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Design Methodology of Power Transformer


4.1 Transformer Design

Transformer design is a complex task in which engineers have to ensure that
compatibility with the imposed specifications. are met, while keeping
manufacturing cost low.

Early efforts were based on conveniently adapted analytical solutions

enabling one to optimize their construction and to take advantage of the
improvements in magnetic and electric material properties for design and trial
and error methods for design verification and condition monitoring(2).

During recent decades, the development of the philosophy of transformer

design has been a logical extension of the use of computers and numerical
tools enabling one to model accurately the geometrical complexities as well
as the nonlinear material characteristics for problem analysis. In addition,
optimization algorithms have been very successfully combined with.numerical
techniques to represent .the electromagnetic and thermal. phenomena
developed in power transformers, very powerful composite
computational methodologies. Particularly, artificial intelligence algorithms.
incorporated in such techniques have. dramatically enhanced the speed and
capability for achieving detailed. optimum designs and assessment of
transformer life.”

Moreover, the design methodology may vary significantly according to the

transformer type. (distribution, power or instrument transformer) and its
operating frequency (ranging between 50/60 Hz and a few megahertz)
according to the core. constructional characteristics, the cooling method or the
type. of the magnetic material and many more(2).

‘Most of the transformer research emphasized more on the technical

characteristics like NLL & LL, Leakage. Field, Inrush Current, Dynamic
Behavior, .Noise, Insulation, Cooling etc.

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4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

Transformer manufacturers use cost optimization techniques. during the

design phase. to minimize material costs and satisfy the utility’s loss.
evaluation requirement. ‘

The difficulty in achieving the optimum balance between the transformer cost
and performance is a complicated task and the techniques that are employed
for its solution must be able to deal with the design considerations. So as to
provide a design optimum while remaining. cost effective and flexible.”

The research associated with design optimization is therefore more restricted

involving different mathematical optimization methods.

For any chosen optimization.method, there always will be a question for its
effectiveness and how much detail to include in the problem. description.
Although,the ultimate aim is to find out the lowest cost, one might wish to
achieve such solution that should.provide sufficient information. So finally the
actual design can be shaped with little further work.”

However, it would be. impractical to think that the optimum. cost design for a
transformer would certainly satisfy all of the electrical, mechanical and thermal
constraints that require sophisticated design algorithms to evaluate.

So to work for the transformer design optimization techniques. that deal with
the minimization of the manufacturing. as well as operating cost can be well
worth for manufacturer as well as for utility.

4.1.1 Different Parts of Transformer

The aim of transformer design is to obtain the dimensions of all parts of the
transformer. in order to supply these data to the manufacturer. Some of those
important parts like winding, core, transformer tank, tap changer device,
bushings, and coolers etc are shown in following Figure 4.1. Each part is
having the specific task and responsibility.For the manufacturing and
assembling these object, different engineering is to be applied for shaping
complete transformer(130).

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4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

Figure 4.1 Composite View of Different Parts of Transformer

Each parts are having ”the specific task and responsibility. ” Winding:”
It is known as the heart of transformer. Winding” is made up of costly metal
like copper and”aluminum, it is considered as a costliest component of
”transformer. Transformer windings are designed to” meet three fundamental
requirements viz. mechanical, thermal and electrical. ”They are ”cylindrical in
shape and are assembled concentrically.” Paper insulated conductors of high
conductivity & soft drawn E.C. Grade copper is used which comply with the
latest Indian as well as international standards. According to the application
and rating of the transformer the suitability of winding type is decided by
designer. Cylindrical windings, helical windings, cross over windings,
continuous disc winding, inter leaved winding, Intra shield winding, foil winding
etc are the different types of winding of transformer. For example, the inter
leaved or Intra shield windings are used for EHV or UHV class transformers,
while helical windings are used for high current transformer.”

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4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

Figure 4.2 Transformer winding and Core assembly Core:
Core is also one of the most important and costliest part of the transformer. It
is built with Cold Rolled Grain Oriented Silicon Steel, low loss silicon steel
lamination. Bonded core design/ technique is used to eliminate hole”punching
and to minimize fixed losses”and Magnetizing Current. Use of HiB grade”&
Laser scribed Laminations and rigid clamps significantly reduce vibrations and
noise level. Tank & Radiator:

These are being made up from mild steel.” Tank provides the housing ”to the
transformer and” Radiator provides the cooling. ”

Figure 4.3 Transformer Tank and Radiators

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4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer Bushings:
It is used to connect the active part (CCA) of transformer to the electrical

”Figure 4.4 Transformer Bushings”( Condenser and Solid orcelain type) Insulation Component:”
These are made up of Press Board” or Laminated wood. It provides the
mechanical as well as electrical strength to the transformer against the radial-
axial forces and high voltage strokes.”

