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Chawla Consultant. The task of building infrastructure in the country is enormous and needs a very focused and concerted effort by all concerned to achieve the set targets and goals. improvement in the construction safety environment. like the World Bank. There are certain issues which have to be kept in mind and these are: improvement in the human resources by providing training to skilled and unskilled workers and technicians to upgrade their skills. The road users have to be made a party by creating awareness to reduce the very large number of accidents taking place in the country. “There is a huge deficit in our physical infrastructure which affects our economic development. either through their own resources or through funds being made available by multilateral funding agencies. budget and desired quality). in his Independence Day Address to the Nation. and by the private entrepreneurs through the PPP mode. Manmohan Singh.Editorial This Special Issue I am very happy to share my thoughts as the Guest Editor of NBM&CW's special issue on Roads. There are many good examples in both categories some of them are: the four laning of the Golden Quadrilateral and the ongoing construction of the East West and North South highway. Highways and Bridges. Dr. The basic aim is to create the long delayed infrastructural development in the shortest possible time. the JICA. The World Bank 14 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . H. There have been very successful projects executed in the recent past. for better project management and construction management (to complete projects within the time frame. Hon’ble Prime Minister. it is still a long way to go before India can call itself to be fully developed country as far as infrastructure is concerned. the OECF etc.L. Concession agreements with various permutations and combinations are being successfully worked out. However. Since all the funding is impossible to be provided through budgetary provisions. the Delhi Metro project and the latest ones being the Bandra-Worli Sea link in Mumbai and the Terminal 3 (T3) of the IGI Airport in New Delhi. new and effective mechanisms through PPP mode are being tried and followed. the Asian Development Bank. both where the entire funding has been provided by the central and state governments. It is a good sign to see the construction activity taking place all over the country." The investment required in these projects is of gigantic proportions. has focused on steps to improve the infrastructure of the country.

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said Minister of Road Transport and Highways Mr. IFC. Kamal Nath in a special communication to NBM&CW on the publication of this special issue.NEWS Project Briefs Infrastructure Projects Govt to Improve Infrastructure: PM The Prime Minister in his Independence Day address to the Nation has said that his Government would take additional steps to improve infrastructure of the country. While 40% of the requirement is expected to come from internal sources and market borrowings whereas the 22 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . There is a shortfall in the supply of electricity to the industries. Every Bridging Infrastructure Deficit The road sector is vital for the core infrastructure required for our socioeconomic development. The Government has permitted financial institutions like LIC. railways. thereby to facilitate award of 62 projects covering 5. low quality of DPRs etc so as to make the National Highway sector the preferred destination for both national and international players. The government has roped in private players to create better infrastructure and his sector—be it roads. To address this. and authorized nonbanking finance companies to issue tax free Infrastructure Bonds.632 crore during the last one year as compared to only 8 projects awarded in 2008-09 under NHDP. power. ports and airports are not matching world standards. The banking system is the best and reliable source for infrastructure funds. government is projecting an increased outlay of $1 trillion in the 12th Plan from just over $500 billion in the current Plan period. airports is either working on or has crystallized policies to attract higher investment from the private sector. a major cause of cost and time over runs. telecom. Our roads.617 km with a cost of `58. IDFC. ports. Another important issue plaguing the sector was delay in land acquisition. which affects our economic development. There is huge deficit in our physical infrastructure.561. The changes in the basic documents have been accepted well by the stakeholders. Now the time has come for banks to reform the balance sheets and find ways to support investments in infrastructure development. The PM’s statement assumes importance as physical infrastructure sectors have received less than expected investments in the first three years of the current plan. With branches network spreading across the Infrastructure Needs Innovative Financing The government itself has set up an estimated target of `20. In our resolve to bridge the infrastructure deficit that stares us in the face. we have made the land acquisition processes simpler and faster by substantially reducing the processing time. he emphasized. We would continue to make efforts to improve our physical infrastructure. Efforts should be made to mobilize funds through tax incentives. remaining 30% will come from private investment for which the banking experts feel that creation of investment–friendly environment and encouraging bankable projects is the need of the hour .50 crore ($514 billion) and is devising innovative financing routes. This is the highest achievement in one year since the inception of NHDP. we have taken lot of initiatives to create an enabling environment to put National Highway Development Programme (NHDP) on fast track. Dedicated Special Land Acquisition units have been formed in the states to acquire land for NHAI projects. We are in the process of ironing out other issues such as building capacity.

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000. The IFC has decided to increase investments in clean energy. RBI. suggests Mr. financial markets. wind power and small hydro projects. so that the banks have adequate time and opportunities to bridge the mismatch. agri-business and clean energy. Even though the financial system is equipped to meet this challenge. the banks are in a better position to mobilize resources. In addition to this. manufacturing. the fund of upto `20. To counter asset-liability mismatch. warehousing. a different approach is called for. social infra. roads. it invested about $100 million in seven clean energy projects. water and waste water projects. India’s core sector industries recorded a growth of 5. T. it has given debt and equity support to hydro and biomass projects of Aura Mira Energy. The multilateral lending body. Currently. IFC Fixes $1b Infra Investment for the Fiscal After spending $440 million in 15 infra projects across infrastructure sectors in the past fiscal.000cr Buoyed by the emerging trend indicating a sharp spurt in infrastructure investment in the country. corporate finance and debt instruments. chief general manager.000cr ($500b) available in the next couple of years for infrastructure sector comprising rail.1 percent year on year basis in April 2010 as against 3. crore should be interest free. warehousing and logistics.30. apart from making combined debt and equity investments in Applied Solar Technologies. The model is likely to provide a transparent risk and revenue sharing successfully. the International Finance Corporation (IFC). The funds mobilized by the banks should be allowed for minimum five years and maximum for ten years period which should be exempted from CRR. the statement added.30. which did not take off as envisaged needed to be revived to encourage infrastructure financing by banks and specialized institutions. The RBI note of PPP model comes out as the most viable model keeping in view the commercial consideration and application of appropriate charges. Takeout finance. will carry out its investment plans through a mix of project finance. the risk aversion of Indian investors. which is country’s first grid connected independent solar power producer. It is also keen to increase its share in solar power and biomass projects as about two-third of Indian renewable energy sector was dominated by wind power. Even in the last financial year the world funding body invested $10 million in Azure Power. port projects. Moreover. it is looking for investment opportunities in natural gas based energy generation projects. an arm of the World Bank.NEWS Project Briefs country and abroad. the Union Government is working out modalities to make funds of `23. The funds should be invested with a comparatively lower risk weight to ensure capital adequacy. ports and airports. which has interest in port infra. logistics. Plans Afoot Facilitating Infra Funds Worth `23. regulatory support. has targeted $1 billion investment in Indian infrastructure projects during the current financial year. regulations governing infrastructure financing. power. The world lending body in a recent statement said that its total investment in Indian infrastructure may cross $1 billion as its focus areas would be renewable energy and climate change investments. and incentive plans without compromising banks safety should be implemented as soon as possible. compared to large quantum and long duration funding required adopting innovative financial structures and revisiting some of According to Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee. RBI Recommends PPP Model RBI in its latest report has recommended PPP model for infrastructure financing and the bank thinks that the infrastructure financing needs cannot be met by the Government alone but private sector participation is also needed strongly. In the last financial year. 24 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . the country must build a rupee-denominated longterm bond market to finance the infra projects in six core sector industries. New policy regulations. SLR. particularly in solar power.7 percent during the same period in the previous fiscal. The committee on infrastructure spearheaded by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh will review the development of core sector industries whereas the cabinet committee will take care of specific infrastructure cases that may require necessary policy correction to solve disputed projects.V Goplakrishnan.

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Eighty percent funding of this project is expected to come from the World Bank whereas the balance funding would be provided by the central Government. Uttarakhand. it is learnt that since May this year.700 km of national highways under the National Highways Interconnectivity Improvement Project (NHIIP). In the meantime. each having 662km and 448 km respectively. The pace of which fell down all of a sudden. which has recommended its reversion and the Finance Ministry has also endorsed the concerns expressed by all. It would involve doublelaning of single lane in eight states in the next three years.500 km.187 km of projects are under implementation under various stages of road construction. Around 33 stretches has been identified in Bihar. The new rules have been flayed by the construction companies as well as the Planning Commission. The other major gainers are Orissa and Uttarakhand. The revised plans are under submission.NEWS Project Briefs Road and Highway Projects Massive Investment Needed to Finance NHs According to an estimate.000 crore by 2020. Around 12. At the other end. NHAI will need `64. The projects will help to achieve its target of building 20 km road a day. The elevated road is expected to be opened for trials in September 2010.000 km are awaiting to be awarded in the coming months.56 lakh crore by 2020-31. The core problem is the new guidelines set by NHAI. revised financing plans are being suggested and it is expected to borrow nearly `2. Since September last year. Around 150 projects covering 20. NHAI has been directed to revert to old bid norms. 640 km in HP. Orissa. It is interesting that the revised financing plan has been made following outcry that NHAI may soon go bankrupt as its debts will exceed the earnings in the next three years.000 km NHs are still single lane. To avert this. the agency has awarded 63 projects totaling 5. 26 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . It is reckoned that the rise in input costs and continuing high inflation could lead to an increase in cost of highways construction programme. NHAI has awarded not a single project however it used to award 15 projects a month. The revised financing plan is based on the new cost estimates for road construction. HP. set by the Ministry. NHs Upgradation Work The Government has firmed up its programme to upgrade around 3. the peak outstanding debt of NHAI will be close to `88. and 667 km in Karnataka. Around 9. As it is the current borrowings could fall short of the enhanced fund requirement. The new rules also imposes restrictions on subcontractors. The plan has been made with an intention to make NHAI debt free as soon as possible. when the financial year started. The first phase of the development would cover 807 km in Bihar.000 crore more to finance highway projects till 2031. Rajasthan. Work in Progress A view of construction site of the Barapullah elevated road project connecting the Games Village with Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium in New Delhi. West Bengal and Andaman & Nicobar Islands. that bars a company from bidding for new projects if it has already won three road projects. As per the new financing plan. Karnataka.

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200 crore would be completed by 2014 has hit the road blocks with prospective builders showing lack of interest in bidding for the project. being unavoidable circumstances.750 crore project. at the other hand is facing heat Highway to Faridabad—Work Starts The work to widen Gurgaon– Faridabd Road from the existing two lanes to four lanes has started. so far no effort has been made to train and retrain the manpower to handle complex road project of bigger size. and has approached WB for additional funds to get the projects completed. It has also been decided to put four important road projects with a sufficient knowledge and experience to handle new technologies and processes. To be a tolled road by May 2011. The state government finding it difficult to arrange fund. Slipshod implementation has not only delayed work on various packages for the upgradation of roads but also led to huge cost overrun. the deck is clear for the six–laning of the Panipat-Jallandhar national highway. The project. crusher zone road and Pali Bakhri road will be improved as a part of scope of work. NH-1. combined cost of `4225 crore. It is said that the good companies hire qualified personnel to handle important road projects. Although the state government has set up a road construction board to upgrade the skill and expertise of the engineers. the latest being from Aug'5 to Aug'20. In addition. there is serious problem whether this project will go through. All the necessary formalities including the request for proposal and draft agreement has also been approved. This is the first road project on BoT basis taken by the Public Works Department of Haryana to upgrade. Seven reputed companies like Jaypee Associates. ESC Apollo and Isolux had submitted bids individually. One of the main reasons for the delay is lack of experience at the engineering level. from MoEF as this may gobble over a lakh of trees. This has created a problem for the state government to cough additional expenditure of `400 crore. The project has patches of forest comprising indigeous flora and fauna. WB Project Runs in Bad Weather The World Bank funded road projects in HP is running in bad weather due to cost escalation. A site report prepared by MoEF points out that the project is bound to affect protected forest areas and endanger the natural habitat. Cold–shoulder to Ganga Expressway Bid UP government’s 150km long access–controlled project to be built at a cost of `8. both bituminous and concrete pavements. 28 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . including the six–laning of Panipat– Jallandhar section. If things continued at this pace. The dispute over entry and exit point on the NH has also been resolved. people will be able to zoom fast on the four-lane 24. Strengthening Border Roads Connectivity The central government has taken action to expedite and strengthen road infrastructure in border areas. four laning of Jallandhar–Dhilwan section and other sections at NH-95 on fast track to ensure their early completion. This is the fifth time that the state government has extended the date for submitting bids. some links of roads like MCF road. The total length of roads covered under the project would be 66 km. IBR Infrastructure.NEWS Project Briefs Six-laning of Panipat– Jallandhar Road With the sorting out of major hurdles coming in the way of expeditious completion of the `2. including decision to invite bids for the projects.3 km GurgaonFaridabad road. The builders are already warry of state government’s plans with some of mega projects like its highly ambitious Kushinagar airport project is in limbo. 2010. while the states agencies rely on old hands who do not possess Reliance Infrastructure has bagged this BoT project with a concession period of 17 years at `780 crore. Reliance Infrastructure Venture had formed a consortium to bid for the project. The apparent disinterest of the investors to put their money in the state is making the state government jittery as the state official attribute reasons for putting off bids. The state government has kept on extending date of submitting financial bids from time to time.

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DMRC will be doing the civil construction. Initially. The implementation time is three years and seven months. while construction activities of five roads is yet to commence. According to the experts. said the company. MCD adds. craters has now earned a new distinction of caving in just by a drop of rain.25 km metro corridor will be constructed. connecting 1. Of the 61 roads. Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh. L&T which has bagged this prestigious project is considering to bring in strategic partner for operations and maintenance and for sourcing rail coaches for the 71 km stretch across three corridors. added the company. We hope to get this project running ahead of schedule. The PWD blames it on Games work and heavy rains. Metro Projects Hyderabad Metro With the award of contract for the construction of Hyderabad Metro project costing `12. MCD in turns puts blame on DJB. less than 50% of the habitation is eligible for PMGSY. In addition. Jaipur Metro DMRC is all set to construct the Metro Rail for Jaipur city. fund crunch to the tune of Cave-in Choas on Delhi Roads Delhi roads with its reputation of having potholes. Such frequent cave-in making a hole in civic agency‘s pocket. Whenever a road caves in. Fund Crunch at PMGSY Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY). 9. For five years since its inception. apart from the trouble that commuters face. The underground section will be only 0.000 plus population. On an average. the programme suffered due to limited capacity of the contractors handling rural road projects. we also have to shell out a lot of money in reconstruction of caved-in stretches. why it is not being used to save repairing cost between `5 lakh to `20 lakh and put to construct new roads. The drainage system in most areas was laid at least 30 years ago and has become faulty. including the track work.77 km long and will consist of several stations.750 crore external funding in 2006-07. Since May 2009 the scheme is on hold. 60% of the rural habitation have been covered under Bharat Nirman Yojna. a 30 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . the PMGSY is stuck due to crippling shortage of funds. Today. PWD itself is in a helpless situation. crore action has been taken to put the project on fast track. Till January this year.NEWS Project Briefs BRO has been asked to concentrate on construction of strategic roads in the neighbouring areas. 60% would continue in the remaining part of the Plan. With better technology option. The experience of the company in implementing metro projects in Delhi and Chennai will play a major role in the project. a sub-soil exploration survey needs to be carried out to determine what all is underneath the proposed road by digging trenches to know if there are any water or sewerage pipelines below it. 500 plus had been connected–simply for want of funds. there has been decline since 2008. Even after. There are plans to construct 73 new roads out of which BRO has been entrusted with 61 roads with total length of 3. once the project is operational.394 km in J&K. 14 roads have already been completed and the work is on with regard to 42 roads. construction of the Metro maintenance depot. As per rough estimate. Although aid from ADB and World Bank was taken but that too was less. Concrete covering in most cases have been missing. is supposed to be either shifted to underneath path a footpath or on the side of the proposed road to be constructed. has lost its steam following fund crunch. and as much as `3. by about 5 percent. Government’s most ambitious scheme entailing creation of rural road network. Uttarakhand. civic agencies should explore new construction solutions instead of playing a blame game.000 crore in the next year.473 km in length. Over the last few days more than 20 important roads have caved in. the right way in such a case is that before a road is constructed the water or sewerage pipeline below it. While the project received `1. it has been shifted to be ensured that encasing (concrete covering of the pipeline) is carried out to ensure that there is no contact between the pipeline and the road leakages do not take place. arrangement for traction. say experts. Earlier. This year budget enhanced the gross support to the scheme marginally. said the company. saying that the technology for checking such leakages is the responsibility of the DJB. which has potential to transform Hyderabad. In many cases. The elevated sections will be 8. this also contributes to soil becoming loose and giving way. The estimated cost of the project is `1.350 crore. we spend around `4-5 lakh on carrying out the repairing work on a single road.132. ultrasound technology is available to check all these leakage. complementing the existing infrastructure. Himachal. says MCD.

NEWS

Project Briefs

Bridge & Dam Projects
Bridges Collapse, Canals Breach
Rains this year is neither excessive nor abnormal but there are reports that many roads, and railway bridges tumbling down and canals breached at many places in various states. The latest being the caving of roads in HP. A vital bridge, constructed just a year before by BRO near Basantpur in Shimla, on the strategic all weather road to connect Indo-Tibet border, collapsed. Four trucks, loaded with cement, were reported parked on the bridge when the accident took place. Rainy season tests the actual strength and reliability of buildings and structures. While many structures and bridges constructed during British era are still strong—why the newly constructed roads, bridges and canals have given way to make us sit up. People are naturally getting wary of newly constructed structures. In Haryana, Punjab and other parts of the country, canal breaches have caused massive damage to private and public property following rains. Authorities have declared 30-40 bridges in states as sensitive, particularly those in the Ambala railway division alone. Southern dams too are brimming and many states have been alerted. The overflowing canal waters has brought down the bridge over the Shahbad–Nalwi road in Haryana. Inquiries ordered into these incidents would be of no avail, if swift action against the guilty is not taken in such cases.

the last three years that the project work was actually sped up, he added.

Manipur DamCompletion Time 29 Years
Construction and completion of Manipur dam has made a record of taking 29 years time to complete. The foundation stone of this project was laid in 1981 when the PM Manmohan Singh was the member secretary of Planning Commission. It has now been finally completed. About 76 km from the state capital, the Khuga multipurpose project has now started supplying water to about 8,000 hectares, while five million gallon of drinking water is being supplied to the residents of Churachandpur town 10 km away from the site. The cost of the project has shot up many times over the years. Initially planned at an estimated cost of `15 crore in 1980, the project is now complete with a total cost of `381 crore. The project has a catchment area of 321 sq km, a reservoir with a capacity to hold 86.08 million cubic metres of water. It is fact that its cost has gone up many times but the biggest thing is that it has been completed after it remained almost neglected for so long, said the state minister, flood control. It was during

WB Assistance for Nagarjunasagar Project
The multilateral lending body, the World Bank, has recently sanctioned `2,025cr loans for the modernization of the Nagarjunasagar project on the Krishna Rivers in Andhra Pradesh. In this connection, a tripartite agreement was signed among the representatives of the World Bank, Centre and Andhra Pradesh Governments to part fund the `4,444cr modernization initiative of the multi-facets project. The remaining portion of the fund worth `2,419cr would be contributed by the state government over a period of time. The ambitious project, which has been lauded among the country’s major hydel projects, will generate 960mw of power, besides irrigating over 22 lakh acres of the agricultural land reaching out to the tail end areas to maximize water usage leading to improvement in farm productivity. The World Bank is currently helping the state government in four major projects and its main focus now is to see their smooth and effective implementations and achieve their laid down objectives, said Acting Country Director, World Bank, Ms Joanne Prennushi.

Trucks fell into a rivulet as the bridge near Shimla collapsed.

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NEWS

Project Briefs

Railway Projects
The R3i
A new policy is being framed to attract and promote investment in railway infrastructure. According to sources, private sector companies will now be able to construct, operate and maintain railway tracks. It is for the first time that large scale private operations in freight is being planned, though private companies are already operating railway linkages with captive rail system. Called the R3i, Railways’ Infrastructure for Industry Initiative policy would tap alternative sources of funding to create additional rail transport capacity and augment rail share in freight traffic. Under the policy, private companies would be able to build tracks, 20 km or longer, adopting one of the four business models proposed by the railways. They are full contribution –apportioned earning model, on cost sharing–freight rebate model, SPV model and private line model. The companies would be allowed to develop logistic-related activities and stations on the project line. A rider included is to keep connectivity to coal and iron ores out of bound from these model as the railways get nearly 55% of its total freight from coal and iron ore. In all models, except in private line model, land for building new lines will be acquired by the railways. Funds for land acquisition have to be paid upfront to the railways by the private companies and the ownership of land and tracks would vest with the railways. Indian railways, at present, has 110 new line projects in various stages of development, the balance funds required for completion are estimated to be at `60,000 crore. Scarcity of funds have motivated the railways to device ways and means and hence this new policy giving green signal to building private tracks.

CAG Report on Railway Projects
CAG report has pulled up Railways for delay in Dedicated Freight Corridor and other expansion works. Significantly, the CAG has expressed concerns over delays in execution of the ambitious DFC due to its lackadaisical approach, resulting in two–fold increase in project cost. The project–DFC-initially estimated at `28,000 crore has almost doubled and is estimated `48,000 crore. The Planning Commission too has asked the railway to prepare a more realistic funding plan. But it is not only the DFC that is facing delays but also trains, railways other projects are facing serious delays. The report has noted that a total of 408 projects costing `1,41,015 crore have been delayed and could pose major bottlenecks in the future. In fact, despite its thrust on PPP, the railways has failed to garner private investment in 10 out of 16 zones. CAG report has been critical of the railways efforts at passenger security and has highlighted the incomplete safety works at level crossings, under utilization of safety funds.

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with the Minister of Power.000 crore. To ensure wider participation from solar power developers. We will leverage our land assets for securing cheaper finance for our power projects. Hydel Projects to be Delayed Following heavy rains damaging thousands of homes in the Ladakh region is going to delay its important hydel power generation project. Jitin Prasad said. Minister of State for Petroleum and Natural Gas. The Committee has been asked to review the electricity tariff including the role of state governments in periodic tariff revision besides examining the geographical and spatial compulsions and determining their operational impact. Mr. and the Minister of State for Power. Dr. including pilferages and inefficiencies in meter billing and revenue collection. We are already executing projects in the power sector as a contractor and have plans to get into the power generation business. About 500MW Renewable push: The minister for New and Renewable Energy.000 crore. We are looking forward to develop small and medium sized power projects. Farooq Abdullah. is now looking to strengthen its operations after entering into real estate sector to foray into power generation business. The country currently produces less than 5 MW of solar power every year. said the Government. the Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA) will also fund these projects. Solar Projects Power Finance Corporation (PFC) and Rural Electrification Corporation (REC) will finace important solar power projects in the country. We have secured ministerial approval. which are likely to go further. having done balance of plant (BoP) work including civil construction and installation of equipment like chimney. Nimoo-Bazgo project supposed to have been activated in October this year may not be able to achieve this target as all roads are cut off and the Indus river is in spate. NBCC to Enter Into Power Biz National Buildings Construction Corporation (NBCC). India is looking to generate 1.NEWS Project Briefs Power Projects Assessing Power Sector Health The Prime Minister has approved setting up of a Committee to assess fiscal health of the power sector and suggested measures to improve it. affiliate or group company–would be permitted as per new guidelines 36 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . Mr. The Committee called Financial Position of Distribution Utilities would be headed by the CAG. ONGC Wind Power Projects The Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) has drawn up an ambitious plan to establish `650 crore wind power projects in Rajasthan and also solar power plants in Gujarat and Rajasthan. Sushilkumar Shinde. It would look into the financial problems of the states electricity boards and suggest corrective steps especially in relation to their accounting practices. releasing the Guidelines of New Grid Connected Solar Power Projects. In addition to this. in the Capital. he added. issued recently. said its CMD. This has been done in view of mounting losses in the power distribution amounting to `40. cooling towers and coal and ash handling systems for the power plants. It will also review the organisational and managerial structure. The oil and gas exploring giant is keen to set up 102 mw capacity wind power project with an annual generation capacity between 200 to 210 million tons per annum. Bharat Singh Solanki. the company is is expected from photovoltaic cells in the next three years. We have the technical expertise to develop power plants. having seen a dramatic turnround in its performance.000 MW of solar power by 2013. manpower employment and future requirements. we have asked the committee to recommend plans of action to achieve financial viability in distribution by 2017. The developers of solar projects have welcomed the new guidelines. only one application per company–including its parent. Besides PFC and REC. Concerned at the weakest part of the power sector incurring power losses estimated to be about `40.

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750cr. A couple of months back. The port project. GRK Reddy. which is Port Projects for Bidding The Union Shipping Ministry (USM) has reportedly cleared a total number of 25 port projects entailing an investment of `800 crore for bidding under the public private partnership (PPP) module for the current financial year. creation of container and container terminal at Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust (JNPT) and building of two riverine jetties at Kolkata port. EPC.NEWS Project Briefs also weighing the feasibility of setting up a 501 mw grid connected solar power photovoltaic PV project in both states. The decision to scrap the NTPC project. Marg Making `1.800cr and it has four major business vertical in infrastructure including marine. The other two berths would be put in place by September next year. Incidentally. U'khand Power Project Scraped After Pala Maneri and Bhairon Ghati projects. An oil jetty. he claimed. has drawn up plans to touch 21 metric tons per annum capacity addition at Karaikal Port entailing an investment of `1. the Centre has decided to order the scrapping of 600-MW Loharinag Pala Power project in Uttarakhand state because of environmental reasons. following a directive from the Prime Minister to reexamine the project and owing to large-scale public pressure and agitations. currently catering to offshore supply vessels and project. costing more than `2. a Chennai based company with interest in port operations. which has been lying pending for more than a decade. The company sees long-term potential in port based logistics operations. the GoM decided to scrap the project on the Bhagirathi river. is expected to catalyze the building work of the north Malabar region as also the Coorg region of the adjoining Karnataka.004 acres near Karaikal and Krishnapatnam Ports and also at locations along with OMR. According to ministry sources. As per the recently chalked out plans three more berths are to be added with one berth. new Mangalore Port and conversion of berth for container terminal at Tuticorin Port. logistics and EPC projects. Its land bank of 1. arguing that a considerable amount of investment had already been made and construction had been started. will help it establish warehouses. However. Real Estate and other infrastructure areas like airports and multilevel car parking. The project work includes creating of berthing and allied facilities for cargo and container ships and a ship repairing yard.500cr Capacity Addition The Marg Limited. Port Projects Azhikkal Port Project In the downstream south Kerala Government has floated global bids for building Azhikkal port in Kannur district of the state on the PPP model. He added that company’s EPC operations have also picked up with the order book of about `2. The ONGC has also recently approved development of Cluster-7 and WO Cluster oil and gas fields in the western offshore. 38 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . Apart from this. which falls in the midway between the major ports of Mangalore and Kochi. these projects include creation of mega container terminals or bulk transshipments at the Chennai Port. He claimed that operations at its Karaikal Port have stabilized and port revenue has contributed significantly to the company’s net earning performance in the first quarter of the current financial year. The Port in question is said to be the one of the six among 17 notified ports.000 crore. was taken at a meeting of the Group of Ministers. dry dock and facilities for cruise liners are also expected to be a part of the project. urban and industrial infrastructure.500cr. industrial plots and tank farms to push its logistic business. the port currently has two berths taking care of coal and general cargo. development of couple of eastern wings or keys at the Vizag Port. this GoM had earlier favoured the completion of the project. Its overseas arm OVL is exploring the possibility of bidding for some of British Petroeum’s assets jointly with petroVietnam and Bharat Oman Refineries in Madhya Pradesh and is all set to begin commercial production in the third quarter of this fiscal. they also include installation of three mechanized handling facilities at the Vizag Port in Andhra Pradesh. two other projects on the same river–Pala Maneri and Bharion Ghati hydropower projects–were also scrapped on similar environmental grounds. The ministry has recently awarded two port projects at Paradip and Ennore near Chennai to Sterlite-Leighton and Eredene Capital consortium respectively. identified by the Kerala government for development at an estimated investment of `1. said Managing Director. which will be a separate line of investment and currently is integrating transporters and tying up with warehouses operators as a value addition to port business.

