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TRAINING MANUAL NUMBER:

B2042-0-01-00-1

DEVELOPED/REVISED BY:

Gurmeet Singh Sidhu


Technical Instructor

Edward Lee
Training Executive (Dev) Extended-Range
Twin-Engine
Operations
LAST APPROVED BY:

Low Chuen Onn


STI (Dev)
(ETOPS)

Signatures are kept on file in the


Training Manual Revision Record

ISSUE:
01 JUN 2003 (1/REV. 00)
PRINTED:
01 JUN 2003
COMMENTS:

Generic ETOPS
Coverage

UNCONTROLLED COPY - FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY


Revision Service Will Not Be Provided To The Holder

This document is issued on the express condition that any part or all of its content shall not by way of trade
or otherwise, be lent, re-sold, hired out or otherwise circulated to any other party and/or company without prior
written permission of SIA Engineering Company Limited.
Singapore Co. Regn. No.: 198201025C
INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
COURSE OBJECTIVES

The ETOPS course aims to provide learners with an understanding on


relevant generic knowledge of Extended-Range Twin-Engine Operations or
ETOPS so that they are able to pay special attention to maintenance
requirements unique to ETOPS approved aircraft.

At the end of the course, you will be able to relate to the following aspects:

• General Overview on ETOPS

• General ETOPS Approval Process

• General Maintenance Requirements for ETOPS

• ETOPS Regulatory Requirements


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Contents
Topic Pages

General Overview on ETOPS .... 1 - 11

General ETOPS Approval Process .... 12 - 17

General Maintenance Requirements for ETOPS .... 18 - 24

Maintenance Regulatory Requirements .... 25 - 38

APPENDIX A .... A1 - A6
SAR 4.11

APPENDIX B .... B1 - B4
FAA AC 120-42A Appendix 4

APPENDIX C .... C1 - C4
JAA GAI-20 ACJ 20X6 Appendix 4
ENGINEERING TRAINING DEPARTMENT

INTRODUCTION
Just imagine you are in a twin-engined aircraft and one of the engines
happens to fail! Can you trust that the other engine will not fail? With
just one engine, the aircraft is to reach an airport with the right landing
requirements. An ETOPS diversion time of 60 minutes means the
twin-engined aircraft must be able to reach, with just one engine, the
nearest airport within ONE hour. If the aircraft is not maintained with a
high reliability in mind, a disaster could happen. Engine is not the only
system that is critical, there are other ETOPS critical system that must
be maintained with a high reliability in mind.

A PASSENGER ON BOARD A TWIN-ENGINE PLANE


WITH ONE ENGINE FAILURE

EXTENDED RANGE TWIN ENGINE OPERATIONS (ETOPS)

ETOPS is the operation of two-engine aeroplane over geographical


areas (not limited to land) that contain a point further than sixty minutes
(60 minutes) flying time, (at the approved one-engine inoperative cruise
speed under standard conditions in still air) from an adequate alternate
aerodrome.

PURPOSE

The purpose of ETOPS is to provide a very high level of safety while


facilitating the use of twinjets on routes which were previously
restricted to quad and trijet aircraft.

ETOPS also permits more effective use of airline resources.

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TRAINING SUPPORT

The objective of the course is to familiarise engineering personnel with


rules, procedures and maintenance requirements applicable to
ETOPS.

ETOPS PHILOSOPHY

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DEFINITIONS

Definitions related to the philosophy of ETOPS as defined in Civil


Aviation Authority of Singapore (CAAS) Advisory Circular AC-FO 6/00
are as follow:

(a) Aerodrome

(i) Adequate

For the purpose of ETOPS, an adequate aerodrome is an


aerodrome, which the operator and the Authority consider to be
adequate, having regard to the aeroplane performance
requirements applicable at the expected landing weight. In
particular, for a period of 60 minutes before and after the
expected time of use, the aerodrome should:

• Be equipped to handle the aeroplane type and have


necessary ancillary services, such as ATC, sufficient lighting,
radio communications, weather reporting, navaids as well as
emergency, rescue and fire fighting services (ERFFS)
equivalent to the ICAO category 4. Such services (ERFFS)
should be available at the aerodrome.
• Have at least one functional instrument approach letdown
aid.

(ii) Suitable

For ETOPS planning purposes, a suitable aerodrome is an


adequate aerodrome where the weather (ceiling and visibility)
forecast for a period two hours before and after the time of the
intended operation are at or above operating minimas.

(b) Auxiliary Power Unit (APU)

A gas turbine engine intended for use as a power source for driving
generators, hydraulic pumps and other aeroplane accessories and
equipment and/or to provide compressed air for aeroplane
pneumatic systems. The APU must be certified and available for in-
flight operations.

(c) ETOPS Configuration, Maintenance and Procedures (CMP)


Standards

The particular aeroplane configuration minimum requirements


including any special inspection, hardware life limits, Master
Minimum Equipment List (MMEL) constraints, and maintenance
practices found necessary by the Authority to establish the

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suitability of an airframe-engine combination for extended range


operation.

(d) Engine

The basic engine assembly as supplied by the engine


manufacturer.

(e) Extended Range Operations

Extended range operations are those flights conducted over a route


that contains a point further than 60 minutes flying time at the
approved one-engine inoperative cruise speed (under standard
conditions in still air) from an adequate aerodrome.

(f) Extended Range Entry Point

The extended range entry point is that point along the aeroplane’s
outbound route, which is 60 minutes flying time, at the approved
one-engine inoperative cruise speed (under standard conditions in
still air, from the nearest adequate aerodrome.

(g) Maintenance Personnel/Mechanics

Licensed Ground Engineers, Maintenance Support Personnel.

(h) In-flight Shutdown (IFSD)

When an engine ceases to function in flight and is shutdown,


whether self-induced, crew initiated or caused by some other
external influence for all causes; – for example due to flameout,
internal failure, crew initiated shutoff, foreign object ingestion, icing,
inability to obtain and/or control desired thrust.

(i) ETOPS Significant System

(i) A system for which the fail-safe redundancy characteristics are


directly linked to the number of engines e.g. hydraulic system,
pneumatic system, electrical system.

(ii) A system that may affect the proper functioning of the engine to
the extent that it could result in an in-flight shutdown or
uncommanded loss of thrust e.g. fuel system, thrust reverser or
engine fire detection system.

(iii) A system which contributes significantly to the safety of the flight


and a diversion with one engine inoperative, such as back-up
systems used in case of additional failure during the diversion.

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These include back-up or emergency generator, APU or


systems essential for maintaining the ability to cope with
prolonged operation at single engine altitudes, such as anti-icing
systems.

(iv) A system which certain failure conditions may reduce the safety
of a diversion e.g. navigation, communication, equipment
cooling, time limited cargo fire suppression, oxygen system.

A system includes all elements of equipment necessary for the


control and performance of a particular major function. It includes
both the equipment specifically provided for the function in question
and other basic equipment such as that necessary to supply power
for the equipment operation.

(i) Airframe System. Any system on the aeroplane that is not a


part of the propulsion system.

(ii) Propulsion System. The aeroplane propulsion system


include each component that is necessary for propulsion:
components that affect the control of the major propulsion
units and components that affect the safe operation of the
major propulsion units.

(j) Approved One-Engine-inoperative Cruise Speed

(i) The approved one-engine-inoperative cruise speed in still air


for the intended area of operation shall be a speed, within
the certificate limits of the aeroplane, selected by the
operator and approved by the Authority.

(ii) The operator shall used this speed to:

• Establish the area of operation and any dispatch


limitation;
• Calculate of single engine fuel requirements; and
• Establish the level off altitude (net performance) data.
This level off altitude (net performance) must clear any
obstacle en-route by margins as specified in the
applicable operational rule.