Figure 4.5 Insulation Components for Transformer”

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4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer Tap Changing Device:

It is used to provide the constant voltage to the consumer against the
disturbance in transmission network due to sudden rise and fall of load. This
is mainly two type. One is On Load tap changer and other is Off load tap

Figure 4.6 Tap Changer for Transformer (OLTC & OCTC)

4.1.2 Transformer Materials

The“transformer design should be carried out based.on the specification”
given, using available”materials. economically in order to achieve low.cost,
low weight,” small size and good operating. performance. Major” materials like
copper, CRGO, insulating oil,” press board and paper insulations and certain
ferrous and nonferrous items are essential to build a compact and trouble free

Transformer is an engineering object which comprises following different

materials: Copper:
Copper is most suitable material for power transformer winding construction
due to it’s tensile strength, High electrical conductivity and density. Depending

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4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

on the size of transformer it can be selected as round conductor or

rectangular conductor. For optimum current density multi parallel conductors
are being considered by designer. Now a days CTC conductor has replaced
the concept of use of multi conductor. It is making the electrical circuit for
transformer and responsible for resistive, eddy current and stray losses.

Figure 4.7 Copper and Lamination” CRGO:
CRGO is use to construct the magnetic circuit of power transformer. It is 0.23
to 0.3 mm thickness steel sheets with silicon content of approximate 3%. It is
responsible for No Load loss and Noise in transformer. There are different
grades available for CRGO, which has specific losses at specific flux density. Solid Insulating Material:

Insulation is an important component for transformer construction as it is
closely related to the life cycle of transformer. Whatever the stress like voltage
stress,”Thermal stress, Short circuit current stress will route only through solid
insulation of winding and core. The insulating materials are of various type like
Pre Compress Press Board (PCPB), Laminated wooden insulation (Perma
wood), Kraft and Creep paper, Fiber Board etc. These material are mostly
having cellulose base and also great electrical voltage withstand strength.
These material must be moisture free (dry) before putting transformer in

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4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

service. Insulation Coordination is also an important subject which must be

taken care wisely for the life time expectancy of the transformer.

Figure 4.8 Cellulose Base Insulating Material” Insulating Oil:

It is liquid insulating material used in transformer which is having high
electrical insulating property. This liquid insulating material being made from
petroleum. Apart from functioning as an insulating agent in transformer it is
also responsible to provide cooling. On the base of heat and mass transfer
theory it works and extract the heat from winding & core and provide cooling
with the help of coolers and radiators.

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4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

Figure 4.9 Dielectric Oil for Power Transformer Bushing/ Insulators:

Bushings are also one of the important component for transformer. It provides
the way to connect the termination of winding to the electrical network.
Different types of bushings are used for transformers viz, solid porcelain type,
Oil impregnated Condenser type, Epoxy type, Silicon rubber type, PIP type
etc. It’s one end connects to the winding inside tank and other end connects
to the power network. It is being mounted on transformer tank.

Figure 4.10 Different Types of Bushings Mild Steel:

The transformer Core-Winding assembly is to be housed in tank and, also to
be filled with oil. The tank is made up of mild steel to provide protection to the
CCA against the pressure and vacuum generation due to temperature rise

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4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

while working. During the course of fault and failure it plays a vital role to
handle the developed excessive pressure and prevent the chance fire in yard.

Figure 4.11 Mild Steel for Transformer Tank Fabrication

The transformer design should be carried out based. on the specification

given, using available materials economically in order to achieve low cost, low
weight, small size and good operating. performance. The transformer design
is worked out using various methods based on accumulated.experience
realized in different formulas, equations, tables and charts.