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projecting that over 31 million people would benefit from this airport project.5 km long road with a 343m long tunnel under the main runway was initially projected at `67 crore. It plans to invest `3. add colors.000-cr Investment Mr G. is now at No. Second Mumbai Airport The city of Kalyan in Thane has emerged as another alternative for the proposed second international airport in Mumbai. It would have a dramatic swooping and curving roof. at around 11 million passengers a year. “We are in the process of revising the master plan and are watching the traffic closely before finalising T2. landscaping and retail space. the 1997 rule in its opposition to the Greater Noida airport. unveiled a `1. Maharashtra and Kerala.V. The 18-month-long 40 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 .000-crore plan for the expansion of Terminal 1. check-in counters. After expansion. would get under way in a year or two and still to be finalised.m). Mumbai second airport has been at the centre of much controversies with the present site at Panvel not making the cut on environment grounds. the T2.Sanjay Reddy. an increase of 86%. international and domestic terminal are served by two directions and traffic gets diverted causing delays. AAI had earlier build airports in Libya. the chairman added.000. when BIA is expected to reach an annual passenger traffic of 17 million. The proposed airport would be 72 km distant from the Delhi airport. AAI had invested `2. which in turn has engaged L&T for this job. a VIP lounge and many more public amenities. while a larger expansion with a new terminal. said its Chairman. The company has been developing 35 non-metro airports across the country at a cost of `12. The crucial 1. However. T3 Tunnel Link at IGI The cost of zipping to IGI Airport new terminal T3 through India’s first runway tunnel road has shot up by almost 50%.” Mr Sanjay Reddy said. The road is scheduled to be completed by September 30—just two days ahead of Commonwealth Games. The security. The GMR led consortium that operates Delhi airport has cited Bangalore Airport to Get A New Look with `1.000 sq. This would be its first foray into the international market in about 30 years.34 lakh sq. This would meet the immediate needs. would be taken up alongside T1 and would be completed by 2014-15. The UP government has raised a new pitch ahead of the meeting of the group of ministers. What is holding back the Greater Noida airport is a 1997 rule that states that no new airport can be set up within 150 km of an existing one. overtaking Chennai some time back.610 crore further in the development of various airports during this financial year. BIAL’s Managing Director. the Government has given approval to set up Greenfield airports at various places in the country.NEWS Project Briefs Airport Projects AAI to Build Airport in Sri Lanka The Airport Authority of India (AAI) is to build an airport in Sri Lanka. At present.547 crore on modernizing airport terminals. within the aerial distance of 150 km of the existing airports in three states in Goa. Reiterating that Mumbai needs a second airport.000 crore. but now the cost has gone up to almost `100 crore. Greater Noida Airport UP government has raised pitch for airport at Greater Noida. baggage carousels. During 2008-09. AAI is getting the tunnel built by India’s biggest expert in drilling Delhi Metro. customs and immigration spaces would be increased and revamped. a Government announcement said three member panel of MPs has suggested Kalyan as an alternative. it will start in the next two years. The two-year-old greenfield Bengaluru International Airport. which is examining viability of another airport in the NCR. 3 after Mumbai and Delhi. expansion will roll out in November this year and address the growth in passenger traffic as well as the concerns over the airport’s infrastructure and design. more than double the number of passenger seats of 5. passengers facilities. The Avaition Ministry has been very keen that a new link road to T3 would be ready soon.m (now 72. Second runway: the air side improvements and a second runway would follow over the next two years. T1 will be 1.

nbmcw. MIISL on the other hand. As of now the GMR Infrastructure Limited owns 54% stake including 9 percent through GMR Airports Holding in DIAL and 63% in GHIAL.037 billion infrastructure fund arranged in joint venture by the State Bank of India and the other partners are Australia’s leading infrastructure player Macquarie and IFC Washington and each of these partners had committed $150 million each to the JV fund. India's Largest Infrastructure & Construction Sector Portal www. According to sources GMR Airports Holding has planned to use the proceeds to buy out the holdings of its parent GMR Infrastructure in airports business including the equity stake in Delhi International Airport Limited (DIAL) and GMR Hyderabad International Airports (GHIAL). It is in advance stage of negotiations with MSIIL for raising the required funds and has also approached the government for necessary approvals in this connection. has decided to raise funds to the tune of `930 crore to meet its expansion plans in the airport sector. the airport business will be managed under GMR Airports Holding Limited. is an India dedicated $1.com NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 41 . which monitors foreign direct investment in the country. As a part of its restructuring exercise. The GMR Airports Holding and MSIIL reportedly entered into an agreement after which the GMR Airports approached the Foreign Investment Promotion Board (FIPB). which is an arm of GMR Infrastructure in a latest move.NEWS Project Briefs GMR Unfolds Expansion Plans The GMR Airports Holding Limited.

The committee does not favor the PPP model. Apart from this. where 70 students were imparted an intensive 11 day training in every aspect of construction site. are beginning to pay off. The committee does not share Government’s views that dream of making India slum-free in five years can be realized. NBM&CW has been writing on it that about 1-2 engineers out of every 10 seeking work are only employable. the CIDC initiatives intend to tackle the problem across the spectrum. Given that 97% of those belonging to the EWS and LIG categories do not own a house. PPP is not a panacea for absolving the public municipalities and poor communities and professional appraisal of the project from time to time.500 students. under the prescribed loan limit of `1 lakh and `1. says UD ministry. the experts believe. Unlike the NSDC experiment that focuses only on the bottom of the construction industry. The reasons for this 42 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . But our aim is to hold orientation sessions for at least 300 teachers and to assess the industry skill at least 1. let alone metropolitan areas.60 lakh. The scheme was launched in 2008 under the Affordable Housing for All. This experiment was introduced first time at the Veltech University in Chennai. An expert committee. The report states that slum-free India should be projected as a long-term commitment of 20 years with the first five years representing the first phase of the programme. and Gammon are setting up their own training institutes to bridge the gap. Overcoming Skill Shortage in Construction The construction industry being in the grip of talent crunch has not lost hopes and players are taking active steps to manage this shortfall. the Government has decided to make it attractive. project officers and project manager positions. Providing onsite exposure at all level is critical to meet the talent Finding lukewarm response to its Scheme of Interest Subsidy for Housing the Urban Poor (ISHUP). Attempts by CIDC. fine-tuning became necessary. The primary reason being the mismatch between the requirements of the industry and learning in engineering and business schools. Keeping India Slum–free Private players may soon be roped in for developing slums. diploma holders as well as supervisors and construction workers. From time to time. The countrywide national proficiency evaluation test targets young engineering graduates. The committee has strongly recommended that existing Ray should not be undertaken as a standalone scheme but made part of JNNURM for simple reason that infrastructure form an integral subcomponent of JNNURM. The CIDC also offers training at various levels for industry entrants and working professionals to acquire required skill to grow into supervisory. recommending so has suggested to the Centre to encourage private sector’s participation in implementing the scheme. Given the ever-increasing construction costs. It would be prudent to adopt the scheme in a phased mechanism. it is not possible to buy or even construct dwelling units in even small towns. The report has asked participation of genuine community–based organizations to serve as a link between shortfall are many. News Industry News Housing for Urban Poor sector of its social and economic responsibilities. Ray rolling out new plans to make India slum–free in the next five years. headed by HDFC chairman. Credit take off under the scheme has been very slow. like L&T. need has been felt to fine-tune the scheme as existing limits seem unrealistic. Only in some places where land is scarce and prices are high PPP model should be used. says Dr Swarup. It also covers those with a post-graduate degree in management and architecture.NEWS Ind. including scheduling. there are reports from various construction companies. which allows potential employers to map candidate skill to their requirements. monitoring and quantities assessment.

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Planning Commission has been saying that the proposed amendments to the existing Act were inadequate and urged for more changes and warned of danger of continuing with current land acquisition system. The focus is on making use of iron ore fines to produce steel. This would not only help the company increase coke production but will also reduce its coking coal demands. These additional provisions could provide the required teeth to deal with the present situation. said its Chairman. and the Bill could not be passed. Angry farmers blocked traffic on the NH-93 and targeted the property of the company engaged in the construction of this expressway. Private steel producers too are not behind. FICCI has asked the Government to take necessary steps like enhancing vocational education and setting up a national skill exchange so that India has a trained workforce of 500 million more by 2020 to sustain GDP growth. New Generation Steel Technology Steel makers in the country are eyeing new know-how to use iron ore fines.NEWS Ind. 44 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . Tribals. India does not have technology to use iron ore fines. creating age talent pool. such as coke dry quenching facilities. in coke ovens in the five blast furnaces that it is upgrading. SAIL also plans to use new technologies. SAIL’s tie up with Posco will help us get Finex Technology. Need to Amend Land Acquisition Bill The recent agitation against UP’s government dream project–the Yamuna Expressway that brought into focus that Land Acquisition Bill requires more teeth. The protesters are demanding compensation for the acquired land at the rate paid to farmers in Noida and Greater Noida. The social impact of land acquisition needs to be assessed by an independent agency. The existing bill bars land acquisition for private companies except under the 70% condition. Though the Government in 2007. The main reason behind this is lack of site exposure which is being taken care of by the companies at their own level as well as at the industry level by bodies like CIDC. ensuring quality in delivery and expediting the formulation of sector skill councils. The blast furnaces productivity will increase by almost 1. Despite changing its name from Taj Expressway to Yamuna Expressway. which is in discussion with two foreign steel majors to use this technology in India. BAI in partnership with NSDC. nuggets to improve productivity and cut raw materials cost. At present. Credai. The 165. has brought into notice once again that existing provisions in the Act are antiquated and system to acquire land needs to be more transparent. the Unique Identification Authority of India. (UIDAI) too is facing manpower crunch. News crunch. Like other organizations.54km long 6 lanes expressway has been embroiled in controversies from the word go. Social impact assessment study needs to be conducted in case of large scale displacement. proposed changes.4 million. forest dwellers and those with renancy rights are eligible for compensation. he added. The front-runner is SAIL. Jindal Steel is to use hot briquetted iron (HBI) to reduce its cost of production and the company has recently acquired Shadeed Iron and Steel Company new plant in Oman. its problems continue to bog it down. the report emphasizes that it is imperative to enhance the skill and technical education capacity to about 15 million. The latest incidents of violence and farmers agitation is for better compensation. which FICCI’s Call In an urgent call. With about 12 million expected to join the workforce every year and an existing skill development capacity of 3. Land Acquisition compensation dispute settlement authority at the state and central may adjudicate the dispute. They also set company’s construction equipment on fire. The current agitation in UP shows that the state is becoming another Nandigram. The report adds that this massive task could be tackled by taking steps at all levels.500 tonnes/day by equipping them with top pressure recovery turbines and auxiliary fuel injection systems. Current land value is to be considered while deciding compensation. A compromised solution has been evolved following discussion with the farmers. The country is facing a challenge of mammoth proportions of producing skilled workforce to meet the requirement of a projected CAGR of 8 percent of GDP by 2020.

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The process called gasification. This gas is filtered and fed to an engine that drives an alternator to produce power. Green Mile Infra Pvt. “Approximately 90% road pavements in India are asphalted. Ltd. Mr. We aim to meet this requirement with adequate supply and assured quality through this facility. as asphalt pavement (upper layer) oxidizes and wears out due to variety of conditions. The idea was not only to provide electricity but also to provide it at a lower rate than the cost of current alternative.000 MT pa. The oxidization and moisture retentions contribute to potholes. improvement of production process quality and yield. The oxidation leads to brittleness that causes cracking and potholes on the surface. Central Road Research Institute (CRRI) conducted field test on six lane NOIDA toll road and collected 24 core samples. The team is now looking forward to put this plan with such projects in West Bengal and TN as well. India’s leading turnkey Preengineered metal buidling Company. To start with Husk Power system designed by NRI entrepreneur. RePLAY™ is the most cost-effective solution for asphalt surfaces. in its endeavour to provide better provisions and management of the Pre-engineered Building solutions to its customers in southern parts of India. the roads are built and maintained in such a manner that it does not need resurfacing time and again. Inc. RePLAY™ is an alternative to costly repaving that is composed of 88% biobased material. Shankar Rao.000 MT Production Facility in Chennai Interarch Building Products Private Limited. CRRI approved and certified a biobased product. and general deterioration of the roads. RePLAY™ is a patented biobased asphalt preservation agent proven to extend the life of asphalt roads by reversing the oxidation of bitumens in the asphalt mix without emitting life-threatening greenhouse gases like CO2. They have already put this in practice by lighting up electricity deprived remote villages in Bihar and UP. Arvind Nanda. When we treat the usable surface with RePLAY™. Pandey has gone on to dispel darkness in over 125 villages since 2007. it reverses past oxidation and saves the surface for another three to five years at a fraction of the cost of repaving. Gautam Suri. and easy to apply. Pleased with the development. After sample analysis. has introduced RePLAY™. explained Pandey. Assisted by Singh. In developed countries like USA. asphalt oxidizes and wears out due to oxygen in air.NEWS Ind. This plant would largely cater to the growing demand for pre-engineered metal buildings in south India. a scientist in the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy Pandey‘s team rejigged the decades old technology of biomass gasification deployed by rice millers in Bihar to power their mills using rice husk.” Developed and manufactured by BioSpan Technologies. Greener Roads The Government is pumping huge funds for roads maintenance even though roads get damaged gradually. smoke. The two companies will work together on energy efficiency. CEO .Interarch feels. Mr. The plant has a total manufacturing capacity of 30. brings an all new PEB manufacturing facility to Sriperumbudur. We at Interarch feel that there is enormous scope of infrastructural developments in the southern region. Green Mile Infra introduced this innovative material and is committed to provide a cost effective alternative of expansive asphalt road resurfacing. where rice husk is burnt in controlled conditions to produce a combustible mixer of gasses. is the exclusive master distributor of RePLAY™ in India. significantly keeping a unit profitable.” Mr. derived from Soybeans for extending the road surface life. Chennai. Interarch Sets up 30. Eventually entire resurfacing is required that puts major financial burden to the concerned authority or the contractor. JSW Steel has tied up with Japan’s JEE Steel to target the fast growing automobile sector. Managing Director of Green Mile Infra explains. India’s first and only eco-friendly asphalt preservation agent that gained certification from CRRI in April 2010. CTO – Interarch adds. “This new production facility at Sriperumbudur will bridge the gap between demand and supply by providing localised and timely services and delivery of the product to our clients. cracking. Ltd. Compared to petroleum-based products. of Missouri. “The new 48 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . Generating Power from Rice Husk A new and unique power project has successfully been undertaken by the researchers harnessing power from rice husk. Green Mile Infra Pvt. he added. improper water drainage system and overload. environmental management. safe for the environment and user. and overtime. RePLAY™ is carbon negative. News has this technology. USA. a majority of which is soybean oil.

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000 square meters.350 crore) from The Blackstone Group (NYSE: BX). As a result. MBPPL said.000 square meters from 220... Kaeser. We look forward to help them replicate their success as a manufacturer of optical media and solar panels in building one of India’s leading power companies. Construction work on the new halls at the north end of the SNIEC is also moving ahead at full speed. Caterpillar OEM Solutions and Terex who will again participate in bauma China in 2010. Proximity of the facility from the construction sites is of vital importance in terms of delivery and time for assembly.. which underlines bauma China’s character as a leading exhibition in Asia. Ltd. MBPPL's strategy of developing assets across multiple fuel sources is compelling. “Thanks to close cooperation of AEM (Association of Equipment Manufacturers) USA.700 exhibitors from 37 countries will occupy the available exhibition space. Keestrack and Quingdao Ketai Heavy Industry Machinery Co. Among others. We have been studying the Indian power sector for over a year and are excited to partner with Moser Baer. Deepak Puri.000 MW of thermal. additional space is being made available at the outdoor exhibition site that can be used on a temporary basis. Ltd. This will enable us to deliver reliable and affordable power that India needs to support its continued economic growth. a developer of power generation facilities with a diverse pipeline of thermal.” Exhibition Group Director Collin Davis remarked. Chairman and Managing Director of Blackstone Advisors India Private Limited. said: “Infrastructure development continues to remain one of our key investment themes in India.” Moser Baer’s Energy Business Moser Baer Projects Private Limited (MBPPL).NEWS Ind. the International Trade Fair for Construction Machinery. Since the government’s resources are limited. they include well-known companies such as Beijing Shougang Heavy Duty Track Manufacturing Co. 500 MW of solar and 500 MW of hydro capacity.” Event bauma China 2010: State of Economy Means Additional Space and More Key Players Vehicles and Equipment. Building Material Machines.000 square meters to 230. CSR Times Locomotive & Rolling Stock Machinery Co. Based on the current level of registrations received for bauma China 2010. this manufacturing facility will have the best of technology and manpower to pursue our principles of delivering speed and quality.” Commenting on the deal. Akhil Gupta. This will allow organizers to enhance the space for the Expo by 10. Two of these halls are supposed to be used for the first time ever during bauma China 2010 in November. “Needless to emphasize the criticality of India’s energy requirement which would require massive investment to sustain its high growth trajectory.000 MW by 2016 comprising 4. solar and hydroelectric power projects has attracted an investment of `13. Ltd. all of the product-group categories at bauma China will have international key players. which are participating in bauma China for the first time ever. As we follow the international quality standards.. the private sector has an important role to play. Elaborating on the partnership. Founder. approximately 1. News manufacturing plant at Sriperumbudur is well equipped with world-class technology to assure quality end-to-end engineering and construction solutions. MBPPL plans to commission 5. Construction 50 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . Due to consistent strong demand for exhibition space at the upcoming bauma China. We are proud of partnership with Blackstone whose global expertise in energy will help us establish one of India’s leading independent power generation business.5 billion (approximately $300 million / `1...

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the Steel Authority of India (SAIL) has fixed `1. The company has also decided to set up a 300mw captive power plant simultaneously during the first phase of the work targeting 3 million tons capacity unit. procurement and construction (EPC) services. ♦ SAIL sets aside Funds for domestic mines Country’s steel manufacturing giant. Apart from this. According to the Business Head. the NMDC in a recent move has hiked its spending by `1. In the arrangement.000cr. the L&T consortium with Paul Wurth of Italy has been awarded a `1. The company is all set to put the project on fast track as the steel industry is likely to see big relief as the The Metallurgical Material Handling and Water Operating Company. adding that initial capital expenditure projection was about `611cr for the fiscal.7 mtpa sinter plant for the Bhilai Steel Plant and its share in the contract is `538. the entity has drawn up plans for a massive thrust into solar power sector and taken the initiatives to make them fruitful in the next two years and also set up similar projects in the fast upcoming special economic zones (SEZs). the company is building its new coking coal mines in Jharkhand with a coal producing capacity up to 5 million tons. procurement and construction contracts totaling to `1.500cr to build its coking coal mines in the domestic arena thereby shedding its dependence on the import of key coal input causing frequent fluctuations in the steel prices in the domestic market.8 million ton per annum (mtpa) blast furnace for Bhilai Steel Plant in which domestic company has `1. The company has secured an additional order of `201cr from Balco for capacity expansion of its smelter at Korba in the non-ferrous segment. ♦ L&T bags EPC contracts ♦ M&M targets solar power biz The diversified Mahindra & Mahindra Group has drawn up an ambitious plan of installing 50 mw of solar power generation capacity plants across five states entailing an investment of `750 crore. offering engineering. The new coal mines exploration will augment domestic availability by over 7 million tons by 2013 in the face of requirement going up by 21 million tons during the period. Currently.000cr for the current financial year.73cr contract to build a 3. besides exploring the XI B iron ore mine with estimated reserves of seven million tons and also on the three million tons a year capacity of steel plant. Vish Palekar. it is also planning to enter into consultancy role in the new and emerging solar power generation sector. Chairman and Managing Director. Clean-tech Ventures.010cr share of contract. balance of plant equipment and off grid solar solutions like supplying batteries for the solar power sector. the project work is being finalized on war footing and after that it would approach banks for funding and achieving financial closure.627cr order for 2.29cr. ♦ JSW Steel begins construction of Salboni plant The Sajjan Jindal owned JSW Steel is all set to begin civil work on its 10 million tons per annum capacity steel plant at Salboni area of West Bengal entailing an investment of `35. Likewise the L&T in consortium with Outotec of Germany has been awarded a `670.749cr from Steel Authority of India and Bharat Aluminium Company. 52 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . Rama Som said.NEWS Companies in Limelight Companies in Limelight ♦ NMDC hikes spending In order to start work at its new mining assets and also at a steel plant in Chhattisgarh. The company is commencing work at its Steel plant at Jagdalpur in Chhattisgarh. which in turn reduce coal import by over 15% and will effectively check volatility in steel pricing. which is coming up in west Midnapur district of the state. The building work of the mega steel plant. According to the Chairman C S Verma. would be completed in three years from the start of the ground work. which is an arm of the Larsen and Toubro (L&T) has recently secured engineering.

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both the partners are having equal representation on the board. the total capital outlay has been worked out to over `10. however. The Chairman. It is also holding 26% stake in a special purpose vehicle named JR Toll Private Limited it has formed with Reliance Infrastructure and AAA Communication to build `590cr highway expansion project on the Jaipur-Reengus stretch. the GVK Power and Infrastructure Limited has planned to consolidate them into GVK Energy Limited.500cr stage. The prevailing environment are conducive for foreign direct investment under which 100% FDI is allowed into the energy sector and also the permission to set up merchant power projects in the country. commercial real estate.600cr capex stretched over the next three years. a Hyderabad based company and the UK’s Interserve Project Services Limited.000cr.725cr highways project in Maharashtra. The latest investment will be in addition to the ongoing `2. Chairman. in which JTEG will take 26% stake and the rest will remain with the Reliance Infrastructure. iron ore and coking coal are falling and will fall further in the immediate future with Karnataka imposing ban on its exports. the company will expand its capacity including high grade flat production and cold rolled green oriented (CRGO) steel. said that his company would hold 51% and Interserve Holdings will keep the remaining portion of the stake. G V K Reddy.725cr road project In a major development in the Indian road and highways sector. ♦ Tata Steel targets `11. Prakash Challa.500cr to be invested in various projects across the country during the next two financial years and the company is currently working out funding modalities for the upcoming projects.000 people while the SSPDL is a listed entity in the domestic stock exchanges. the Reliance Infrastructure of ADAG group is all set to forge a joint venture with China’s road builder Jiangsu Provincial Transportation Engineering Group Company (JTEG) to construct `1.500 crore through PE resources. which is listed on the London stock exchange and has a market capital of £1. The project. investment Tata Steel has earmarked a staggering sum of `11. which is currently being imported. water and social infrastructure. In the next 54 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . According to sources. into Indian Infrastructure SSPDL Interserve Private Limited.000cr. The company in a statement said that together with the capex of Samruddhi Cement due to be merged with UltraTech Cement. Ratan Tata said in a statement. George Franks. The company is doing so to meet its funding needs of the upcoming projects including GVK Jegrupadu and GVK Gauthami gas based projects in downstream Andhra Pradesh and another projects at Govindwal Sahib. airports. ♦ SSPDL Interserve Forays expansion Post restructuring of energy generation assets. SSPDL.NEWS Companies in Limelight prices of the raw material. The offshore company has expertise in infrastructure including roads and highways. the joint venture has already secured orders worth `200 crore primarily in the real estate sector projects stretching across Chennai.600cr for an additional clinker plant at Chhattisgarh and Karnataka and also a grinding unit and bulk packaging terminus across many states. The company has already applied for the FIPB nod and is hopeful to get it approved very shortly. ♦ UltraTech ups spending The UltraTech Cement belonging to the Aditya Birla group in a recent move has pushed its investment to `5. said a senior official of Reliance Infrastructure. Bangalore. which is its sub holding entity and is in the process to raise `1.000cr Enthused by the surging demand of steel in the domestic market. the Chinese road builder is contributing foreign direct investment FDI to the tune of `150cr as a part of the equity in the joint venture. Interserve. in a statement said various private players have expressed their keen interest to form a partnership but the company has not yet taken any decision in this connection but will consider at the appropriate time. the Rashtriya Ispat Nigam (RINL) has drawn up plans to double its liquid steel manufacturing capacity in a phased manner involving an investment of `12. a joint venture between SSPDL.9 billion currently employing 50. The offshore company is the investment arm of Interserve Pic. The venture was facilitated by the British High Commission and was selected from a group of 12 companies after Interserve commissioned UK Trade and Investment to carry out Overseas Market Introduction Service report to identify Indian partners. ♦ GVK Energy preparing for ♦ ADAG-JTEG ties up for `1. ♦ RINL adding capacity worth `12. According to the Managing Director International. has announced its aggressive forays into the Indian infrastructure sector. Managing Director. was awarded to the consortium by the National Highways Authority of India in March this year. Similarly. Raichur and Tuticorin. The joint venture is a preferred contract for the SSPDL’s projects apart from third party contracts.

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000 flats. tea stall owners. AHFIL Fixes `525cr for Low Cost Housing The new entrant in the housing finance business. has planned to cover more people in the next ten years. Jasola and Rohini. In low cost housing sector. toeing to traditions the nodal agency will offer flats to various segments of the society including those in the LIG. would be available in September. The finance company.NEWS Real Estate Real Estate Nitco Plans Real Estate Venture After achieving the targeted expansion of its tiles making business. The company has in the recent past completed a `100cr housing project spreading over an area of two lakh sqft and is all set to commence work on `700cr project covering nine lakh sqft residential property venture in two months. adding that over 2. said Chairman and Managing Director. MIG and HIG income groups. two and a half times of its estimated cost. AM Anandan. which 58 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . will be taken into account while fixing the price of these residential units. it is also starting `300cr project in the end of this financial year. he added. but the apex court eventually gave a clean chit to the building body by exonerating it of all charges. the Nitco Tiles Limited is all set to enter into the real estate business with three real estate ventures in Mumbai entailing an investment of `1. According to experts in the field. has targeted `525cr to be disbursed to those keen to buy low cost homes in the affordability segment. The company has about 100 acres near Mumbai and its internal resources will see it through initial phase of funding in the real estate ventures. World One. The company will make available home loans from `10 lakh to `25lakh in the affordable housing segment and has targeted to Lodhas Sheds Stake Worth `500cr In its attempt to raise funds for the 117-storey residential tower in Mumbai. Aptus Value Housing Finance India Limited (AHFIL). disburse `125cr during the current financial year and `400cr in the next fiscal. The latest deal has been materialized just to keep up the investor’s appetite for quality real estate projects in the country. which was set up with a capital of `32cr would soon raise `100cr in debt.000 and are keen to buy houses but without any valid documents they don’t get home loans and the AHFIL has targeted this class. who do not have bank statements. Vice Chairman Ashok Kumar said. In addition.000cr.000 crore.000 flats and apartments of various categories in areas like Vasant Kunj. the latest deal is the second largest private equity investment in India’s realty space and props up the valuation of the project at `5. as claimed by its developers will be completed in DDA Launches New Housing Scheme The Delhi Development Authority (DDA) is all set to announce a new housing scheme offering over 15. Abhishek Lodha. there are two issues involved including availability of housing stock and finance. which also included flats being built in Vasant Kunj for the Commonwealth Games. The residential building. the Lodha Developers. and the company is addressing the first issue and the other would be addressed with the help of builders and to meet funding requirements Aptus would soon raise resources from banks financial institutions including National Housing Bank (NHB). The DDA drew overwhelming response to its 2008 housing scheme and innumerable charges of corruption were also surfaced against its officials. said Managing Director. The company is targeting house buyers including vegetable vendors. He said adding that there are innumerable instances where petty businessmen have a daily turnover of over `10. The brochure for the upcoming scheme. has sold about 10% stake for `500 crore in the project to HDFC Venture Funds. are being built to 3-star specifications with improved construction material and worldclass designing with new types of tiles matching world standards. Dwarka. small time contractors and milk suppliers. Similarly. IT returns or other such documents that a regular finance company would want before sanctioning loans but they are credit worthy.

has recently drawn up a multi-faceted expansion approach for its hotel chain within and outside the country entailing an investment of `1. She said adding that such a move will facilitate rapid expansion of the group and the company intends to set up at least 10 to 15 projects under the management contract models in cities including Hyderabad.200 crore in the first month apart from this the developers invested `500 crore as equity contribution towards the project and now with PE funds we may achieve the financial closure of the project. the HDPC investment will also add to the credibility of the project as Lodha Developers was left with the option of selling stake to investors after it shelved plans to raise money from the primary market. said another expert. it has already acquired six acres land by the side of the new International Airport at Bangalore in Devanapalli involving an investment of `200cr where it is setting up 5-star luxury hotel expected to be commissioned in the middle of 2012. Mysore and Kochi.NEWS Real Estate 2014. currently operates six luxury hotels and resorts at various locations across India. Moreover. and the UK. Zuri Resorts Plans `1. she added. Jones Lang LaSalle Meghraj. Priti Chand said. Giving momentum to its strategy. Chennai.200cr Expansion The multinational conglomerate. The group which started its operation in India in 1999 with its first hotel in Goa. it is building its own brand and taking up management contracts as a part of its strategy to push the number of its wholly owned properties. Nairobi and in West Asia in the next two years and the group is in advance state of negotiations with various private owners for the management of these hotels. Zuri Hotels and Resorts.200 crore. NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 59 . This is a rare deal in the real estate market in India as developers normally complete projects with the money they get from bookings and go to private equity investors at a later stage. commented Country Head. Kenya. Similarly. Assistant Vice President & (PR) Corporate Communications. In this connection. Lodha claimed that the project secured bookings worth `1. its fully owned projects will be coming up at Bangalore.

the state government will set up an entertainment park on a patch of 100 acre and it would be built as a roller coaster. the government should take conscious decision to bring stability in the SEZ Policy. movie with related merchandise and nearby hotels and resorts. the government in a recent move has relaxed the built up area norms for these units coming up in tier two and tier three cities. Vijayawada and Visakhapatnam.166 acres at Goregaon involving an investment of `7. Giant Ferris Wheel. the government in a recent statement has clarified that some more time would be given to the developers to complete the work and begin operations. Coimbatore. by these tax free enclave owners only after the recovery of the capital and revenue expenditure and it excludes expenditure made on land. The upcoming park would look similar to the Universal Parks in Los Angeles. a 350 acre nature and bio diversity centre will be developed with lush green surrounding to preserve the flora and fauna currently found in abundance in the colony.5b).000cr. In addition. Anil Ambani Theme Park The R-ADAG group of Reliance Industries belonging to Anil Ambani Group is all set to clinch a deal with the Universal Studios of the US to set up a Theme Park and Resort in India stretching across 400 acre at a whopping investment of `6922cr ($1. if the scheme is implemented the developers would not enjoy as many benefits as under the current policy. He further added that investment related tax incentives limit tax benefits on profits earned Govt Relaxes SEZs Norms for Smaller Cities Avoiding the adverse impact of the Direct Taxes Code (DTC) on Special Economic Zones (SEZs). which is the most popular paid tourist attraction in Britain. which includes cities like Pune Ahmedabad. shops. A. While in B1 the smaller cities including Patna and Ludhiana and the cities falling outside these three categories have been categorized as B2 cities. which is scouting land in Delhi and Mumbai. It may be recalled that the revised discussion paper on Direct Taxes Code (DTC) has suggested continuation of the 15 year tax holiday for units operational by March 2011. is expected to be about $500 million. demanded Rajiv Chugh of Ernst and Young. Nitin Raut. It is planning to set up and operate similar entertainment facilities in five cities across India of which one has been planned for Delhi and the total investment apart from land prices. biotechnology and free trade warehousing where minimum built up area norms are prescribed. The latest move will spur large scale investments in IT/ITeS SEZ in smaller cities thereby helping sectors including gems and jewellery. Govt Pushes SEZ Units to Comfort Zone Giving additional time line beyond the stipulated deadline of March 2011 to start operations and become eligible for tax incentives in line with the present norms. In addition. 60 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . will own the venture and pay royalty to the Universal. In totality. merry-making and Bollywood style’s studios together with apartments and model tribal settlements. 50% in the following five years and 50% of the plough back export profit for the next five years. Making things more clear the government in a notification has classified all cities into four categories including A1 comprising four metros. Orlando in Florida and Japan offering varieties of roller coasters rides. intellectual patent holders of the London Eye. the ADAG has already signed an agreement with 50:50 venture early last year with London based Great Wheel Corporation. to give confidence to the investors who have put in huge amount of money into these projects based on the tax incentives.NEWS SEZs SEZs Maharashtra Unveils Eco-tourist Zone The Maharashtra government in a recent move has drawn up plans to set up an attractive eco-tourism zone and entertainment park on an area of 3. Bangalore and Hyderabad. However. The ADAG Group. As under Sections 10AA of the Income Tax Act SEZs are given 100% tax exemption during the first five years. besides a mini jungle for city’s settlers to enjoy the natural environment of the metropolitan city. The area is currently housing an Aarey Milk Colony. the new units would not get such benefits and they would be subject to investment linked incentives. In this connection. a very popular milk dairy in the state. non-conventional energy. According to the State Minister for Dairy Development. said FM in a statement.