(iii) During actual in flight operations, none of the above shall


detract from the pilot-in-command’s authority to deviate from
the planned one-engine-inoperative cruise speed should
he/she deem such action necessary to secure the safety of
his flight.

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ORIGINAL REGULATION
ORIGINAL RULE

As early as 1936, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) was the


first to restrict operations to an en-route area of operation that was
within 100 miles of an adequate aerodrome.

In those days, 100 miles was about 60 minutes flying time if an engine
was inoperative. The original rule applied to all types of aircraft
regardless of the number of engines.

60 MINUTES RULE

The initial FAA 60 minutes rule was established in 1953. This rule
focussed on the reliability of piston engines. In general, twin-engined
aircraft were restricted to areas of operation defined as 60 minutes
from an adequate airport at the one engine inoperative cruise speed
(under standard conditions in still air). However, the rule was flexible.
It permitted operations beyond 60 minutes if special approval was
obtained from the administrator. There was no regulatory upper limit
for this approval. This special approval was based on the character of
the terrain, the kind of operation, and the performance of the aircraft.

International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) prescribes Standards


and Recommended Practices as the minimum standards applicable to
the Contracting State authorising the Air Operators to conduct
international commercial air transport operations.

The ICAO Standing Committee on Aircraft Performance reviewed


piston engine failure data during 1953. Also in the 1950s, ICAO
published recommendations stating that 90 minutes (two-engine
speed) diversion time was acceptable for all aircraft. Many-non-US
regulatory authorities adopted the more flexible ICAO
recommendations and many non-US airlines started to operate their
twins under this rule.

Until the early 80s, no ETOPS requirement was addressed. The


applicable diversion rule for two engine aircraft was that of the operator
state.

Note: Under FAA rule, for the US operators, maximum diversion time
allowed remained 60 minutes, or greater with special approval.

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ORIGINAL REGULATION

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NEW RULES AND DESIGN CONCEPT


EVOLUTION OF ETOPS

In the early 80s, an ICAO Study Group examined the feasibility of


extended range operations with these new twinjets. To ensure that
ETOPS were conducted with a very high level of safety, special criteria
were defined.

The end result was, unless the aircraft could meet special ETOPS
safety criteria, ICAO recommended that all turbine powered aircraft be
restricted to 60 minutes from an adequate airport at single engine
speed. At the same time, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)
had begun the initial investigation that resulted in Advisory Circular AC
120-42.

Note: ETOPS is only applicable to jet engine aircraft. Piston engine


aircraft cannot be used for ETOPS as they are not as reliable.

NEW RULES AND DESIGN CONCEPT

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INTRODUCTION OF 120 MINUTES ETOPS

In 1985, the FAA issued the Advisory Circular AC 120-42 which


established criteria to increase the ETOPS area of operation to 120
minutes at the single engine cruise speed under standard conditions in
still air.

Note: A 15% extension from 120 to 138 minutes was available under
special conditions.

Several other Civil Aviation Authorities also issued ETOPS criteria


including:

• Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore (CAAS)


• Civil Airworthiness Authorities (CAA) from United Kingdom
• Direction Generale de L’Aviation Civile (DGAC) from France

These criteria were similar to the FAA criteria.

In Europe, all national authorities are grouped under a common system


called European Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA) in the late 1980s.

CONSEQUENCE ON AIRCRAFT DESIGN

During this period, although most of the aircraft could satisfy the
ETOPS performance requirements, no aircraft were able to meet the
aircraft system and propulsion system requirements necessary for
ETOPS.

Therefore, modifications were necessary on these aircraft to improve


the reliability of the propulsion systems and to increase the redundancy
and performance of electrical, hydraulic, avionics and cargo fire
protection systems.

Following the implementation of those aircraft modifications and the


very good experience overall with the 120 minutes ETOPS, it led the
authorities and the industry to extent the diversion time to 180 minutes
or even 207 minutes. It meant that almost any route in the world could
be serviced by twinjets.

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NEW RULES

In 1988, the initial FAA Advisory Circular 120-42 was updated to allow
180 minutes ETOPS flight, therefore, AC 120-42 was cancelled and
replaced by AC 120-42A. As early as 1990, a harmonisation process
between the European JAA and the FAA was set up to review the
actual rules but JAA and FAA rules remain distinct.

As a result, JAA issued the GAI-20 (ACJ 20X6) which provides


Temporary Guidance Material for ETOPS Certification and Operation
for JAR OPS.

In March 2000, FAA issued an ETOPS Policy Letter, EPL 20-1 for 207
minutes which is a 15% extension from 180 minutes.

NEW RULES

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REGULATIONS IN USE
The main regulations in use are:

• SAR Chapter 4.11 from CAAS (Singapore) which is included in


Appendix A of this notes
• CAAS Advisory Circular AC-FO 6/00 (Singapore)
• Advisory Circular AC 120-42A from the FAA (United States)
• Advisory Circular Joint GAI-20 (ACJ 20X6) from the JAA (Europe)

In Singapore, ETOPS follows the regulation as stipulated by CAAS.

INTRODUCTION TO AUTHORITY REGULATIONS

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APPROVAL PROCESS
GENERAL

Although engine failure is a critical factor for ETOPS, it is not the only
factor which is seriously considered in evaluating ETOPS.

Some of the other factors are for example:

• Cargo compartment fire suppression, protection and bottle


capability
• Probability of system failures
• Operational and maintenance practices

Therefore the airworthiness authorities have set up the following


approval process.

THE APPROVAL PROCESS

The Approval Process is a three-step process:

• Aircraft approval of the ETOPS type design

• Operational approval of the operators:

o ETOPS maintenance
o Engineering
o Reliability program
o ETOPS dispatch
o Flight operations program
o Training

• Continuing Surveillance

Note: The aircraft type design approval is a prerequisite to operational


approval.

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APPROVAL PROCESS

AIRCRAFT TYPE DESIGN APPROVAL PROCESS

GENERAL

The first step in the Approval Process is to determine that the aircraft is
airworthy for ETOPS.

This is done through a special evaluation called ETOPS Type Design


Approval Process.

TYPE DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

The ETOPS Type Design Approval is granted by the Airworthiness


Authority, from the respective country of aircraft manufacture/design is,
when the special ETOPS Type Design considerations are met.

These considerations include:

• Analysis of failure effects and reliability (propulsion and aircraft


systems)
• In-service experience
• Maintenance and reliability program
• Human Factors (procedures and Flight Crew workload)

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Note: These considerations are covered in the two phases of the Type
Design Approval under eligibility and capability.

ELIGIBILITY

An aircraft is declared to be eligible for ETOPS if the applicant shows


that the design features of the particular airframe/engine combination
are suitable for the intended operation.

CAPABILITY

An aircraft is declared capable for ETOPS if the applicant shows that


the particular airframe/engine combination can achieve a sufficiently
high level of reliability in service.

Note: The FAA does not distinguish in the wording of Advisory Circular
120-42A between eligibility and capability.

TYPE DESIGN APPROVAL

Upon satisfactory completion of the ETOPS evaluation process, the


ETOPS Type Design will be reflected in the approved Aircraft Flight
Manual and the Type Certification Data Sheet.

Note: This finding does not constitute approval to conduct ETOPS.

OPERATIONAL APPROVAL PROCESS

GENERAL

Aircraft type design approval is a prerequisite to operational approval.


It is necessary that the maintenance and operation experience is
obtained with the airframe/engine combination prior to starting ETOPS.