4.2 Design Parameters:

“These parameters are split into the following seven types.
• Description variables (e.g., rated power, rated low voltage (LV) and
high voltage (HV), frequency, LV and HV connection).
• Special variables(core stacking factor, mass density of materials used).
• Default. variables (e.g., LV and HV taps, guaranteed no-load loss, load
loss, and impedance voltage).
• Cost variables (e.g. Unit cost of Material)
• Various. variables (e.g. Nos of HV & LV Ducts)
• Conductor cross section calculation. variables(HV /LV Cross section)
• Design variables. (e.g. Leg center, Window height, LV turns)”

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4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

This methodology known as multiple design.method, is a heuristic technique

that assigns many.alternative values to the design variables so as to generate
a large number of alternative designs. and finally to select the design that
satisfies. all the problem constraints with minimum manufacturing cost(41).

4.3 Computer Base Transformer Design Methodology

The”transformer design can be very efficiently carried out by a computer. The

major”design factors like Iron loss, Load loss, % Impedance and finally the” cost of
the active materials are calculated(131). The calculations are based on the
same assumptions as in the classical theory i.e. the procedure as followed by a
designer.”The core diameter, core area, core loss, LV winding design, HV
winding” design, % impedance calculation and so on. ”The laborious and time
consuming” design calculations are carried out by the computer programs in
few seconds. The computer” results are also, without exception accurate.
However, the computer lacks the judgment of a designer and hence every step in”
the design process has to be investigated”and written down exactly because the
computer cannot take account of all the various factors influencing” at the
same time.”

The various”computer programs help the designer to select types of

windings,”inter disc blocks, conductor coverings, inter winding ducts, net core
area,” core construction, short circuit forces that are likely to come,”thermal
design & radiator requirement,”estimate eddy and stray losses, estimate
impulse voltage that is likely to come on the discs” and whether inter disc
block & conductor covering can withstand reliably the impulse voltage(130).”

For transformer design program, following key parameters are operated on

various range, which enables hundreds. of designs execution in short time
aimed to achieve optimum design which provides best efficiency and low

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4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

Table 4.1 Variables, Monitoring and Output Parameters of Transformer Design

Variable Parameter Monitoring Output

Parameter Parameter
K-factor Core and winding geometry Key-Raw Material cost
Conductor Current density No Load loss
Conductor Flux Density Load Loss
CRGO Temperature Gradient % impedance
Material grade
Clearances Temperature Rise

Transformer designer must take into account numerous performance

parameters and technical constraints while aimed for optimum design. Few of
them are as following.”

➢ Constraint of No Load and Load Loss.

➢ Constraint of Stray loss.
➢ Constraint of Voltage stress and Inrush current.
➢ Constraint of S.ckt forces.
➢ Constraint of Insulation Coordination.
➢ Constraint of Heat Dissipation.

The “design procedure ask for consideration of several assumptions for

low cost and high efficient design. 70 % of total transformer.cost is
covered by two major materials, namely Copper and Lamination. All above
said variables are associated with each other like condoctor geometry
make great influence on Load loss and %Z, while flux density influence the
core geometry and finally to no load loss.ll

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4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

Input Parameters
kVA, HV, LV, Tapping etc.

Voltage /turns calculation-

HV & LV turns calculation

Core area & core diameter


Winding Design: Winding

Geometry, Load loss,
Copper weight and %
Impedance calculation

Core Design: Core geometry,

Core weight & No Load Loss

Tank & cooler design

Temperature gradient, Stray-

eddy loss, Temperature rise


Figure: 4.12 Transformer Design Process Flow Chart

The Flux density (Bm), Current Density, K factor. are the parameter which
influence. greatly to customer’s requirements viz. No load. Loss, Load Loss,
%Z and cost too. The inter relation between these parameters are as

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4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer


No Load Loss(kW)

60 Impedance
Load Loss
20 (kW)

0.4 0.410.420.430.440.450.460.470.480.49 0.5


60 No Load Loss(kW)
40 Cost(INR)
1.5 1.53 1.56 1.59 1.62 1.65 1.68 1.71 1.74



100 Load Loss

50 Cost(INR)

2 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3 3.2 3.4 3.6

Figure: 4.13 Parametric Impact to the Cost and Losses of the
Transformer (A) NLL, Load Loss and %Z Comparison (B) NLL Vs Cost of
Transformer (C) Load Loss Vs Cost of Transformer.