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Schiller will manage all aspects of global marketing for Manitowoc. where it has its largest facility worldwide to manufacture backhoe loaders. JCB India Ltd said that a new engine unit will be set up at Ballabgarh by the last quarter of this year. has entered into an MoU with EIC Group of Saudi Arabia to set up a second joint venture to consolidate its business in the EPC segment in West Asia. 2010. trade shows. for Manitowoc Cranes Americas. 62 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 .000th locally manufactured machine and launched three new products has also launched a rebranding exercise.” said Eric Etchart. collection efficiency ratios and the rate of foreclosure of contracts. takes into account factors like maintenance of credit quality of the originator and its performance of the overall portfolio. president. marketing and product support. With the Government set to impose a 14% custom duty on power equipment to check Chinese imports. the import of power equipment for UMPPs does not attract any duty so as to give fillip to power generation in the country. loans given for acquiring construction equipment have had lower delinquency levels when compared to other loan pool. Mr Vipin Sondhi.NEWS Equipment News Equipment News JCB to Set up Engine Unit JCB India has announced that it is going to set up a unit to manufacture engines at its factory in Ballabgarh. operational marketing. have stated that their contribution will be restrained if custom duty is imposed on foreign equipment. Manitowoc Cranes. Under the umbrella of the Association of Power Producers. during its surveillance of the crated pools. particularly for cars and commercial vehicles. He succeeds Bob Hund. He joined Manitowoc in 2008 as the vice president of mobile cranes and was recently appointed to senior vice president of sales and marketing Crompton Greaves Tie-up Crompton Greaves has announced that its subsidiary. The company was looking at exports to West Asia. including marketing communications and product management. At present. Over the last four years. Imposing duty has a serious implication on the cost structure and tariffs and can seriously impact the additional capacity program being planned by the private sector. public relations and website development. A new logo has already been introduced in the UK and Europe and will be rolled out in phases on all its products across the globe in the next 6-9 months. “He has a unique talent for strategic thinking. one each at Pune and Ballabgarh. says the Association. effective September 1. private companies keen to access inexpensive foreign equipment have sought the PM intervention. and asset classes. Ingo Schiller Named Senior Vice President of Global Marketing Manitowoc Cranes has named Ingo Schiller senior vice president of w o r l d w i d e marketing. The move may lead to increase in tariffs of power generated from these projects. “Ingo brings a depth of knowledge to this role that will enhance our visibility on a global scale. The key performance indicators are the aging profile of the securitised pools. Construction Equipment Loans An ICRA analysis of various Asset Backed Securitisation (ABS) transactions rated by it during 2010 has revealed that pool across various originators. who is now concentrating solely on his role as executive vice president of Manitowoc Crane Care. The repayment rate has also been very low in case of CE pools compared with cars and CV pools. Prior to joining Manitowoc. The company which recently announced selling of its 100. advertising. UMPPs Equipment Import Equipment import for upcoming UMPPs in the country may attract duty. he said that it has added an investment of over `600 crore in two plants. ICRA. Managing Director & Chief Executive Officer. he worked as vice president of sales for Liebherr Cranes Inc. and that should be of tremendous benefit as he and his team develop Manitowoc’s product line strategies. APAC and Africa. In addition to these. pool performance–related issues. CG Holdings Belgium. Functions Schiller will manage include global product management.” Schiller has over 20 years of experience in the crane industry working mostly in sales. The company is in a strategic position to utilize India as a world class base for manufacturing.

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000 per year for an average utilization of 2000 hrs a year. manufacture. to produce high quality of product and reliability. MP. Head – Marketing.Faridi.V. Strong customer focus has been one of the company’s guiding philosophies. etc. What are the salient features and engineering facilities the company has put in place to produce high quality products? L&T-CASE's state-of-the-art facility at Pithampur incorporates the best international practices of lean manufacturing and single piece flow technology. It has been a conscious effort on our part to continuously invest in Research and Development ensuring that customers get the most updated and technologically superior products. The machines are marketed and serviced by its marketing division. D.A. tooling. it has been a conscious effort of the company to continuously invest in Research and Development to ensure that our customers continuously are getting the most updated technologically superior products. sophisticated robots. L&T–CASE Equipment Private Limited in an interview with S. headquartered at Mumbai through a network of 54 dealers and complemented by L&T-CASE Zonal and Area offices across the country. Our Backhoe Loaders. even as our competitors were feeling the heat of the economic slowdown. says Mr. The machine that helps customers to operate with low operating costs while providing the advantages of better productivity and reliability has been the USP of L&T–CASE. particularly model L&T–CASE 770. L&T–CASE Kindly introduce L&T–CASE to our readers both its manufacturing and marketing operations. We perceive that your company invests a lot on innovation and R&D.Interview Optimistic About Future Market Share Strong customer focus has been one of the company’s guiding philosophies. Unwavering focus on technology development and regular interface with the customers and end users has facilitated the company with an ability to capitalise on the market trends.). are certified under ISO 9001-2008 for design. The machines that help customers to operate with low operating cost while providing the advantages of better productivity and reliability. L&T-CASE is a joint venture of L&T and CNH America LLC (a wholly owned subsidiary of CNH Global N. have distinct advantages and are becoming exceptionally popular with its customers. The latest technology incorporated has substantially enhanced the periodic oil and filter change interval in Backhoe Loader model L&T–CASE 770 machine which has reduced the operating cost almost by `75. Excerpts. How does your inclination help the company to make superior products dedicated to customer requirement? Since its inception.V. What is the USP of company’s prestigious L&T–CASE 770 Backhoe Loader? 64 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . sales and service of Backhoes Loader and Vibratory Compactors. The new plant has been upgraded with laser cutting machine. Its manufacturing facilities at Pithampur. Junnarkar.000 to 85.

Infrastructure will form a major part of India’s GDP growth in the next ten years. hydel projects. How do you foresee the demand for construction equipment on the back of current focus on infrastructure development? Increased spending on urban infrastructure. The machine is sturdier and very reliable.Interview One of the best examples of a machine that is perfectly suited to work in the tough environments that are sometimes faced in India is our L&T-CASE 770 Backhoe Loader. If you were to look at the trends. rural housing will increase demand for backhoe loaders. There is a wide gap in the present infrastructure and what we need in our country. L&T-CASE 770 Backhoe Loader is built with an engine compliant to the latest emission norms and the world’s best hydraulic components and drive line. What is your market overview of Backhoe Loaders and Vibratory Compactors? We expect the industry numbers for FY 2010-11 to grow to 23. The infrastructure sector is getting lot of attention from the government and therefore is poised for an accelerated growth.600 units of Vibratory Compactors.500 units of Backhoe Loader and to 2. the market in India is largely skewed towards multipurpose and mobile machinery like backhoe loaders. We are quite optimistic and confident to improve our market share further both in Backhoe Loaders and Vibratory Compactors. NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 65 . We are expecting that the infrastructure growth will continue as Government is serious about implementation of projects in a time bound manner. railways and road construction.

it entered into a technical collaboration with HCM. Japan that holds 60% share and TATA Motors which holds the balance 40%. In 1984. and a truly Futuristic Backhoe Loader . efficient. Telcon focuses on value added services by offering Full Maintenance Contracts. The 315E as the customers say is.ideal for the competitive world. Specialized reconditioning and refurbishing services are offered to ensure that the utility of the equipment is extended and life cycle costs brought down. needs and increased their profitiability and competitiveness. and Kharagpur in West Bengal. TELCON is a joint venture with Hitachi Construction Machinery Ltd." For further details please contact: Fax-+91-80-66953309 E-mail: telcon@telcon. reliable. “simple. the leader in construction equipment in India. This has been widely recognized in various markets across the country. TELCON's Constructive Solutions is enabled by its widespread network that ensures that wherever its customers are. has been enhancing the operational performance for its customers by improving their profitability and competitiveness through constructive solutions.Equipment & Machinery TELCON Enhancing Equipment Performance T ELCO Construction Equipment Ltd. mining and infrastructure needs. which complete the package to its customers and enable them free precious resources for their core activities.” The ability to deliver Constructive Solutions starts with Telcon comprehensive range of equipment that ensures that the customer has the right kind of equipment for all construction. TELCON started manufacturing of construction equipment in 1961 as a division of TELCO. Telcon has recently started operations at its new manufacturing facility in Kharagpur. economical. TELCON has also recently introduced TATA 315E to cater to the needs of hiring and rental markets whose primary requirements are less fuel consumption and overall less owning and operating costs. Tata Backhoe Loader In the Backhoe Loader segment. This has been evolved through its focus in understanding their customers. TELCON’s consistent growth and success have been built on the foundation of its ability to understand customers’ needs and provides equipment and support solutions that increase profitability and competitiveness for them that is what “Constructive Solutions is. Japan for manufacturing state-ofthe-art hydraulic excavators.co. Telcon has a dominant position in the 85 + HP segment which is possible primarily because of its TATA 315V capable enough to prove its worth in tough applications. TELCON is the largest manufacturer of construction equipment and it has three manufacturing plants at Jamshedpur in Jharkhand. TELCON dealers provide support to the customers by supplying parts and expert service. Dharwad in Karnataka.in 66 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . they are not far from the company and its services. The Tata 315E is powered by the popular 76 HP TATA 497 TC engine with fully powershift Transmission and Axles from Internationally renowned ZF and additionally provided with a sturdy Power Curve Boom and best in class Control Valves.

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excavators. a City of Jiangxi province. Lonking has availed every opportunity and made a series of wonders. Leading Quality Control Facility and System Lonking‘s superior manufacturing technology and equipments are manifestations of the precision digital production. Shanghai. it manufactures wheel loader. the industrial park is an important manufacturing facility of Lonking in Jiangxi province. axles. hydraulic components. Lonking sold around 30. With a production area of over 2. excavator and the spare parts including axle. transmission. the challenger. test & inspection equipment. pipes and the drive shaft and boasts a 60% high ratio of selfmanufactured components and parts. In 2008. gears. production equipment. road rollers and other major components. drive shafts. Vertical Integration Lonking is actively involved in R&D and production of core components including gearbox. forklifts and their main components such as transmissions. the pioneer and now the leader in the industry.Equipment & Machinery Made in China For The World onking Holdings Limited one of the largest construction machinery manufacturers in China was founded in 1993 and has 18 wholly owned subsidiaries at present. 1 in terms of sales quantity of wheel loaders in the world. Lonking acquired Zhengzhou Baiyun Electromechanical Company and renovated it as Lonking’s manufacturing facility in Zhengzhou. The fabrication adopts state-ofthe-art technologies such as CNC flame cutting. This marks the beginning of Lonking’s Development Strategy in Central China.casting. R&D capability. In March 2007. torque converters.000 units of wheel loaders with more than 20% market share in China that makes Lonking No.The park’s investment scale. Lonking set foot in Shanghai and built a one million square meter modern industrial park integrating R&D and production of wheel loaders. etc. forklifts. product performance and residential environment are absolutely of world class. With a prospective view. pumps. 68 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . L Strong Competitiveness & Diversified Strategy Lonking's first priority is efficiency since its establishment. hydraulic cylinder. Lonking manufactures wheel loaders. forging. He’nan Province. road rollers. etc. gears.000m. tubes & hoses. Covering an area of 300 thousand square meters. hydraulic components. Lonking Lonking has gradually developed itself in Longyan its birthplace in the past decade. In 2003. axle. The vertical integration assures that component cost is under effective control and also guarantees quality of the final output. It has perfectly outlined a spiral success track of being the follower. Its manufacturing facilities are located in Fujian. motor graders. In 1999. valves and other main components in Gao. Lonking established an industrial park for the production of gears. Lonking will continue its efforts in developing and manufacturing high efficient and environmental friendly products and play a part in the global economic development and human civilization. torque converter. manufacturing technology. Jiangxi and He’nan provinces with total site space of over 3 million square meters for maximizing geographical advantages. excavators.000. CNC laser plasma cutting and CNC turret punch.

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Lonking has an international distribution network which sells products to more than 50 countries. Social Responsibility. including Russia. Lonking has established a broad marketing network nationwide. i. Middle East and Southeast Asia among others. by the full implementation of its nine development strategies and three five-year plans with high efficiency. Large Scale R&D Investment and Long-term Innovation Lonking boasts of an elite R&D group and an annual R&D investment above the average industrial level among the domestic machinery manufacturing sector.Equipment & Machinery The welding of various components and structure parts employs electrical arcs. See you at Visit Booth F08 70 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . Lonking is approaching the goal of its second round business development—Leap-forward Development. Carrying forward humanitarianism spirit. More than 800 primary and secondary distribution agents follow the 3 in 1 business model. Global Positioning” to be a world -leading company. Care for Humanity Lonking actively advocates the winwin value of “Big Lonking Family” and takes the initiative in contributing back to the society. This systematically improves and ensures smooth sales channels and after sales service. Making History With great foresight of a new era and the international market.e. Convenient Marketing Network Domestically. EU. From China Top Brand to International famous brand. Lonking expects further growth in overseas market. Machine sales .. the Li San Yim Charity Foundation actively supports the social and public welfare undertaking positive role of “Big Lonking Family” interpreting the connotation. Lonking is Striving to promote the development of the world construction machinery industry and the progress of human society.after sale service and the spare parts supply. trace package and robot welding technology. Lonking has accumulatively invested over 500 Million RMB in R&D of new products and new processes and technology update. and expects to increase by at least 30% annually. The production of hydraulic components is completely by controlled CNC. The production of axle and transmission adopts the globally leading FMS flexible manufacturing system and horizontal machining centers.

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it is superior in yield waterproof characteristic and high reliability at deep retaining structure. Standard Drilling Tool Sandy Soil Drilling Tool Cutterpick Drilling Tool General of SMW method SMW auger with DH558 working in the job site Pre-drill Boring Tool (single auger screw) 72 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . For example. In case of Ø850mm walls. the earth auger. As a soil cement-mixing wall of continual one body. the complete lap being able to point to the bored hole mixing axis of the element edge to the next element. As for the soil cement-mixing wall. SEMW provides different Drilling Tools. as per specified soil condition for rapid drilling speed and keep long service life for Drilling Tools. changing to the single auger screw for pre-boring. the screw and the plant which responds to purpose combining with the optimum.Equipment & Machinery SEMW Super Auger for Soil Stabilization oil cement-mixing wall method is making the soilcement wall which do in situ by using the multi-shaft auger equipment developed specially by injection of cement slurry from the point and mixing it with the existing soil for making the soil-cement wall. it is possible to utilize wideranging in the waterproof earth retaining wall. Standard wall thickness of Soil cement-mixing wall S method is Ø650mm and Ø850mm. it keeps creating. in the resistance earth retaining structure and the dead water wall. the combination of Cutter Head and Shaft form. SMW method operates the based machine. when it is the hard ground where the preceding pre-boring is necessary.

Furthermore. mixing column diameter Ø850 .650 mm. Little Influence on Circumferential Area of Foundation. High Liability Standard mixing column diameter is Ø550 . period of works is shorten in comparison with conventional method. the influence on circumferential area of foundation such as ground subsidence has decreased. Shortening in terms of works Because in site earth mixing system with one process. no Ground Subsidence Because of Mixingagitation with cement slurry is performed in situ earth in order to create the soil cement wall. but to correspond to the much deeper requirement recently. Roy Lee Tel: 86-139 1740-4912 E-mail: roy. For further details please contact: Mr.900 mm has become possible due to the reinforcing material having big section modulus be able to insert.semw@hotmail. As for depth of wall longest for SEMW Super Auger is 55 m.Equipment & Machinery Features of SMW Method High Waterproof Effect Soil cement-mixing wall is uniform with the unique mixing mechanism which provides the mixing wing and the traveling wing alternately. looseness and collapse of the hole wall quite are little. it is superior in waterproof characteristic in comparison to conventional method. and superior in economical efficiency. the elements are jointed with each other through lap system.com NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 73 .

There was a special Technical Session on Manufactured Sand which was highly appreciated by the audience. Wheeled and Modular Crushing & Screening Products offered by Terex Minerals Processing Systems. Global Product Manager Crushers. Terex Mineral Processing Systems. Horizontal Shaft Impactors. Apron Feeders. Customers also took interest in the Horizontal Shaft Impactor on display. Sri Lanka. Thailand.Customer Meet Terex Mineral Processing Systems Malaysian Brand Building T erex Minerals Processing Systems recently organized an Open Day for its customers and dealers in Asia at its Subang Jaya Factory in Malaysia. Mike Schultz. With participation of over 150 key customers and dealers. Director. “Terex Minerals Processing Systems uses the Malaysian facility as a key support hub for the Spare parts and Service Support for customers in Asia for all machines manufactured in Asia as well as at different locations throughout the globe. this event was a great Brand Building Exercise by Terex Minerals Processing Systems. and Cone Crushers. Terex Minerals Processing Systems “our Malaysian Plant Operation is key to our business in entire Asia and this is the reason we opted for Malaysia for this occasion in order to provide the customers and dealers an appropriate feel of our plant. Mentioning about the support provided by the plant for its Indian operations. The participants were customers and dealers from entire region including Vietnam. On display were a large Jaw Crusher Model ST 47 along with the Jaw Crushers Models JW 42 and Model JW 40. Schultz highlighted features and benefits of Terex’s equipment range comprising Vibrating Grizzly Feeders. There was also an impressive Equipment Display put up at the factory premises. Taiwan. Vertical Shaft Impactors. Customers from India showed keen interest in the large size crushers which were on display at the event. The day started with a Presentation Session on the complete range of Static. Singapore. This is also an important manufacturing facility which supports the global operations. A large Gyratory Cone Crusher Model J 50 was on display along with the 3’0" HITX Gyratory Crusher. Global Product Line Director.” According to Mr. Malaysia and India. Value of Malaysian Operation Choosing Malaysia as the venue by Terex for its dealers-customers meet was owing to its vital operational presence in Malaysia itself. Jason Talbot. Talbot. There were 4 types of Cone Crushers on display including the popular models TC 1300 Cone and TC 1000 Cone. Sales & Marketing – Asia said. Jaw Crushers. Mr. According to Mr. Cone Crushers. Horizontal Shaft Impactors. Vibrating Feeders and 74 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . the excellent response to the Open Day showed the keen interest of the customers in Asia in Static and Wheeled range of Crushers and Screens. the high quality standards maintained and our business operation as a whole. Jaideep Shekhar. Indonesia. Shekhar. The Technical Presentation was made by Mr. The Plant which is Certified with ISO9001:2008 is equipped with complete manufacturing infrastructure for manufacturing range of Jaw Crushers. the Malaysian Factory supports the customers in Asia by providing quality machines as well as Parts and Service Support. The Plant Terex’s Malaysia facility can be described as a completely organized and integrated manufacturing entity in itself. Vibrating Screens.” According to Mr. Mr. Korea.

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The welding shop is completely integrated to the machine shop. Cone Crushers. 78 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . Giana. Critical parts i.post production. located at the machine shop. Intra plant movement of parts from the welding shop and machine shop is supported through batch of EOT cranes.Customer Meet Vibrating Screens. Vertical Bourer. The plant maintains high quality standards and there are separate Test Bays for testing Jaw Crushers. The factory is having a separate warehouse area to stock spare parts and components required for the end users and dealers and is separate from the production stock. etc. There are a total of 12 major machining machines available in the factory including Zayer. Each machine is run of the test bed for an average of 6 hours before the Quality Check is approved. This helps to achieve better customer focus and quick delivery of parts to the customers. Manufacturing infrastructure of the plant consists of milling machine. etc.e. Welding along with Critical Parts manufacturing is undertaken in house to maintain the desired quality standards set by Terex. All machines are painted under coat & finishing with GLOSS level of 90% Terex Minerals Processing Systems also offers its customers the facility of repair and major overhaul of the crushers at the factory. Micrometer is used to check most of the incoming parts and machine parts to maintain the quality standards. shafts. Trained Service Experts at the Factory are available to do the Service overhaul jobs. Vibrating Equipment. frames are tested with hardness tester. The customers were taken to the Factory Premises after the Equipment Display. The plant operates on lean manufacturing systems.

PM also imported 52 M Boom Pumps for projects in India and subsequently shipped them back to home after the project was over. Apart from normal applications. The pump is equipped with 5 arms for better reach and maneuverability. In the past. this pump is also suitable for infrastructure projects including LNG tanks.1m (134ft). Keeping these difficulties in view. Gurgaon in Haryana.Case Study PM's Largest Boom Pump BSS 46 at Work T he Launch of BSS 46 in India by Putzmeister is in line with its philosophy of opening new segments & making the latest technology available to the Indian customers. Slave Engine of 190 KW Volvo Penta. BSS 46 is currently working on the site of the residential Project being developed by Unitech Developers at Sector-33. The RZ-folding technology of BSS 46 is most advanced helping in quick erection of the Boom and concrete pouring can be started immediately." NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 79 . As most of the customers have tractors in their fleets. which is another added feature of BSS 46. BSS 46 has been designed in accordance with the existing road regulations. is very fuel-efficient and there is an economic output control system by which RPM of the Engine can be adjusted according to the Load on the Machine and this again leads to higher fuel efficiency. “We are using Putzmeister machines for our various projects and feel that Putzmeister is the largest Concrete Pump Manufacturing Company in the World. the Indian customers faced lot of difficulties in getting their projects executed for want of bigger Boom Pumps. it has opened the era of higher reach Boom Pumps in India which till now were restricted because of non-availability of bigger Truck chassis. this lead to lesser investment in buying the concrete pump. With trailer configuration. Once the project was completed the pumps were sent back to their place of origin. PM India opened the segment of larger Boom Pumps in the India by launching BSS 46 which according to the company is India’s biggest and the only 46 m Trailer mounted Boom pump. We are very happy to acquire the largest Boom Pump in India from Putzmeister for the construction of our project. It has a maximum vertical reach of 45. chimneys. power plants etc. Earlier. It is also equipped with a 140 cum/hr core pump and is mounted on a homologated trailer which is allowed to run on Indian roads. Ultimately they had to import these Boom Pumps and were allowed to keep them in the country till the completion of the project.1m (148ft) and horizontal reach of 41. Customer does not require special permission to move this machine from one place to another as it can be pulled by a tractor. The Boom Pump is mounted on a trailer.

In collaboration with LIPPMANN of USA. Sand Manufacturing PROMAN. PROMAN focuses on the following: ♦ Major accounts in the mineral and contractor segment ♦ Sand plants ♦ Road and Dam contractors in India and neighboring countries ♦ Mines and Mineral Processing Industries PROMAN has a state-of-the-art factory in Bangalore to manufacture Crushing. Manufactured sand which is produced by crushing aggregates has a tremendous demand as well and PROMAN is one of the world leaders in this segment. Experts have recommended technical parameters and methods to judge the quality of sand. The fineness modulus indicates the relative fineness or coarseness of a sand sample. manufactures crushers which produce manufactured sand.30. FM number of 3. PROMANREMco machines produce cubical. The accumulated percentages retained on numbers 4.76. basalt. USA who are leaders in reduction technology. well-graded. quartzite. sandstone. gravel. and any sound stone used for construction material can be crushed to produce sand. In short. PROMAN also manufactures PROcone a cone crusher which does both secondary and tertiary crushing.8. Screening and Sand Washing equipment to supply aggregates and sand to quarry and mineral sectors. and 100 screen sieves are added up and the total divided by 100 giving FM number. andesite. Such sand has full range of well-graded size that finishes smoothly. S and is one of the most important ingredients in deciding the strength and quality of concrete.Equipment & Machinery Manufacturing Sand For Concrete With Proman Crushers Commercially. PROMAN manufactures heavy duty primary Jaw Crushers which have capacity to produce? 100 to 500 tons per hour.0 or less is acceptable.50.16. 80 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . Materials which can be crushed to make sand are limestone. granite. The ideal manufactured sand grading yields a FM number of 2. Sand with the required FM ensures good workability and finishing properties in the concrete mix. The success and failure of a construction depends significantly on the quality of sand used. PROMAN manufactures Vertical Shaft Impact Crushers in collaboration with M/s REMco. silica. The sand must have cubicle particles for all sieve sizes and must be washed. Fineness Module (FM) of sand is one such important parameter in judging quality of sand. mid-range aggregates. specification sand and other fine sizes. sound. The Parameter of FM was developed to indicate the properties of sand in a numerical value. Sand that ensures strength and beauty of construction possesses rounded and cubical particles.

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the crushing forces applied can be controlled by the operating speed of the machine. Depending on desired product. each particle experiences a rapid acceleration and deceleration in microseconds. USA manufactures the unique Ortner for the removal of fines from the product available from crushers. 6 port REMco rotors pull in more material through the rotor and ensure efficiency in terms of power consumption. PROMAN-REMco VSIs are crushers and not just shapers. 5. Custom Engineered Equipment For Sand Manufacturing REMco Sandmax VSI is exclusively designed to produce sand and other fine products. Most VSI’s in the market have traditional 3 port rotors which is a power hungry design. The surge bin protects the crushed sand circuit from the production irregularities in other parts of the crushing plant. type of chamber and rotor offers greater control on gradation. Surge bin is necessary to provide a ready large quantity of new feed to the crusher. feeder. The tips are “insert” type unlike the traditional “bolt on” type used by others. screen. With 3. automation. the power consumption in a REMco VSI is in the range of 1 to 1. Typically. Better design and material technology guarantee lesser wearcost per ton. The REMco Sandmax VSI offers unmatched advantage in terms of power consumption. This type of VSI has wider control of speed for efficient operation. Dual Purpose Aggregate Plant The plant for concrete sand manufacturing that meets the IS: 383 (Zone I and II) specifications requires an elaborate flow circuit design.4 HP per ton which is quite close to the power cost of a tertiary cone. Lubrication is also easy as greasing can be done through centralized greasing block. These VSIs possess impressive structural integrity as they are heavier and built like crushers and not just shapers. The REMco VSI offer shape and grade advantage and the material goes 100% through the rotor whether it is “Rock on Rock” or “Rock on Anvil” design. PROMAN has flexibility in the form of PROMO series mobile crusher and PROMAN-Striker range of Tracked Machines. 4. washing and blending gates. PROMAN in collaboration with M/s Aggregate Equipment Industries. It produces manufactured sand from hard abrasive rock at an affordable cost. The surge bin should be filled with clean well graded material having a maximum 82 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . PROMAN-REMco VSIs are easy to maintain as they can be serviced from top.Equipment & Machinery PROMAN has collaboration with M/s Finedoor. The speed control when combined with a variety of crushing chamber features results in optimum crushing efficiency for the power applied. It can be custom engineered to meet specific sand production requirements. The equipment consists of surge bin. As the graded rocks are fed to the crusher. United Kingdom for manufacturing screens and grizzly feeders in India. Higher feed size upto 75 mm is possible with PROMANREMco Sandmax VSI. This fills the crushing chamber with a violent rock cloud. The flexibility of the rotor speed.

