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Transformer design is a complex task in which engineers have to ensure that

compatibility with the imposed specifications. are met, while keeping

manufacturing cost low.

enabling one to optimize their construction and to take advantage of the

improvements in magnetic and electric material properties for design and trial

and error methods for design verification and condition monitoring(2).

design has been a logical extension of the use of computers and numerical

tools enabling one to model accurately the geometrical complexities as well

as the nonlinear material characteristics for problem analysis. In addition,

optimization algorithms have been very successfully combined with.numerical

techniques to represent .the electromagnetic and thermal. phenomena

developed in power transformers, resulting.in very powerful composite

computational methodologies. Particularly, artificial intelligence algorithms.

incorporated in such techniques have. dramatically enhanced the speed and

capability for achieving detailed. optimum designs and assessment of

transformer life.”

transformer type. (distribution, power or instrument transformer) and its

operating frequency (ranging between 50/60 Hz and a few megahertz)

according to the core. constructional characteristics, the cooling method or the

type. of the magnetic material and many more(2).

characteristics like NLL & LL, Leakage. Field, Inrush Current, Dynamic

Behavior, .Noise, Insulation, Cooling etc.

Chiragkumar N Parekh 18

4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

design phase. to minimize material costs and satisfy the utility’s loss.

evaluation requirement. ‘

The difficulty in achieving the optimum balance between the transformer cost

and performance is a complicated task and the techniques that are employed

for its solution must be able to deal with the design considerations. So as to

provide a design optimum while remaining. cost effective and flexible.”

involving different mathematical optimization methods.

For any chosen optimization.method, there always will be a question for its

effectiveness and how much detail to include in the problem. description.

Although,the ultimate aim is to find out the lowest cost, one might wish to

achieve such solution that should.provide sufficient information. So finally the

actual design can be shaped with little further work.”

However, it would be. impractical to think that the optimum. cost design for a

transformer would certainly satisfy all of the electrical, mechanical and thermal

constraints that require sophisticated design algorithms to evaluate.

So to work for the transformer design optimization techniques. that deal with

the minimization of the manufacturing. as well as operating cost can be well

worth for manufacturer as well as for utility.

The aim of transformer design is to obtain the dimensions of all parts of the

transformer. in order to supply these data to the manufacturer. Some of those

important parts like winding, core, transformer tank, tap changer device,

bushings, and coolers etc are shown in following Figure 4.1. Each part is

having the specific task and responsibility.For the manufacturing and

assembling these object, different engineering is to be applied for shaping

complete transformer(130).

Chiragkumar N Parekh 19

4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

4.1.1.1 Winding:”

It is known as the heart of transformer. Winding” is made up of costly metal

like copper and”aluminum, it is considered as a costliest component of

”transformer. Transformer windings are designed to” meet three fundamental

requirements viz. mechanical, thermal and electrical. ”They are ”cylindrical in

shape and are assembled concentrically.” Paper insulated conductors of high

conductivity & soft drawn E.C. Grade copper is used which comply with the

latest Indian as well as international standards. According to the application

and rating of the transformer the suitability of winding type is decided by

designer. Cylindrical windings, helical windings, cross over windings,

continuous disc winding, inter leaved winding, Intra shield winding, foil winding

etc are the different types of winding of transformer. For example, the inter

leaved or Intra shield windings are used for EHV or UHV class transformers,

while helical windings are used for high current transformer.”

Chiragkumar N Parekh 20

4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

4.1.1.2 Core:

Core is also one of the most important and costliest part of the transformer. It

is built with Cold Rolled Grain Oriented Silicon Steel, low loss silicon steel

lamination. Bonded core design/ technique is used to eliminate hole”punching

and to minimize fixed losses”and Magnetizing Current. Use of HiB grade”&

Laser scribed Laminations and rigid clamps significantly reduce vibrations and

noise level.

These are being made up from mild steel.” Tank provides the housing ”to the

transformer and” Radiator provides the cooling. ”

Chiragkumar N Parekh 21

4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

4.1.1.4 Bushings:

It is used to connect the active part (CCA) of transformer to the electrical

network.