Apart from the mathematical equations, transformer design process ask for
several standard data.and assumptions factors which also are described

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4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

4.4 The Sequencial Steps Calculations of Transformer Design Process

The design sequence with respective formulas. for a three phase core type.
power transformer is as following.”

4.4.1 Calculation of No. of Turns

Based on kVA rating emf per turns is calculated. So, emf per turns is
calculated using equation

Et=K√Q Where Q=kVA [1]

The number of primary and secondary. turns are calculted as follows,

THV = VHV / Et [2]

TLV = VLV / (√3 × Et) [3]

4.4.2 Core Design

Core design includes the calculation of. area, diameter, number of steps of
core. This design is based on frequency, flux density.and emf per turns.

The area of core is calculated as follows,

Ai = [4]

Core diameter is being calculated as following

d = √( ) × 10 [5]

the diameter of core is obtained from. eqation [5], take round off to the nearest
value. the number of steps is calculated,

If, Ns=. (d×0.04) > 17 then Ns.= 17 otherwise take Ns= d× 0.04

4.4.3 Winding Design

There are two types of winding designs : (i) HV winding. Design and (ii) LV
winding design. To design a winding,. rated current, cross sectional area,
number of. disc, tapping disc, turns per. disc, radial depth, axially. unshrunk
height and shrunk height, inner and outer. diameter are calculated. some
standard. constant values are require to design winding.”

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4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

Alvcu=ILV/ δLV [06]

LVh= Todisc × Hc+ ((Todisc-1)× Indisc) +Intap [07]
Dlvr=Ct ×Npc × Tpd × 1.015 [08]
LVid = d + 2×Clvc [09]
LVidm = LVid + Dlvr [10]
LVod = LVidm + Dlvr [11]
Similarly calculation is being done for the HV winding.

4.4.4 Calculation of Performance Parameter

After a winding design some. performance parameters like percentage.
impedance, core loss, weight of core and. copper, load losses and percentage
efficiency are calculated.

%Z= √(%R2 + %X2) [12]

(7.65 ×( 𝐻𝑤÷10)+(4×𝑐𝑙𝑐÷10)+(2.1×𝑑÷10))
Wc = × 𝐴𝑖 [13]
Closs = Wc × ff × MF × Watts/kg [14]
𝐿𝑉𝑖𝑑 ×π×Alvcu ×Tlv ×8.89 ×3
Wlvcu = [15]
𝐻𝑉𝑖𝑑 × 𝜋 ×𝐴ℎ𝑣𝑐𝑢 × 𝑇ℎ𝑣 × 8.89 × 3
Whvcu = [16]
LVculoss = Wlvcu × δ2LV× 2.4 [17]
HVculoss = Whvcu × δ2HV× 2.4 [19]
Culoss = LVculoss + HVculoss [20]
Toloss = Closs + Culoss + (0.2 × Culoss) [21]
𝑂𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟
%η= [22]
𝑂𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟+𝑇𝑜𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑠

4.4.5 Total cost of active part

Ccost = Wc × (material cost/kg) [23]

LVccost = Wlvcu × (material cost/kg) [24]

HVccost = Whvcu × (material cost/kg) [25]

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4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

4.4.6 Core Step Calculation

Core calculation:
Nos of Steps : =(core dia *0.04) > 17 then 17 otherwise (core dia*0.04)
Core length = (3 * window height/10 + 4 * leg center/10+2.1 * core dia/10)
Constant(G) = (( core dia) ^2-((core dia^2-( core dia * 0.2)^2)^0.5-(core dia *
0.027))^2)^0.5. {Note: Take the rounded value (*by 5 & / by 5)}
Minimum step width : If G < 50. then,50 otherwise G
Maximum width(1st step) = (core dia * 0.98) {Note: Take the rounded value
(*by 5 & / by 5)}
Step No 2 Width = Maximum width-10 { Note:( 10─15─25 gradually)}
Step No 1 thickness. = (( Core dia)^2 -(step 1 width)^2)^0.5
Step No 2 thickness = (( Core dia)^2 -(step 2 width)^2)^0.5-(thickness of 1st step)
Step No 3 thickness = ((Core dia)^2 -(step 3 width)^2)^0.5-(thickness of 1st
step+ thickness of 2nd step)
Area of ( N step) = N step width * N step thickness *0.0095
Area of ( 2nd step) = 2nd step width - step thickness *0.0095
{Note: Multiplying factor. for first stack width = if core dia < 300 then 5 otherwise 10}
Total area = Sum of all. step area{Note:( 0.1*core dia) if core dia >390
otherwise 0}