News.75 mm). The major solution to this problem is to use manufactured sand produced by crushers such as those provided by PROMAN. Projects. Appointments Even you can post your requirements. It must be conservatively sized. everything whatever you are looking for—Products. The vibratory screen is designed for fine screening below 3/16" (4. It can be horizontal or inclined style. Services. Manufacturing concrete sand is proving to be the best solution that balances the demands for environment protection and higher economic growth. preferably oversized. What else you need. A feeder allows optimum and continuous flow or new feed. It spends a lot of time to understand customer requirements and ensure that it educates the customers so that they take the right decision PROMAN’s u. www. Tenders. PROMAN is known for providing crushing solutions. PROMAN provides crushing solutions and it believes that its equipment is a part of the total solution which involves the process. Conclusion Natural sand is depleting at a very fast pace and efforts are being made to conserve it. is to provide innovative crushing solutions with its collaborations in technology from world class crushing and screening equipment.Equipment & Machinery of 3" (75 mm) or any smaller size of sound stone or gravel. Technology. Belt feeders are preferred because of their linear capacity and control. Technical Articles. Automation ensures continuous crusher discharge grading. Automation eliminates the human factor lowers operating cost and ensures maximum feed rate to utilize all the connected crushing power. the application and the system. It may be 2 or 3 deck type. Register yourself today. Electro mechanical vibrating feeders are also acceptable but provide less control at maximum feed rates requiring that they be oversize.com Anything.nbmcw. The addition automation increases sand production by 10% to 30%. which are customized to the segment or industry. Discussion forum.s. NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 83 . A feeder is essential as it controls the rate of new feed introduced to the sand circuit.p.

84 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . and 11 MD 345s. NFT is one of the world’s largest tower crane owners and is one of the longest-serving crane suppliers in the Middle East. Saudi Arabia..” The first Potain cranes arrived in April 2009. 14 MC 310s. For further details. “It is backed by the King of Saudi Arabia and is attracting a lot of attention. Saudi Binladin Group and El Seif Engineering and Contracting Co. Grove mobile cranes and Manitowoc crawler cranes are helping build the world’s largest women-only university in Riyadh. All the tower cranes were supplied by UAE-based Potain dealer NFT ver 180 Potain tower cranes. Managing Partner at NFT. please contact: Fax: +65 6862 4040 E-mail: Punitha. The most popular models include 17 MD 365s.5 billion. The three main contractors are Saudi Oger Ltd. David Semple. All were supplied by NFT. both in the Middle East and worldwide. scale and prestige of this project all combine to make it one of the largest projects we have been involved with. Some were sold to Saudi Oger while others are working on rental contracts. said Manitowoc was honored to provide the majority of the cranes for this major project. Cranes from across the Potain range are being used onsite. Princess Nora Bin Abdul Rahman University is one of the largest construction O projects in the Middle East.com There are over 180 Manitowoc cranes on the project.” he said.Govindasamy@manitowoc. Managing Director of Manitowoc Cranes in the Middle East. said tower cranes are managing large parts of the construction work. Nabil Al Zahlawi. Set over 8 million m2 and costing approximately $11. 16 MDT 368s.Equipment & Machinery Manitowoc Cranes Build Large Saudi Arabian University “The cost. the UAE-based Potain dealer that covers the Gulf region.

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owned by public company “China National Offshore Oil Corporation” (CNOOC). once again proves how its advanced technology is appreciated even abroad.1 and BF70.6 meters. For further details.p. One problem that MB effectively solves since materials are crushed on site and consequently there is no need to transport them to another location. The Vicenza-based company will have the privilege of seeing its equipment.6 and 63. can load up to 18 tonnes. and operation. traditional crushing equipment could not be used since it was not possible to move the material to other locations. three Comansa Jie cranes will finish the extension of the Fujian power plant. Many plants like Fujian. please contact: Fax: +86-571-8299 6555 E-mail: robin. The Fujian plant will be able to produce 6. which has rapidly increased its production and consumption all over the world. and the quality of its products have made it easy for the company to make a triumphant debut on the Japanese market. versatility and great performance.Equipment & Machinery Japan Selects MB’s Buckets Crusher to Build Underground Transport Systems B’s hi-tech crusher buckets set to be employed in the building of Tokyo’s underground transportation system. dust. offer a perfect combination of versatility and manageability. which excels in terms of quality.2. as they can easily move around in crowded spaces in the city. the third biggest oil company in the country. the plant has been operating since 2007 transforming liquefied natural gas into electric power.e model 21 CJ 290 and 21 CJ 210. The three cranes. safety.cn 86 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . constant investments in research and development.A. work with liquefied natural gas instead of proper gas because it is cheaper to transport in large ships rather through a pipeline. confirms the high levels achieved in these past years thanks to a winning strategy.p. Tokyo has one of the most expensive transportation systems in the world. There are two cranes i. and trucks are forced to make many trips to complete a job. so the 21 CJ 290 is working at a height under hook of 57. on the other hand. For further details please contact: Tel: +39-0445308148 Fax: +39-0445308179 E-mail: info@mbcrusher. The technological jewels BF60. which has a population of over 36 million.com. and traditional crushers would have led to significant difficulties in terms of noise.hu@comansajie.com Website: www. a strong and motivated leadership and the fact that its products are 100% Made in Italy. were as the 21 CJ 210 has been erected at a height of 69.112 gigawatts per hour after the extension and will help to supply electric power to the region. play a leading role in the construction of one of the most cutting-edge infrastructures in the world. on the southeast province of Fujian in China. An achievement that boasts an absolute record as the MB crusher buckets were the only ones deemed for use in building the Japanese underground. thereby saving time and reducing costs.com 3 Cranes from Comansa Jie for China A fter a year of intense work. a country that is always at the forefront of all innovations. The final height of the tanks will be 52 meters. thus confirming its recognized global leadership in the demolition and recycling sector even in such a selective market. while contributing to saving energy and respecting the environment. Located in the city of Putian.A.1 meters. avoiding the burdensome task of moving the material and producing the stabilized pavement directly on site. The expertise of MB S.mbcrusher. manufactured at the Hangzhou factory are building 2 new tanks with capacity of more than 300 million liters of liquefied natural gas each. and the fact that it was chosen by Japan. MB S. M In fact. The use of natural gas has less environmental impact than any other fossil fuel.

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African and CIS regions’ countries including Eastern Europe. he is not just assured of the cost but also its immense advantages including minimum operational cost. we give utmost priority to preventive Maintenance concept wherein we give necessary tips to maintain the equipment with set of critical parts which are vulnerable to wear and tear after the expiry of the stipulated warranty period. In the prevailing scenario. now Capious Road Tech Private Limited is known for its cost effectiveness. Apart from this. Wet Mix Macadam Plant. During the late nineties when recessionary gloom had gripped the global economy including India with low GDP and rising inflation. Capious stretched its wings across the world and has carved out a niche for itself by penetrating into newer markets like Latin American countries and Mexico and currently is one among the most durable and dependable equipment manufacturers from the Indian subcontinent. says Mr. Pavers and Bitumen Sprayers and drew overwhelming response from Middle East. with a solo motive of manufacturing economical road construction equipment exactly matching Indian requirements like affordability. Elaborating on offering cost effectiveness and precise technology. Ltd. prevailing climatic conditions and the logistics and there was no looking back since then. Wet Mix Macadam plants. Capious is currently facing tough competition with domestic and multinational players. and so on. Pandaya. 88 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . hitech and precise technology in the world over. we established Capious Road Tech Pvt. we have also put in place a trained and experienced team of engineers to sort out customers complaints by providing on the spot solutions that again enables our customers to maximize their production. In addition. We Keep a close watch on the latest and innovative advancements taking place around the globe and keep adding newer features to our product range after weighing customers’ operational requirements. Taking care of customers is our top priority because when a customer buys Capious products. we started exporting Asphalt Drum Mix Plants. Over a period of time. Capious. maximum productivity and providing the right type of equipment matching his area of operations. hi-tech equipment and experience. MNCs are better placed with rich resources. Mr. All this led the customers to operate the equipment without much time loss and has raised their profits. we concentrate on production line up by manufacturing and stocking specific number of machines and this works wonders on this score but at times it is very risky. it is cleft stick walk for small and medium domestic players and we rely on cost effectiveness and precise technology which in turn paying rich dividends. and Pavers about one and a half decades ago. fortunately whenever demand comes we found equipment ready all the time in our stock. Kiran Pandaya in a recent interaction with NBM&CW. Road roller. Gradually.Interview Capious: A Crusader in Road Construction Equipment Ever since it ventured into manufacturing its range of Road and Civil Construction Equipment including Asphalt Drum Mix Plant. In fact. says Chief Managing Director. he said. Bitumen Sprayer. after our brand entrenched itself in the domestic market.

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the company has garnered a huge clientele across the globe. Akona. Single Clamp. For further details please conact: E-mail: continentalscaffolding@gmail. The company always follows standard quality parameters and applies latest production techniques to produce a series of scaffold products having a wide industrial and commercial application.Standard & Ladger. a well qualified team of supervisors keeps a strict vigil over the entire process. With its technical expertise and efficient market planning. Its wide range of scaffolding products includes Right Angle Coupler & Swivel Coupler. the company also offers Adjustable Jack / Stirrup Head. and well organized distribution network. Wall Form Panel and Joint Pins. Adjustable Span. Hot Mix Plant. Ltd is providing the best solutions to the construction industry through its exclusive range of Fully Automatic Concrete Batching & Mixing Plant. Mini Mobile Concrete Batching Plant. to make them more userfriendly. Mohan Engineering Corporation and Anand Engineering Corporation. The company have state-of-theart infrastructure. practicing standard engineering norms since its inception. Centering Plate Floor Form. Muscat and Kuwait. Wet Mix Plant and other construction equipment. Builder Hoist. right from the production till the dispatch of goods for sale in the market.com 90 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . C Known for its robust design. Weigh Batcher and related spare parts. Within a span of a decade and half. Prop. the company has carved a niche for itself in the construction industry and today known as a reputed manufacturer. Its R&D department keeps abreast with all the latest market trends and innovates on the existing products. The finished goods undergo an array of approved checks to test their durability and performance. is providing the best quality products at competitive prices. The company has a robust infrastructure facility. Oman. Concrete Mixer Machines. For further details please contact: Fax: +91-120-4536700 E-mail: info@akonahycon. All these tests are in accordance with the national as well as international standards and norms. Cuplock System . Road Roller. Anand Machinery. In addition. exporter. and durability Continental products are widely used in building and construction industry. These products being manufactured using high grade material as per the set industry standard. Mini Mobile Concrete Batching and Mixing Plant with 3-Bins. Its range of products includes: Fully Automatic Computerized Batching and Mixing Plant. thereby making the construction task easier. Pan Type Concrete Batching and Mixing Plant. well equipped with state-of-the-art machinery. are available in various specifications and can be customized as well. has been recognized today as a manufacturer.Equipment & Machinery Scaffolding Products from Continental Scaff Fab ontinental Scaff Fab. and supplier of scaffolding products. Akona Engineering Pvt. Drum Type Concrete Batching and Mixing Plant. importer and supplier of a range of building and construction equipment. Hot Mix Plant. Continental’s products are in great demand not only in India but also in Saudi Arabia. As quality has always been the hallmark of the company.com Akona Presents High Quality Concrete Equipment E stablished in 1992. SILO: Storage for Cement and Flyash. Tie Rods. low maintenance. Wing Nut & Water Stopper and H Frame. a sister concern of Hycon.

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These H-Beams along with the scaffolding forms a part of the Formwork system that has been in high growth due to the rise in the number of high-rise structures and mega infrastructure projects. Products H-Beam is a unique introduction to overcome the cumbersome and costly procurement of timber. H-Beam is manufactured at par with International Standards under strict quality control and quality assurance to withstand various loads during the construction activity. Circular Column. 92 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . Consistent in strength. H-16 beam: conventional timber = 1:3. No skilled supervision is required during monitoring and making of Formwork against the conventional timber Formwork. Nav Nirman Beam Technics with its experience in wood over N three decades has been the largest supplier of Timber H-Beams in India. It reduces the cost of Formwork making as it does not require planning. Dimensionally stable and uniform in size. Reduction in consumption of timber.5. Cost ratio per use. The members are made of seasoned Ply by making the web and flange section of seasoned Pine Wood imported from Europe so as to make Timber H-Beam stronger and denser. there are lots of Supplier of Scaffolding item but whereas when it comes to Timber H-Beam there are very few as there is lot of Technical Knowledge required in the area of wood.e. It manufactures both H-16 and H-20 Beam. a need for formwork systems and Timber H-Beams that were relatively easy to establish and dismantle was felt. many Construction companies Engineer opt to go separate way i. In India.Products & Technologies Nav Nirman Beam Technics av Nirman Beam Technics is the Leading manufacturer of H-Beams in India.Economical and long lasting. Salient Features: Its advantages include. It has been designed to withstand multiple loads during construction activities. purchasing Timber H-Beams from one Supplier and Scaffolding item from other. With contractors having less time to complete the project. To reduce the investment cost. Both the flange and web are hot processed by the wedge technology making it a composite versatile section. So many Construction companies felt the need of the modern formwork system. It replaces timber procurement to the extent of 60% when viewed on the overall procurement for project execution. Economics: It extends life of the plywood by allowing it to be used at least 9 times to 13 times by reversing the plywood after 8 uses. Wall Shuttering and for Beam Span Base Support. minimizing work at job site. Formwork Making. Applications: It is used for Column Box. sawing and cutting. it can be reused for more than eight times than that of conventional timber.

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safety footwear has to be worn. Safety footwear fulfills a multitude of roles. but also much more about its other functions. Warrior Professional Gear has set the safety norms in airports. Government of India.25 kgs Flange Width (mm): 65 Flange Depth (mm): 38 Web thickness (mm): 22 Available Length (in cms): 120-150-180-240-300-360 H-20 Beam: Specification: Weight Per Meter: 6-6.25 kgs Flange Width (mm): 80 Flange depth (mm): 38 Web Thickness (mm): 22 Available Length (in cms): 120-150-180-240-300-360 For further details please contact: Tel : +91-40-27150119 E-mail: sales@navnirman. construction of stadiums and sports buildings and meeting day to day requirements of the construction industry. An initiative was then taken by Liberty Shoes to develop an allterrain professional gear for the feet as per Euro Safety Norms (EN345) & IS 15298 2002 (Part I &II).in Safety Footwear from Liberty S tudies reveal that more than a thousand people suffer serious injuries every month as a result of slips. chemical industry. and also look reasonable. electric shocks. something that’s completely avoidable by adopting sensible actions and precautions. The result was improved slipresistant safety footwear with dual density polyurethane soles that are anti-static. defense services. especially if an individual is working for long periods of time when the foot could become hot and damp. Around 10 years ago. disability and time off work.000 injuries per annum. To maximise safety and efficiency. The developmental process of Warrior involved listening and communicating with the users of Safety Footwear who were encouraged to put questions to the manufacturers because it was felt that no question can be superfluous where people’s health and safety is concerned . meet the relevant safety standards. hotel. oil and petrol resistant and heat resistant up to 120°C besides featuring a steel toecap with impact resistance of up to 200 joules. For further details. The footwear. abrasion. Indeed. acids. so the wearer must be willing to wear it. and sharp fallen objects.Products & Technologies Applications of H-Beams: Its areas of applications include residential. and good safety footwear that incorporates shock absorbing elements can help prevent MSDs if people are working for a lot of hours on their feet. heavy falling objects. heavy engineering. so the product needs to keep the foot dry. trips or falls in the workplace.any question is a good question if it improves safety. That’s 12. Transport Infrastructure including road and bridges. like keeping floors clean and dry. India used to import Safety Shoes for workers functioning in challenging environments where they were exposed to the hazards of slippery floors. excessive ground heat. construction business. the type of material under the foot can protect from heat and cuts. was tested and certified by PFI Pirmaseans of Germany and approved by Footwear Design and Development Institute. please contact: Fax: +91-1748-251000 E-mail: warrior@libertyshoes. if you are expected to wear a product for 8 hours or more a day you want it to be comfortable. so breathability and hygiene are important. Water Resources Engineering. The tread pattern can protect against slipping. Today. brand named Warrior. industrial and office building construction. H-16 Beam: Specification: Weight Per Meter: 4-4. It is not only about the impact on the toecap. The foot produces a lot of moisture. and providing appropriate safety footwear.com 94 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . mining and railways not just in India but also abroad. with their resulting pain.

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Crawler Crane As project becomes versatile and sizes go up. 98 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 cmyk . crawler crane manufacturers continue to share heightened optimism on future demand of medium and high capacity of crawler cranes from the Indian construction sector. Partha Pratim Basistha takes an overview.

Driven By Power Sector uptime for these valued machines. construction sector at present. This is one of our key T NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 99 . it will Tractors India Limited (TIL) demand to be more from continue to grow as contractors and distributes 77tons-2000tons contractors rather than equipment project managers increasingly Manitowoc crawler rental companies. However.Crawler Crane he demand of crawler 31000 is 105 m and the cranes is well likely to crane features an innovative remain firm for long-term self-supporting counterweight in India. hold ground placed by demand from lifting requirements from the Indian TIL. for the benefit of the end users.” says Manitowoc crawler According to Mr.” equipment. Further. Dually. cranes. Joshi.” demand placed by upcoming sites. Senior the market is filled with used is in contrast to the Vice President TIL. “For versatile lifting equipment.K of new cranes exists as 60-65% of projects as support equipment. For the company. Based on The US based crane the growing demand potential. manufacturers are Manitowoc will continue contemplating to introduce new to focus on its core business high capacity products in India of manufacturing and Demand of high capacity crawler crane are foreseen by in the long run which are being Manitowoc from upcoming high capacity core infrastructure supplying lifting equipment. Managing Director. The better customer support. manufacturing major sees domestic manufacturers are modest demand from the duty carrying out sizeable cycle crawler crane market. Customer projects. “Crawler cranes are According to Mr. He adds. Joshi.” He demand being generated for cranes informs. The requirement of called the Variable Position high capacity cranes is totally Counterweight system. we will demand in this segment. Picture showing testing operation of Manitowoc does not have any plans to present. construction sector. “To arrest equipment beyond the range of 600t. This Bhatnagar. S. there is a definite India. While foreign crane operations. 31000 undertest 2300 tons. enter into the rental business.600 t engineers at job sites at strategic crawler crane. appropriate customer support is of primarily the ultra mega power Manitowoc Cranes outmost priority for us. China and US. cranes in India.” Mr." projects and power projects. improvements in the product Manitowoc offers its 1015 line apart from introducing new crawler crane for duty cycle products. “With Mr. Raman Joshi. fast emerging versatile lifting Manitowoc 31000 is well requirements from the core likely to have future demand construction and industrial in India.” thermal power projects as well. a 2300t hydraulic focus on the hydraulic 400 t. Joshi foresees lifting requirements. support is gaining further indication of demand graduating to “Future requirements of crawler prominence for us to maintain higher capacity crawler cranes from cranes in India will be driven by the enhanced equipment uptime at job the Indian construction sector. This based on existing firm demand minimizes the crane’s fundamentals. understand the high utilisation cranes. “The demand potential crawler cranes can deliver to the to Mr. the growth in the size of projects. “Thermal power locations where the cranes are length of the Manitowoc Model projects would place extensive working. I TIL is Manitowoc’s exclusive dealer Demand will be modest from wind believe the demand would continue for marketing its crawler cranes in power projects as compared to to gain ground led by the increasing India. equipment is finding increased continue to provide technical and the 80t-300t cranes will continue to applications based on assorted service support through our dealer. precisely at steel plant Manitowoc is optimistic about greenfield power projects. Manitowoc recently launched Manitowoc will look to extensively we are posting our service Manitowoc 31000. It launched in global markets at projects. According He says. Used crawler cranes conventional fallacy “Being the sole segments constitute the 50t-100t of a mere lifting distributor of class range. The main boom demand market. in the footprint and ground long-term it would be led by preparation.

” As per Zoomlion. Bhatnagar mentions. According to the company. Bhatnagar. type auxiliary jib of the 1000 t crane Mr. commissioning and dismantling the To increase its portfolio in the equipment.” Customer can lift 650 T at most with a height support model for TIL also provides of up to 63 m. 1000 t hydraulic crawler lattice boom crane in India. 1000. “to of 1600 T crawler crane. “We would continue to could either be manufactured at its existing facility at Kamarhatty near Kolkata or at its upcoming plant Kharagpur near Kolkata. safety control This is followed by erection. 100 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . The Chinese construction equipment major sees the demand of QUY 1000 from nuclear power projects. TIL has their application engineers to prescribe the desired model of crawler crane for the required job applications. possibility with Manitowoc to Demand for higher tonnage of manufacture crawler cranes with crawler cranes are also forecasted capacity of 70t–100t. TIL is exploring the 3200T crawler crane.” recently completed the design work According to Mr. maintain increased focus on The 22 m span of QUY 1000 customer support. This is done during commissioning of the equipment. it is quite optimistic about the demand prospects of its recently manufactured QUY 1000.Crawler Crane Customer support provided by TIL for Manitowoc crawler cranes includes erection. I perceive. the reliability. Mr. The training by our parents company in equipment has been recently sold USA. Among this 12 service engineers are for providing customer support for crawler cranes. beginning from design concept so as to improve unloading the machinery at the port. commissioning and dismantling. According to the company. Bhatnagar says. petrochemical and steel Super tonnage Zoomlion QUY 100 can find plants construction and also its application in power and industrial projects for array of industrial construction. Demand potential for high capacity crawler cranes from the Indian construction sector is foreseen by Zoomlion. It is also make the price of the crawler cranes in the process of developing a competitive. which comes under its super “the service engineers are properly tonnage class of crawler cranes trained by us and also through has eight invention patents. arising out of equipment downtime is provided by its service engineers possessing enhanced technical projects. and operating performance. customer support strategy that we would continue to pursue by hiring more people supplemented by enhanced parts support as the population of the crawler cranes grows. “A consists of 54 m main jib and 50 much valued element of our m tower jib with a span of 50 m customer support is to transport and a hoisting capacity of 180 T. As the equipment to the job sites for per Zoomlion. this is one super tonnage class of hydraulic of the competitive customer support crawler crane Zoomlion has elements possessed by TIL.” TIL has a total strength of 60 service engineers. the 1000 t crane has the customers by providing entire been manufactured on a new logistical support.” The cranes by Liebherr. QUY specialization. Customer support is provided by TIL through operators training at the first level by its service engineers. “The product is customized for nuclear power projects construction. The superlift tower annual maintenance contracts. While the second level support. This is in tune with to a nuclear power project contractor Manitowoc’s global strategy to in China.

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Following successful testing. According to Mr. According to Mr. Precisely thrust will be on the 350t and 600t market. As per Mr. identifying parts requirement. “We have recently completed the design of our 160 tons hydraulic crawler lattice boom cranes. self–erection. However. Somani. Liebherr has a team of service engineers for its cranes. ABG has recently launched its ABG1080. “Though the demand is modest for 1000 and above crawler cranes. Demand potential of middle class hydraulic crane segment is also endorsed by ABG Cranes Private Limited. 260 t hydraulic crane.” Liebherr’s products claim to have well refined operational features.350 t at Bhawani power project. The crawler cranes have precise hydraulic pressures. R. Pandey. the 160 t crane would be having standard equipment features. ABG Cranes. As per Mr. We also see demand coming from refinery sectors. we plan to introduce the crane during the year 2010 itself. This ensures the optimum equipment utilization of the machine with minimum operation costs.” Liebherr plans to launch 3000t hydraulic crane during 2011.” ABG is also in the process of designing its ABG 1260t. The system shows the lifting of the load. supervision during commissioning. Mr.” The company is optimist on demand of 2500t crawler cranes projects in India led by requirement from the power sector projects. For 1000 tons cranes the volume is estimated to be two cranes.350 ton crawler crane two years back to Nuclear Power Corporation for its Bhavani Power project. Marketing. Liebherr service office at Kolkata has crane operational program for each crane working in the field in the computer at its office. Somani. motion cut equipment etc. With latest systems. “The technical refinement of the Liebherr crawler cranes makes them deliver optimal performance to the customers. Liebherr has supplied one 1. Liebherr India Private Limited. power and industrial projects could be driver of the high capacity cranes. The prototype of the crane is at testing stages to make it complete error free. “The most advantageous operational part of Liebherr cranes is that they are equipped with troubleshooting devices cutting down on machine downtime in case of any problem. The cranes are equipped with cameras to monitor the load. post commissioning service support. “ABG 1160 would be finding its application in core construction power projects and as well in industrial applications. It stops all danger operations in case of overload still allowing safe operation. crane can be also operated by a remote control device. “Liebherr crawler lattice boom cranes have an edge over other cranes. The market for 350t-600t is estimated to be seven to eight cranes in volumes during 2010–11. self–load indicator. we are optimist on the prospect of the 3000 tonnes in India.K. The operator can check critical parameters of crane from operation cabin itself.” Liebherr organizes training to train both operational and maintenance staff of customer at their plant in Europe before dispatch and also at site during commissioning. As Liebherr 1.” He informs. This enables Liebherr easily correct fault giving remedies over phone when the operator finds it difficult to get it rectified by him. This safety system at the same time is easy to operate.Crawler Crane maintain our focus on the 100 ton market segment.” says. The service engineers of Indian office provide onsite training on operation and maintenance. Representative Director. Liebherr has received queries on 1000 ton hydraulic crawler crane from potential nuclear power project developers. General Manager. Somani says. Mr. “Based on the growing project sizes. This is precisely owing to its ability to undertake refined loading and placement. per Mr. A.B Pandey. We also see the crane finding its application in petrochemical and refinery projects. Somani. According to Mr. Somani. arranging supply of parts etc. 80 t hydraulic crawler 102 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 .” Bearing model number ABG1160. It has one of the most advanced safety system known as ‘Liebherr Computer Control System’ LICON. Demand will be driven both by thermal and nuclear power projects. Somani. This would consist of luffing jib.

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equipment manufacturers are positive on the demand potential of duty cycle crawler cranes. EscortsIHI cranes are available in 8 m o d e l s consisting of 50t-300t. at full boom length of 58 m it can lift 15. According to Telcon. construction. According to company sources of Telco Construction Equipment Co. dredging operations to increase canal and river drafts etc. Hydraulics are from Lined and Rexroth and winches are from TMA Italy. Indigenously manufactured. dynamic soil compaction. The models range comprises 50t-70t-90t-120t150t-200t-280t-300t.000 rpm.4t at 12 m working radius.” claims Mr.Crawler Crane ABG 1080 at an industrial construction projects site. Mechanical duty cycle crawler cranes are used for material handling with grab and dragline. Mechanical Duty cycle crawler cranes have enhanced line pull and are also able to free fall attachment used in ground demolition etc. The construction equipment conglomerate has marketed Japanese manufactured IHI. Around eight units were given to power projects. The demand of the duty cycle cranes are also looked in view of increasing dragline operations at mining sites. "The cranes are competitive in its class owing to its minimum ground bearing pressure." says Mr. Hydraulic crawler cranes are deployed for erection jobs in core construction and industrial projects. concrete pouring. “Demand for duty cycle cranes has been growing swiftly in India as contractors understand the versatility of these cranes led by emerging construction applications requirement. The technology of the cranes are proven owing to the prolonged experience of the parent company in manufacturing cranes over a period of 45 years. These cranes are being used to perform sheet piling. Limited (Telcon). It has also sold a machine for construction of Krishnapatnam port At par with sharing optimism on heavy capacity hydraulic crawler lattice boom cranes. supported by a basic working boom length of 13m. through buckets etc. Focus on Duty Cycles crane. Sheetal Malik. the crane will lift a maximum load of 80 tons at 4 metres working radius. The crane is powered by Caterpillar Diesel engine 3306b. mechanical duty cycle crawler cranes are claimed to be more suitable for these applications. the current version of TATA Friction Cranes (TFC) feature many improvements yet retain the basic design that made these the standard of the industry 104 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . demolition. ABG 1080 comes from a full boom length of 13-58m and jib length from 9-18 metres. which runs at 242 kw at 2. As per the contractors. Escorts-IHI crawler cranes. Eight units was given to power projects. laying of beams. removal of soil through grabs. Demand potential is being looked in view of large upcoming metro railway projects. ECEL. airport projects requiring foundation works. slurry wall grab. General Manager Sales. 70 t crawler cranes to Mundra ultra mega power project and also a 280t model to Andhra Pradesh Power generation company.” Telcon manufactured TATA Friction Cranes are extensively finding applications in projects like construction of Metro Railway in addition to its stock projects like Infrastructure and project construction. Escorts Construction Equipment Limited (ECEL) equally sees value in demand for high capacity crawler cranes from greenfield power projects. Malik. casing oscillator apart from undertaking erection jobs. “We have promoted around 14 units of Escorts-IHI crawler cranes.