”

4.1.1.5 Insulation Component:”

These are made up of Press Board” or Laminated wood. It provides the

mechanical as well as electrical strength to the transformer against the radial-

axial forces and high voltage strokes.”

Chiragkumar N Parekh 22

4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

It is used to provide the constant voltage to the consumer against the

disturbance in transmission network due to sudden rise and fall of load. This

is mainly two type. One is On Load tap changer and other is Off load tap

changer.

The“transformer design should be carried out based.on the specification”

given, using available”materials. economically in order to achieve low.cost,

low weight,” small size and good operating. performance. Major” materials like

copper, CRGO, insulating oil,” press board and paper insulations and certain

ferrous and nonferrous items are essential to build a compact and trouble free

transformer.

materials:

4.1.2.1 Copper:

Copper is most suitable material for power transformer winding construction

due to it’s tensile strength, High electrical conductivity and density. Depending

Chiragkumar N Parekh 23

4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

rectangular conductor. For optimum current density multi parallel conductors

are being considered by designer. Now a days CTC conductor has replaced

the concept of use of multi conductor. It is making the electrical circuit for

transformer and responsible for resistive, eddy current and stray losses.

4.1.2.2 CRGO:

CRGO is use to construct the magnetic circuit of power transformer. It is 0.23

to 0.3 mm thickness steel sheets with silicon content of approximate 3%. It is

responsible for No Load loss and Noise in transformer. There are different

grades available for CRGO, which has specific losses at specific flux density.

Insulation is an important component for transformer construction as it is

closely related to the life cycle of transformer. Whatever the stress like voltage

stress,”Thermal stress, Short circuit current stress will route only through solid

insulation of winding and core. The insulating materials are of various type like

Pre Compress Press Board (PCPB), Laminated wooden insulation (Perma

wood), Kraft and Creep paper, Fiber Board etc. These material are mostly

having cellulose base and also great electrical voltage withstand strength.

These material must be moisture free (dry) before putting transformer in

Chiragkumar N Parekh 24

4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

taken care wisely for the life time expectancy of the transformer.

It is liquid insulating material used in transformer which is having high

electrical insulating property. This liquid insulating material being made from

petroleum. Apart from functioning as an insulating agent in transformer it is

also responsible to provide cooling. On the base of heat and mass transfer

theory it works and extract the heat from winding & core and provide cooling

with the help of coolers and radiators.

Chiragkumar N Parekh 25

4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

Bushings are also one of the important component for transformer. It provides

the way to connect the termination of winding to the electrical network.

Different types of bushings are used for transformers viz, solid porcelain type,

Oil impregnated Condenser type, Epoxy type, Silicon rubber type, PIP type

etc. It’s one end connects to the winding inside tank and other end connects

to the power network. It is being mounted on transformer tank.

The transformer Core-Winding assembly is to be housed in tank and, also to

be filled with oil. The tank is made up of mild steel to provide protection to the

CCA against the pressure and vacuum generation due to temperature rise

Chiragkumar N Parekh 26

4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

while working. During the course of fault and failure it plays a vital role to

handle the developed excessive pressure and prevent the chance fire in yard.

given, using available materials economically in order to achieve low cost, low

weight, small size and good operating. performance. The transformer design

is worked out using various methods based on accumulated.experience

realized in different formulas, equations, tables and charts.

“These parameters are split into the following seven types.

• Description variables (e.g., rated power, rated low voltage (LV) and

high voltage (HV), frequency, LV and HV connection).

• Special variables(core stacking factor, mass density of materials used).

• Default. variables (e.g., LV and HV taps, guaranteed no-load loss, load

loss, and impedance voltage).

• Cost variables (e.g. Unit cost of Material)

• Various. variables (e.g. Nos of HV & LV Ducts)

• Conductor cross section calculation. variables(HV /LV Cross section)

• Design variables. (e.g. Leg center, Window height, LV turns)”

Chiragkumar N Parekh 27

4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

that assigns many.alternative values to the design variables so as to generate

a large number of alternative designs. and finally to select the design that

satisfies. all the problem constraints with minimum manufacturing cost(41).

major”design factors like Iron loss, Load loss, % Impedance and finally the” cost of

the active materials are calculated(131). The calculations are based on the

same assumptions as in the classical theory i.e. the procedure as followed by a

designer.”The core diameter, core area, core loss, LV winding design, HV

winding” design, % impedance calculation and so on. ”The laborious and time

consuming” design calculations are carried out by the computer programs in

few seconds. The computer” results are also, without exception accurate.