4.4.7 Winding Gradient and Stray Loss Calculation LV winding Gradient

Winding Surface :(( MLT)*( LV Wdg Radial +Conductor area) * 2 * Nos of Disc
* 0.67/10^6)
Eddy loss :( 10 * ((Nos. of Layer + covered conductor width)^2 – 0.2) * (cond.
Bare Width/10)^4*(( Nos of Disc + Over all cond. Width)/Wdg Axial )^2 *
(freq/50)^2+1 ) [26]
W/m2=( I²R + Eddy+ Connection loss)/3/Wdg surface
Gradient = ( (w/m2)/100 +(w/m²)/200 * Cond. Covering/2) [27]
Top oil rise =If (Guaranteed Wdg rise-gradient)/0.8 > (top oil rise guaranteed-
2), ( top oil rise guaranteed-1),( Guaranteed Wdg rise-gradient)/0.8) [28]
LV Wdg Rise : ( Top oil rise* 0.8)+ gradient
HV Wdg Rise : ( Top oil rise* 0.8)+ gradient

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4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer HV Winding Gradient

Winding Surface :(( MLT)* Wdg Radial * 2 *(Nos of Disc Normal + Tap Disc/2)
* 0.67/10^6)
Eddy loss : ( 10 * ((Nos. of turns per disc * Nos of parallel condt.)^2 – 0.2) *
(cond. Bare Width/10)^4*(( Nos of Disc normal * Axial condt dimension + Nos
of Disc tap * Axial condt dimension)/Wdg Axial )^2 * ( freq/50)^2+1 ) [29]
W/m2=( I²R + Eddy+ Connection loss)/3/Wdg surface
Gradient = ( (w/m²)/200 +(w/m²)/100 * Cond. Covering/2*1.1) [30] Stray Loss (LV) :

(1200*(Et*%X/222)^1.7*( 2000 / Wdg Axial Height)^0.5 *( KVA/1000/100)^0.25
[31] Stray Loss (HV) :
( LV I²R + LV Eddy + LV Connection Loss + LV Stray Loss + HV I²R + HV Eddy )
4.4.8 Current and Flux Density Calculation
Flux Density = LV Volt / ( √3* LV Turns *Core Area *.0222) T [33]

4.4.9 Ampear Turns (AT) Balance Calculation

Winding Portion Winding
Ht D1 Portion Ht d1
Phase current A1 *** Phase current a1
Nos of discs B1 Wdg Nos of disc b1
Nos of turns C1 height Nos of turns c1
AT1 A1 * C1 Ht1 at1 a1 * c1
AT1/MM 1*C1)/D1 at1/MM (a1*c1)/d1
Winding Portion Winding
Ht D2 Portion Ht d2
Phase current A2 Phase current a2
Nos of disc B2 Ht2 ht2 Nos of disc b2
Nos of turns C2 Nos of turns c2
AT 2 A2 * C2 at2 a2 * c2
AT2/MM (A2*C2)/D2 at2/MM (a2 *c2)/d2

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4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

Ampere Turns Balancing of Winding

Winding Winding
Portion Ht D3 Portion Ht d3
Phase current A3 current a3
Nos of disc B3 Ht3 ht3
Nos of disc b3
Nos of turns C3 Nos of turns c3
AT 3 A 3* C3 at3 a 3* c3
AT3/MM (A3 *C3)/D3 at3/MM (a3 *c3)/d3
Total(HT(hv)) (Ht1+Ht2+Ht3) Total (HT(lv)) (ht1+ht2+ht3)

Total No. of discs Disc HV Disc LV

Total No. of turns (C1+C2+C3) (c1+c2+c3)
Total AT: At1+At2+AT3 at1+at2+at3
Axial Ht.:- HT(hv) HT(lv)
AT/MM:- AT(HV)/HT(hv) at(lv)/Ht(lv)

***Winding portion Ht =
(Nos of disc x Condustor ht x Nos od axially condust) + (0.8 x Nos of disc x
Nos of axially cond x 0.85) +
((Nos of disc-1) x spacer thickness x 0.95)

