface.

57:020 Fluid Mechanics Chapter 3

Professor Fred Stern Fall 2005

19

Center of Pressure

pressure increases with depth. Center of pressure is

determined by equating the moments of the resultant and

distributed forces about any arbitrary axis.

ycpF = y dF

A

y pdA

A

y( y sin )dA

A

= sin y 2 dA

A

= moment of inertia

transfer equation: 2

Io y A I

centroidal axis

57:020 Fluid Mechanics Chapter 3

Professor Fred Stern Fall 2005

20

2

y cp F sin ( y A I)

2

y cp ( pA ) sin ( y A I)

2

y cp sin yA sin ( y A I)

2

y cp yA y A I

I

ycp y

yA

ycp is below centroid by I / yA

surface located po/ above y .

57:020 Fluid Mechanics Chapter 3

Professor Fred Stern Fall 2005

21

Determine xcp by taking moment about y axis

xcpF = xdF

A

xpdA

A

A

x cp yA xydA

A

= I xy x yA transfer equation

Ixy = product of inertia

x cp yA I xy x yA

I xy

x cp x

yA

0-0, I xy 0 and xcp = x .

57:020 Fluid Mechanics Chapter 3

Professor Fred Stern Fall 2005

22

57:020 Fluid Mechanics Chapter 3

Professor Fred Stern Fall 2005

23

3.5 Hydrostatic Forces on Curved Surfaces

Free surface

p = h

F p ndA

A

h = distance below

free surface

Fx F î p n î dA

A

Ax

plane to x-direction

Fy F ĵ pdA y dA n ĵdA

y

Ay

= projection ndA

onto plane to

y-direction

some methods developed for submerged plane surfaces.

surface is equal to the force acting on a vertical projection

of that surface including both magnitude and line of action.

Vertical Components

57:020 Fluid Mechanics Chapter 3

Professor Fred Stern Fall 2005

24

Fz F k̂ p n k̂dA

A

= A pdA z p = h

z

h=distance

below free

surface

= A hdA z V

z

= weight of

fluid above

surface A

is equal to the net weight of the column of fluid above the

curved surface with line of action through the centroid of

that fluid volume.

57:020 Fluid Mechanics Chapter 3

Professor Fred Stern Fall 2005

25

Example: Drum Gate

Pressure Diagram

p = h = R(1-cos)

n sin î cos k̂

dA = l Rd

F R (1 cos )( sin î cos k̂ )Rd

0

p n dA

F î Fx R 2 (1 cos ) sin d

0

1

= R 2 cos cos 2 2 R 2

4 0

p A area onto vertical plane

Fz R 2 (1 cos ) cos d

0

sin 2

= R 2 sin

2 4 0

R 2

= R 2

2 2

V

3.6 Buoyancy

Archimedes Principle

57:020 Fluid Mechanics Chapter 3

Professor Fred Stern Fall 2005

26

FB = Fv2 – Fv1

– fluid weight above Surface 1 (ADC)

buoyancy

FBAD = FBCD

Hydrometry

specific weights of liquids.

57:020 Fluid Mechanics Chapter 3

Professor Fred Stern Fall 2005

27

Stem

Bulb

W = mg = fV = SwV

f V

a = cross section area stem

Vo/S = Vo aDh aDh = Vo – Vo/S

Vo 1

Dh = 1

a S =Dh(S)

Vo S 1

Dh = a

S

calibrate scale using fluids of known S

Vo

S= V0 aDh

gold. When he received the crown he suspected that other

metals had been used in its construction. Archimedes

discovered that the crown required a force of 4.7# to

57:020 Fluid Mechanics Chapter 3

Professor Fred Stern Fall 2005

28

suspend it when immersed in water, and that it displaced

18.9 in3 of water. He concluded that the crown was not

pure gold. Do you agree?

W=cV, Fb = wV

W W V

or c = Va w a V w

c 492.1 c g

18.9 / 1728

c = 15.3 slugs/ft3

can not be pure gold

57:020 Fluid Mechanics Chapter 3

Professor Fred Stern Fall 2005

29

3.7 Stability of Immersed and Floating Bodies

applications both transverse and longitudinal stability are

important.

Immersed Bodies

coincide, i.e., C = G and body is neutrally stable

when heeled)

when heeled)

57:020 Fluid Mechanics Chapter 3

Professor Fred Stern Fall 2005

30

Floating Bodies

complicated since the center of buoyancy will generally

shift when the body is rotated depending upon the shape of

the body and the position in which it is floating.