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“With nine models and lifting capacities from 20t-200t. The Hitachi-Sumitomo Crawler cranes are available in wide and exciting range of 40t-550T. vibrator. it launched its 7700 Star Lifter hydraulic crawler crane. with a reputation of dependability and versatility. Its engine. S. Sennebogen offers the holistic duty cycle solutions for practically every task. The mechanical hydraulic diaphragm wall grab. The SCX900HD-2 crawler crane lifts 90t at 5m radius.” Sennebogen’s hydraulic crawler cranes are available between a capacity range of 30t300t. The winches also use a multiple wet-disc brake and forcedoil cooling system for cool operation of challenging jobs like hammer grab. TFC-28045. which has a maximum line pull of 20t. compared with 20t for the SCX900-2. The company recently launched its Sennebogen 690 HD duty cycle crawler crane at bauma Germany 2010. The SCX900HD-2 has a basic boom length of 12m.” He adds. Load indicator is provided in full view of the operator giving information about the working conditions of the crane and supplements with visible and audible alarm when the safe operating limit is exceeded. The office is headed by Mr. and consequently offers a maximum line pull of 25t on front and rear winches with 28mm rope. The machine can find its application in construction of heavy pre cast concrete sections. drag bucket. Sennebogen. Roberto Bencina. power plant construction etc.Crawler Crane Current version Telcon TFC cranes feature many improvements. MD & CEO. the machine can find its application in the fields of civil engineering.000 rpm) Isuzu 6HK1X engine on the SCX900-2. The crane has a lifting capacity of 300t with 74 m main boom and 74 fly boom. Sennebogen Asia Pacific office has been recently opened in Singapore to support sales and service related demand in India and Asia Pacific region. demolition or material handling. The new set up will have dedicated sales and service group to support the dealers and customers. to global markets two years ago. These cranes are supplied with safe load indicator as a standard feature. With a lifting capacity of 90t. The Japanese crane manufacturer has launched a 90tcapacity heavy-duty lattice-boom crawler crane. The crane is a beefed-up version of the SCX900-2. The cranes can undertake both erection jobs and duty cycle operation. pipework machine. During bauma 2010. the company would like to offer better customer service support for the Indian market.Anantharaman. The rugged boom constructions of the crane enable severe duty cycle application. grab and load hook make the 690HD suitable for tough conditions. high line speed and telescopic under carriage makes the machine deliver high performance in continuous operation. It will 106 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . Friction cranes manufactured by Telcon includes. and 75T respectively.000 rpm) is larger than the 212kW (at 2. TFC-75. As per Mr. preliminary assembly in the offshore field. The two rope grab operations. These cranes have a lifting capacity of 25t. Positive demand potential from Indian duty cycle crawler crane market is also envisaged by German crane manufacturer. the 272kW Mitsubishi 6M70-TL engine (at 2. its largest heavy-duty crane to date. quarrying. we want to provide our technologically refined equipment to the Indian duty cycle crawler crane market. Previously. the company’s nextlargest heavy-duty crane was the 80t capacity SCX800HD-2. Telcon is also the exclusive Indian distributor of HitachiSumitomo Hydraulic crawler Cranes. and maximum boom of 60m. B u s i n e s s Coordinator-India. Sennebogen. “With our comprehensive offering. With new products being launched.

Manufacturers are much positive on requirement led by sound fundamentals. NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 107 . Marco Burgmer also based in Singapore. the challenge would be to provide equipment at competitive prices. It would be vital for manufacturers to maintain comfortable delivery schedules as well.Crawler Crane Sennebogen would like to promote its duty cycle crawler cranes in India. However. This is when demand of steel has started pushing prices up once again for the cranes. led by demand growth and hardening steel prices. The Asia-Pacific sales group is headed by Mr. have spare parts stock and equipment bank to support urgent delivery needs. As per manufacturers. cost of the equipment has started firming up from 2009 third quarter.

The emerging business opportunities in the Indian power sector virtually set the domestic and global power generating giants on the prowl and they are currently vying with one another to lap up more power projects. 108 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . Pushing Power Generation The Union Government has set a challenging target of attaining 78. That apart.000mw are nearing completion and the capacity would be enhanced in the next couple of months. during the mid-term review it was reduced to 62. Chasing the target. green power is turning out to be a game changer for the country as prime solar power players across Asia. Capacity aggregating 60. The achievement is commendable as compared to the last Plan periods when just 21.000mw power generation capacity in the current Plan period.367 mw in the first three years and power plants with a generation capacity of 13. however. In addition.Power Sector Update Paradigm Shift: A Giant Leap Generating Power In Plenty Placing economy on the high growth trajectory. Reports Jeet Singh. capacity addition of 40.374mw. it has already added 24.000mw.080mw was added against the targeted figure of 41.000mw and less than half of the target was achieve in the 9th Plan period. Europe and North America are descending India in droves to pick up a share of $70 billion program to build 20 gigawatt (gw) of solar power capacity from the current 30mw by 2022.072mw is likely to be added during the remaining months of 11th Plan period.600mw is under various stages of execution and implementation and is likely to be added in the beginning of 12th Five Year Plan. the Union Power Ministry has assigned top priority to push power generation capacity to a new high and nearly half of the targeted $1 trillion infrastructure fund for the 12th Five Year Plan period has been earmarked for the power sector to achieve a capacity addition of about 1.00.

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In the current Budget.500 crore per annum till 2020. the Government is contemplating on an ambitious plan of over $1 billion sovereign backed investment for building South Asian regional energy grid with focus on renewable sectors including hydro. the power sector requires a total investment of $155 billion and government is currently going all out to mobilize resources to generate funds to meet its requirements. Maldives. Such an entity has been aimed at ensuring sufficient availability of funds for power projects being built by the government owned firms as India is committed to build projects under which cumulative capacity addition Current Scenario After allocating sufficient infrastructure funds for the Twelfth Five Year Plan 2012-17. The entire process has brought about a paradigm shift as they are creating an eco-system for solar energy. it has invited private sector companies to chip in to achieve the targeted power generation. In addition. Currently. For doing so. 60. Likewise equipment used for setting up photo-voltaic and solar thermal power generating units have also been exempted from the Central Excise Duty and the initiatives attracting multinationals and domestic players to set up green energy generation units across the country. The Prime Minister has reportedly directed the power and external affairs ministries to explore the possibility of setting up a separate company to build hydel plants in Bhutan under the inter-governmental deal.000 mw while the separate firm will take up projects beyond the 10. In addition to this. In addition. Similarly.000 crore to ensure smooth flow of funds to the mega power projects. the Indian power generation giants are currently engaged in setting up joint ventures in neighboring countries including Bhutan. The actual plan is to step up investments by domestic firms led by renewable energy players and transmission utilities including Suzlon Energy. Moser Baer. Bangladesh. In this connection. As per preliminary plans. and Bangladesh.000 mw per annum has to be achieved till 2020.000 mw of power per annum and to bridge the gap between the requirement and availability of power.000 mw power projects are being executed by private sector companies and the rate of addition will be 15. medium-and long-term projects and it would be used for strategically important power projects only in cases where the repayment schedule is over five years and the reinsurance support is not available. NHPC and Power Grid in the neighboring countries including Nepal. electrical equipment and appliances have been provided. 50% equivalent to $500 billion is expected to flow through the PPP route and the entire amount has to be funded and there is no limit in the growth potential in the power sector in the immediate future. Out of the $500 billion investments targeted for of 10. If this can be sustained for the next 10 years. of the $1 trillion funds planned for the 12th Five Year Plan for infrastructure sector.230 crore in the last Budget to `5. Funding Strategies Apart from providing various funding facilities to power producers in the private sector. incentives including Customs Duty concession to machinery instruments. the preceding Plan period had attracted $47 billion through the PPP route. Sri Lanka and Myanmar. The ECGC will handle the financial requirements of the small sized. All such projects will have to be cleared by a working group 110 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . the government has decided to add 20.Power Sector Update Ensuring sustainable and accelerated power generation.000mw that have already been committed. It has doubled the allocation for the sector from `2. the state run companies will get preference for projects up to 10. infrastructure sector for the current Plan period 36% equivalent to $154 billion had come through the public private partnership (PPP) route however. the government has decided to set up separate company with a provision of funds worth `50. the power deficiency that exists today can overcome in the next two decades.130 crore. Bhutan. solar and wind energy. government has increased its share from `620 crore in the last Budget to `1200 crore. Satluj Jal Vidyut Nigam.000mw per annum. Sri Lanka. it has recently directed the Export Import Bank of India (Exim) and the Export Credit Guarantee Corporation of India (ECGC) to evolve strategies. the country has to take up a large number of projects in one go on fast track basis requiring huge investment to the tune of `4. geothermal energy and gas based power generation plants. apart from fixing a huge plan outlay hike of over 61% for green energy sector.

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The power project. That apart. The company has identified Bharuch and Dahej areas of Gujarat as the ideal locations for the proposed plant. In addition. which is its sub holding company.000 crore during the current fiscal. It is currently building infrastructure on the upcoming projects including 120mw Likhu-IV and 50mw Balphi in Nepal.400mw gas-based powered plant in Sambalpur in Orissa. Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group (ADAG) controlled Reliance Power is setting up a power plant with an annual generation capacity of 8000mw at an investment of `30. The GVK Energy Limited.000mw of energy in the next half decade. the company is identifying plant sites in various states including Maharashtra where it plans to set up two power plants very shortly.000 crore during the current fiscal and also to diversify its investors’ base to exploit international market it has planned to raise worth $1 billion through ECBs as foreign debts. In addition. is in the process of setting up a `1.000 crore funds for investment. the Hinduja Group has recently announced $10 billion investment to generate 10. which is located in Samalkot area of East Godavari district. Nepal $50 million Sri Lanka $415 million and Bangladesh $220 million with a combined energy generation capacity of over 5.500mw at an investment of $50 million. Exim Bank and a consortium of bankers.000mw. Reliance Infrastructure. Pushing the power sector investment to new high.000 crore to achieve its power generation targets. it has also fixed the 2000mw Bhadravati project belonging to the Ispat group in Maharashtra on its radar. it is also setting up a gas based power plant at GVK Gauthami downstream Andhra Pradesh and also another project at Govindwal Sahib. The new plant is coming up at Bhadresar.000 mw generation capacities in various states across the country and has set aside `30.000 mw gas plant at Shahpur in Maharashtra. In addition. the group has drawn up plans to set up power plants of similar power capacity in Chhatisgarh and at Asansol in West 112 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 .200mw plant at Pipavav in Gujarat for which it has already acquired land and tied up `6. Projects Nearing Completion Assisting nation to achieve its targeted power generation capacity. Next in the line of capacity augmentation is Reliance Power. The generation capacity comprises 220 mw at Samalkot in Andhra Pradesh where R Power is already getting gas supply from the D 6 gas field for its 165mw plant in Kerala and 48mw in Goa. To diversify its investors’ base and exploit offshore market at competitive rates. besides having ordered equipment worth `3. Another major entry into the Indian energy generation sector has been announced by the Reliance Industries of Mukesh Ambani Group and it has chalked out plans to bid for UMPPs in Chhatisgarh and Orissa with a projected investment worth `32. The Videocon Group is setting up thermal power plants of 6.Power Sector Update comprising RBI. it is also building a 1. In addition. it has decided to raise external commercial borrowings (ECBs) worth $1billion as foreign debts.000mw coal fired power plant in the vicinity of its existing power plant at Mundra in the Kutch district of Gujarat at an investment of `3.000 crore. The transfer of these assets has been valued at `1.095 crore. The National Hydroelectric Power Corporation (NHPC) has commissioned its 120 mw Sewa-II hydroelectric project in Jammu and Kashmir thereby taking its installed capacity to 5295mw and the plant will generate 534 million units of energy in the hill state. It has decided to invest `15. In totality. Not just this.5000 crore. As per plans India has decided to set up a pan South Asia electricity ring that envisages interconnection with Bhutan contributing $850 million.400 mw from the current 220 mw and the plant will get gas supply from the Krishna Godavari D6 block of Reliance Industries Limited. a small town between Mundra and Adipur having link with a private rail line developed by the Adanis. the company is also said to be acquiring 433 mw of power generation assets from group company. will get gas-based energy generation capacity of 2. the Himachal Pradesh government has also given a go ahead signal to the Himachal EMTA Power Limited (HEPL) to set up a thermal power plant with generation capacity of 600mw at an investment of `4000 crore in West Bengal. which is augmenting the capacity of its Andhra Pradesh power plant at an investment of `10. the company is currently in the process of implementing power projects with an aggregate capacity in excess of 35.000 crore to boost its energy generation business. The company is building a 1.500 crore power plant at GVK Jegrupadu.000 crore for the plant. besides 4.000 crore. the Adani Power group is in the process of completing its 4.000 crore. 2. Currently. REC is going all out to mobilize funds worth ` 28. 85 mw UPDC-III in Punjab. The Rural Electrification Corporation (REC) has planned to raise funds worth `28.000mw. The Bhilwara Energy Limited (BEL) is augmenting its generation capacity of its existing power plants to Upcoming Projects Pronouncing its aggressive forays into the Indian power sector.

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The civil work on some of the UMPPs is in full swing in areas including Mundra in Gujarat.980mw power plant in Uttar Pradesh. The Larsen and Toubro (L&T) has secured `6. The PEC has extended the deadline for submission of the REQ for projects in Chhattisgarh and Orissa. The UMPPs. The Gokul and Solvent Limited.Power Sector Update Gokul Group 35mw and the balance 25mw capacity will be available for sale to Gujarat Urja Vikas Limited and other parties interested in the purchasing of power. Alstom has secured couple of contracts from GVK Industries to build units of the new Jegurupadu-III combined cycle power plant in East Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh involving an investment worth £450 million. The seven newly cleared UMPPs would come up in states like Andhra Pradesh. together with the Gujarat Mineral Development Corporation Limited (GMDC) are setting up a `460 crore lignite based thermal power station near Tadkeswar in Surat district of Gujarat. being built by Tata Power. erection and commissioning of a boiler turbine generator package critical piping. Gujarat.320mw coal fired power project in Chhatisgarh and a 240mw hydropower plant in Himachal Pradesh.000 crore. another in Gujarat and one each in Maharashtra and Karnataka and bids for two UMPPs one each in Orissa and Chhatisgarh have already been floated. which are in the pipeline include two in Tamil Nadu. It is also adding capacity of 1320mw at its existing 1200mw Uduppi power plant in Karnataka. Assisting the government to attain its targeted power capacity addition. All the UMPPs would follow a competitive tariff based bidding process in which a SPV is to be set up to reduce risk perceptions and increase investors.500 crore contract from Jaiprakash Power Ventures Limited. The contract includes the supply. Lanco Infratech Limited has bagged a balance of payment contract (BOP) for three units of 660 mw each from Maharashtra State Power Generation Company Limited (Mahagenco) to be set up at Koradi thermal power plant near Nagpur. to set up 1. while Reliance Power is building at Sasan in Madhya Pradesh. Krishnapatnam in Andhra Pradesh and Tillayya in Jharkhand. the total number of UMPPs across the country has gone up from nine to sixteen. The company is setting up 1. which are to be commissioned from 2013 onwards. Tamil Nadu. Orissa and Jharkhand where similar mega projects are currently in various stages of completion. including multinationals to bid for the upcoming UMPPs. The JSW Energy. will include a combined power output of 800mw and a part of the EPC contract relating to the first unit of the power plant is expected to be finalized very shortly. The two units. Bengal for which it has also acquired land in these areas. which is an offshoot of JSW Group. has drawn up plans to arrange `8.000 crore across the country. Indiabulls Power is setting up 1350mw coal fired power plant for Punjab government at Harisinghwala near Mansa area of the state.000 crore to finance its upcoming power projects in states like Chhatisgarh and Himachal Pradesh.000 mw each involving an investment of `20. UMPPs With the addition of seven new ultra mega power projects (UMPPs) with a generation capacity of 4. confidence and as per reports the SPVs for all these new UMPPs have been put in place and PEC expects several power generating giants. The Union Power Ministry is all set to award 12 ultra mega power plants (UMPPs) involving an investment of `192. two more in Orissa and Andhra Pradesh. Initially. electrostat precipitators and power plant automation for plant at Karchana district on the outskirts of Allahabad comprising three units of 660mw each. a flagship company of the Jaiprakash Group. The plant capacity has been divided in parts of 55 mw that would be supplied to GMDC 20 mw and 114 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . the plant will be built with a power generation capacity of 80 mw but it will have a provision to expand the capacity to 135 mw at later stage.

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the power equipment manufacturing giant. eco-friendly units. the BHEL along with 16 other power players including Titan Energy have signed an agreement with the AP ministry of new and renewable energy (MNRE) through the Nonconventional Energy Development Corporation (NEDCAP) to set up 20mw of solar photo voltaic units of `340 crore under the phase one of 118 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . The Adani Power in a recent move has decided to invest nearly `500 crore on a 40 mw solar power project in Banaskantha district of northern areas of Gujarat. UMPPs will have to follow a competitive tariff based on bidding for which SPVs have been put in place to minimize risk perceptions and boost investors’ confidence and now PEC expects global energy generating giants rubbing shoulders with domestic power players during bidding process for the upcoming UMPPs. the Indian Oil Corporation (IOC) has launched `700cr green energy plans that include the setting up solar energy panels across its over 18. the company will also set up wind and solar energy generation plants at multiple locations involving an investment of `200 crore. Following close behind is Suzlon Energy and Capro Group forging a mega joint venture to set up 3.000 mw to the national grid by 2022. The oil giant. and solar PV projects. it has commissioned its largest thin film solar farm with an installed capacity of 1mw at Chandrapur in Maharashtra for the state government owned Mahagenco.000mw capacity wind power farms involving an investment of about $3 billion. which is a London based Lord Swaraj Paul Group’s joint venture with Finland’s Wartsila and most of the plants are likely to be executed in India.000 crore in the next three to ten years. has drawn up plans to set up a polysilicon and solar water manufacturing base at Randaspur village in the premises of its notified special economic zone (SEZ) in Cuttack district of Orissa. the clean energy fund.29.Power Sector Update Green Energy Achieving the green energy generation targets laid down under the National Solar Mission. Enthused by the government’s initiatives. It has already made its presence felt in wind energy generation by commissioning a 21 mw wind power project in Kutch district of Gujarat and has launched solar lanterns in Orissa. the company is entering into the wind. Not just this. In a recent achievement. The wind power plants are meant to be developed for Caparo Energy. solar and thermal power generation areas. Similarly. which has already commissioned two pilot solar charging stations in Uttar Pradesh and Orissa. will first launch the project on pilot basis and subsequently expand it towards the end of the 11th Five Year Plan.000 crore in the immediate future. Likewise. the special purpose vehicle (SPV) of Lanco Infratech Limited. Shortly after the announcement of the Jawaharlal Nehru Solar Mission. is estimated to bring more than `67. the Moser Baer has drawn up plans to invest `400 crore in the expansion of crystalline silicon capacity of its photo voltaic (PV) to 240 mw from the current 14mw. the new and renewable ministry has floated special incentive package Scheme (SIPS) to attract investments in semiconductor fabs.100 retails outlets across the country at an investment of `500 crore. which is being imposed at the rate of `50 a ton as cess on the coal utilized. Karnataka and North Eastern states. Apart from this. As a part of its strategic diversification. In addition. The incentive scheme drew overwhelming response and to date it has recorded 26 proposals with a staggering investment offer worth `2. Lanco Solar. The government has launched a National Solar Mission aiming at feeding 20.000 crore. at least two dozen companies including those in the public sector and Silver Smit India have announced investment proposals worth `100. power.

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00. are likely to be commissioned in the beginning of the 12 th Plan period. the oil giant has signed an agreement with the Nuclear power Corporation for the construction of the heavy water pressurized water reactor thereby picking up 30% equity in the 1400mw plant.650MWe.000 mw to 1650 mw from Russia. The target will be achieved through Imported Light Water Reactor units in the range of 1. procurement and construction (EPC) services. The L&T on the other hand has decided to build capabilities for executing nuclear islands. which is being executed currently. a diversified company has initiated the process of installing a 50 mw solar power generation capacity plants in five states entailing an investment of `750 crore.000 crore Rajasthan Atomic Power Project (RAPP) in Rawatbhata area of the state. AP Genco and APIIC. About 4. In totality.000 capacities each and LWR Russian VVER with a capacity of 6x1.367mw has already been added and 40.000 crore power plant at Kundakulam in Tamil Nadu and `28.000mw is expected to be added by 2020. Others include LWR (US GE Hitachi) or Washingtonhouse at Chhayamithi Virdi in Gujarat and Kowada in AP with 5x1. France and the US to attain over 80% of the targeted capacity and indigenous pressurized Heavy Water Reactors of 700mw will take care of the remaining portion of the targeted energy generation. Orders from nuclear power projects totaling about `100.590mw. will also be added to the capacity during the 12th Five Year Plan. Nuclear Power The government has worked out strategies to ramp up nuclear power capacity in the country by ten fold in the next 10 years by approving new reactor capacity to over 38.000 crore are scheduled over the next half decade because the Centre intends to install 62. 120 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 .600mw. If this can be sustained for the next 10 years. Hyderabad Metro Water Works.2 to others including 1 mw each to BHEL.072mw will be added in the remaining period of the current Plan after which the total installed capacity is likely to touch 1.000 mw capacity addition being targeted for the coming Plan period will enable the country to become self-reliant to meet its power requirements.000mw of nuclear energy by 2032.000MWe and 6x1. Currently. The Indian Oil Corporation. offering engineering. which are currently in various stages of implementations. (L&T) J P Nayak. In totality of the 20 mw allocation of the state government 11. `18. says President Operations. said Chairman and Managing Director A M Naik.600 crore investment for the seventh and eighth units of the `12.000mw. it is also planning to enter into consultancy role in the new and emerging solar power generation sector..471mw. Apart from this. 60. In this connection. while 200kw has been awarded to MCR HRD Institute.000mw a year. Conclusion In fact.8mw has been given to private players. balance of plant equipment and off grid solar solutions like supplying batteries for the solar power sector. Jaipur and Maharashtra are being set up with generation capacities of 4x1. about 1.99. power projects to the tune of 12. That apart. The Mahindra & Mahindra. In addition. it has forged partnership with NPCIL’s future projects including the proposed `14.000mw power projects are being executed by the private sector companies and the rate of capacity addition will be 15.000 crore nuclear power projects at Kakrapar in Gujarat. Similarly. Likewise LWR Russian VVER and LWR French EPR Koodankulam in TN.25 mw of generation capacity has been given to solar panel manufacturers and another 4. capacity addition aggregating to 60. the government has taken up a daunting task to provide power for all by 2012 and has set a renewed target of achieving capacity addition of 62.000 at Haripur in West Bengal. the power deficiency that exists today can be overcome in the next two decades.374mw in the current Plan period of which 24.Power Sector Update the National Solar Mission envisaging to award about 100 mw of capacity to the government and private companies in the power sector. of which 25. which has also marked its entry into the power sector has set aside `3. the new nuclear reactors are coming up in areas like Kumaria in Haryana and Bargi in MP with indigenous PHWRs capacities of 4x700 and 2x700 MWe respectively. Similarlym under the private sector 1mw each has been given to Titan Energy Systems and Premier Solar and Solar Semiconductor and Andromeda of 750kw each have already been allotted for execution. The units are planned to be constructed with a gestation period of about six years from the first pour of concrete to commercial operation. In addition.500 crore project at Jaitpur in Maharashtra and the actual plan is to start work on the first set of twin units by 2012. to enhance its strength to build complete nuclear plants on a turnkey basis.

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We serve the nation with utmost sincerity ensuring quality execution and timely completion of works so that the nation can derive the benefits of development. including Multinationals and Corporates. tunnels.. we bid for the contract either on standalone basis or through joint ventures. Who are company's national and international joint venture partners? Our JV partners include Private Parties. in regard to developing infrastructure facilities related to Central and State Govt. we enter into joint venture partnership. Som Dutt Builders. Backbone Enterprises Ltd. is eager to contribute its mite in the infrastructure development of the country. Managing Director. its important business areas and total market cap.Prasad Rao while Rites Ltd. irrigation and earthworks. and A. the company has been successfully executing important projects in roads. The company gained experience in construction of highways and roadways. ARSS Infrastructure Projects Limited (ARSS) an ISO 9001:2008 certified company was established in 2000 and since then it is recognized as a leading construction company in the field of Infrastructure Development mainly in the rail and road sectors. its evolution to reach the present status. bridges. Based on the eligibility criteria of the projects. Rail Vikas Nigam Ltd. With present turnover of over `1000 crores.. CPWD. Some of our Private sector JV partners include Harish Chandra (India) Limited. Indonesia.. Bangladesh and Parisha Trade System Ltd. Bangladesh.788 crore as on 31st March 2010. is our Public Sector Partner: We have also made international joint ventures with PT Adhikarya (Persero). Normally.N.Interview ARSS Strengthening Country’s Infrastructure Development ARSS Infrastructure Projects Ltd. Atlanta Ltd. Kalindee Rail Nirman (Engineers) Limited. Rohit Kumar Das Construction Private Limited. The Company has a strong order book with contract work of `2. Patel Engineering Ltd. What are the important projects in hand? Is it possible to enumerate some of the successful stories of projects completed so far? 122 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . Ircon International Ltd. Public Sector Undertakings and International Companies.K. highways.. State PWD and PSU’s like Rites Ltd. the company has emerged as a major contributor towards growth of Infrastructure related activities in the country. ARSS Infrastructure Projects Limited in an interview with S. Mir Akhter Hossain Limited." says Mr. organizations viz. Over the years. Niraj Cement Structural Ltd. "Our competitive strength is the availability on rolls highly experienced and competitive engineering personnel having own machineries and equipments. expertise in construction of rigid and flexible pavement roads along with construction of all types of cross drainage works including major road bridges. buildings.. where some special technical requirement is needed or where we do not qualify our own credentials. Triveni Engicons Private Limited. the company has diversified its field of activities in other spheres. In a short span of ten years. Please introduce ARSS Infrastructure to our readers. Our ability to successfully perform time and again across the railway and highway sector has made us the preferred ones not only in Eastern India but also in Southern and North-Western parts of India covering fourteen states.Khanna. Rajesh Agarwal.

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We are in the 124 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . Our competitive strength is the availability on its rolls highly experienced competitive engineering personnel having own machineries. Construction of Major Bridges in connection with doubling of railway line between BarangRajatghar (25km). As of March 31. Some of the projects currently being executed by the company for East Coast Railway is-Construction of Roadbed in connection with doubling of railway line between Barang-Rajatgarh (25 Km). Please shed light on the ongoing railway infrastructure projects and also on the recently awarded contracts/projects? ARSS has completed many important projects for Railways. CuttackBarang (12km) and 3rd line between Barang-Khurda road (35km) in Orissa. What is company’s competitive strength in terms of manpower.) with PSC superstructures (12. 286 crores. Berhampur-Taptapani (Km. For Southern Railway. cutting. 2788 crore as on 31. 2010 our total investment in plant. and Cuttack – Paradeep road (SH-12) from 43. and Construction of Minor Bridges from Kms. Some of them are completion of track linking. And for Central Railway.3.00. and Construction of Broad Gauge formation and Minor Bridges between Lalsot and Gangapur City in connection with Dausa-Gangapur city New Broad Gauge line project. 0/0 to 50/0 of SH-53) work. Orissa. For North East Frontier Railway. signaling work for 110 Km in Tomka-Keonjhar line. The company has an impressive order book status. ARSS worked on many prestigious projects and have several success stories in its basket. which enables us to rapidly mobilize our equipment to project sites as needs arise. company is doing Civil Engineering works including P. project in hand is doubling of BG track between Chengalpattu and Villupurum. 144 in Pen-Roha section of Panvel-Pen-Roha Doubling Project. completion of 3 packages of work track linking for NTPC-SIPAT work in Chhattisgarh.00 to 43. We believe that our investment in equipment and fixed assets is an advantage.00. 41/0 of SH17) project and Bhawanipatna to Khariar (Km. ARSS work in hand include construction of minor bridges and construction of Broad Gauge formation between Dausa and Lalsot in connection with Dausa-Gangapur city New Broad Gauge line project. Construction of Side Drains etc. Our company is also working on numerous ADB projects that includes construction for Roadbed in connection with doubling of railway line between Barang-Rajatgarh (25 Km).Interview Currently. Cuttack – Paradeep road (SH-12) from 0. and so on. Completion of BRTS-I in Jaipur city. 2/0 to Km. Substructures of 5 bridges on Rajatgarh-Barang of East Coast Railway. Additionally. equipments and testing facilities besides having quality control and quality assurance as its principle of the work besides executing the projects within the minimum possibility period in spite of adverse site concessions. 70/0 of SH16) works. design to completion even on EPC basis. 136 to kms. etc.2m) post tensioned solid slabs as per RDSO drawing. For North Western Railway. Other work include Earth work in embankment. CuttackBarang (12km) and 3rd line between Barang-Khurda road (35km) in the State of Orissa. project under execution are construction of major bridges (3nos. trolley refuges. Rail connectivity and inplant rail network at Vedanta Aluminum Ltd. We have a large fleet of strategic construction equipment assets. machinery and equipment is above Rs. ARSS Infrastructure has been associated with IR executing's every type of work starting from survey. Cuttack-Barang (12km) and 3rd line between BarangKhurda road (35km) Orissa. so much so that the company has been able to earn Moody International Certification for construction of civil works. Blanketing Materials. we have number of World Bank projects in hand including ChandbaliBhadrak-Anandpur road (Km. it bagged Rail Infrastructure Works of Jindal Steel and Power Ltd. a pioneer work.00 to 82.. including Bridge approaches.way works in connection with construction of new BG Railway line from New Maynaguri (West Bengal) to Jogighopa (Assam). 0/0 to Km. at Lanjigarh.2010.and also proposed construction of major bridges – foundations substructure and superstructure for bridge. 0/0 to 45/0 of SH-9 and Kms. equipment resources that despite recession has been marching ahead focusing on high growth opportunities while maintaining performance and competitiveness in business? The Company has a strong order book with contract work of Rs. etc.