4.4.10 Capacitance Calculation Parallel Capacitance

C ( 1 & 2)=(D*H) /36/ ( (X/2.7)+(Y/4.2) ) [34]
C=C1 ( HV)+C2( LV) pF
D=Mean diameter of winding considered
X=Thickness of oil insulation bet wdg (mm)(Duct)
Y=Thickness of solid insulation(PB) between wdg (mm)(cylinder)
H=Axial wdg. length(mm)

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4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer Series Capacitance

Csi= (3.2*D*(W+(2*t))*(n-d-1))/(36*t*M) pF [35]

Csn= (D/36/M)*(A+B+C) PF





D=Mean Dia meter of winding in mm

W=Bare conductor axial width

t=Conductor covering

n=no of layer

D=no duct bet layer

M=No. of Turns

M=no of conductor per layer(axially parallel)

ga=Axial Duct width

gr=Radial Spacer thickness

g’=smaller of ga/gr

h=Bare conductor width

r=Radial Depth

4.4.11 Impulse Calculation


Physical length of inding
Cu to Cu dist. Bet. Two line Discs / Turns
No of Discs
Radial Dist. HV to LV
Rad. depth of Winding

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4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

𝛼=√ [36]

4.4.12 Inrush Current Calculation

Io max = Hw x Ai x (2 x Bm + Br - 2.2) / N x Ac x µ0 [37]

Hw= wdg ht
Ai= Core area
Bm= flux density
Br= Remnant flux density(Approx. 60% of Bm)
N= NO.Of Wdg Turns
Ac= Mean Area enclosed by winding
µ0=Air Permeability (4 Π x 10 -7)

4.5 Dynamic Short Circuit Withstand Capacity Calculation

Dynamic Ability Calculations for Short Circuit

4.5.1 Calculations of 1st Peak Value of Asymmetrical Short Circuit Current

Isc=k*Sqrt(2)*Iph / Iz [38]

where k*sqrt(2) is a function of x/r

k*sqrt(2) = 1.8 *1.414 =2.55

Iph = Rated Phase Current in Amps

Iz = Per Unit Impedance

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4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

4.5.2 Calculation of Asymmetrical Short Circuit Ampere Turns

Amp Turns = N * Isc [39]

Where N = No. of Turns
Isc = Asymmetrical Short circuit Current

4.5.3 Hoop Stress

HP(mean) = K * Iph * Iph * Rdc / (Ht *Iz *Iz)Kg / Cm2 [40]

Where, K = 0.03 for Copper
Rdc = DC Resistance of the Phase at 75 ⁰C in Ohms
Ht = Height of the winding in cm.
P avg = HP (HV) + HP(LV) / 2
The permissible limit is 1250 Kg / cm2

4.5.4 Radial Bursting Force

Fr = 2 *  * Hp mean * Iph * N / Density Kgs [41]

Where Density = Current Density in Amp / cm2
No. of Supports to be provided in the winding
Ns = (Dmi / Bi)*sqrt ( 12* HP avg / E )
Where E= Elasticity Constant = 1.13 * 106 Kg / cm2
Dmi= Mean Diameter in side of the winding in cm
Bi = Thickness of inside winding conductor in cm.

4.5.5 Internal Axial Compression

Fc = - 34 *Sn / ( Iz * Ht) Kg [42]
Where Sn = Rated kVA
(-) Indicates that the force is acting towards the center

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4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

4.5.6 Calculation of Axial Imbalance Force Due to Tapping within the Winding
Fa = ( a / 2 ) * ( N * Isc )2 * 10 - 7 [43]
Where a= per unit turns out of circuit in the winding = 0.05

Due provided, the force will be half of that.calculate above.

Fa = Fa / 2 Kg

4.5.7 Maximum Compressive Pressure on Spacers

Pi = (Fa + ( 2 / 3 *Fc ) ) / Ai Kg/cm2 [44]

Po = (Fa + (1 / 3 * Fc ) ) / Ao Kg/cm2 [45]
Where Pi= Compressive Pressure in the inner radial spacers in Kg / cm2
Po= Compressive pressure in the outer radial spacers in Kg /cm2
Ai= Total supported area of the inner radial spacer in cm2.
Ao= Total supported area of the outer radial spacer in cm2