Note: In the case of Singapore registered aircraft, ETOPS Operational


Approval is issued by Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore
(CAAS) with reference to CAAS AC-FO 6/00 and SAR 4.11.

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CONSIDERATIONS

To obtain the operational approval process, the operator must


elaborate procedures concerning:

• Requesting Approval
• Assessment of the Operator’s Propulsion System Reliability
• Engineering Modifications and Maintenance Programme
• Flight Preparation and In-flight Considerations
• Flight Crew Training, Evaluation and Operating Manuals
• Operational Limitations

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APPROVAL STAGES
GENERAL

Approval will usually be granted in stages. The progression from one


stage to the next will be dependent on the operator providing proof
that:

• The airplane type design continues to meet the requirements of the


Manufacturer’s certifying authority (the authority of the country of
manufacture).

• The maintenance and aeroplane reliability standards have met the


established requirements and such standards are repeatable.

• The operational capabilities and standards are demonstrated and


that the operator has a programme to continually monitor such
operations and submit a report at regular intervals as specified by
the authority.

Note: If 207 minutes ETOPS diversion time is to be implemented,


there will be additional requirements on top of those stated for
180 minutes ETOPS.

THE FOUR STAGES

The four stages are:

• Operational approval criteria to extend range operations with a


maximum diversion time of 90 minutes or less to an en-route
alternate.

• Operational approval for extended range operations with a


maximum diversion time above 90 minutes up to 120 minutes to an
en-route alternate.

• Operational approval for extended range operations with a


maximum diversion time above 120 minutes up to 180 minutes to
en-route alternate.

Note: Variations to these steps of diversion time, up to and not


exceeding 15% of time stated for relevant stage may be
approved, from time to time or under certain
circumstances, is at the sole discretion of the Authority.
Operators seeking such extension shall have to justify to
the satisfaction of the Authority the case for such
extension on a route by route basis.

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• Operational approval for extended range operations with a


maximum diversion time above 180 minutes up to 207 minutes to
en-route alternate. (207 minutes ETOPS diversion time is 15%
extension from 180 minutes.)

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AIRCRAFT SYSTEM RELIABILITY


GENERAL

ETOPS criteria for the certification of the product go beyond current


certification rules in specific areas of more stringent requirements.

Only modern twin-engined aircraft can meet these criteria without


extensive modifications.

SPECIFIC AREAS

The areas of more stringent requirements to match a level of reliability


suitable for ETOPS are:

• The essential airframe systems (ESSENTIAL SYSTEMS)


• The propulsion systems (CRITICAL SYSTEMS)

ESSENTIAL SYSTEMS

Typically these may include:

• Adequate status monitoring


• Cargo fire protection
• Fuel quantity indicating
• Pressurisation redundancy
• Bleed power system redundancy
• Hydraulic power system
• Avionics cooling
• Airframe and propulsion ice protection
• Electric generation
• APU performance and reliability
• Fly-by-wire flight controls

CRITICAL SYSTEMS

Critical system is about propulsion system reliability.

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AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS RELIABILITY

Typical ETOPS Significant Systems and sensitive items, with Airbus


A320 as a reference, are identified as an example.

• ATA 21 – Air Conditioning

Blower Fan
Extracted Fan
Avionics Equipment Ventilation Computer
CPC 1
Outflow Valve (motor 1)
Pack Flow Control Valve
Air Conditioning Pack
EMER RAI

• ATA 22 – Auto Flight

Auto Pilot
Auto Pilot Disconnect
Auto Pilot Disengagement Warning
FMGC – Auto Thrust Function
Auto Thrust Disconnection Warning System
FMS – Lateral Navigation
FCU
FMGC
FMA – indications on PFD

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• ATA 24 – Electrical Power

EDG Channel
APU Driven – Generator Channel
RAT, Extension control
Transformer/Rectifier Unit

• ATA 26 – Fire Protection

APU Fire & Overheat Detection


Avionics Smoke Detection System
Smoke Detector in Fwd/Aft cargo compt.
APU Fire Extinguishing

• ATA 27 – Flight Controls

Rudder Trim System


THS Actuator Electrical Motor
Elevator Aileron Computer (ELAC)
Spoiler Elevator Computer (SEC)

• ATA 28 – Fuel

Fuel Quality Indicating Computer


Indication on ECAM fuel page, ‘X-Feed’

• ATA 30 – Ice and Rain Protection

Wing Anti-Ice Control Valve


Wing Anti-ice – Fault Light
Engine Ice Protection – Engine Anti Valve
Ice Protection – Probe Heat Computer
Pitot Heater
Angel of Attack – Probe Heating
TAT Probe Heating
Window Heat Computer

• ATA 34 – Navigation

Altitude Display

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• ATA 36 – Pneumatic

Engine Bleed Air – Bleed Supply System


Bleed Valve – PRV
Over-pressure Valve
Fan Air Valve (FAV)
Bleed Air Pre-Cooler Exchanger
Intermediate Pressure Check Valve (IP)
High Pressure Valve

• ATA 49 – APU

APU

• ATA 74 – Ignition

Ignition System

• ATA 77 – Engine Indicating

Engine Indicating, N1 & N2

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CMP DOCUMENT
GENERAL

The CMP (Configuration, Maintenance and Procedures) document, as


approved by the authorities, defines the standards specifically for
ETOPS. The content of the CMP document is additional to that of
other documents such as AFM, FCOM, MMEL, MPD, IPC etc.

ETOPS STANDARDS

The CMP Document is split into four chapters:

1 – Configuration (service bulletins, modifications)


2 – Maintenance (maintenance tasks)
3 – Procedure (pre-flight/en-route procedures)
4 – Dispatch (dispatch criteria)

DISTRIBUTION WITHIN THE AIRLINE

The respective airline departments, which are Flight Operations and


Engineering, extract the relevant CMP content, therefore complying
with the latest ETOPS standards. The CMP document is customised
for the given aircraft/engine combination.

This document is also customised for the airline, and aligned with the
chosen ETOPS rules in the given country, CMP pages are divided
according to each ETOPS relevant ATA chapters.

CMP DOCUMENTATION

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REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS

The following is outlined in SAR Chapter 4.11 para 4:

• The aircraft manufacturer and the Type Certification Authority may


periodically review the in-service reliability of the airframe-engine
combination. Further to these reviews and every time that an urgent
problem makes it necessary, the Certification Authority may require
that the type design CMP standard be revised to achieve and
maintain the desired level of reliability and, therefore safety of the
extended range twin-engine operation. The operator shall ensure
that its ETOPS fleet is in compliance with the latest revised CMP
standards.

• The CMP standards prior to the revision will no longer be


considered suitable for continued extended range twin-engine
operation. The CMP standards and its revisions may require priority
actions to be implemented before the next ETOPS flight and other
actions to be implemented according to a schedule accepted by the
Authority.

• The validity of the ETOPS Operational Approval depends on the


operator keeping its ETOPS fleets in compliance with the:

(a) Current CMP standards.


(b) Airworthiness Directives.
(c) Alert Service Bulletins.
(d) Maintenance requirements

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CMP REVISION PROCESS

The CMP document is revised by decision of the authorities:

• The reliability tracking board = NORMAL REVISION


• The airworthiness review meeting = TEMPORARY REVISION

Any new revision supersedes previous issues.

CMP DOCUMENTATION – REVISION PROCESS

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REGULATION
All Singapore registered ETOPS aircraft must adhere to maintenance
requirements stated in Singapore Airworthiness Requirements Chapter
4.11 Appendix 1.

Below is the reproduction of the Regulation.