However, the computer lacks the judgment of a designer and hence every step in”

the design process has to be investigated”and written down exactly because the

computer cannot take account of all the various factors influencing” at the

same time.”

windings,”inter disc blocks, conductor coverings, inter winding ducts, net core

area,” core construction, short circuit forces that are likely to come,”thermal

design & radiator requirement,”estimate eddy and stray losses, estimate

impulse voltage that is likely to come on the discs” and whether inter disc

block & conductor covering can withstand reliably the impulse voltage(130).”

various range, which enables hundreds. of designs execution in short time

aimed to achieve optimum design which provides best efficiency and low

cost.

Chiragkumar N Parekh 28

4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

Parameter Parameter

K-factor Core and winding geometry Key-Raw Material cost

Conductor Current density No Load loss

Geometry

Conductor Flux Density Load Loss

arrangement

CRGO Temperature Gradient % impedance

Material grade

Clearances Temperature Rise

parameters and technical constraints while aimed for optimum design. Few of

them are as following.”

➢ Constraint of Stray loss.

➢ Constraint of Voltage stress and Inrush current.

➢ Constraint of S.ckt forces.

➢ Constraint of Insulation Coordination.

➢ Constraint of Heat Dissipation.

low cost and high efficient design. 70 % of total transformer.cost is

covered by two major materials, namely Copper and Lamination. All above

said variables are associated with each other like condoctor geometry

make great influence on Load loss and %Z, while flux density influence the

core geometry and finally to no load loss.ll

Chiragkumar N Parekh 29

4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

Input Parameters

kVA, HV, LV, Tapping etc.

HV & LV turns calculation

calculation

Geometry, Load loss,

Copper weight and %

Impedance calculation

Core weight & No Load Loss

calculation

eddy loss, Temperature rise

calculation

Costing

The Flux density (Bm), Current Density, K factor. are the parameter which

influence. greatly to customer’s requirements viz. No load. Loss, Load Loss,

%Z and cost too. The inter relation between these parameters are as

following.

Chiragkumar N Parekh 30

4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

120

100

No Load Loss(kW)

80

60 Impedance

(%Z)

40

Load Loss

20 (kW)

0

0.4 0.410.420.430.440.450.460.470.480.49 0.5

(A)

120

100

80

60 No Load Loss(kW)

40 Cost(INR)

20

0

1.5 1.53 1.56 1.59 1.62 1.65 1.68 1.71 1.74

(B)

150

(kW)

50 Cost(INR)

0

2 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3 3.2 3.4 3.6

(C)

Figure: 4.13 Parametric Impact to the Cost and Losses of the

Transformer (A) NLL, Load Loss and %Z Comparison (B) NLL Vs Cost of

Transformer (C) Load Loss Vs Cost of Transformer.

Apart from the mathematical equations, transformer design process ask for

several standard data.and assumptions factors which also are described

herewith.

Chiragkumar N Parekh 31

4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

The design sequence with respective formulas. for a three phase core type.

power transformer is as following.”

Based on kVA rating emf per turns is calculated. So, emf per turns is

calculated using equation

Core design includes the calculation of. area, diameter, number of steps of

core. This design is based on frequency, flux density.and emf per turns.

Et×104

Ai = [4]

4.44×Bm×f

Ai

d = √( ) × 10 [5]

0.69

the diameter of core is obtained from. eqation [5], take round off to the nearest

value. the number of steps is calculated,

If, Ns=. (d×0.04) > 17 then Ns.= 17 otherwise take Ns= d× 0.04

There are two types of winding designs : (i) HV winding. Design and (ii) LV

winding design. To design a winding,. rated current, cross sectional area,

number of. disc, tapping disc, turns per. disc, radial depth, axially. unshrunk

height and shrunk height, inner and outer. diameter are calculated. some

standard. constant values are require to design winding.”