The permissible limit is 500 Kg / cm2

4.5.8 Tensile stress in Tie Rods / Flitch Plates

Pt = ( Fa - ( Fc / 3 ) ) / Total Area Kg / cm2 [46]

Where Total Area = No. of Tie Rods or Flitch Plates * Size

Which is well below the permissible limit of 2500 Kg / cm2

4.5.9 Bending Stress on Clamping Structure

Bs max = ( 6 *  * Fa * D ) / ( 8 * b * t2 * n2) [47]
Where D = Diameter of the ring in cm.
b = Width of the ring in cm.
t = Thickness of the ring in cm.
n = No. of Jacking pads

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4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

4.6 Thermal Ability Calculation

Sym. Short Circuit U KA

Current (I) = ( Zt + Zs ) * 1.73

U=Rated Voltage of the Winding

Zt (Short Circuit Impedance of the Transformer ) =
Uz * Un2
100 *Sn
Uz = % Impedance
Un= Rated Voltage
Sn = Rating in MVA
Final Temperature(1 ) = (0 + a * j 2 * t * 10 - 3 ) [48]
Initial Temp(0) = 105,
Current Density under S.ckt ( J) = Sym S.Ckt
current / Copper area
Short Circuit Duration(t)= 2 Sec
a = 8.2
Permissible Limits 250oC

4.7 Efficienency and Regulation Calculation

Efficiency % KVA x P.F x % Load x 100

{(KVA x P.F x %Load)+ (N.L.L. Loss (KW)) + ( (% Load) 2 x Load
Loss (KW))}

Regulation % (% Resistance x cosØ) + (% Reactance x sinØ) +

({(% Reactance x cosØ ) - ( % Resistance x sinØ )} 2) / 200

4.8 Tank Calculation

Tank Breath - B ((HV coil OD +256)/5 )*5-15 [51]

Tank Length - L ((Core CL * 2+ Tank B)/5)*5+30 [52]
Tank Height - H ((WH * 2 + Core Dia)+150)/5)*5+75 [53]

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4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

4.9 Pressure and Vacuum Calculation

1) Tank Height in cm
2) Tank to Conservator 1/2 Level in cm.
Total (T) = 1) + 2) = cm.

Head Pressure (P) = 0.00089 x Head of Oil (T) (cm)

= 0.00089 x (T) = 0.25 kg/cm2.
= Kg/Cm². / PSI
Required pressure for Pressure test is P+5 PSI

4.10 Oil Calculation

Material Weight Density Displacement

Copper Weight Density Displacement
CRGO Weight Density Displacement
MS Frame Weight Density Displacement
Connection Copper Weight Density Displacement
Insulation Weight Density Displacement
Total :- Displacement
Total Volume of Tank = L X B X H cm3
Total Volume of oil ( A):-Total Volume of Tank - Total Displacement
Oil in Conservator(B) :- 10 % of Total Oil Volume
Radiator Oil (C ):- (a)Ltrs in one Finns
(b)No of finns in one radiator
(c )Total Number of Radiator
Total oil in radiator = (a*b*c)
Total Oil Qty = A+B+C

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4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

4.11 Radiator and Cooling Calculation

CC= (tank height-100-1.1*core dia)/100)100-400

Nos section ((radiator dissipation/(W/section)/(Nos of rad+1))+3

Nos radiators (Tank Length/520+1)*2

Rad Dissipation ( NLL+LL)*(1+positive tap var/200)-tank dissip

Tank Dissipation tank surface area*6*Top oil rise

Tank surface area (tank Length+Tank Breath)*tank height/1000000

A (Oil rise -30)/5

Watt Diss ( Q) (oil rise temperature factor @ CC for table

B (Oil rise/(A*5+30)

C ( VF Const) ('(Tank ht-100-CC/2)-(WH/2+Core Dia * 1.2))

VF With reference to value of C Take VF from table

D ( HF Const) Tank ht/ (Nos of radiator/2 -1)

HF With reference to value of D Take VF from table

E (SF Const) Radiator Dissip/A/B/VF/HF

SF With reference to value of E/F Take SF from table

F ( WF const) With reference to value of E Take WF from table

W/Section Q*B.VF.HF.SF

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4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

4.12 Computer Based Power Transformer Design:

Based on above said calculations and standard. technical datas as per

Appendix (C),The Power transformer. design is formulated in the MS Excel.All
the parameters. like Losses, % Z, Winding Geommetries, Core. Geometries,
Temperature rise etc are acquire. with the help of Methametical formulation.
with respect to Input technical datas lik Rating, HV &. LV voltages, Tap range,
Vector Group. etc.The design Module is. shown in Figure 4.14 and respective.
output is shown in Table 4.2.”