SAR CHAPTER 4.11 – APPENDIX 1: ETOPS MAINTENANCE


REQUIREMENTS

1 Maintenance Programme and Procedures

1.1 The operator shall ensure that the maintenance programme for
its ETOPS fleet contains the standards, guidance and direction
necessary to support the intended operations. Maintenance
personnel and other personnel involved shall be made aware of
the special nature of ETOPS and have the knowledge, skills and
ability to accomplish the requirements of the programme.

1.2 The maintenance programme for the aircraft being considered


for ETOPS is the continuous airworthiness maintenance
schedule currently approved for the operator. The operator shall
review the schedule to ensure that it provides an adequate basis
for development of ETOPS maintenance requirements. The
programme shall incorporate human factors principles.

1.3 The operator shall have in place procedures to preclude


identical action being applied to multiple similar elements in any
ETOPS significant system (e.g. fuel control change on both
engines). If this is not possible, the identical actions shall be
done by different maintenance personnel/teams.

1.4 The operator shall include in the maintenance procedures the


following:

(a) ETOPS related tasks shall be identified on the operator's


routine work forms and related instructions.

(b) ETOPS related procedures, such as involvement of


centralized maintenance control, shall be clearly defined
in the operator’s programme.

(c) An ETOPS service check shall be developed to verify that


the status of the aircraft and certain critical items are
acceptable. This check shall be accomplished and signed
off by an ETOPS qualified authorised person immediately
prior to an ETOPS flight.

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(d) Log books shall be reviewed and documented, as


appropriate, to ensure proper MEL procedures, deferred
items, maintenance checks and system verification
procedures have been properly performed.

1.5 When the maintenance is contracted to a maintenance


organisation, the operator shall ensure that the contractor
complies with the ETOPS requirements and procedures. The
operator shall establish control procedures to ensure that:

(a) The maintenance personnel of the contracted


maintenance organization are qualified for ETOPS.

(b) All flight dispatch procedures and additional maintenance


requirements as identified in the operator’s maintenance
control manual are complied with.

2 ETOPS Manual

2.1 The operator shall develop a manual for use by personnel


involved in ETOPS. This manual need not include, but shall at
least reference, the maintenance programme and other
requirements described in this chapter of the Singapore
Airworthiness Requirements and clearly indicate where they are
located in the operators manual system.

2.2 All ETOPS requirements, including supportive programmes,


procedures, duties, and responsibilities, shall be identified and
be subject to revision control. This manual shall be submitted to
the Authority for approval before the implementation of ETOPS
by the operator.

3 Oil Consumption Programme

3.1 The operator shall have in place an oil consumption programme.


The programme shall reflect the manufacturer’s
recommendations and be sensitive to oil consumption trends. It
shall consider the amount of oil added at the departing ETOPS
stations with reference to the running average consumption; i.e.
the monitoring must be continuous up to, and including, oil
added at the ETOPS departure station. If oil analysis is
meaningful to this make and model, it shall be included in the
programme. The APU oil consumption shall also be part of the
oil consumption programme.

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4 Engine Condition Monitoring

4.1 The operator shall have an engine condition monitoring


programme that describes the parameters to be monitored,
method of data collection and corrective action process. The
programme shall also incorporate the manufacturer’s
instructions and industry practice. This monitoring shall be used
to detect deterioration at an early stage to allow for corrective
action before safe operation is affected. The programme shall
ensure that engine limit margins are maintained such that a
prolonged single-engine diversion may be conducted without
exceeding approved engine limits (i.e., rotor speeds, exhaust
gas temperature) at all approved power levels and expected
environmental conditions.

4.2 The monitoring programme shall include assessment of in-flight


shut-down (IFSD) rate of the operator’s ETOPS fleet. The
assessment shall include, as a minimum, engine hours flown in
the period, in flight shut-down rate for all causes and engine
removal rate, both on a 12 month moving average basis. When
the IFSD rate exceeds 0.05/1000 engine hours for 120 minutes
diversion time or exceeds 0.03/1000 engine hours for 180
minutes diversion time, the operator must notify the Authority as
soon as possible.

4.3 The assessment of the operator’s ETOPS fleet propulsion


system reliability and IFSD rate shall be made available to the
Authority on a monthly basis.

4.4 When any adverse sustained trend is noted, the operator shall in
consultation with the Authority, conduct an immediate evaluation
to ascertain the causes. The evaluation may result in corrective
action or operational restrictions being applied.

5 Verification Programme after Maintenance

5.1 The operator shall develop a verification programme or establish


procedures to ensure corrective action following an engine shut-
down, primary system failure or adverse trends, any prescribed
events which require a verification flight or other action. The
operator shall establish the means to assure the
accomplishment of the verification programme or the corrective
action procedures. A clear description of who must initiate
verification actions and the section or group responsible for the
determination of what action is necessary shall be identified in
the programme. Primary systems or conditions requiring
verification actions shall be described in the operator’s ETOPS
manual.

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6 Reliability Programme

6.1 An ETOPS reliability programme shall be developed by the


operator or the operator’s existing reliability programme
supplemented. This programme shall be designed with early
identification and prevention of ETOPS related problems as the
primary goal. The programme shall be event-orientated and
incorporate reporting procedures for significant events
detrimental to ETOPS flights. This information shall be readily
available for use by the Authority to help establish that the
reliability level is adequate, and to assess the operators
competence and capability to safely continue ETOPS. The
Authority shall be notified within 72 hours of events reportable
through this programme.

6.2 In addition to the items required to be reported as per Section 4


Chapter 4.9* of the SAR, the following items shall be included:

(a) In-flight shut-downs.

(b) Uncommanded power changes or surges.

(c) Inability to control the engine or obtain desired power.

(d) Unscheduled removal of engines.

(e) Problems with systems critical to ETOPS.

(f) Any other events detrimental to ETOPS.

6.3 The report shall identify the following:

(a) Aircraft Registration.

(b) Engine identification (position, make and serial number).

(c) Total time, cycles and time since last shop visit.

(d) For systems, time since overhaul or last inspection of the


defective unit.

(e) Phase of flight.

(f) Corrective action.

* Regarding defect, failures or malfunctions Mandatory Reports

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7 APU In-flight Start Capabilities

7.1 If any work is performed on the Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) that
may affect the starting and operation of the APU, an in-flight
start shall be performed on the next flight. The result of the in-
flight start shall be annotated in the Technical Log of the aircraft.

7.2 To ensure that the APU maintains its in-flight start capabilities,
the operator shall have a programme to schedule an APU in-
flight start once every three months for each aircraft of its
ETOPS fleet. The result of the in-flight start shall be annotated in
the Technical Log of the aircraft.

8 Maintenance Training

8.1 The operator shall have a training programme that focuses on


the special nature of ETOPS. This programme shall be included
in the normal maintenance training for the operator’s
maintenance personnel. The goal of this programme is to
ensure that all personnel involved in ETOPS are provided with
the necessary training so that the ETOPS maintenance tasks
are properly accomplished and to emphasise the special nature
of ETOPS maintenance requirements. Human factors principle
shall be included in the training programme.

8.2 ETOPS qualified maintenance personnel are those that have


completed the operators extended range training programme
and have satisfactorily performed extended range tasks under
supervision, within the framework of the operator’s approved
procedures for Personnel Authorisation.

9 ETOPS Parts Control

9.1 The operator shall develop a parts control programme with


support from the manufacturer, that ensures the proper parts
and configuration are maintained for ETOPS. The programme
includes verification that parts placed on an ETOPS aircraft
during parts borrowing or pooling arrangements, as well as
those parts used after repair or overhaul, maintain the
necessary ETOPS configuration for that aircraft.