Chiragkumar N Parekh 32

4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

LVh= Todisc × Hc+ ((Todisc-1)× Indisc) +Intap [07]

Dlvr=Ct ×Npc × Tpd × 1.015 [08]

LVid = d + 2×Clvc [09]

LVidm = LVid + Dlvr [10]

LVod = LVidm + Dlvr [11]

Similarly calculation is being done for the HV winding.

After a winding design some. performance parameters like percentage.

impedance, core loss, weight of core and. copper, load losses and percentage

efficiency are calculated.

(7.65 ×( 𝐻𝑤÷10)+(4×𝑐𝑙𝑐÷10)+(2.1×𝑑÷10))

Wc = × 𝐴𝑖 [13]

1000

Closs = Wc × ff × MF × Watts/kg [14]

𝐿𝑉𝑖𝑑 ×π×Alvcu ×Tlv ×8.89 ×3

Wlvcu = [15]

1000000

𝐻𝑉𝑖𝑑 × 𝜋 ×𝐴ℎ𝑣𝑐𝑢 × 𝑇ℎ𝑣 × 8.89 × 3

Whvcu = [16]

1000000

LVculoss = Wlvcu × δ2LV× 2.4 [17]

HVculoss = Whvcu × δ2HV× 2.4 [19]

Culoss = LVculoss + HVculoss [20]

Toloss = Closs + Culoss + (0.2 × Culoss) [21]

𝑂𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟

%η= [22]

𝑂𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟+𝑇𝑜𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑠

Ccost = Wc × (material cost/kg) [23]

Chiragkumar N Parekh 33

4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

Core calculation:

Nos of Steps : =(core dia *0.04) > 17 then 17 otherwise (core dia*0.04)

Core length = (3 * window height/10 + 4 * leg center/10+2.1 * core dia/10)

Constant(G) = (( core dia) ^2-((core dia^2-( core dia * 0.2)^2)^0.5-(core dia *

0.027))^2)^0.5. {Note: Take the rounded value (*by 5 & / by 5)}

Minimum step width : If G < 50. then,50 otherwise G

Maximum width(1st step) = (core dia * 0.98) {Note: Take the rounded value

(*by 5 & / by 5)}

Step No 2 Width = Maximum width-10 { Note:( 10─15─25 gradually)}

Step No 1 thickness. = (( Core dia)^2 -(step 1 width)^2)^0.5

Step No 2 thickness = (( Core dia)^2 -(step 2 width)^2)^0.5-(thickness of 1st step)

Step No 3 thickness = ((Core dia)^2 -(step 3 width)^2)^0.5-(thickness of 1st

step+ thickness of 2nd step)

Area of ( N step) = N step width * N step thickness *0.0095

Area of ( 2nd step) = 2nd step width - step thickness *0.0095

{Note: Multiplying factor. for first stack width = if core dia < 300 then 5 otherwise 10}

Total area = Sum of all. step area{Note:( 0.1*core dia) if core dia >390

otherwise 0}

Winding Surface :(( MLT)*( LV Wdg Radial +Conductor area) * 2 * Nos of Disc

* 0.67/10^6)

Eddy loss :( 10 * ((Nos. of Layer + covered conductor width)^2 – 0.2) * (cond.

Bare Width/10)^4*(( Nos of Disc + Over all cond. Width)/Wdg Axial )^2 *

(freq/50)^2+1 ) [26]

W/m2=( I²R + Eddy+ Connection loss)/3/Wdg surface

Gradient = ( (w/m2)/100 +(w/m²)/200 * Cond. Covering/2) [27]

Top oil rise =If (Guaranteed Wdg rise-gradient)/0.8 > (top oil rise guaranteed-

2), ( top oil rise guaranteed-1),( Guaranteed Wdg rise-gradient)/0.8) [28]

LV Wdg Rise : ( Top oil rise* 0.8)+ gradient

HV Wdg Rise : ( Top oil rise* 0.8)+ gradient

Chiragkumar N Parekh 34

4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

Winding Surface :(( MLT)* Wdg Radial * 2 *(Nos of Disc Normal + Tap Disc/2)

* 0.67/10^6)