Concrete. We plan our machinery equipment right from the tender stage and place orders for the new machinery required as soon as we find that we are the lowest tenderer. We own various high-tech and modern construction equipment comprising Hydraulic Excavators. maintenance and repair facilities in Crusher plants are required for quarrying and crushing granite stone to produce required sizes of rock products as per our client’s specification. How do you look at the future of ARSS Infrastructure in the next 34 years as one of the top infrastructure service providers in the country? During 2009–10. we had a turnover of `1006 crores and now we are planning to achieve a Turnover of `1800 crores during 2010-11 and hope to reach `5000 crores per annum turnover in the next 3-5 years. The Government has set the target of spending $1 trillion in Indian Infrastructure in the 12th five year plan—is your company well positioned to grab the emerging opportunities in the Infrastructure sector? We. Batching Plants. but it is our cherished goal to contribute our mite in the national development through building infrastructure. We have crusher plants at eight locations in various districts of Orissa and many crushing plants outside Orissa. Vibrator Rollers. Transit Mixtures. Wet Mix Plants. NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 125 . Motor Graders. are eager to contribute our mite in the infrastructure development of the country. Hot Mix Plants. Cranes and other miscellaneous Equipment. ARSS Infrastructure Projects Ltd. Through this Journal what message you would like to give to the industry conveying your commitment to execute projects with consistently best in class quality assurance and cost control as per requirement of your clients? Our message to the industry is to serve the nation with utmost sincerity ensuring quality execution and timely completion of works so that the nation can derive the benefits of development. be it for railway track ballast or highway work or any other civil construction work. Vibrators. A large number of these equipments are also imported from outside the country. It does not matter whether we are in a position to grab the emerging opportunity in the infrastructure sector. Tippers. and equipment storage. Excavator cum Loaders. Soil Compactors.Interview process of acquiring more equipment depending upon the need of the projects and our clients.

as one of the leading construction chemical players to be a part of this story. KUNOCON37S1 has been used very extensively for most of the precasting girders ensuring upto 80% strength within 4th day of casting. interchanges and culverts resulting another 12 lakh cubic meter of structural concrete.P. This is one of the most complex Road development projects in India till date with the entire 8 lane stretch being constructed right from the scratch consisting of numerous under-passes. Various regions have their specific availability of ingredients such as sand. the condition of these roads become pathetic and huge craters and pot-holes are visible everywhere. For further details please contact: Fax: +91-129-407 3517 E-mail: kunal@kunalconchem. Besides this. The entire 165 km road from Greater-Noida is an expandable 8 lane rigid pavement involving close to 28 Lakh cubic meters of concrete for rigid pavements. catering to specific needs for the clients engaged in road development projects in these states. With government’s emphasis on the highway sector and considerable improvement of road sector in the country. KCPL has been able to W provide solutions to all complex structures through its extensive range of super-plasticizers. The biggest challenge is that road development is going on across the country. Hence we need to tailor make our formulations catering to specific needs of the projects. Another major segment of construction chemical products which find huge application in Road projects is Polysulphide sealants (KUNASEAL) as well single component pavement garde Polyurethane sealants for surface joints. Infrastrcuture. Vyara-Maharastra Border (Soma Enterprises).5 Kgs. infrasrastructure. Vijay Nirman Company. In addition to this. enabling smallest repairs at the most distant locations in the country with consummate ease. aggregates. bridges. NKC. as they cover major share of up-coming new NHAI projects under NHDP-phase 3. a unique formulation especially designed to work effectively with PPC cement has been introduced. For the major part of rigid pavement work. Maintaining its. catering especially to asphalt road repairs. We plan to introduce pre-packaged road repair products in packaging ranging from 500 gms to 1.P state bridge corporations. Gurgaon-Faridabad 4 laning (Reliance Infrastructure). NHAI’s prestigious Badarpur flyover project (HCC) and many more. JP group has employed very high efficiency pavers to lay the dump concrete enabling in speedy and efficient job. Pink city expressway (NH-8. and C&C constructions. said the company. One of the biggest achievements for the company in recent times is to supply concrete admixtures and curing compounds to the prestigious TAJ Expressway project of Jaypee Group. KCPL claims the single largest vendor for supplying of admixtures to all 13 contractors such as HCI Infrastructure. The major challenge in the PQC job was attainment of flexural strength as well as fast setting of the concrete. jaipurGurgaon). Singla. might not give good results at other places. company has appointed a senior technical resource each for the states of Bihar. company is also working on other major NHAI projects such as KishangarhBeawar stretch (Soma Enterprises). Brahmaputra Infraprojects. Rajasthan. KCPL is also in talks with a US based major construction chemical company to set up manufacturing facility in India. KCPL has also marched ahead by securing major orders for supplying special grades of admixtures and other construction chemicals for various NHAI and state highway projects spread across the country. Apart from major NHAI projects. the company is also working with mainline state road development corporations such as HSRDC. so it is possible that one admixture which performs exceptionally well at one place. Karnataka. M. cement. H. Himalayan expressway project (Parwanoo-zirakpur)-C&C Construction. Maharastra. KCPL is all geared up to avail this opportunity. there are number of bridges. focus in road infrastructure. flyovers and culverts.Products & Technologies Kunal Conchem Surging Ahead… ith lot of opportunities in Road and Bridge sector in the country. minor structures. KUANCON-37 SR AND 37 S has been extensively used in most of the structural works.G.com 126 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . With each passing monsoon.G. U. MPSRDC. S. Contractors.

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It should be noted that in addition to the ongoing new construction. In India. the Indian government has embarked on a vigorous road building effort – and investing `1. Because of soaring material costs and budget shortfalls. Impact of Infrastructure Improvement on the Environment It is an accepted fact that because of human activities and resultant global warming. Overall. rather than on new construction. Indian Institute of Technology. there is a huge backlog in maintenance and rehabilitation of pavements. Chennai. The roads that are being built now will be ready for maintenance and rehabilitation in the next five to ten years. USA Prof. Some lessons can be learnt from the US highway system. The loss of glaciers in the Himalayas is of great relevance.Pavements Sustainable Pavements in India The Time To Start Is Now Prof.000 crore per annum. road transport handles more than 60% of the freight and more than 80% of the passenger traffic. whereas the snow cover both in Northern Hemisphere and the Himalayas have been reduced. Where will all these materials and energy come from? This article tries to present a clear picture of the future – the challenges and the solutions. Roads are vital for the transport of goods and passengers. In the next five years. MA. Rajib Basu Mallick. means of transporting agricultural produce and access to health care and social services. Realizing the need for good road infrastructure. Worcester Polytechnic Institute. Global mean temperature and average sea level have risen. The combined work will need (in addition to money) a massive amount of materials and energy. Veeraragavan. a significant amount of work will also be needed for the maintenance and rehabilitation of the new pavements. in the next five years. Such roads provide access to employment.000 km of roads. and most of the work in the recent past and at present is on maintenance and rehabilitation. leading to the issue of sustainability of the maintenance of road assets that have been created by huge investments. because of the dependence of crores of people on water from the rivers that are fed by these glaciers. and has been 128 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . in the world transportation represents 10% of the world’s gross domestc product. $60 billion will be invested to build 35. A. Pavements – A Costly Necessity The quality of roads dictate the economy of a country and hence the quality of our lives. which is a mature system. Village roads are critical for the basic minimum connectivity for the upliftment of the social and economical condition of the rural people.20.

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every available green technology for pavement design and construction. it is imperative that we acknowledge the fact that even though roads are needed for developing the economy and improving the quality of our lives. wholeheartedly. approximately 1.Pavements reported to be responsible for 22% of the global energy consumption. One important point should be remembered: pavements are for the infrastructure and improving the quality of life. The next step is to embrace. consider the amount of natural aggregates (mostly from quarries) that are being used . they adversely affect our environment. Finally. The scarcity of aggregates now forces truck delivery of materials from great distance – the use of diesel for running these trucks leads to emission of pollutants such as particulate matter. This essentially means that we will be leaving a much less greener environment. In India. The problem of availability of aggregate is acute in the Northern Part of the country. especially in urban areas. particularly. The production of pavement mixes such as hot mix asphalt (HMA) requires a significant amount of energy. nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxides. A typical project of National Highway Development Project (NHDP) of 60 km road improvement requires 20 lakh ton of material. Note that landfills have been identified as the largest source of methane caused by humans . pollution of water (the water now comes from levels which have harmful minerals). the total effect of paving for roads and airports include depletion of natural resources and energy. much less natural resources and a much less comfortable earth for our next generation than what we began with. Construction people are exposed to such gases on a regular basis. Recycling Pavement recycling. about 15. leading to scarcity of water. This lowers the groundwater level. To summarize. are we not failing magnimously? This observation is tied to the very basic idea of sustainable development – “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. old pavement materials are dumped into landfills. Therefore. and harmful to the human health. A host of different techniques exist 130 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . which is released back into the air. in most cases. but by future generations. On top of this. As a result. The amount of emission doubles for every 10oC increase in production temperature.5 gallons of fuel is used for drying and heating one ton of aggregates – consider that figure in terms of lakhs of tons of aggregates that is used.300 million tons of virgin aggregates are used in the US every year for pavement construction. higher temperature is actually being used for the production of HMA with modified binders. The following paragraphs summarize a few such technologies.1. We need to initiate applied research on large scale to find alternate crust composition so that material consumption in road construction gets reduced and we are able to save diesel also. and increasingly. This high temperature leads to a greater use of polluting equipment such as air conditioning. such as those needed for production of bituminous binder from crude petroleum and drying aggregates. the effect of paving on the recharge of groundwater is disastrous. A serious attempt has to be made to improve engineering properties of traditional construction material by suitable additives so that they are able to effectively distribute load and thereby reduce consumption. HMA pavement recycling (HMA is the most widely used pavement material in India) is a well established proven technology. The net effect is more pollution and adverse health effect of the inhabitants of the urban areas. For a lead of 200 km (which is common in north India) it will require 180 lakh liter of diesel in transportation alone. even at occupational and environmental levels of exposure. Pavement materials have very low thermal conductivity but relatively high heat capacity. rise in temperature and air pollution and lowering of groundwater and scarcity of drinking water. In India. For example.000 tonnes of aggregates are required per kilometer of highway. and storm flooding. and hence the quality of life should not be sacrificed for the sake of pavements. and increases the ozone concentration and air pollution. A paved surface significantly reduces the amount of water that infiltrates into the ground – most of the water flows away as storm water. 25% of fossil fuel burning across the world and 30% of global air pollution and greenhouse gasses. This phenomenon is known as urban heat island effect. Since the success or failure of a generation is not to be judged by the people of that generation. and which leads to the rise in temperature. roads and parking lots retain a huge amount of heat. Many of the diesel engine emissions have been identified as carcinogenic. The heating of bituminous binder and HMA releases a significant amount of green house gases such as carbon dioxide. and harmful pollutants such as sulphur and nitrogen oxides. at the beginning of this Herculean task of building a massive transportation system in India.

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Various forms of drum and batch plant modifications exist. CIR is generally used to obtain good quality base course. and the ability to process the milled RAP. and materials that are capable of restoring correct asphaltenesmaltene proportions in aged asphalt are available. mixing with emulsion and/or other additive such as cement. the depth to which HIR could be conducted effectively is limited to about 38 mm. Plants capable of recycling in high percentages. and/or processing (for example. CIR) or in the plant. and compaction. The primary steps are milling of part or all of the HMA layer. and the new aggregates could be selected to obtain the desired gradation when combined with the existing scarified mix aggregates. cold mix and cold in-place recycling and full depth reclamation. It is important to make sure that the mix is cured before the next layer is put down. In drum plants. In CIR. The selection of the type and amount of the rejuvenating agent could be done using mix design principles. to get rid of plus 50 mm particles). with the utilization of the existing (aged and with distresses. The literature is replete with good practices and manuals for effective and successful recycling operations and guidelines (Table 1 gives applications and considerations for the different methods). and depending on the percentage. mix the softened RAP inplace with rejuvenating agent. and the use of large trains is only possible in long and straight stretches of roads. hot in-place recycling. The primary benefit of hot mix recycling is the control of the quality of the finished product. The milled RAP needs to be regraded before combining with the new aggregates to ensure conformity to the specified gradation. either a specialized single equipment or a train of equipment is utilized. such as with cracks). Sometimes remixing with new materials and/or repaving with new 132 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . The end product is also similar to HMA. and hence of good quality. Mix design using the Marshall method or the Superpave method can be done. RAP can be added at different percentages. Cold Mix Recycling and Full Depth Reclamation Cold mix recycling could be done both in-place (cold in-place recycling. and curing. from milling machines to mixing plants and inplace trains. which allow the use of RAP in HMA production on a regular basis. to avoid entrapment of moisture and subsequent deterioration. The benefit of this process includes those that are related to in-place recycling – avoiding transportation and related fuel use and emissions. Hot Mix Recycling Hot mix recycling is accomplished by incorporating milled and processed reclaimed asphalt pavement material (RAP) in new mixes in the hot mix plant. a specific grade of asphalt binder or recycling agent could be used. compacts it in one single pass. the RAP is introduced in that part which is not exposed to the burner flame – it is critical that the RAP is not overheated.Pavements for different situations – hot mix recycling. In cold central plant recycling. and is heated by the superheated aggregates. However. The past few decades have seen tremendous growth in equipment and techniques in recycling. the milled RAP is mixed Hot In-place Recycling Hot in-place recycling (HIR) involves the use of a single or more commonly. a train of equipment that heat the existing pavement and mill/ scarify it. layer are also done.

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it is possible to have a better control over the finished product. 3 and 4 for different methods). milling is extended below the depth of the HMA layer to include part of the granular layer. in various forms.Pavements with emulsion or foamed asphalt. such as that needed for the successful use of foamed asphalt. and emissions. WMA. Full depth reclamation (FDR) is similar to CIR. and transported back to the site and laid down with a paver and compacted. The main principle behind WMA is the use of a material 134 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . Cold recycling. Cold mixes have been used for a long time for various applications such as full depth reclamation of cold in-place recycling for obtaining base courses. In-place recycling allows further economy and other benefits by avoiding transportation. except that in this case. Low Energy Mixes Use of huge amount of energy and emissions have led to the development of many types of cold and warm mix asphalt (WMA) technologies in the last decade. and fines could be added to ensure the conformity to a specific gradation. as discussed above. In this case. ensures economy and benefit to the environment by avoiding heat and energy. While CIR allows the reuse of old and aged asphalt pavements as base course in new pavements. have been tried successfully in Europe as well as in the US (See tables 2. Obtaining a good base course is the objective in this case. FDR allows the modification to solve the base related problems.

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the ratio of reflected to the incident power. Specialized pavement colors are available for obtaining pavements with relatively high albedo. uniformly graded crushed aggregate source with approximately 40% voids over the subgrade (Figure 1). Albedo.25) compared to conventional new HMA (0. a FischerTropsch paraffin wax and Asphaltan B ®. The addition of a synthetic zeolite called Aspha-Min® during mixing at the plant to create a foaming effect in the binder. improved compaction as well as the ability to use more recycled asphalt pavement material. that can allow a significant amount of infiltration of water.5) and asphalt pavement with a white painted surface (0. The use of thixotropic additives such as Sasobit ® . at lower than conventional temperature. and a geotextile is used between the aggregate and the subgrade layer. Evotherm is a non-proprietary product that includes additives to improve coating and workability. to reduce the amount of absorbed heat.05). The benefits of WMA include reduced Emissions (Table 5) and fuel usage. the use of materials with a higher albedo has been so far the most common. is different for different colored materials – it is much higher for concrete (0. A good summary of the problem as well as the different 138 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . Test sections have proven the success of such pavements. ability to allow longer haul distances without losing workability and extension of paving seasons in cooler climate areas.Pavements Porous Pavements Pavements with high porosity have been developed. sufficient workability at long haul distances. and research studies have shown that most of the pollutants are removed by filtration through the layers.5 mm down size aggregate layer is used between the open graded and the aggregate courses. such a pavement consists of an open graded HMA course over an and/or technique to lower the viscosity of the asphalt to the range of that required for mixing and compaction. There are four competing WMA processes that are widely used: A two-component binder system called WAM-Foam® (Warm Asphalt Mix Foam) that introduces a soft and hard foamed binder at different stages during plant production. reduced fuel use. a low molecular weight esterified wax. They include reduced emissions and worker exposure due to a lowering of temperature. There are several benefits of the WMA in comparison to HMA. Cool Pavements Although different techniques could be adopted for reducing the surface temperature of pavements. In principle. A 25 to 50 mm thick aggregate 12. and thus to reduce the urban heat island effect. Such pavements are well suited for parking as well a slow speed areas.

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” Norwegian Public Roads Administration. 2007. to answer the question. sufficient number of “green” technologies exists for immediate adoption in India. Table 6 shows a comparison of costs of cool pavements constructed with different techniques. Centers of excellence for sustainable pavement construction must be set up to facilitate such activity. “Warm AsphaltOverview in France. Innovative Practices for Greener Roads. 2005). Master of Science in Civil Engineering Thesis. Presentation to WMA Scan Team. ♦ Brosseaud. The results of this research must be ready within five-ten years. that is.Pavements Figure 1: Porous pavement Source: Soderlund. Martina. Presentation to WMA Scan Team. 140 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . and invest wisely in technologies that would make road building sustainable. The time to start this is NOW. Martina. In addition. approaches is given by the EPA (EPA. which have excellent facilities and brainpower. sufficient opportunities exist for practical research that could prepare pavement designers in India to specify the right technology for the right case. will be due for maintenance and rehabilitation. and equipment and software for research for developing guidelines to adopt such techniques for Indian conditions. Critical Need As the above paragraphs indicate. India launches its own spaceships with satellites.A Model For An Environmental Rating System.” LCPC.O.org ♦ Soderlund. Oslo. It is hoped that the leaders of this great country would acknowledge the great environmental challenges of pavement construction. May 2007. such as the IITs. May 2007. Master of Science in Civil Engineering Thesis. which sustainable technology is best suited for every pavement construction? Such research can easily be conducted by the premier institutions in India.irfnet. Sustainable Roadway Design. 2007. Norway. References ♦ International Road Federation. France. and developing indigenous techniques. India cannot be. E. such centers will become hubs for training and technology transfer in future. Presentation to WMA Scan Team.www. “Warm-Mix Asphalt (WMA) International Scanning Tour. Sources: ♦ Moen. Ø. Norway. when the huge roadway network that is being built now. “WAM-Foam-An Environmentally-Friendly Alternative to Hot-Mix Asphalt. Sustainable Roadway Design. University of Washington. and should not be termed as a “poor” country any more as the latest computers and cell phones are available here. May 2007. University of Washington.” Norwegian Public Roads Administration. It is of critical importance that investment should be made now on equipment and training to adopt field-ready sustainable practices for pavement construction. ♦ Andersen. Y. Since every technology has its own niche place.A Model For An Environmental Rating System. Another approach is the use of an energy harvesting system installed within a pavement to extract heat energy for useful purposes and reduce the surface temperature of pavements.

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142 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . Since no proper records exist of the under ground utilities like water supply. investigations and design issues ♦ Construction and contract management issues D Pre-construction issues: ♦ Delay in land acquisition ♦ Resettlement of project affected persons ♦ Tree cutting ♦ Shifting of utilities Since encumbrance free site is not made available to the contractors in the initial stages of the project. Consultant. State Highways and other road construction projects in the country. Another reason is that the trees to be cut are not properly demarcated on the design drawings. I have tried to find out the various constraints affecting the progress of the construction of the roads. World Bank uring the course of inspections carried out by me as a part of various World Bank missions on the National Highways. these utilities get identified as encumbrance only during the implementation stage of the project.Road Construction Some Critical Issues Pertaining to Road Construction Industry H. Moreover. This leads to delay as the shifting of these utilities brings in hardships to the general population and suitable alternate arrangements are required to be made. Some of the critical issues pertaining to the Indian Road Construction Industry are as under: ♦ Pre-construction issues ♦ Land surveying. electrical and telephone cables etc.. Sometimes additional land requirements become necessary to take care of the designed right of way. the clearances and permissions from the Ministry of Environment and Forests is a prerequisite and takes quite some time before the trees are cut and design right of way made available to the contractors. Similarly shifting of overhead electrical and telephone lines (which are visible including poles) takes a long time. There are numerous government agencies involved from which clearances/approvals/ permissions are required to be obtained before the utilities can be shifted or relocated. There are cumbersome procedures involved and sometimes the relevant laws and regulations are also not very clear. One more reason is that the extent of land to be acquired is not possible to be identified because of the outdated land records and poor quality of designs. This takes a great deal of time.L. the contractors delay the mobilization and in most of the cases. the contractors use the mobilization advance elsewhere.Chawla. sewerage lines.

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the reasons for delay in resettlement are as follows: ♦ Delay in finalization of the alignment and corridor of impact during project preparation stage ♦ Delay in identification and finalization of the list of displaced persons. In addition to the above. the settlement process takes a much longer time. Because of the above reasons. the land acquisition as per the NH act should normally take about 15 months and under the Land Acquisition around 24 to 30 moths. But actually the land acquisition plans are prepared very late. ♦ There are frequent changes in the designs and alignments during implementation stage. If all due processes are followed. They also do not carry out the alignment and ground verification. Investigations. ♦ In the absence of clear guidelines on providing compensation in special cases (including land owners with unclear titles or more than one owner). substantial extensions of time are required to be given to the contractors. Since such a long time is taken to acquire the land. The records are often not been updated for a long period of time. ♦ The land acquisition plans are often not realistic as the design consultants lack expertise to prepare such plans. There are quite a few reasons for the delay and some of these are: ♦ Outdated revenue maps form the basis for preparation of land acquisition plans. ♦ The alternative land for relocation during preparation stage is not firmed up Land Surveying. Even when the land was finally made available. The list of title holders gets finalized after the declaration of award by the competent authority. may be at the same time as the project is at the design stage. These time over runs lead to cost over runs. the process should get started much earlier or 144 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . and Design Issues The land acquisition for the highway projects is carried out in accordance with the principles laid out in the National Highways Act or the Land Acquisition Act.Road Construction The delay in the handing over of the encumbrance-free land to the contractor generally takes as much as about 30 months compared to about 20 months which should have been the ideal case. These also lead to claims by the contractors for idle resources and demand for compensation. who are already over stretched and cannot. there are discrepancies in the project coordinates and the reference frames resulting in mismatch thereby resulting in redesign of the alignment. These two Acts govern the acquisition of land for defined public purposes and compensation in lieu thereof. provide the required assistance on time. ♦ The project authorities have to depend on the human resources from the revenue authorities. there exist still some encumbrances which put a constraint on the contractor’s capacity to undertake construction work in an uninterrupted and continuous manner. In some cases.

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constraints & recommendations. This results in lack of motivation for treating the project as a common goal and working as a “team”and all the parties try to shift the blame to others and no one tries to take the responsibility. his leverage on the contract enforcement gets eroded. ♦ The staff in the CSCs is also not fully conversant with the FIDIC conditions of contract and is also not up to date with latest quality management techniques and new technologies. resource and workflow management. early activation of dispute resolution mechanism. 146 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 .Road Construction Construction and contract management issues: ♦ Very weak contract management & enforcement environment. The mean delay was about 73% of the original contract completion time. making payments on time. duties and obligations as per the contract. This gap has been in the range of 15-20%. payments etc. even when the Employer’s staff is convinced. Acknowledgment The World Bank: Indian Road Construction Industry: Capacity issues. ♦ Since the role of the Independent Engineer is not very clear so the Engineer takes no responsibility. CSC’s & contractor’s staff on the general terms and conditions of the contract and the division of the parties’ rights. ♦ Lack of understanding of the contract conditions both by the Employers and the contractors. They ♦ normally have their eyes on making money through raising claims at a subsequent date knowing fully well that the Employer will certainly provide them many avenues to do so. About 70% of the contracts have been delayed and about 50% of the contracts had cost over runs of more than 25%. ♦ There is lack of training imparted to the Employer’s. particularly because of delay in making land available and delay in decisions. The delay in the construction has led to a large gap between the budget allocation and actual expenditure on the road construction in the country in the past few years. he is simply not there. ♦ Since the Employer is usually lacking in fulfilling his obligations under the contract. The need of the hour is to find an early solution to ensure timely completion of the road construction projects. This includes the contractor’s work planning. ♦ The role of the Independent Engineer is not clear. timely decision making on the variations. ♦ Due to dearth of construction management skills in the country. ♦ There is a resistance to acceptance of the responsibility in taking decisions. ♦ The supervision consultancy contracts are generally time based. This creates a perverse incentive to delayed decision making resulting in extension of the civil works and consequently in the extension of the CSC contract. cash flow management and his overall project management. the contractor’s performance gets affected. ♦ The Engineer is not accountable as after the project is completed. ♦ Lack of the understanding between the Employers and the contractors that speedy completion of the projects is to both parties’ interest. This is because of a “fear psychosis” and the staff tries to pass on the buck. Many of the Employers staff and domestic supervision consultants do not have adequate knowledge/ to understand the FIDIC conditions of contract (being followed in most of the NH and state highways projects). They are thus handicapped in managing contracts effectively with timely and quality decision making. such as timely delivery of encumbrance free land. ♦ The contractors generally quote low to win the contract.

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They have reduced the delays considerably and minimized the technical and financial risks. For the 13 Km long Saudi–Baharain Causeway large diameter pre-cast pre-stressed bored piles were adopted.5 m dia are easily realized at a fast rate.5m diameter was first successfully realized in India for the old Thana Creek Bridge constructed in 1960s. Well foundations on sloping rock: Brahmaputra Bridge at Jogighopa (2. 1500 mm dia anchor piles. Unexpected difficulties cause delays. at RL 61. extending to about 10 m below the cutting edge.2 to full depth was not possible due 148 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . Bridges elsewhere are now constructed with pile foundations.00. one in the middle through the dredge hole and 4 outside at the four corners. large number of workers suffered caisson disease. Foundations 17 & 18 were resting on hard rock at steep incline of almost 1:1 slope. piles of 2-3 m dia. founded on 12m dia Wells. By 2005. pneumatic sinking was required for inspection of the founding surface of the wells. These new techniques eliminate complicated weather-dependent and risky operations in water.28 km) The wells of main span were 11 m x 17 m double ‘D’ type.Bridge Foundations Well Foundations for Bridges are Obsolete!!! S.A.25 m after three seasons and at extra cost! The well was plugged at RL 32. Apart from delays and extra costs. upto 120m deep are extensively used in the rest of the world. Hence to found these wells.Reddi. Pre-cast RC bored piles of 2. Well Foundation Problems at Brahmaputra Bridge at Tezpur The bridge was more than 3 km long with 26 spans of 120 m and 2 shore spans of 70 m each. to bouldery strata Despite best efforts. extra costs and revision of designs due to altered situations. It was not possible to rest the foundations partially on two types of strata. Loss of human lives was normal rather than exception. With the introduction of advanced piling equipment. Further a launching apron of crated boulder 3 m thick was laid making a circle of 60 m dia around the well. Due to difficulties in well sinking. The development of modern techniques has considerably reduced quantities of materials used for foundations as well as energy consumption and environmental impacts. In the Sixties. with a significant reduction in cost and material quantities. Sinking well No. Fellow Indian National Academy of Engineering Introduction Bridge foundations are the most complicated and difficult to construct.5 m dia RCC bored piles (25-35m) were provided to anchor the well. the well only went down by 35. two contractors left the job and the third took more than 5 years to complete the well foundations. 12 nos for each foundation were provided through the body of the steining. These extra works caused further delay in the completion of the substructure works. For Kali Bridge at Karwar in Karnataka. large diameter piles up to 3. more than 50 lives were lost due to the accident during pneumatic sinking operations for well foundations of Mahanadi bridge in Orissa.075 m and 5 nos 1. Alternative construction techniques and equipments have emerged.