Note: SAR Chapter 4.11 Appendix 1 can be compared with FAA AC


120-42A Appendix 4 (Refer to Appendix B of this notes) and
JAA ACJ 20X6 Appendix 4 (Refer to Appendix C of this notes).

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SERVICE CHECK ITEMS


PURPOSE

An ETOPS “service check” should be developed to verify that the


status of the airplane and certain critical items are acceptable. This
check should be accomplished and signed-off by the ETOPS qualified
individual.

TIME TO ACCOMPLISH

ETOPS service check shall be accomplished at the start of the ETOPS


leg of the flight.

THE ETOPS SERVICE CHECK

Standard service check + ETOPS PDSC items:

• The standard service check is defined by the airline for the normal
operational dispatch.
• ETOPS pre-departure service check could either be a separate
document or be incorporated in the standard service check.

Note: To support ETOPS on certain specific routes, the operator could


supplement the Pre-Departure Service Checklist by introducing
an additional Supplement Checklist.

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ENGINEERING TRAINING DEPARTMENT

IDENTICAL MAINTENANCE ON SIMILAR CRITICAL


SYSTEMS
Singapore Airworthiness Requirements Chapter 4.11 stipulates the
requirement of procedures to preclude identical maintenance action
from being done to multiple, similar elements in any ETOPS significant
system during the same maintenance visit. The intent of this
requirement is to avoid making similar mistakes on identical
maintenance actions, which would jeopardize the backups in the
system (whether engines or aircraft systems), leading to dire
consequences.

Identical maintenance action on multiple, similar systems is defined as


the same task, such as servicing, removal/installation, disassembly or
repairs, being performed on more than one engine or similar systems
or components during the same maintenance visit.

Typical examples of identical ETOPS-related critical


systems/components include:

• Removal of both engine oil filters or both magnetic chip detectors.


• Replacement of both integrated drive generators (IDG),
• Replacement of both hydraulic engine driven pumps (EDP).
• Servicing of both engine oil systems.

In the above examples of similar critical tasks, errors such as improper


installations, omission of O-rings, etc, would cause oil loss and lead to
inflight shutdown (IFSD) of both engines. Other examples for identical
maintenance with critical consequences include removal/installation of
borescope plugs or swapping of electronic boxes for trouble-shooting.

Examples of tasks that may not be considered as identical


maintenance action of similar critical systems/components:

• Refueling of both left and right wing fuel tanks.


• Servicing of both oleo struts
• Lubrication tasks.
• Checking of engine or IDG oil quantity (without removing the tank
cap or via a sight gage respectively).

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MAINTENANCE PROGRAMME
ETOPS MAINTENANCE PROGRAMME

Although similar to the basic continued airworthiness maintenance


programme, the ETOPS maintenance programme for the candidate
airplane is sufficiently different to require separate treatment. It should
ensure that:

• Supplemental tasks are added to the basic maintenance


programme and must be in compliance with CMP Document
• ETOPS procedures are clearly defined
• ETOPS service check verifies aircraft status and condition of critical
systems
• Procedures are in place to avoid identical action being applied to
multiple similar elements in any ETOPS critical system. A typical
airline practice is shown in the table below.

Order of Work Teams System / System / Additional


Preference component 1 component 2 Requirements
1 Scheduling of Same/different Same/different NIL
identical task crew at different crew at different
at different period period
maintenance
period by
same or
different work
team

2 2 different - Different LAE - Different LAE NIL


work teams - Different - Different
technician technician

3* - Same LAE - Same LAE - Same LAE Verification


- 2 different - Different - Different check required
technicians technician technician
* Only applicable to Line Maintenance.

The basic maintenance programme for the aircraft/engine combination,


being considered for ETOPS, will be the local airworthiness authority
approved continuous airworthiness maintenance programme.

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The programme addresses those tasks required on a scheduled basis.


The programme is developed by:

• Logic process (airline/airframer/authority activity)


• In-service experience
• System/Equipment modifications
• Regulatory requirements

ETOPS maintenance tasks are tasks which are required to assure the
condition of the aircraft and engine systems and equipment for ETOPS.

Note: Task Cards have identification of ETOPS items.

ETOPS maintenance requirements are developed by:

• Reliability tracking board (airframer/authorities/engine


manufacturer)
• Regulatory requirements

ETOPS MAINTENANCE DISPATCH

The operator shall ensure that the aircraft is precluded from being
dispatch for ETOPS:

(a) After an engine in-flight shut-down (IFSD) on a previous flight.


(b) After primary airframe system failure on a previous flight.
(c) After a replacement of an engine.
(d) After failure of an engine power control system or significant
adverse trends in engine performance.
(e) After any major maintenance work on the aircraft.

The aircraft shall operate at least one non-revenue (handling flight) or


non-ETOPS revenue flight successfully before being released on
extended range twin-engine operations. This shall be reflected in the
aircraft technical log.

All departure for ETOPS aircraft must be treated as a ETOPS flight


regardless of whether they are dispatched on an ETOPS route. Line
stations are also subjected to the same requirements.

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MINIMUM EQUIPMENT LIST (MEL)


The MEL of the operator’s ETOPS fleet shall indicate clearly items that
have different dispatch requirements for ETOPS flights. Systems
considered to have a fundamental influence on flight safety may
include, but are not limited to the following.

• Electrical, including battery


• Hydraulic
• Pneumatic
• Flight instrumentation
• Fuel
• Flight control
• Ice protection
• Engine start and ignition
• Propulsion system instruments
• Navigation and communications
• Auxiliary power-unit
• Air conditioning and pressurisation
• Cargo fire suppression
• Engine fire protection
• Emergency equipment
• Any other equipment necessary for extended range operations.

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PROPULSION SYSTEM MONITORING


The airline’s propulsion system reliability for ETOPS shall be reported
to the airworthiness authority on a regular basis. The report will
address:

• In-flight shut-down rate


• Unschedule engine removal

World fleet in-flight shutdown and general reliability trends are


established by Airbus/Boeing and sent to the airline via the concerned
aircraft’s “Quarterly service Report”.

This report includes:

• Primary causes for engine removal


• Engine removal summary
• Engine removal rate (per 1000 engine hours).

The ETOPS engine reliability as per SAR Chapter 4.11 Appendix 1 is:

• For 120 minutes diversion time = 0.05/1000 engines hours


(1/20,000)
• For 180 minutes diversion time = 0.03/1000 engines hours
(1/33,333.333…)

Note: If the aircraft is to be approved for 207 minutes diversion time,


its reliability is to be at or below 0.019/1000 engine hours
(approx. 1/52,632)

COMPONENT MTBUR / MTBF

MTBUR = mean time before unscheduled removal


MTBF = mean time before failure

A program must be established to track the MTBUR/MTBF for


components identified as ETOPS significant. This data will enable:

• Validation that troubleshooting is being performed correctly


• Validation of airline reliability versus world fleet.