Positive GM Negative GM

shifts laterally to the right for the case shown because part

of the original buoyant volume AOB is transferred to a new

buoyant volume EOD.

buoyant force before and after heel is called the metacenter

M and the distance GM is called the metacentric height. If

GM is positive, that is, if M is above G, then the ship is

stable; however, if GM is negative, the ship is unstable.

57:020 Fluid Mechanics Chapter 3

Professor Fred Stern Fall 2005

31

Floating Bodies

x CC = lateral displacement

of C

C = center of buoyancy

i.e., centroid of displaced

volume V

(1) basic definition for centroid of V; and

(2) trigonometry

Fig. 3.17

+ moment of VEOD

= 0 due to symmetry of

original V about y axis

i.e., ship centerplane

x V � (x)dV � xdV

tan = y/x

AOB EOD

dV = ydA = x tan dA

x V � x 2 tan dA � x 2 tan dA

AOB EOD

xV tan x 2 dA

57:020 Fluid Mechanics Chapter 3

Professor Fred Stern Fall 2005

32

ship waterplane area

about z axis O-O; i.e., IOO

area about centerplane axis

(2) Trigonometry

xV tan I OO

tan I OO

CC x CM tan

V

CM = IOO / V

GM = CM – CG

I OO

GM = V

CG

GM > 0 Stable

GM < 0 Unstable

57:020 Fluid Mechanics Chapter 3

Professor Fred Stern Fall 2005

33

3.8 Fluids in Rigid-Body Motion

hydrostatic and is determined from application of Newton’s

2nd Law to a fluid element.

p = pressure p xx yx zx

Ma = inertia force X net V

x x y z

W = weight (body force)

Ma = F = FB + FS

per unit ( V) a = fb + fs

volume

DV V

a = Dt t V V

fs = body force = gk̂

fs = surface force = fp + fv

fp = surface force due to p = p

fv = surface force due to viscous stresses ij

DV Neglected in this chapter and

fb fp fv

Dt included later in Section 6.4

when deriving complete Navier-

Stokes equations

57:020 Fluid Mechanics Chapter 3

Professor Fred Stern Fall 2005

34

DV

gk̂ p

Dt

to gravity pressure gradients

Du p

x:

Dt

x Note: for V = 0

p gk̂

p p

u u u u p 0

u v w x y

t x y z x

p

g

z

Dv p

y:

Dt

y

v v v v p

u v w

t x y z y

Dw p

z: g p z

Dt z z

w w w w p

t

u

x

v

y

w

z z p z

57:020 Fluid Mechanics Chapter 3

Professor Fred Stern Fall 2005

35

incompressible flow

57:020 Fluid Mechanics Chapter 3

Professor Fred Stern Fall 2005

36

Examples of Pressure Variation From Acceleration

a gk̂ p

p a gk̂ g a g gk̂

p a x î g a z k̂ a a x î a z k̂

p p

a x g a z

x z

=p /p

a x î g a z k̂

=

a 2

x g az 2

1/ 2

= ŝ ˆj ijkijk

to p

a x k̂ (g a z )î by definition lines of

= a 2

(g a z ) 2

1/ 2

constant p are

x

normal to p

= tan-1 ax / (g + az) = angle between n̂ and x

dp

ds

p ŝ a 2x g a z 2

1/ 2

> g

57:020 Fluid Mechanics Chapter 3

Professor Fred Stern Fall 2005

37

Rigid Body Rotation:

rate k̂ = in text

a ro

centripetal acceleration

= r 2 ê r

V2

=

r

ê r

1

p (g a ) ê r ê ê z

r r z

= gk̂ r 2 ê r grad in cylindrical coordinates

p p p

i.e., r

r 2

z

g

0

2 2

and p = 2

r f ( z) c

pz = -g

p = -gz + C(r) + c

2 2 p V2

p= 2

r gz + constant

z

2g

constant

V = r

57:020 Fluid Mechanics Chapter 3

Professor Fred Stern Fall 2005

38

The constant is determined by specifying the pressure at

one point; say, p = po at (r, z) = (0, 0)

1 2 2

p = po gz + 2

r

p1 p o r 2 2

z= g

2g

a br 2

their minimum point on the axis of rotation

constant (before and after rotation)

gk̂ r 2 ê r

ŝ

1/ 2

g 2 r 2 2

dz g

tan

dr

2

r

slope of ŝ

2z

i.e., r = C1exp

g equation of p surfaces

57:020 Fluid Mechanics Chapter 3

Professor Fred Stern Fall 2005

39

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