Eddy loss : ( 10 * ((Nos. of turns per disc * Nos of parallel condt.)^2 – 0.2) *

(cond. Bare Width/10)^4*(( Nos of Disc normal * Axial condt dimension + Nos

of Disc tap * Axial condt dimension)/Wdg Axial )^2 * ( freq/50)^2+1 ) [29]

W/m2=( I²R + Eddy+ Connection loss)/3/Wdg surface

Gradient = ( (w/m²)/200 +(w/m²)/100 * Cond. Covering/2*1.1) [30]

(1200*(Et*%X/222)^1.7*( 2000 / Wdg Axial Height)^0.5 *( KVA/1000/100)^0.25

[31]

4.4.7.4 Stray Loss (HV) :

( LV I²R + LV Eddy + LV Connection Loss + LV Stray Loss + HV I²R + HV Eddy )

[32]

4.4.8 Current and Flux Density Calculation

Flux Density = LV Volt / ( √3* LV Turns *Core Area *.0222) T [33]

HV LV

Winding Portion Winding

Ht D1 Portion Ht d1

Phase current A1 *** Phase current a1

Nos of discs B1 Wdg Nos of disc b1

ht1

Nos of turns C1 height Nos of turns c1

AT1 A1 * C1 Ht1 at1 a1 * c1

(A

AT1/MM 1*C1)/D1 at1/MM (a1*c1)/d1

Winding Portion Winding

Ht D2 Portion Ht d2

Phase current A2 Phase current a2

Nos of disc B2 Ht2 ht2 Nos of disc b2

Nos of turns C2 Nos of turns c2

AT 2 A2 * C2 at2 a2 * c2

AT2/MM (A2*C2)/D2 at2/MM (a2 *c2)/d2

Chiragkumar N Parekh 35

4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

HV LV

Winding Winding

Portion Ht D3 Portion Ht d3

Phase

Phase current A3 current a3

Nos of disc B3 Ht3 ht3

Nos of disc b3

Nos of turns C3 Nos of turns c3

AT 3 A 3* C3 at3 a 3* c3

AT3/MM (A3 *C3)/D3 at3/MM (a3 *c3)/d3

Total(HT(hv)) (Ht1+Ht2+Ht3) Total (HT(lv)) (ht1+ht2+ht3)

Total No. of turns (C1+C2+C3) (c1+c2+c3)

Total AT: At1+At2+AT3 at1+at2+at3

Axial Ht.:- HT(hv) HT(lv)

AT/MM:- AT(HV)/HT(hv) at(lv)/Ht(lv)

***Winding portion Ht =

(Nos of disc x Condustor ht x Nos od axially condust) + (0.8 x Nos of disc x

Nos of axially cond x 0.85) +

((Nos of disc-1) x spacer thickness x 0.95)

C ( 1 & 2)=(D*H) /36/ ( (X/2.7)+(Y/4.2) ) [34]

C=C1 ( HV)+C2( LV) pF

Where.

D=Mean diameter of winding considered

X=Thickness of oil insulation bet wdg (mm)(Duct)

Y=Thickness of solid insulation(PB) between wdg (mm)(cylinder)

H=Axial wdg. length(mm)

Chiragkumar N Parekh 36

4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

Csn= (D/36/M)*(A+B+C) PF

A=3.2*(h+(2*t))*(m-d-1)/m^2/t

B=(h+t+g')*d/m^2/((ga/2.7)+(t/3.2))

C=4/3*(R+gr)/((t/3.2)+(gr/2.8))

Where,

t=Conductor covering

n=no of layer

M=No. of Turns

g’=smaller of ga/gr

r=Radial Depth

Physical length of inding

L=

Cu to Cu dist. Bet. Two line Discs / Turns

x=

No of Discs

n=

Radial Dist. HV to LV

d=

Rad. depth of Winding

s=

Chiragkumar N Parekh 37

4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

𝐿∗𝑋∗𝑛

𝛼=√ [36]

𝑑∗𝑠

Where,

Hw= wdg ht

Ai= Core area

Bm= flux density

Br= Remnant flux density(Approx. 60% of Bm)

N= NO.Of Wdg Turns

Ac= Mean Area enclosed by winding

µ0=Air Permeability (4 Π x 10 -7)

Isc=k*Sqrt(2)*Iph / Iz [38]

Chiragkumar N Parekh 38

4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

Where N = No. of Turns

Isc = Asymmetrical Short circuit Current

Where, K = 0.03 for Copper

Rdc = DC Resistance of the Phase at 75 ⁰C in Ohms

Ht = Height of the winding in cm.