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ENGINEERING TRAINING DEPARTMENT

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS MONITORING


To aid evaluating aircraft component reliability, component tracking
“alert levels” are derived from reliability targets for ETOPS significant
components is based on:

(a) values determined by operator/airline


(b) warranty rate
(c) fleet average

An alert should be triggered when the trend:

• Turns downward
• Goes below defined reliability target

If an alert is triggered:

• Review internal records


• Contact the manufacturer
• Identify the cause of the down trend
• Determine if it is an individual or a global problem
• Implement corrective action

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ETOPS REPORTING FOR CONTINUOUS


AIRWORTHINESS
EVENT REPORTING

An Event can be considered to be:

• In-flight Shut Down (IFSD)


• Take-off aborted (TOA)
• In-flight turn back (IFTB)
• Engine flame-out
• Fire
• Smoke warning
• ETOPS system failure

The database should contain detailed information on technical events


and interruptions, the report should identify:

• Aircraft identification

• Engine identification (make and serial number)

(a) total time


(b) cycles

• APU/component part number and serial number

• Aircraft systems

(a) time since overhaul


(b) last inspection of defective Line Replaceable Unit (LRU)

• Phase of flight

• Corrective action

RELIABILITY INDICATORS

Dispatch reliability:

• Data to be used as a trend monitor


• Shall be used to monitor the airlines performance versus world
fleet
• Data provided in the “Quarterly Service Report”

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ETOPS_tm.doc
GLOSSARY

AFM – Airplane Flight Manual

CMP – Configuration, Maintenance Procedure

ETOPS – Extended-Range Twin-Engine Operations

FCOM – Flight Crew Operations Manual

IFSD – In-Flight Shut-Down

IPC – Illustrated Parts Catalogue

JIC – Job Instructions Card

MMEL – Master Minimum Equipment List

MPD – Maintenance Procedure Documents

MTBF – Mean Time Before Failure

MTBUR – Mean Time Before Unscheduled Removal


APPENDIX A

SAR 4.11
Extended-Range
Twin-Engine Operations

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SINGAPORE AIRWORTHINESS REQUIREMENTS CHAPTER 4.11

EXTENDED-RANGE TWIN-ENGINE
OPERATIONS
(ETOPS)
EFFECTIVE DATE : 15 JULY 2000
REVISION NO : 0 (ISSUE 2)

1 General

1.1 This chapter prescribes the engineering requirements for


ETOPS operations of Singapore aircraft pursuant to paragraph
29(5) of the Singapore Air Navigation Order.

2 Type Design

2.1 The essential airframe systems and the propulsion system for
the particular airframe-engine combination shall be shown to be
designed to fail-safe criteria and through service experience it
must be determined that it can achieve a level of reliability
suitable for the intended operation. The Configurations,
Maintenance & Procedures (CMP) standard that establishes the
suitability of an aircraft for extended range operation defines the
minimum standard for the operation of ETOPS.

2.2 The operator shall obtain in writing from the manufacturer that
the aircraft delivered to them complies with the type design,
latest Airworthiness Directives and CMP standards.

2.3 The Type Design Approval for the aircraft does not reflect a
continuing airworthiness or Operational Approval to conduct
extended range operations. An Operational Approval for ETOPS
operation has to be separately obtained from the Authority.

3 Operational Approval

3.1 The operator shall demonstrate the ability to maintain and


operate the aircraft so as to achieve the necessary reliability and
to train its personnel to achieve the competence in extended
range twin-engine operations. The ETOPS maintenance
requirements are in Appendix 1 of this chapter. The operator
shall operate the aircraft type for twelve months, or a period as
decided by the Authority, before applying for the ETOPS
Operational Approval.

Extended-Range Twin-Engine Operations Appendix A A1


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3.2 The ETOPS Operational Approval to conduct an extended range


twin-engine operation is in the form of a written permission from
the Authority.

3.3 An operator requesting approval for extended range twin-engine


operations or an increase of diversion time shall submit the
application, with the required supporting data, to the Authority at
least three months prior to the proposed start of extended range
operation with the specific airframe-engine combination. The
operator shall submit the following:

(a) Type Design Approval.


(b) In-service experience.
(c) Propulsion system reliability (operator and world fleet).
(d) Reliability of significant airframe system.
(e) A programme to show the APU’s in-flight start
capabilities.
(f) Operator’s Reliability and Maintenance Programmes.
(g) Conformance to latest Airworthiness Directives and CMP
standards.
(h) Training of maintenance personnel.
(i) Any other data requested by the Authority.

4 Continuing Airworthiness

4.1 The aircraft manufacturer and the Type Certification Authority


may periodically review the in-service reliability of the airframe-
engine combination. Further to these reviews and every time
that an urgent problem makes it necessary, the Certification
Authority may require that the type design CMP standard be
revised to achieve and maintain the desired level of reliability
and, therefore safety of the extended range twin-engine
operation. The operator shall ensure that its ETOPS fleet is in
compliance with the latest revised CMP standards.

4.2 The CMP standards prior to the revision will no longer be


considered suitable for continued extended range twin-engine
operation. The CMP standards and its revisions may require
priority actions to be implemented before the next ETOPS flight
and other actions to be implemented according to a schedule
accepted by the Authority.

4.3 The validity of the ETOPS Operational Approval depends on the


operator keeping its ETOPS fleets in compliance with the:

(a) Current CMP standards.


(b) Airworthiness Directives.
(c) Alert Service Bulletins.

Extended-Range Twin-Engine Operations Appendix A A2


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(d) Maintenance requirements as in Appendix 1 of this


chapter.

5 Minimum Equipment List (MEL)

5.1 The MEL of the operator’s ETOPS fleet shall indicate clearly
items that have different dispatch requirements for ETOPS
flights. Systems considered to have a fundamental influence on
flight safety shall include but are not limited to:

(a) Electrical power.


(b) Hydraulic system.
(c) Pneumatic.
(d) Flight instrumentation.
(e) Fuel.
(f) Flight control.
(g) Ice protection.
(h) Engine start and ignition.
(i) Propulsion system instruments.
(j) Navigation and communications.
(k) Auxiliary power-units.
(l) Air conditioning and pressurisation.
(m) Cargo fire suppression.
(n) Emergency equipment.
(o) Engine fire detection and extinguishing systems.
(p) Any other equipment required for extended range twin-
engine operations.

6 Aircraft Dispatch

6.1 The operator shall ensure that the aircraft is precluded from
being dispatch for
ETOPS when:

(a) After an engine in-flight shut-down (IFSD) on a previous


flight.
(b) After primary airframe system failure on a previous flight.
(c) After a replacement of an engine.
(d) After failure of an engine power control system or
significant adverse
trends in engine performance.
(e) After any major maintenance work on the aircraft.

6.2 The aircraft shall operate at least one non-revenue (handling


flight) or non-ETOPS revenue flight successfully before being
released on extended range twin-engine operations. This shall
be reflected in the aircraft technical log.

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6.3 The report shall identify the following:

(a) Aircraft Registration.


(b) Engine identification (position, make and serial number).
(c) Total time, cycles and time since last shop visit.
(d) For systems, time since overhaul or last inspection of the
defective unit.
(e) Phase of flight.
(f) Corrective action.

7 APU In-flight Start Capabilities

7.1 If any work is performed on the Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) that
may affect the starting and operation of the APU, an in-flight
start shall be performed on the next flight. The result of the in-
flight start shall be annotated in the Technical Log of the aircraft.

7.2 To ensure that the APU maintains its in-flight start capabilities,
the operator shall have a programme to schedule an APU in-
flight start once every three months for each aircraft of its
ETOPS fleet. The result of the in-flight start shall be annotated in
the Technical Log of the aircraft.

8 Maintenance Training

8.1 The operator shall have a training programme that focuses on


the special nature of ETOPS. This programme shall be included
in the normal maintenance training for the operator’s
maintenance personnel. The goal of this programme is to
ensure that all personnel involved in ETOPS are provided with
the necessary training so that the ETOPS maintenance tasks
are properly accomplished and to emphasise the special nature
of ETOPS maintenance requirements. Human factors principle
shall be included in the training programme.

8.2 ETOPS qualified maintenance personnel are those that have


completed the operators extended range training programme
and have satisfactorily performed extended range tasks under
supervision, within the framework of the operator’s approved
procedures for Personnel Authorisation.