Figure 4.14 Programming for Design of Power Transformer Using

Ms-Excel Tool

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4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

The computer based program of Transformer. design was executed several

time with aim. to mitigate the technical parameters. like NLL, Load Loss and
%Z. The result summery. of some designs are presented in Table No 4.2.

4.2 Design Data of Power Transformer Conventional Design Program By

Ms-Excel Tool.

Parameters Result 1 Result 2 Result 3 Result 4 Result 5 Result 6

k-factor 0.42 0.417 0.428 0.432 0.441 0.432

Bm (wb/m²) 1.60 1.65 1.58 1.57 1.59 1.6

DelLV(A/mm2) 2.23 2.39 2.51 2.48 2.45 2.60

DelHV(A/mm2) 2.81 2.62 2.67 2.58 2.47 2.65

9.92 9.79 9.91 10.01 9.88 9.73
losses (kW)
Load losses
66.79 66.85 67.91 68.14 67.66 67.42
%Z 8.81 8.72 8.95 9.43 9.07 8.90

%η 99.13 99.22 99.10 99.21 99.20 99.14

GLV 9.56 9.25 9.76 9.47 10.03 9.94

GHV 20.87 21.92 21.59 22.06 20.88 20.73

Wcore (kg) 11133.4 10960.5 10750.5 11077.8 10990.8 11170.6

Wcu (kg) 5026 5250 5180.9 5370.8 5266.9 5305.6

Total cost
6305692 6330566 6405511 6290520 6414953 6348652

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4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

4.13 MATLAB based Program for Transformer Design Optimization:

The conventional design program may or may not be the optimal design. Now
to obtain the optimum design, with certain optimization objective and design
constraints are inserted. into the conventional design program which. is in
MATLAB tool(132,133). The whole design consideration.and design
procedure is given in Figure 4.12. The pattern of MATLAB TDO program is
shown in Figure 4.15.”

After execution of the program using “Iterative Method” 19 results .are

obtained satisfying constrains, which .is shown in Figure 4.5. The list of
constraints and variables are depicted in Table 4.3 and Table 4.4 respectively.
The comparison between two parameters like Flux .density Vs NLL, Current
density Vs Load Loss, K factor Vs NLL etc are detected in Figure 4.6.
Table 4.3 List of Variables for TDO Program

Variable Range
1. K-factor 0.35 to 0.55
2. Flux density (Bm) 1.45 to 1.75 Wb/ m2
3. Current Density of LV winding 1.9 to 3.5 A/mm2
4. Current Density of HV winding 1.9 to 3.5 A/mm2
5. No. of Stiffener 2 to 8

Table 4.4 List of design constraints for TDO program

Sr. No. Constraints Range

1. No Load Loss <11000 watt
2. Load Loss <70000 watt
3. Percentage impedance 7<%z<10
4. Efficiency >99%
5. Gradient of LV winding 9<GLV<23
6. Gradient of HV winding 9<GHV<23
7. Deflection 5<def<9 mm

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4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer


















Figure 4.15 Transformer Design Optimization Process Flow Chart Using

Iterative Method in MATLAB

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4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer


Figure 4.16 Programming for Design of Power Transformer Using MATLAB
(A) and Respective Result Using Iterative Method(B)

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4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

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4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

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4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

Figure 4.17 Graphical Representation of Iterative Method TDO

(A) Flux Density Vs NLL, (B) Current density (HV) Vs Load Loss,
(C) Current Density(LV) Vs Load Loss, (D) Stiffener Vs Deflection in Tank
and (E) K-factor Vs No Load Loss

In this method the above results are saved in excel sheet. So from that we
can pick any suitable design as per customer requirement and design the

4.14 Conclusion
With the use of National-International standards and Industrial code of
practice, The computer program was developed which was put on experiment
related to the prevailing design methodology. The MATLAB software was
used to get the optimized. design solution, which really will be. the ready
reckoner for designer as it is presenting the.analytical and graphical
comparison between. various parameters.

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