P avg = HP (HV) + HP(LV) / 2

The permissible limit is 1250 Kg / cm2

Where Density = Current Density in Amp / cm2

Hence,

No. of Supports to be provided in the winding

Ns = (Dmi / Bi)*sqrt ( 12* HP avg / E )

Where E= Elasticity Constant = 1.13 * 106 Kg / cm2

Dmi= Mean Diameter in side of the winding in cm

Bi = Thickness of inside winding conductor in cm.

Fc = - 34 *Sn / ( Iz * Ht) Kg [42]

Where Sn = Rated kVA

(-) Indicates that the force is acting towards the center

Chiragkumar N Parekh 39

4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

4.5.6 Calculation of Axial Imbalance Force Due to Tapping within the Winding

Fa = ( a / 2 ) * ( N * Isc )2 * 10 - 7 [43]

Where a= per unit turns out of circuit in the winding = 0.05

Hence,

Fa = Fa / 2 Kg

Po = (Fa + (1 / 3 * Fc ) ) / Ao Kg/cm2 [45]

Where Pi= Compressive Pressure in the inner radial spacers in Kg / cm2

Po= Compressive pressure in the outer radial spacers in Kg /cm2

Ai= Total supported area of the inner radial spacer in cm2.

Ao= Total supported area of the outer radial spacer in cm2

Where Total Area = No. of Tie Rods or Flitch Plates * Size

Bs max = ( 6 * * Fa * D ) / ( 8 * b * t2 * n2) [47]

Where D = Diameter of the ring in cm.

b = Width of the ring in cm.

t = Thickness of the ring in cm.

n = No. of Jacking pads

Chiragkumar N Parekh 40

4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

Current (I) = ( Zt + Zs ) * 1.73

Where

Zt (Short Circuit Impedance of the Transformer ) =

Uz * Un2

100 *Sn

Uz = % Impedance

Un= Rated Voltage

Sn = Rating in MVA

Final Temperature(1 ) = (0 + a * j 2 * t * 10 - 3 ) [48]

Where

Initial Temp(0) = 105,

Current Density under S.ckt ( J) = Sym S.Ckt

current / Copper area

Short Circuit Duration(t)= 2 Sec

a = 8.2

Permissible Limits 250oC

{(KVA x P.F x %Load)+ (N.L.L. Loss (KW)) + ( (% Load) 2 x Load

Loss (KW))}

({(% Reactance x cosØ ) - ( % Resistance x sinØ )} 2) / 200

[49]&[50]

Tank Length - L ((Core CL * 2+ Tank B)/5)*5+30 [52]

Tank Height - H ((WH * 2 + Core Dia)+150)/5)*5+75 [53]

Chiragkumar N Parekh 41

4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

1) Tank Height in cm

2) Tank to Conservator 1/2 Level in cm.

Total (T) = 1) + 2) = cm.

= 0.00089 x (T) = 0.25 kg/cm2.

= Kg/Cm². / PSI

Required pressure for Pressure test is P+5 PSI

Weight/Density

Copper Weight Density Displacement

CRGO Weight Density Displacement

MS Frame Weight Density Displacement

Connection Copper Weight Density Displacement

Insulation Weight Density Displacement

Total :- Displacement

Total Volume of Tank = L X B X H cm3

Total Volume of oil ( A):-Total Volume of Tank - Total Displacement

Oil in Conservator(B) :- 10 % of Total Oil Volume

Radiator Oil (C ):- (a)Ltrs in one Finns

(b)No of finns in one radiator

(c )Total Number of Radiator

Total oil in radiator = (a*b*c)

Total Oil Qty = A+B+C

Chiragkumar N Parekh 42

4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

B (Oil rise/(A*5+30)

W/Section Q*B.VF.HF.SF

Chiragkumar N Parekh 43

4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

Appendix (C),The Power transformer. design is formulated in the MS Excel.All

the parameters. like Losses, % Z, Winding Geommetries, Core. Geometries,

Temperature rise etc are acquire. with the help of Methametical formulation.

with respect to Input technical datas lik Rating, HV &. LV voltages, Tap range,

Vector Group. etc.The design Module is. shown in Figure 4.14 and respective.

output is shown in Table 4.2.”