9 ETOPS Parts Control

9.1 The operator shall develop a parts control programme with


support from the manufacturer, that ensures the proper parts
and configuration are maintained for ETOPS. The programme
includes verification that parts placed on an ETOPS aircraft
during parts borrowing or pooling arrangements, as well as

Extended-Range Twin-Engine Operations Appendix A A4


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those parts used after repair or overhaul, maintain the


necessary ETOPS configuration for that aircraft.

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APPENDIX B

FAA AC 120-42A
Appendix 4: 75, 120 and 180 min.
ETOPS Maintenance
Requirements

UNCONTROLLED COPY - FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY


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FEDERAL AVIATION AUTHORITIES ADVISORY CIRCULAR 120-42A

APPENDIX 4: 75, 120 AND 180 MIN.


ETOPS MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS
EFFECTIVE DATE : 12 DEC 1988
REVISION NO : 0 (ISSUE 1)

1. GENERAL. The maintenance program for airplanes used in


75-,120-, and 180-minute ETOPS should contain the standards,
guidance, and direction necessary to support the intended operations.
Maintenance personnel involved in affecting this program should be
made aware of the special nature of ETOPS and have the knowledge,
skills and ability to accomplish the requirements of the program.

a. ETOPS Maintenance Proqram.

(1) Airplane Suitability. The airframe-engine combination


being submitted for ETOPS consideration will be reviewed by the FAA,
Propulsion System Reliability Assessment Board (PSRAB) and the
responsible type certificate holding office. The FAA will review data
accrued by the world fleet and the operator from operation of ETOPS
candidate airplanes to help establish the operator's capability to
conduct ETOPS operations. This candidate airplane should meet the
requirements of Paragraph 9 of this advisory circular. The FAA will
review data on the airframe-engine combination and identify any
conditions that exist which could prevent safe operation.

NOTE: The candidate airplane for a 75-minute diversion time is


not required to have achieved a predetermined number of hours or in-
flight shutdown rate for this assessment.

(2) Maintenance Proqram. The basic maintenance


program for the airplane being considered for ETOPS is the continuous
airworthiness maintenance program currently approved for that
operator, for the make and model airframe-engine combination. This
program should be reviewed by the PMI to ensure that it provides an
adequate basis for development of a supplemental ETOPS
maintenance program. ETOPS maintenance requirements will be
expressed in, and approved as, supplemental requirements. This
should include maintenance procedures to preclude identical action
being applied to multiple similar elements in any ETOP critical system
(e.g. fuel control change on both engines). This relates to common
cause concerns identified in Appendix 1, Paragraph 2.(d).

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(i) ETOPS related tasks should be identified on the


operator's routine work forms and related instructions.

(ii) ETOPS related procedures, such as involvement


of centralized maintenance control, should be clearly defined in the
operators program.

(iii) An ETOPS service check should be developed to


verify that the status of the airplane and certain critical items are
acceptable. This check should be accomplished and signed off by an
ETOPS qualified maintenance person immediately prior to an ETOPS
flight.

NOTE: The service check may not be required for


the return leg of a 75-minute ETOPS flight in a benign area of
operation (defined in Appendix 5 )

(iv) Log books should be reviewed and documented as


appropriate to ensure proper MEL procedures, deferred items,
maintenance checks and that system verification procedures have
been properly performed.

(3) ETOPS Manual. The operator should develop a


manual for use by personnel involved in ETOPS. This manual need not
be inclusive but should at least reference the maintenance programs
and other requirements described by this advisory circular, and clearly
indicate where they are located in the operator's manual system. All
ETOPS requirements, including supportive programs, procedures,
duties, and responsibilities, should be identified and subject to revision
control. This manual should be submitted to the certificate-holding
office 60 days before implementation of ETOPS flights.

(4) Oil Consumption Proqram. The operator's oil


consumption program should reflect the manufacturer's
recommendations and be sensitive to oil consumption trends. It should
consider the amount of oil added at the departing ETOPS stations with
reference to the running average consumption; i.e. the monitoring must
be continuous up to, and including, oil added at the ETOPS departure
station. If oil analysis is meaningful to this make and model, it should
be included in the program. If the APU is required for ETOPS
operation, it should be added to the oil consumption program.

(5) Engine Condition Monitoring. This program should


describe the parameters to be monitored, method of data collection
and corrective action process. The program should reflect
manufacturer's instructions and industry practice. This monitoring will
be used to detect deterioration at an early stage to allow for corrective
action before safe operation is effected. The program should ensure

Extended-Range Twin-Engine Operations Appendix B B2


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that engine limit margins are maintained so that a prolonged single-


engine diversion may be conducted without exceeding approved
engine limits (i.e., rotor speeds, exhaust gas temperatures) at all
approved power levels and expected environmental conditions. Engine
margins preserved through this program should account for the effects
of additional engine loading demands (e.g., anti-ice, electrical, etc.)
which may be required during the single-engine flight phase associated
with the diversion. (See Paragraph 8b(2)(iv).)

(6) Resolution of Airplane Discrepancies. The operator


should develop a verification program or procedures should be
established to ensure corrective action following an engine shutdown,
primary system failure, adverse trends or any prescribed events which
require verification flight or other action and establish means to assure
their accomplishment. A clear description of who must initiate
verification actions and the section or group responsible for the
determination of what action is necessary should be identified in the
program. Primary systems, like APU, or conditions requiring verification
actions should be described in the operators ETOPS maintenance
manual.

(7) Reliability Program. An ETOPS reliability program should


be developed or the existing reliability program supplemented. This
program should be designed with early identification and prevention of
ETOPS related problems as the primary goal. The program should be
event-orientated and incorporate reporting procedures for significant
events detrimental to ETOPS flights. This information should be readily
available for use by the operator and FAA to help establish that the
reliability level is adequate, and to assess the operator's competence
and capability to safely continue ETOPS. The FAA certificate-holding
district office should be notified within 72 hours of events reportable
through this program.

(i) Besides the items required to be reported by


Section 21.3 and 121.703 of the FARs, the following items should also
be included:

(A) In-flight shutdowns.


(B) Diversion or turnback.
(C) Uncommanded power changes or surges.
(D) Inability to control the engine or obtain
desired power.
(E) Problems with systems critical to ETOPS.
(F) Any other event detrimental to ETOPS.

(ii) The report should identify the following.

(A) Airplane identification (type and N-Number).

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(B) Engine identification (make and serial


number).
(C) Total time, cycles, and time since last shop
visit.
(D) For systems, time since overhaul or last
inspection of the discrepant unit.
(E) Phase of flight.
(F) Corrective action.

(8) Propulsion System Monitoring. Firm criteria should be


established as to what action is to be taken when adverse trends in
propulsion system conditions are detected. When the propulsion
system IFSD (computed on a 12-month rolling average) exceeds
.05/1000 engine hours for a 120-minute operation, or exceeds .03/1000
engine hours for a 180-minute operation, an immediate evaluation
should be accomplished by the operator and certificate-holding district
office with consultation of the PSRAB. A report of problems identified
and corrective actions taken will be forwarded to the Director, Flight
Standards Service. With advice of the PSRAB, additional corrective
action or operational restriction may be recommended.

(9) Maintenance Training. The maintenance training


program should focus on the special nature of ETOPS. This program
should be included in the normal maintenance training program. The
goal of this program is to ensure that all personnel involved in ETOPS
are provided the necessary training so that the ETOPS programs are
properly accomplished and to emphasize the special nature of ETOPS
maintenance requirements. Qualified maintenance personnel are those
that have completed the operator's extended range training program
and have satisfactorily performed extended range tasks under the
direct supervision of a FAA certificated maintenance person; who has
had previous experience with maintaining the particular make and
model aircraft being utilized under the operator's maintenance
program.