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♦ Well 4 .1).2). single circular wells 11. the well Due to the steep incline. The total delay was one month. 3500 crane hours were used to sink the well. driven precast piles and driven steel tubular piles. Figure 2: Pile foundations for Jamuna bridge This optimization resulted in overall reduction in the bridge costs by more than 50%. Despite extensive chiseling. In order to contain the complete.2 cm/hr.Jamuna River Bridge in Bangladesh (figs. The piles were fabricated in Korea. The rate of sinking through clay was about 1.Bridge Foundations Additional cost was several crores. A similar solution as in well 17 was adopted. bottom plug. Maximum pile length was 72 m below bed level. ♦ Well 9 . four lane road bridge with 100 m spans was constructed in the 1990s on the Jamuna river (Brahmaputra in India).2 &3). The piles were installed in 8 months. A temporary RC cofferdam was constructed and the sunk well dewatered to expose and build up further steining.The well shifted by 1150 mm.6 dia piles also driven up to hard rock along the periphery through km) the steining. ♦ Well 2 . During construction. The calculated maximum scour depth was 36 m below water level.During concreting of curb. resulting in excessive moments in the well. Various alternatives were considered including caissons.The well shifted by 1.8 km long. 1500 Bridge at Bhagalpur (4.5 m balance sinking. the well suddenly jumped by about 9 m with the top of steining below water level.Ganga acted as curtain wall (fig. The soil strata were sandy up to about 30 m followed by hard stiff clay. The completion of the The well foundations consist of project was extended by 3 years. 17 & 18 driven at a rake (fig. The piers were to be retained at the original position. two rows of jet grouted piles were introduced around the Damages During periphery of the well steining which Construction . This solution also reduced the use of resources (concrete and steel) considerably and was beneficial to environmental Figure 3: Completed view of the Jamuna bridge impact. To counter the moments counterweight was provided in the form of a dummy well sunk to a depth of 20 m in the adjacent area and connected to the main well through a common well cap. the wells started tilting and the problems continued right through the sinking. ♦ Well 17 . the rate of sinking was painfully slow. Due to presence of stiff clay.5 m. shipped to site and installed by hydraulic hammer. costly. A 4. During one working season from October 1995 to June 1996 all the 121 main work piles plus two full scale trial piles were driven. sand leaked from the island and the entire curb tilted and sank by 4. 8 m sump was made to facilitate sinking. The only viable option was large Figure 1: Brahmaputra bridge foundations diameter tubular steel piles No. Based on a number of 150 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 .5 and 3.The founding level was 64. increasing the total cost. Effective use of Pile Foundations . Time loss: about 6 months. The wells were toppled due to scour and disappeared during the floods. part of foundations of three bridges across the cutting edge was resting on the the same river constructed in India rock while the other parts were have taken 3-5 years each to overhanging.the total height of the steining except last 2 m was completed with 7. The foundation design was challenging.5 . ♦ Well 32 . Very deep wells are extremely slow to construct.86 m. A new sheet pile cofferdam had to be erected and a new well curb was cast. Work resumed after monsoon.6 m dia. ♦ Wells 3 & 4 -Wells were sunk by about 44 and 37 m before the monsoon season in 1996. The diameter of the piles ranged between 2. After several weeks.7 m below the water level.15 m and the steel tubes were filled with concrete.

Bridge Foundations

trial bores well No.3 was found tilted along the bridge axis. Well No.4 was found on the upstream side along the direction of current. These wells weighing up to 9900 t could not be restored and were abandoned. New wells were cast and sunk by changing the span arrangement. Floating caissons were used. ♦ Extra cost and time - The cost on completion was Rs.106 cr against accepted tender cost of Rs.55 cr! The time overrun was 5 years!

Tilts and Shifts in Well Foundations - Vasai Creek Bridges Near Mumbai
Bassein Creek road bridge near Mumbai (1970) faced problems of heavy tilting of the well foundations. Two of the foundations no.4 & 6 tilted very heavily and all attempt to correct the tile failed. The foundations were abandoned and the design of the bridge was changed to accommodate new foundations and longer spans. The project was delayed by six years with termination of the first contract, arbitration, litigation. Despite previous histories of two bridges built across the same creek that faced problems with well foundations, the same were again adopted for another Vasai Creek Bridge. During construction, heavy tilting of wells was observed. The corrective measures for one well alone took almost two years delaying completion of the foundations; costing about Rs. 2 crores.

total height of steining except last 2 m was concreted. The well was in the final stages of steining, with about 7.5 m to reach the founding level. As the well was stuck up in stiff clay, efforts were made to sink the well by creating a sump of about 8 m below the cutting edge. All of a sudden the well sank suddenly by about 9 m and the top of steining was below the water level by about 3.5 m. Rectification measures were very expensive and time consuming. Ganga bridge at Varanasi: Very stiff clay was encountered at 25 m below and sinking of well foundations No. 3 and 5 was very difficult, did not move for three months. Then well No.3 jumped by several meters without any warning when two workers and one supervisor were taking sump sounding. The tragic accident killed all the three people. The well No.5 also jumped by about 5 m and was submerged in the water by 1m.

An Expensive Solution Indeed !!
The completion was delayed by more than one season as the solution was based on an Expert Committee investigation and report. This led to delay in finalization of the designs and drawings for the foundation well and necessity of issuing variation orders to cover the items of cut-off walls and bed protection works which were not envisaged in the original contract.

Ganga Bridge, Patna
The 5.6 km long bridge comprises of 46 spans of 120 m each resting on 56 m deep well foundations (12m dia.). Two of the wells in the midstream (Nos. 41 and 45) encountered artesian conditions during the final stages of sinking There was continuous sand blowing filling the dredge hole to 56 m above the cutting edge. Months of efforts to sink the well proved futile. A technical advisory committee took about a year for arriving at a solution. Temporary steel cofferdam was built enveloping the well and an artificial head of about 6 m of water was created to counter act the sand bubbling. Delay: two years

Artesian Conditions During Construction of Well Foundations Nepal Bridge (Kohalpur / Mahakali Section )
Artesian conditions were encountered during soil investigations for the Shivganga bridge (8 spans of 32 m). At locations P-4 and P-5 artesian head of about 4.3 m was encountered at about 17 m below ground level. The well was redesigned with foundation terminating above the artesian layer, resulting in shallow foundations resting on clay. Due to founding the wells at shallow depth, it was necessary to provide adequate bed protection so as to prevent scour. The bed protection consisted of : ♦ Upstream and downstream aprons ♦ Cut-off walls, upstream & downstream ♦ Concrete floor

Cracking of Well Steining During Construction
Cracking of well steining is one of the serious problems faced many times in the construction of well foundations, resulting in time and cost overruns. The causes are usually: 1. Blasting, Dewatering 2. Insufficient steining thickness 3. Jumping due to excessive sump 4. Sand blows 5. Surcharge due to dumping dredge material close to well. 6. Failure of cutting edges. When such cracking occurs, at least one season is lost for the investigation, developing remedial measures, approvals of the same etc. In the last 45 years, the author is aware of more then 200 cases

Sudden Jumping of Wells During Sinking
Sometimes the well sinks suddenly due to excessive sump or weak soil layer and the steining disappears below water level, making it difficult to continue further work on the well steining. In one of the well foundations in a bridge across river Ganga, the

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Bridge Foundations

Analysis by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), USA
More than 100,000 bridges would be constructed during the next two decades. Foundations represent about 30% or more of the cost of the highway bridges. The predominant type of foundation system used for the highway bridges in the US is pile. Many bridges can tolerate significant magnitudes of a total and differential vertical settlement without becoming seriously over-stressed

Figure 4: Pasighat Bridge, AP

Figure 5: Pasighat Bridge, Boulder dredged during well sinking

of bridges constructed by various construction agencies, where the dredge hole of well has to be filled with concrete due to cracks in steining. During well sinking of Tapi Bridge, Maharashtra, hard strata was met. Due to blasting, extensive cracks developed in steinings New steinings had to be constructed inside the wells. The original contract period was four years. Attempts were made for five years to sink the wells. Work was suspended for five years for want of decision to revise the founding level. An expert committee ultimately recommended raising the foundation level of wells by more than 20m The bridge was completed after fourteen years. The contractor suffered losses due to the delays. The owner suffered substantial losses due to time overrun. Delay: 10 years.

beginning of sinking. After 15 years of struggle to pneumatically sink the wells to RL – 50 m, the designed founding level was drastically raised by 22m in 2002.

Appreciation
The Indian Bridge Engineers are by and large mentally tuned to providing well foundations for bridges as a reflect action; whereas it is very necessary to analyze the comparative merits and demerits, construction time frame and cost of construction of bridges with well/ pile foundations before finally choosing the type of foundation. An analysis of the history of well foundations during the last five decades indicates innumerable difficulties, delays and cost overruns in a majority of the cases. Realization of well foundations requires special skills and experience which are gradually dwindling. Developments have taken place in respect of large diameter pile foundations as well as equipment for the same. The time and cost advantages of opting for pile foundations have been amply demonstrated worldwide and to a limited extent in India. Piles up to a diameter of 3m and depth of up to 120m have been realized for a number of major bridges worldwide, with cost saving of up to 40% when compared to well foundations. There is currently no restriction in the IRC Code regarding use of pile foundation. However, many Owners impose restrictions in the tender documents, without any

Major Bridges (Worldwide) on Pile Foundations
Su Tong Bridge, China : The 6 km long Cable-stay bridge crosses Yangtze river near Shangai will carry a six lane highway with emergency lanes, with a record 1088 m main span and 300 m high concrete pylons. Each tower is supported on 131 cast-in-situ bored piles 120 m long and 2.7 m diameter. Due to strong currents, significant scour is expected around the foundations, and suitable scour protection is provided around the pylons. The central span has a clearance of 62 m for container ships to pass through. The bridge used 200,000 t of steel, 1 million cum of concrete. Stonecutters Bridge, Hong Kong: The 1600 m long Stonecutters Bridge Hong Kong with cable-stay span of 1018 m is one of the longest in the world. The bridge is founded on 3.0 m dia piles, up to 90 m deep, socketted into rock. Bandra Worli Sea Link Mumbai: The sea link consists of 5.6 km long, 8-laned bridge with cable stayed portion of 600 m. The bridge is founded on 1.5 m diameter bored piles. Concrete for the piles is M50 grade and for pile caps is M60. Silica fume and fly ash are used for concrete preparation.

Extraordinary Delays in Construction of Well Foundations Pasighat Bidge, Arunachal Pradesh, 703 m long
The project started in 1987 and the construction of well foundations continued for the next 20 years! As per the design, based on misleading soil data, six wells were to be sunk to about 50 m below bed. The actual strata met with during sinking were hard conglomerate with densely compacted and very large boulders (fig.6) were found right from the

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These foundations were completed in months instead of decades earlier in unsuccessful attempts to sink wells in water. When the 22nd segments were facing each other and the shuttering of the 23rd segment i.5) upstream of existing steel bridge was originally conceived. Fe500 steel reinforcement bars were used for the first time in India in a cantilever construction bridge. Segments on both sides of the Pier were concreted simultaneously balancing the weights. In fact. it was decided to abandon the partly sunk wells and go for a scheme with longer central span. These levels were sent to the Design consultant who monitored these personally. The author was Value Engineering Consultant for the Fast Track Project. A . The cables were so placed that almost all the cables were straight and without any curve.Bridge Foundations Figure 6: Chenab Bridge at Akhnoor-Longest Span Cantilever PSC Bridge. Based on lateral thinking.C) was used for the first time for concrete below the bearings. Two pairs of cantilever gantries were deployed. with a central span of 160m (longest in India at the time). This was possible because every day the levels were maintained by a team of surveyors with the help of total station. in spite of insurmountable difficulties elsewhere under similar circumstances. the impossibility of sinking wells through such strata was realized. The huge Bearings with anchors were located among highly congested reinforcement. vibration was impossible. after the concreting of each pair of segments the levels as actually measured and as envisaged by the designer fitted almost like a ‘T’. eliminated wells justification. The scheme involved construction of five well foundations in the volatile Chenab River. This was made possible by an high early strength concrete which enabled prestressing at 60 hours after concreting. This proves that the parameters fixed by the Design consultant and the parameters as actually achieved during execution were complimenting each other. The superstructure was designed and constructed as a continuous cantilever of 280m length. 158 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . In fact.scheme for a 231m long bridge with 5 spans (3x46+2x46. resting on raft foundations. both the main pier foundations were located in the dry on the banks. Chenab River Bridge at Akhnoor Near Jammu The project was started in the early Seventies. With a 160m central span. Two successive contracts and 30 years later. Giant Bearings Figure 8: Chenab Bridge Hydraulic Earthquake Dampers segments. The bridge with the new layout eliminating well foundations was completed in 20 months Other Records: The Chenab bridge deck was constructed with the shortest time cycle of 6 days consistently achieved for the construction of each pair of Figure 7: Chenab Bridge. the linking segment was to have been placed there was no level difference and the levels matched on both tips to the nearest millimeter both in plan (centre line) as well as in elevation. eliminating the water foundations altogether. to be sunk through difficult strata – hard conglomerate.C. Special Conbextra Grout replaced normal High Strength Concrete below bearings. Self–compacting concrete (S. The example cited above concerning the problems of well foundations amply justifies a second look on the choice of foundations. the use of well foundations for bridges should be an exception rather than the rule. normal concrete placement. The abutments consist of hollow box and piers consist of hollow rectangular section on raft foundations. Thus prestressing results were exactly as shown in approved drawings both in terms of extension and gauge pressure.e.

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Roads are important assets for any nation. Roads are the major channel of transportation for carrying goods and passengers. 98% roads are having flexible pavements. Semi Rigid and Flexible Pavements as Rural Roads In near future. IIT Roorkee. A briefs description of all types is given here. A lot of research has been made on use of Waste materials but the role of these materials is still limited. Though concrete roads are one of the good alternates. the cost of construction can be reduced. long-term and not immediately visible. This is the most convenient and simple type of construction. various alternates to construct the roads are to be explored. Flexible Pavements Bitumen has been widely used in the construction of flexible pavements for a long time. Dr Praveen Kumar. India is a large country having huge resource of materials. the cost of bitumen will go on increasing. still in India. This paper discusses the merits and demerits of all types of pavements construction and proposes their optimum use. it has to be planned carefully and a pavement which is not designed properly deteriorates fast. Ankit Gupta. So. So there is need to take a holistic approach and mark the areas where these are most suitable. Civil Engineering Department. They play a significant role in improving the socio-economic standards of a region. The benefits from the investment in road sector are indirect. Each type of pavement has it’s own merits and demerits. Transportation Engineering Group. merely creating these assets is not enough.Rural Roads Provisions of Rigid. Roads constitute the most important mode of communication in areas where railways have not developed much and form the basic infra structure for the development and economic growth of the country. IIT Roorkee. If these local materials are used properly. Introduction Development of a country depends on the connectivity of various places with adequate road network. The cost of construction of single lane bituminous pavement varies from 20 to 30 lakhs per km in plain areas. 160 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . However. but still their use is limited. Types of Pavements There are various type of pavements depending upon the materials used. Despite a large number of seminars and conference. In some applications. There are various type of pavements which differ in their suitability in different environments. Professor.

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ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA). Due to freezing and melting of ice in bituminous voids. Prior to 1991. e) The cost of bitumen has been rising continuously. there will be scarcity of bitumen and it will be impossible to procure bitumen at very high costs. due to high temperature. Despite the large number of polymeric products. But the work in terms of real construction is not visible. This leads to pavements failure . namely plastomers and elastomers. rutting and segregation finally leading to failure of pavement. The polymers that are used for bitumen modification can be divided onto two broad categories. A lot of research work has been done in this direction. This material has.Rural Roads however. 162 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . there are relatively few types which are suitable for bitumen modification (2). b) In Winter season. The thermoplastic rubber.59 Hz) as a function of Temperature for 60/70 Bitumen modified with EVA before Ageing. been piling up gradually due to increased production as a waste in the plant area an posing serious problem for its disposal. Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GBFS) is also generated as a by-products of steel. Elastomers have a characteristically high elastic response and. rigid. the performance of conventional bitumen may not be considered satisfactory because of the following reasons: a) In summer season. The improved functional properties include permanent deformation. is an example of a plastomer. the bitumen becomes brittle resulting in cracking. fatigue and low temperature cracking.59 Hz) as a function of Temperature for 60/70 Bitumen modified with CR before Ageing. as well as the blending process. due to low temperature. The use of polymer modified bitumen’s (PMBs) to achieve better asphalt pavement performance has been observed for a long time. three dimensional network to resist deformation. One of the principal plastomers used in pavement applications is the semi-crystalline copolymer. volume expansion and contraction occur. Figure 2: G*sin • measured at 10 rad/s (1. raveling and unevenness which makes the pavement unsuitable for use. water enters the pavement resulting into pot holes and sometimes total removal of bituminous layer. styrene butadiene-styrene (SBS). Two roads namely Ankapalli-Pudimadaka Road (AP road) – a MDR and Figure 1: G*sin • measured at 10 rad/s (1. due to sub zero temperature. c) In rainy season.viscoelsticity and temperature susceptibility) can be improved using an additive or a chemical reaction modification. ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA). the freeze thaw and heave cycle takes place. Plastomers from a tough. which are more strong the traditional aggregates may be treated as SemiRigid Pavement. Semi Rigid Pavements The pavements constructed using the waste materials. Recently. a large number investigations have demonstrated that bitumen properties (eg. The properties of PMVs are dependent on the polymer characteristics and content and bitumen nature. Some examples of real construction are given below: Visakhapatnam Steel Plant (VSP) at Visakhapatnam (AP) is one of the major steel plants producing steel in the country. In near future. is an example of an elastomer and the thermoplastic polymer. therefore. d) In hilly areas. EVA polymers have been use in road construction for more than 20 years in order to improve both the workability of the asphalt during construction and its deformation resistance in service. Figure 1 to 6 show the effect of these modifiers to bitumen before and after ageing. the bitumen becomes soft resulting in bleeding. a major portion of GBFS was being used by the cement manufacturing industries located in the nearby areas but its utilization in this industry has been decreasing gradually. therefore. resist permanent deformation by stretching and recovering their initial shape.

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Figure 4: G*sin • measured at 10 rad/s (1. For the experimental test sections on Bandamunda Jaraikala Road.8m widening on both the sides of the Figure 5: G*sin • measured at 10 rad/s (1. only limited magnitude of reaction can be obtained.5m and as per state PWD programme. worked out considering the strength of GBFS. 164 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . The ratings based on load carrying capacity of different sections are also indicated in the same table. was chosen for construction using the waste material from Rourkela Steel Plant. Plate load test was also carried out on subgrade soil. The details of the test sections are as follow: In order to structurally evaluate the different specifications/test sections. plate load tests were conducted on each section using a 30cm diameter plate. Figure 6: G*sin • measured at 10 rad/s (1. Bheemunipatnam-Narsipatnam road (NB road) – a State Highway were selected for test track construction. Where 1. The selection of different test sections was made on the basis of laboratory test results as discussed in the previous sections.25 msa in case of AP road. Since with an ordinary truck. has to be increased to 5. Bandamunda Jaraikala road. In another project.59 Hz) as a function of Temperature for 60/70 Bitumen modified with SBS before Ageing. GBFS subgrade soil/moorum mixes for the two roads.Rural Roads Figure 3: G*sin • measured at 10 rad/s (1. Conventional moorum. The pavement thickness worked out to be 425mm for the traffic parameter of 3 million standard axle (msa) for BN road and 480mm for the traffic parameter of 1. In order to compare the structural performance of these materials with the steel industry wastes.59 Hz) as a function of Temperature for 60/70 Bitumen modified with EVA after Ageing. Rourkela. a heavy 35 tonnes dumper was used for carrying out place load test. sand or lime/ cement stabilised local soil were used in subbase layer of a road pavement.59 Hz) as a function of Temperature for 60/70 Bitumen modified with CR after Ageing. the modulus of elasticity for different specifications were worked out and are given in Table-2.5m by 1m widening the carriageway on both sides of the road. Based on Burmister’s two layer theory. The pavement compositions were then. The existing width of the road pavement was about 3. a small test track was constructed at Bokaro. gravel.59 Hz) as a function of Temperature for 60/70 Bitumen modified with SBS after Ageing. Similarly. The load deflection values were recorded by applying incremental load. which is a major district road near Rourkela.

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Thus cement concrete roads should be the obvious choice in future road programmes. there are many seminars in the country which give emphasis over the use of Concrete roads. which comprises conventional road building materials for comparison purpose. though costly in initial investment. long time research and high level well wishers concrete roads are still only 2% in the country. g) Reduction in the cost of concrete pavements can be brought about by developing semi-selfcompacting concrete techniques and the use of closely spaced thin joints. But in actual. The fuel savings themselves can support a large programme of concreting. nothing should ply over the pavement. concrete roads have a long life and are practically maintenance-free. heavy rainfall and water logging. and its availability in the future is also assured. Cement is available in sufficient quantity in India. At least for one day.2 all sections 166 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . Rigid Pavements Rigid pavements. attempts were made to make maximum utilization of steel plant by-product such as BF slag. But the percentage of concrete roads is less than 2% in this Yojna also. far outstripping the availability. which is in short supply globally and the price of which has been rising steeply. R&D efforts should be initiated in this area. e) Concrete roads can withstand extreme weather conditions – wide ranging temperatures. It includes one control test section. people feel that it wastage of their time.Rural Roads were structurally sound after two months of construction. So like on bituminous pavements. In PMGSY also. a total number of 11 test sections using steel plant wastes were laid. India imports nearly 70% of the petroleum crude. There are various merits in the use of Rigid pavements (Concrete pavements) are summarized below: a) Bitumen is derived from petroleum crude. While formulating specifications. are cheap in long run because of low maintenance costs. a separate code has been issued to design the concrete roads. Every years. First of all it is to be understood why concrete roads fall? a) Concrete required even days curing. b) Besides the easy available of cement. granulated slag and flyash. SMS. d) Cement concrete roads save a substantial quantity of stone aggregates and this factor must be considered when a choice pavements is made. During rainy season. Hence it will be in India’s interest to explore alternative binders. c) Another major advantage of concrete roads is the savings in fuel by commercial vehicles to an extent of 14-20%. they are economical when whole-lifecosting is considered. they start playing the vehicles over existing road was proposed. f) Though cement concrete roads may cost slightly more than a flexible pavement initially. etc. It shows that except right portion of sections 1. Concrete PavementsWhy and Why Not? Despite the above facts. heavy rains are there and water passes across the road. The demand for bitumen in the coming years is likely to grow steeply.

It will reduce the quantity of bitumen also.Rural Roads ♦ Bitumen is going to more costly in future. In this regard.C. b) Some researchers have proposed thin bituminous section without using steel in it. Indian Highways. EVA and SBS may be used to reduce the susceptibility of the bitumen. A. these concrete roads are bound to fail. Vol 133.R. ♦ Kumar Praveen. concrete roads will go on failing and blame will go to the technology rather than construction deficiencies. Rather they should be announced as good roads. P. concrete pavements also. Reference ♦ Kumar Praveen. If one has sufficient funds and he traffic can be diverted for sufficient time only then. So it should be used very judiciously. Performance of Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in Road Construction – A Case Strudy. and Murty. July 1999. columns or slabs where sufficient curing time is available and the load over that comes after gaining sufficient strength. Indian Roads Congress.V. Government may pass an ordinance for compulsory use of these materials in such areas. and Kumar Anant. following conclusions are made: ♦ Concrete roads are good roads but not cheaper roads. pp 21-33. So considering the above facts it can be concluded that Concrete roads should not flagged as cheaper roads. No. NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 167 . Mehndiratta H. Dhawan. “Economic Analysis of Rural Road Construction Under PMGSY” Indian Highways. 8 August 2005.K. These roads should be considered only if sufficient funds are available. Modification like CR. Kumar Ashwani. ♦ Semi Rigid pavements should be constructed in nearby areas of steel plants where these materials are available free of cost. where there is no control over loading. Conclusions Based on the above discussion.. Such sections may suit thin lanes where only scooters or cars are plying but on rural roads or highways. The thickness of the pavement and the reinforcement should not be compromised. c) Concrete roads cannot be compared with concrete beams.

Other basic design controls are selected or determined by the designer. National Institute of Construction Management and Research. and context sensitive design. 168 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . safety. effective. and selecting detailed design elements such as street light fixtures or other construction materials.Roads & Highways Issues Concerning The Geometric Design of Roads And Highways Introduction Basic design controls serve as the foundation for establishing the physical form.. the highway design process has focused on a project’s transportation element. Historically. Indrasen Singh. Goa Development of a roadway design that is sensitive to. Once the designer has an Roadway Context The context of a roadway is a critical factor to consider in developing a project’s purpose and need. A context-sensitive design should begin with analysis of the contextual elements. Selecting appropriate values or characteristics for these basic design controls is essential to achieve a safe. constraints. Dean. making fundamental design decisions such as cross-section determination. such as environmental and community resources. of the area through which a roadway passes. Some design controls are inherent characteristics of the facility (e. and respectful of the surrounding context is important for project success. The concept of area types has been developed to help the designer understand the users. and opportunities that may be encountered in different settings. working with communities and users to address a project’s purpose and need. Road having following element and their influence on the physical characteristics of a roadway or other transportation facility are: a) Roadway Context b) Roadway Users c) Transportation Demand d) Measures of Effectiveness e) Speed f) Sight Distance Dr. and functionality of the transportation facility. its physical context and the existing transportation demands placed upon it). particularly those associated with motor vehicle travel.g.

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each of which provides a different degree of local access and a different degree of regional connectivity. Roadway Users A fundamental expectation in roadway design is that all users will be accommodated safely. Consideration of roadway users’ characteristic and selection of appropriate accommodation can also influence the roadway’s effectiveness for businesses and residential users. zoning. cyclists. as land use changes along a road. the designer needs to determine the composition of users anticipated for the facility. functions. A typical trip will often entail travelling along a variety of roadway types. its function within the regional transportation system. the safety and effectiveness of the highway or road system is greatly enhanced. reflecting the mobility and land access functions of these roadways. or consolidate driveway along an existing roadway. the designer should consider existing access points along a roadway and the possibility for changes that are consistent with the project’s Roadway Types The transportation network is composed of several types of roadways that provide different 170 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . such as expressways. public transit.Roads & Highways understanding of the area surrounding the road and the road’s users. The environmental context can be a determinant of the desired type of accommodation for different users. However. A thorough understanding of access control will help the designer select an appropriate design speed. bicycle. Access Control Access control is a term used to define how access to adjacent properties is regulated and designed along a roadway. Experience demonstrates that when human and vehicular factors are properly accommodated. as described in the following sections. Roadway must be designed in a manner that serves the existing land use while supporting the community’s future land use goals. Land use is the fundamental determinant in the function of a road. buses and light rail) between cities and towns. cultural. redesign. as defined through the project development process. the volume and character of pedestrian. historic. Likewise. Appropriately accounting for all user characteristics is essential to obtain a safe and efficient roadway. motor vehicle drivers and passengers. The roadway type should be selected to reflect the actual role that the roadway plays in the transportation system. geometric design (e. driveway controls. access controls are often given more consideration in developing areas where there is flexibility for future land use to conform to an access management plan than in developed areas where the pattern of land use has been established. driveway permits. which includes nearby natural resources. and safe driveway geometry can improve roadway safety and enhance the operation of the road without undue burden on accessing boarding property. This context often establishes the physical constraints of the roadway alignment and crosssection. For example. the physical health of the population. and the appropriate level of access control. Early in the process. and right-of-way.. The primary of some roads is to facilitate movement of vehicles (bicycles. Virtually all roadways serve a variety of users including pedestrians. permitting frequently administered by PWD. Area Types The context of a roadway begins with its environmental context. Access control is exercised by statute. and influences the selection of motor vehicle design speed. the economic health of the region. the designer should consider the transportation elements of the roadway. it may be possible to relocate.g. A roadway frequently traverses a variety of changing environs. trucks. terrain. roadways serve almost extensively motor vehicle traffic. Access control is among the most useful tools available to maintain safe and efficient roadway operations for all users. Additionally. Thus. Judicious use of medium treatments. For example. traditionally referred to as an its functional class. grade separations. raised medians. three main elements of context considered in design are : a) Area Type – The surrounding built and natural environment b) Roadway Type – The role the roadway plays in terms of providing regional connectivity and local access c) Access Control – The degree of connection or separation between the roadway and the surrounding land use. right-of-way purchases. and recreational assets). The degree of access control is influenced by the roadway type and area type. Most roads provide a combination of these purposes. and motor vehicle activity can change considerably along its route. The characteristics of these varied roadway users are important controls that influences the physical design of a roadway. and frontage roads). turning and parking regulations. cars. the road’s functions also change. and the quality of the built and natural environment. and the manmade environment (development patterns. In a few cases. purpose and need. planning parameters. access controls are usually more stringent on arterials than on collectors and local roads. and desired level-of-service for the facility’s users. The primary purpose of other roads is to provide access to the adjoining land.