Ms-Excel Tool

Chiragkumar N Parekh 44

4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

time with aim. to mitigate the technical parameters. like NLL, Load Loss and

%Z. The result summery. of some designs are presented in Table No 4.2.

Ms-Excel Tool.

No-load

9.92 9.79 9.91 10.01 9.88 9.73

losses (kW)

Load losses

66.79 66.85 67.91 68.14 67.66 67.42

(kW)

%Z 8.81 8.72 8.95 9.43 9.07 8.90

Total cost

6305692 6330566 6405511 6290520 6414953 6348652

(Rs.)

Chiragkumar N Parekh 45

4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

The conventional design program may or may not be the optimal design. Now

to obtain the optimum design, with certain optimization objective and design

constraints are inserted. into the conventional design program which. is in

MATLAB tool(132,133). The whole design consideration.and design

procedure is given in Figure 4.12. The pattern of MATLAB TDO program is

shown in Figure 4.15.”

obtained satisfying constrains, which .is shown in Figure 4.5. The list of

constraints and variables are depicted in Table 4.3 and Table 4.4 respectively.

The comparison between two parameters like Flux .density Vs NLL, Current

density Vs Load Loss, K factor Vs NLL etc are detected in Figure 4.6.

Table 4.3 List of Variables for TDO Program

Sr.

Variable Range

No.

1. K-factor 0.35 to 0.55

2. Flux density (Bm) 1.45 to 1.75 Wb/ m2

3. Current Density of LV winding 1.9 to 3.5 A/mm2

4. Current Density of HV winding 1.9 to 3.5 A/mm2

5. No. of Stiffener 2 to 8

1. No Load Loss <11000 watt

2. Load Loss <70000 watt

3. Percentage impedance 7<%z<10

4. Efficiency >99%

5. Gradient of LV winding 9<GLV<23

6. Gradient of HV winding 9<GHV<23

7. Deflection 5<def<9 mm

Chiragkumar N Parekh 46

4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

START

DELTA OF HV & LV WINDING & STIFFENER

SELECT THE RUN PROGRAM WITH MAX. & MIN. VALUE OF K, Bm, DELTA

SUITABLE VALUES OF HV & LV WINDING, No. of STIFFENER

FOR CALCULATION

OF DESIGN

PARMETERS FROM

STANDARD TABLES

ON EXCELSHEET DESIGN OF LAMINATION (CORE)

DESIGN OF HV WINDING

DESIGN OF LV WINDING

TANK DESIGN

ARE SPECIFIED

CONSTRAITS

SATISFIED?

GO FOR NEXT

ITERATION

OBJECTIVE

FUNCTION

ACHIEVED?

VARIANTS IN EXCEL SHEET

BASED ON OPTIMIZATION CRITERIA

END

Iterative Method in MATLAB

Chiragkumar N Parekh 47

4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

(A)

(B)

Figure 4.16 Programming for Design of Power Transformer Using MATLAB

(A) and Respective Result Using Iterative Method(B)

Chiragkumar N Parekh 48

4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

Chiragkumar N Parekh 49

4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

Chiragkumar N Parekh 50

4.Design Methodology of Power Transformer

(A) Flux Density Vs NLL, (B) Current density (HV) Vs Load Loss,

(C) Current Density(LV) Vs Load Loss, (D) Stiffener Vs Deflection in Tank

and (E) K-factor Vs No Load Loss

In this method the above results are saved in excel sheet. So from that we

can pick any suitable design as per customer requirement and design the

transformer.

4.14 Conclusion

With the use of National-International standards and Industrial code of

practice, The computer program was developed which was put on experiment

related to the prevailing design methodology. The MATLAB software was

used to get the optimized. design solution, which really will be. the ready

reckoner for designer as it is presenting the.analytical and graphical

comparison between. various parameters.

Chiragkumar N Parekh 51

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