(10) ETOPS Parts Control. The operator should develop a


parts control program that ensures the proper parts and configuration
are maintained for ETOPS. The program includes verification that parts
placed on ETOPS airplanes during parts borrowing or pooling
arrangements, as well as those parts used after repair or overhaul,
maintain the necessary ETOPS configuration for that airplane.

Extended-Range Twin-Engine Operations Appendix B B4


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APPENDIX C

JAA GAI-20 ACJ 20X6


Appendix 4: ETOPS
Maintenance Requirements

UNCONTROLLED COPY - FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY


Revision Service Will Not Be Provided To The Holder
INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
ENGINEERING TRAINING DEPARTMENT

JOINT AVIATION AUTHORITIES GAI-20 ADVISORY CIRCULAR


JOINT 20X6

APPENDIX 4: ETOPS MAINTENANCE


REQUIREMENTS
EFFECTIVE DATE : 01 MAY 2002
REVISION NO : 0 (ISSUE 1)

1 GENERAL

The maintenance programme should contain the standards, guidance


and direction necessary to support the intended operations.
Maintenance personnel and other personnel involved should be made
aware of the special nature of ETOPS and have the knowledge, skills
and ability to accomplish the requirements of the programme.

2 ETOPS MAINTENANCE PROGRAMME

The basic maintenance programme for the aeroplane being considered


for ETOPS is the continuous airworthiness maintenance schedule
currently approved for that operator, for the make and model airframe-
engine combination. This schedule should be reviewed to ensure that it
provides an adequate basis for development of ETOPS maintenance
requirements. These should include maintenance procedures to
preclude identical action being applied to multiple similar elements in
any ETOPS significant system (e.g., fuel control change on both
engines).

a. ETOPS related tasks should be identified on the operator's


routine work forms and related instructions.

b. ETOPS related procedures, such as involvement of centralised


maintenance control, should be clearly defined in the operator's
programme.

c. An ETOPS service check should be developed to verify that the


status of the aeroplane and certain critical items are acceptable. This
check should be accomplished by an authorised and trained person
prior to an ETOPS flight. Such a person may be a member of the flight
crew.

d. Log books should be reviewed and documented, as appropriate,


to ensure proper MEL procedures, deferred items and maintenance
checks, and that system verification procedures have been properly
performed.

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3 ETOPS MANUAL

The operator should develop a manual for use by personnel involved in


ETOPS. This manual need not include, but should at least reference,
the maintenance programme and other requirements described by this
Appendix, and clearly indicate where they are located in the operator's
manual system.

All ETOPS requirements, including supportive programmes,


procedures, duties, and responsibilities, should be identified and be
subject to revision control. This manual should be submitted to the
Authority 30 days before implementation of ETOPS flights.

Alternatively, the operator may include this information in existing


manuals used by personnel involved in ETOPS.

4 OIL CONSUMPTION PROGRAMME

The operator's oil consumption programme should reflect the


manufacturer's recommendations and be sensitive to oil consumption
trends. It should consider the amount of oil added at the departing
ETOPS stations with reference to the running average consumption;
i.e., the monitoring must be continuous up to, and including, oil added
at the ETOPS departure station. If oil analysis is meaningful to this
make and model, it should be included in the programme. If the APU is
required for ETOPS operation, it should be added to the oil
consumption programme.

5 ENGINE CONDITION MONITORING

This programme should describe the parameters to be monitored,


method of data collection and corrective action process. The
programme should reflect manufacturer's instructions and industry
practice. This monitoring will be used to detect deterioration at an early
stage to allow for corrective action before safe operation is affected.
The programme should ensure that engine limit margins are
maintained so that a prolonged single-engine diversion may be
conducted without exceeding approved engine limits (i.e., rotor speeds,
exhaust gas temperature) at all approved power levels and expected
environmental conditions. Engine margins preserved through this
programme should account for the effects of additional engine loading
demands (e.g., anti-icing, electrical, etc.) which may be required during
the single-engine flight phase associated with the diversion.

6 VERIFICATION PROGRAMME AFTER MAINTENANCE

The operator should develop a verification programme or procedures


should be established to ensure corrective action following an engine

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shutdown, primary system failure or adverse trends or any prescribed


events which require a verification flight or other action and establish
means to assure their accomplishment. A clear description of who must
initiate verification actions and the section or group responsible for the
determination of what action is necessary should be identified in the
programme. Primary systems or conditions requiring verification
actions should be described in the operator's ETOPS manual.

7 RELIABILITY PROGRAMME

An ETOPS reliability programme should be developed or the existing


reliability programme supplemented. This programme should be
designed with early identification and prevention of ETOPS related
problems as the primary goal. The programme should be event-
orientated and incorporate reporting procedures for significant events
detrimental to ETOPS flights. This information should be readily
available for use by the operator and Authority to help establish that the
reliability level is adequate, and to assess the operator's competence
and capability to safely continue ETOPS.

The Authority should be notified within 96 hours of events reportable


through this programme.

a. In addition to the items required to be reported by national


regulations, the following items should be included:

(i) in-flight shutdowns;


(ii) diversion or turnback;
(iii) uncommanded power changes or surges;
(iv) inability to control the engine or obtain desired power; and
(v) problems with systems critical to ETOPS.

b. The report should identify the following:

(i) aeroplane identification;


(ii) engine identification (make and serial number);
(iii) total time, cycles and time since last shop visit;
(iv) for systems, time since overhaul or last inspection of the
defective unit;
(v) phase of flight; and
(vi) corrective action.

8 PROPULSION SYSTEM MONITORING

The operator's assessment of propulsion systems reliability for the


extended range fleet should be made available to the Authority (with
the supporting data) on at least a monthly basis, to ensure that the

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approved maintenance programme continues to maintain a level of


reliability necessary for extended range operation.

The assessment should include, as a minimum, engine hours flown in


the period, in flight shut-down rate for all causes and engine removal
rate, both on a 12 month moving average basis. Where the combined
extended range fleet is part of a larger fleet of the same airframe-
engine combination, data from the operator's total fleet will be
acceptable. However, the reporting requirements of paragraph 7 of this
Appendix must still be observed for the extended range fleet.

Any adverse sustained trend would require an immediate evaluation to


be accomplished by the operator in consultation with the Authority. The
evaluation may result in corrective action or operational restrictions
being applied.

Note: Where statistical assessment alone may not be applicable, e.g.,


when the fleet size is small, the operator's performance will be
reviewed on a case-by-case basis.

9 MAINTENANCE TRAINING

The Maintenance training should focus on the special nature of


ETOPS. This programme should be included in the normal
maintenance training. The goal of this programme is to ensure that all
personnel involved in ETOPS are provided with the necessary training
so that the ETOPS maintenance tasks are properly accomplished and
to emphasise the special nature of ETOPS maintenance requirements.
Qualified maintenance personnel are those that have completed the
operator's extended range training programme and have satisfactorily
performed extended range tasks under supervision, within the
framework of the operator's approved procedures for Personnel
Authorisation.

10 ETOPS PARTS CONTROL

The operator should develop a parts control programme with support


from the manufacturer, that ensures the proper parts and configuration
are maintained for ETOPS. The programme includes verification that
parts placed on an ETOPS aeroplane during parts borrowing or pooling
arrangements, as well as those parts used after repair or overhaul,
maintain the necessary ETOPS configuration for that aeroplane.

Extended-Range Twin-Engine Operations Appendix C C4


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