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Most of the times. Second. Community planning goals. One can also look for conditions like pathways worn along the roadside to determine if pedestrian connectivity is underserved. For the typical project undertaken within a community. the needs of pedestrian and cyclists. Particular care must be takien when forecasting pedestrian and bicycles volumes. community setting. The pedestrian counts should include sidewalk demands. or do not provide complete connectivity to attractions. Young children are primarily the cyclists who may require special consideration. and storage demands at corners. Although the typical process for forecasting traffic volumes assumes that traffic will increase over time. The likelihood of latent demand can be assessed by looking at surrounding land uses and their propensity to generate pedestrian activity. and patterns – are important design controls. It may be important to complete pedestrian counts for 172 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . The designer should develop a realistic design scenario including the volume and mix of activity for all modes as described below. there are situations where traffic volumes may decline or remain relatively constant over time. First. the forecast is based on existing conditions. including any potential attractors such as transit stops. the selected design year. parks and retail uses that may be located near moderate and highdensity residential development. For smaller. This involves projecting future conditions for a selected planning horizon year. a 5 to 10 year planning horizon is generally used. Lastly. It is important to evaluate future land development. composition. This is a reasonable compromise between a facility’s useful life. to ensure the count data are representative of at least average annual conditions. cyclists. seasonal adjustment is made. are substandard. or expected changes in development patterns. Forecasts of future activity levels should reflect community and regional plans. cyclists are subject to the same traffic rules as motor vehicle operation. such as an intersection improvement or a corridor access management project. In addition to relying on counts of pedestrians. the designer should also evaluate the project area to determine if there is latent demand for pedestrian accommodation due to an uncomfortable existing walking environment. crossing demands. convenient and well-designed facilities are essential to encourage use of bicycle.Roads & Highways The Cyclist Safe. Volume and Composition of Demand The composition of transportation demand is an important element in the design of roadways. Regional travel demand models are often used in planning larger transportation projects. Roads designed to accommodate cyclists with moderate skills will meet the needs of most riders. and median (total number of pedestrians waiting to cross the street). and many other factor. Forecasts of future activity levels should include estimates of pedestrian and bicycles activities. It is important that traffic forecasts for a roadway design project reflect likely conditions over the project’s life and are not selected arbitrarily. and performance measures for a project are key determinants of how the design achieves the project’s purpose and need. Pedestrian Demands Pedestrian counts should be completed to determine pedestrian flows and patterns. Projections of future demand for major transportation investments are usually made for the 20 to 30 year range. less capital intensive projects. When bicycles are used on public streets and roads. there is latent demand above observed pedestrian and bicycle volumes because pedestrian and bicycle facilities do not yet exist in the project area. if necessary. and drivers. The designer must have a good understanding of existing and anticipated demands by pedestrians. a future conditions forecast represents a technical analysis and policy consensus on the type and developed intensity of land use. traffic islands. and the project’s purpose and need. traffic counts (including pedestrian and bicycle trips) are conducted to determine when the peak hour(s) of traffic occurs. future conditions are estimated by adding or subtracting from the existing traffic volumes to account for known development and transportation projects. and an annualized factor is generally applied to account for potential area wide growth or decline. For large projects. the designer should usually select 20 years from the expected facility completion date as the design year. missing links in the pedestrian network. The greater the demand for a facility. the more important are its operation and safety characteristics. Based on these considerations. presence of transit service. Transportation Demand Transportation demands – volume. and close to schools. Planners and designers need to determine the appropriate estimates of activity level design. schools. the uncertainties of long-range projections. and the consequences of inaccurate projections. Design Year Projects are designed to accommodate travel demands likely to occur within the life of the facility under reasonable maintenance. particularly on neighborhood streets. future regional economic activity. in recreational areas.

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The design volume may also influence the level of service provided and the accommodation appropriate for pedestrians and cyclists. single-unit trucks. For example. a lesser design hour is appropriate. T (PH) is the PH for truck traffic only. and automobile traffic recorder/ vehicle classification counts (ATRs) along roadway are generally needed for planning and design of transportation projects and can be used to provide estimates of the values listed above. ♦ Average Daily Traffic (ADT): The calculation of average traffic volumes in a time period greater than one day and less than one Design Volumes and Traffic Composition The design hourly (DHV). ♦ Peak-Hour Factor (PHF): A ratio of the total volume occurring during the peak hour to the maximum rate of flow during a given time period within the peak hour (typically is 15 minutes). The choice of the design hour volume has a significant impact on the characteristics of a project. and truck 174 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . such as trucks and buses. the DHV is typically based on the 30th or 50th highest hour. if a project area is heavily influenced by a school. peak hour.) ♦ Peak-Hour Traffic (PH): The highest number of vehicles passing over a section of highway during 60 consecutive minutes. Designers should ensure that the design volume is selected such as the facility is well-matched to the traffic volumes it will carry on a regular basis and is not “overdesigned”. Likewise. For rural areas.Roads & Highways other times of the day (beyond the typical morning and evening peak hours) and/or on weekends. the design hourly volume is based on the peaking characteristics of the facility over an entire year. where present. accommodating a lower design volume that is frequently exceeded may result in significant congestion and not meet the levelof-service expectations for various users. “heavy vehicle’ are typically defined as all buses. In urban areas.) Manual turning movement counts (TMCs). Public assembly facilities and transit stops or stations also merit special consideration because they can produce high volumes of pedestrians over short durations. and intersection layout. it is important to observe pedestrian flows during morning and midafternoon periods. Therefore. it is important to review current pedestrian routes between activity centers. These counts should also include pedestrian and bicycle activity. depending on the project area. Large or heavy vehicles. ♦ Design Hourly Volume (DHV): the one-hour volume in the design year selected for determining the highway design. Daily traffic estimates are also useful in making design decisions related to the total user benefit of a proposed improvement. accommodating a high volume expected to occur infrequently will result in a project that is costly and has significant adverse impacts. the number of trucks and buses expected to use a facility needs to be estimated for both the daily and peak hour conditions. in planning and design. the benefit of highway safety roadside improvements is directly related to the crash exposure (expressed in ADT) on the road. and patterns of motor vehicle traffic are needed as input to the planning and design of roadway facilities. To determine the appropriate locations for pedestrian counts (including project area intersections). including heavy vehicle movements. Other times. at intersections. For highway capacity purposes. Additional consideration of bicycle demands during other periods of the day and/ or on weekdays may warrant supplemental counts. the DHV typically represents the 100th highest hour. the designer should also evaluate the project area to determine if there is potential latent demand for bicycles accommodation. when data from continuous traffic count stations are used. will affect many design elements including the desired number of travel lanes. For example. lane and shoulder width. Sometimes selection of the design hour entails judgement regarding the conversion of daily traffic to peak hour traffic volumes. In some circumstances. designers look at the typical worst case weekday morning or evening peak or the 30th highest hour of the year to assess the geometric requirements of their design. Some key definitions of traffic volume measures are listed here: ♦ Average Annual Daily Traffic (AADT): The total yearly volume of automobiles and trucks divided by the number of days in a year. have different operating characteristics from passenger cars and bicycles and can affect traffic operations. (ADT is often incorrectly used interchangeably with AADT. Motor Vehicle Traffic Volumes Daily. year. Bicycle Demands Bicycle demands should be counted during peak hour’s concurrent with vehicle turning movement counts. These design hour volumes are usually selected since they capture operating conditions expected to occur on a regular basis and have been shown to have dependable statistical relationship to measured ADT on a roadway. As the pedestrian activity. Pedestrian and bicycle counts should be performed in fair weather. Informal paths or crossing locations may warrant supplemental pedestrian observations during project planning. (In Many cases. or daily peak hours. For example.

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. and c) The anticipated driver characteristics and familiarity with the route. Measures of Effectiveness Through the project development process and with public input. (Light delivery trucks two axles with four tires). Projects on existing facilities should return a facility to a state of good repair by addressing existing structural. The following sections discuss transportation or contextual of effectiveness. The effectiveness of these projects can be measured by the degree to which they allow users to choose the mode best-suited to their trip purpose and personal values within the broader framework of the community.Roads & Highways combinations other than light delivery trucks. and meets user’s expectations. observed operating speeds may be substantially lower than the operating speed measured during off-peak conditions when the roadway’s design and context are controlling speed. Condition of Facilities National or state transportation policy places an emphasis on improving the condition of existing facilities. however. The objective in the planning and design of a roadway is to determine a speed that is appropriate for the context results in a safe facility for all users. Project design elements should be 178 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . In addition. and the environment. Speed is commonly expressed in km/h in the context of transportation planning and design. Mode Choice Many projects result in improved accommodation for particular modes. traffic control devices. Numerous studies have indicated that drivers will not significantly alter what they consider to be a safe operating speed. is consistent with the community’s goals and objectives for the facility. Many design elements such as horizontal and vertical curvature and super elevation are directly related to speed. roadway type. regardless of the posted speed limit unless there is constant heavy enforcement. and the width of the roadside recovery clear zones for errant vehicles. parking. Safety The safety of transportation facilities is a primary concern in planning and design. the region. Once an appropriate speed is selected. all projects should result in a facility that safely accommodates its users. Speed is defined as the distance travelled by an object in a certain period of time. width. although they are also applicable to pedestrian and bicycle movement. During peak periods. and access control. The roadway’s features such as curves and topography. the impact of transit operations (such as buses making stops along a roadway) must be considered in operational analysis of the roadway. Operating speeds are usually reported using percentile speeds with the 50th percentile (average) and 85th percentile (the speed at which 85 percent of vehicles are travelling at or below) speeds are often used to characterize the operating speed on a roadway. Target Speed for Motor Vehicles The target speed is the desired operating speed along a roadway. if applicable) using several measures of effectiveness. the designer needs to tailor design elements to that speed. Some projects are specifically proposed to address known safety problems. Techniques such as pavement testing and bridge inspections can be used to identify existing deficiencies. etc. Speed can also influence the physical characteristics of the transportation infrastructure. These measures are most often used to describe motor vehicle operations. Operating speed is measured at discrete points along a roadway. and safety of facility users. Speed Speed is an important factor considered by travellers in selecting a transportation mode or route. selected based on their historic safety performance and expected operating characteristics. mix. Several measures and characteristics of speed are important to understand when designing a roadway. can vary with. access to adjacent properties. The appropriate target speed is determined early in the project development process. b) The volume. or other deficiencies. lighting. as described in the following sections. presence of pedestrians and cyclists. Other features. Motor Vehicle Operating Speed Operating speed is the measured speed at which drivers are observed operating their vehicles in fair weather during off-peak hours. affect the operating speed. and should consider: a) The context of the roadway including area type. the designer should evaluate the project (and its alternatives. but are not a direct function of the design speed. pavement surface. such as lane and shoulder width. Many of these measures of effectiveness are included in the transportation evaluation criteria used by transportation agencies for project evaluation and prioritization. Corridor safety audits and analysis of crash records can be useful for identifying existing safety hazards. when traffic congestion or intersection operations are controlling movement along a corridor. Suggested measures of effectiveness and analysis techniques for consideration during project planning and design are described below.

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a design exception and appropriate warning signage may be justified. The 180 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . Designers faced with difficult or constrained conditions may consider selecting a lower design speed for an element or portion of the highway. and (2) the ways in which the setting influences the desired speed. The emphasis should be on the consistency of design so as not to surprise the motorist with unexpected features. Once these factors have been evaluated and an appropriate design speed is determined. the geometric elements should be designed consistently to the level. Occasionally. regional motor vehicle travel with environmental. the designer should install appropriate cautionary signing at locations with design elements that do not meet the criteria for the posted speed. In general. the designer should also include design elements to maintain the safety of pedestrians and cyclists. the designer should recommend a posted speed consistent. The provision of a range in design speeds combined with general guidance on selection of a design speed represents perhaps the greatest flexibility afforded by the designer. The design speed should be a logical one with respect to the target speed and existing operating speed. Selection of a design speed influences the physical geometrics of the roadway. The designer should document the factors leading to the selection of an appropriate design speed. super elevation. the designer should recommend a posted speed consistent with the geometric features. This practice can cause problems such as a large number of drivers may not “behave” as the designer desires or intends them to. the design speed should only be based on the speed limit if the speed limit is consistent with existing operating speed or physical constraints of the built environment. Selecting Motor Vehicles Design Speed Design speed is the selected speed used to determine various geometric features of the roadway. and cost constraints. Therefore. addressing exceptions for each feature within the context of the appropriate design speed. In these cases. Designers should exercise judgement in the selection of an appropriate design speed for particular circumstances and conditions. the anticipated driver characteristics.Roads & Highways The designer should balance the benefits of high speed for long distance. The design speed may vary from any given route as it traverses rural. The acceptable alternative approach to a design speed exception is to evaluate each geometric feature individually. or to environmental or historic constraints. no-peak traffic flow will generally control the selection of a reasonable design speed. This documentation is important for selected design speed below the existing posted speed limit. The designer should also consider expected operations throughout the day. including both peak and nonpeak hours. Indeed. This may be due to adjacent land use. context. Higher design speeds impose greater challenges and constraints on designers. and driver familiarity with the route. Where it is desirable to maintain a higher consistent speed throughout a corridor. Designers should not propose an alternative design speed for a highway or segment of a project as design exception. A serious fundamental problem with accepting or allowing a design exception for design speed is based on its important relative to all features of the highway. Design Speed and Traffic Calming The term traffic-calming refers to a variety of physical measures to reduce vehicular speed primarily in residential neighborhoods. projects retain geometric elements. The relatively wide range of design speed recognizes the range of roadway types. suburban. and urban areas. the physical geometrics of the roadway are important determinates of the operating speed that will result on the facility. It will potentially result in the unnecessary reduction of all the speed-related design criteria rather than just the one or two features that led to the need for the exception. understanding the existing operating speed and target speed addresses: (1) the need to meet the expectations of drivers based on the roadway environment. Similarly. an appropriate design speed should be within approximately 5km/h of travel speed. When high speeds are selected. or restricted sight distances that are designed for a speed lower than the design speed for the corridor. A reduction in the design may be unlikely to affect overall operating speed. It is important to understand the interrelationship between speed and roadway geometry. Where it is not possible to meet the selected design speed for one location or design element along a corridor. impact community. Designs based on artificially low speed can result in inappropriate geometric features that violate driver expectations and degrade the safety of the highway. right of way. In these cases. such as tight curves. When selecting a design speed. When determining the appropriate design speed the designer should also consider the volumes and composition of the expected non-vehicular and vehicular traffic. and topography. below the “reasonable and proper” speed for the type of roadway and area or below the measured operating speed.

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and in some instances other roadways that function as a local road or street. selection of type of elements. sustainable and context sensitive design. Passing Sight Distance For two-lane highways. Decision sight distance is suggested when there is evidence that it would be prudent to provide longer sight distance. safe. Generally. Such problems typically involve vehicle conflicts with pedestrians. Once traffic calming has been implemented. and initiate and complete and manoeuvre safely and efficiently. and consistent with good engineering practice. If passing is to be accomplished safely. select an appropriate speed and path. passing manoeuvers in which faster vehicles move ahead of slower vehicle must 182 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . A local road or street. the design speed selected for traffic calming elements should be consistent with the target speed for the corridor as a whole.Roads & Highways lowering of operating speed is often the appropriate solution to addressing safety problems. efficient. Great care must be taken to ensure that the proposed design will actually reduce the operating speed to levels consistent with the design. to complete the passing manoeuvers without cutting off the passed vehicle and before meeting an opposing vehicle that appears during the manoeuver. such as when complex decisions are needed or when information is difficult to perceive. It is the distance needed for a driver to detect an unexpected or otherwise difficult-to-perceive information source or condition in a roadway environment that may be visually cluttered. Selecting appropriate values or characteristics for these basic design controls is essential to achieve. and to provide valuable lessons for future traffic-calming. and functionality of the transportation facility. In these cases it may be acceptable. to develop a design that will lower the operating speed. specific sight distance measures apply to motor vehicles and cyclists. Other basic design controls are selected or determined by the designer. clear of traffic. In most cases. Some design controls are inherent characteristics of the facility. be accomplished on lanes regularly used by opposing traffic. Sight Distance Sight distance is the length of roadway ahead that is visible to the roadway user. working with communities and users to address a project’s purpose and need. monitoring of the performance of the project should be undertaken to assure that speed has indeed been reduced. The motor vehicle stopping sight distance is given in Table 1. The sight distance at every point along a roadway should be at least the stopping sight distance. and the spacing of traffic calming elements can help achieve the desired uniform reduction in operating speed along a roadway. Research has shown that measurable reductions in operating speed are possible through traffic-calming. safety. Decision Sight Distance Decision sight distance adds a dimension of time to stopping sight distance to allow a driver to detect and react to an unexpected condition along a roadway. The following aspects are commonly discussed for motor vehicle sight distance: a) Stopping sight distance b) Passing sight distance and c) Decision sight distance Stopping Sight Distance The provision of adequate stopping sight distance (SSD) is a critical sight distance consideration for design and is described in the more detail below. cost effect. may have an existing operating speed far in excess of the speed limit or the target speed. Conclusion In geometric design of roads and highways the basic design controls serve as the foundation for establishing the physical form. cyclists. and school children. recognize the condition or its potential threat. The traffic calming elements should not result in operating speed substantially lower than the target speed at certain points along the corridor and higher speed elsewhere. Selection of a reasonable design speed for traffic calming elements. The burden is on the individual designer of a trafficcalming feature to document a reasonable expectation that the proposed measures will reduce the operating speed. Motor Vehicle Stopping Sight Distance Stopping sight distance is the distance necessary for a vehicle travelling at the design speed to stop before reaching a stationary object in its path. passing sight distance is necessary to allow the passing driver to see a sufficient distance ahead.

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based on their environmental impacts as indicated in the schedule to the notification dated 27th January 1994. An Umbrella Legislation. “The Environment (Protection) Act 1986 (EPA) was enacted.W. This notification was amended on 1st December. (Retd. A further notification was issued by MOEF on 14 th September 2006.D.S.).Environmental Clearances Highway Projects Preamble Environment Security and development progress are perceived as necessary requisites for sustainable economic growth of any country. Environment got further impetus in India in 1984 after Bhopal disaster. Thereafter an extensive network of Environmental Legislation has come up and water (Prevention and Control) of Pollution Act 1972 and Air (Prevention and Control) of Pollution Act 1981 were notified. 184 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . unless prior environmental clearance has been accorded in accordance with National Environment Policy. Clearances Required Under Environment Acts For S. A full fledged Ministry of Environment and forests (MOEF) was established in 1985. The concepts of environmental issues have undergone qualitative changes in recent years and real advances for bringing about a well developed framework came only after the UN Conference on Human Environment held in Stockholm in 1972. Engineer in Chief H. environmentally compatible options and alternatives for the maximisation of economic benefits without compromising the Environment and eco-system. including Highway under Environment Protection Act 1986 vide MOEF notification dated 27th January 1994. FIE (Env. P.) Certain restrictions and prohibitions were imposed on new projects being undertaken in any part of India. The detail EIA notification 2006 as amended in 2009 so far as Highways are concerned is reproduced as under. The Central Government issues relevant notifications under the EPA from time to time for the protection of Environment and ecology of sensitive areas and also issues guidelines for such matters. Such Comprehensive Acts & Rules framed.P. designed to provide a frame work for the co-ordination of Central and State authorities established under the water (Prevention and Control) of Pollution Act 1974 and Air (P&C) of Act 1981. As per 2009 amendment following Highway projects need prior Environment clearances from Central or State authorities so prescribed. It extends to whole of India. Juneja. 2009. obviously places greater responsibility on planners and investors to choose ecologically feasible technologies.

The SEIAA shall base its decision on the recommendations of a State or Union territory level Expert Appraisal Committee (SEAC) as to be constituted for in this notification. Appraisal. (ii) Critically Polluted areas as notified by the Central Pollution Control Board from time to time. Procedure for Prior Environmental Clearances (EC) An application seeking EC in all cases shall be made in the prescribed Form-1 (Annexure ‘A’) and supplementary Form 1A. Note (i) All Highway projects include as Category ‘A’ in the above Schedule shall require prior environment clearance from the Central Government in the Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF) on the recommendations of an Expert Appraisal Committee (EAC) to be constituted by the Central Government for the purpose of this notification. ♦ A site visit by a sub group of Expert Appraisal Committee only if considered necessary by the Expert Appraisal Committee. 1994 and issues the revised EIA notification on 14th September. if applicable to MOEF for Category ‘A’ projects and to the State Environment Impact Assessment Authority (SEIAA) for category ‘B’ projects including proposed terms of reference for carrying out EIA along with feasibility report before commencing any construction activity or acguisian of land. The categorisation of Projects requiring environmental clearance has also been changed. Category ‘B’ project shall be treated as a Category ‘A’ project. The SEIAA shall screen the category projects and decide as to whether EIA study is required or not for the project on the basis of Form1. in the absence of an SEIAA. Scoping 3. 1972. ii) All highway projects included as Category ‘B’ in the above Schedule which fulfill the General Conditions stipulated in the Schedule. if located in whole or part within 10 km from the boundary of: (i) Protected Areas notified under the Wild Life (Protection) Act. ♦ Will determine the detailed comprehensive Terms of Reference (TOR) addressing all relevant environmental concerns NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 185 . (iv) inter-State boundaries and international boundaries. sensitive areas. Latest notification has completely changed the process of obtaining environmental clearance.Screening This is required for category-B projects only. and the category B projects by a duly constituted State Environment Impact Assessment Authority (SEIAA). 2009. Now the new highway projects and the highway projects of more than 30km. length involving widening of the existing alignment through acquisition of more than 20mt. Stage 2 – Scoping The expert appraisal committee (under MoEF or SEIAA) on the basis of: ♦ Information furnished by the applicant in the form 1 including proposed terms of reference. Public Consultation 4. The process comprise of four stages. it shall be catagorised as Category B2. The Ministry of Environment and Forests has revised EIA notification. In the absence of a duly constituted SEIAA or General Condition Any highway project or activity specified in Category ‘B’ will be treated as Category A. 2006 and further issued amendments as per notification of 1st December. land will require prior environmental clearance.Environmental Clearances Environment Impact Assessment Notification 2006 Including Amendment of 2009. category B project will be treated as Category A Project. However. These stages in sequential order are: 1. SEAC. will require prior environmental clearance from the State/Union territory Environment impact Assessment Authority SEIAA). All other projects requiring EIA study shall be categorised as category B1. The Category A projects shall be appraised by the MoEF. If EIA is not required. (iii) Notified Eco- Stage 1: . Screening (only for category ‘B’ projects) 2.

2. of the above draft EIA Report along with the Summary EIA report to the following authorities or offices. No postponement of the date. the above-mentioned authorities except the Regional Office of MoEF. State or Union Territory. by the concerned State Pollution Control Board (SPCB) or the Union Territory Pollution Control Committee (UTPCC). A minimum notice period of 30 days shall be provided to the public for furnishing their responses. The applicant shall enclose with the letter of request. Stage 3 Procedure for Conduct of Public Hearing The Public Hearing shall be arranged in a systematic. The approved terms of reference will be displayed on the website of Ministry of Environment and Forest. time.3 Notice of Public Hearing The Member-Secretary of the concerned SPCB or UTPCC shall finalize the date. The advertisement shall also inform the public about the places or offices where the public could access the draft Environmental Impact Assessment report and the Summary Environmental Impact Assessment report before the public hearing. time bound and transparent manner ensuring widest possible public participation at the project site (s) or in its close proximity Districtwise. Application for prior environment clearance may be rejected by the regulatory authority concerned on the recommendation of Expert Appraisal Committee concerned at this stage itself. within whose jurisdiction the project will be located: (a) District Magistrate/District collector/ Deputy commissioner/s (b) Zila Parishad or Municipal Corporation or Panchayats Union (c) District Industries Office (d) Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) / PRIs Concerned/ Development authorities (e) Concerned Regional Office of the Ministry of Environment and Forests On receiving the draft for Environmental Impact Assessment report.4.Environmental Clearances for the preparation of Environment Impact Assessment. Simultaneously the applicant shall arrange to forward copies. In case of such rejection the decision together with reasons for the same will be communicated to the applicant in writing within sixty days of the receipt of application. They shall also make available the draft EIA Report for inspection electronically or otherwise to the public during normal office hours till the Public. venue of the public hearing shall be undertaken. time and exact venue for the conduct of public hearing within 7 days of the date of receipt of the draft Environmental Impact Assessment report from the project proponent. In case the project site is covering more than one District or State or Union Territory. In places where the newspapers do not reach. the Competent Authority should arrange to inform the local public about the public hearing by other means such as by way of beating of drums as well as advertisement/ announcement on radio/ television. the public hearing is mandated in each District. prepared strictly in accordance with the Terms of Reference Communicated after Scoping (Stage-2). to arrange the public hearing within the prescribed statutory period. The Process The applicant shall make a request through a simple letter to the Member Secretary of the SPCB or Union Territory Pollution Control Committee. The SPCB or UTPCC concerned shall also make similar arrangements for giving publicity about the project within the State/ Union Territory and make available the Summary of the draft Environmental Impact Assessment report for inspection in select offices or public libraries or any other suitable location etc. at least 10 hard copies and an equivalent number of soft (electronic) copies of the draft EIA Report with the generic structure III including the Summary Environment Impact Assessment report in English and in the official language of the state/ local language. They shall also additionally make available a copy of the draft Environmental Impact Assessment report to the above five authorities/ offices as given in para 2. in whose jurisdiction the project is located. one hard and one soft. Hearing is over. in which the project is located and the applicant shall make separate requests to each concerned SPCB or UTPCC for holding the public hearing as per this procedure. and advertise the same in one major National Daily and one Regional vernacular Daily/ Official State Language. shall arrange to widely publicize it within their respective jurisdictions requesting the interested persons to send their comments to the concerned regulatory authorities. ♦ If the terms of reference are not finalized and conveyed to the applicant within Sixty days of the receipt of the Form 1 and other documents. unless some untoward emergency situation occurs and then only on the recommendation of the concerned District Magistrate/ District collector/ 186 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . the terms of reference suggested by the Applicant will be deemed as final reference for carrying out Environment Impact Assessment Studies. ♦ The terms of reference (TOR) will be conveyed to the applicant by the Expert Appraisal Committee within sixty days of the receipt of Form 1 and other documents.

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The applicant may also directly forward a copy of the approved public hearing proceedings to the regulatory authority concerned along with the final Environmental Impact Assessment report or supplementary report to the draft EIA report prepared after the public hearing and public consultations incorporating the concerns expressed in the public hearing along with action plan and financial allocation. the Expert Appraisal Committee or State Level Expert Time Period for Completion of Public Hearing The public hearing shall be completed within a period of forty five days from date of receipt of the request letter from the applicant. There shall be quorum required for attendance for starting the proceedings. the postponement shall be notified to the public through the same National and Regional vernacular dailies and also prominently displayed at all the identified offices by the concerned SPCB or Union Territory Pollution Control Committee. Thereafter the SPCB or UTPCC concerned shall sent the public hearing proceedings to the concerned regulatory authority within 188 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . Proceedings The attendance of all those who are present at the venue shall be noted and annexed with the final proceedings. Simultaneously. shall supervise and preside over the entire public hearing process. A representative of the applicant shall initiate the proceedings with a presentation on the project and the Summary EIA report. fresh date. and the SPCB or UTPCC. and in English and annexed to the proceedings. Videography The SPCB or UTPCC shall arrange to video film the entire proceeding. District Magistrate/ District Collector/ Deputy Commissioner.2. A Statement of the issues raised by the public and the comments of the applicant shall also be prepared in the local language or the Official State language. time and venue for the public consultation shall be decided by the MemberSecretary of the concerned SPCB or UTPCC only in consultation with the District Magistrate/ District Collector/ Deputy Commissioner and notified afresh as per procedure under 2. may be sent directly to the concerned regulatory authorities and the applicant concerned. The proceedings of the public hearing shall be conspicuously displayed at the office of the Panchyats within whose jurisdiction the project is located. On conclusion of this proceeding. Comments. a copy will also be provided to the project proponent. A copy of the videotape or a CD shall be enclosed with the public hearing proceedings while forwarding it to the Regulatory Authority concerned. shall engage any other agency or authority to complete the process. as per procedure laid down in this Notification”. Appraisal (Stage IV) Appraisal means the detailed scrutiny by the Expert Appraisal Committee or State Level Expert Appraisal Committee of the application and other documents like the Final EIA report. outcome of the public consultations including public hearing proceedings. submitted by the applicant to the regulatory authority concerned for grant of environmental clearance. on the proceedings. eight days of the completion of the public hearing. This appraisal shall be made by Expert Appraisal Committee or State Level Expert Appraisal Committee concerned in a transparent manner in a proceeding to which the applicant shall be invited for furnishing necessary clarifications in person or through an authorized representative. office of the concerned Zila Parishad. if any. as the case may be. Supervision and Presiding over the Hearing The District Magistrate/ District Collector / Deputy Commissioner or his or her representative not below the rank of an Additional District Magistrate assisted by a representative of SPCB or UTPCC. to address those concerns.7 above. the Central government in Ministry of Environment and Forests for Category ‘A’ project or activity and the State Government or Union Territory Administration for Category ‘B’ project or activity at the request of the SEIAA. item-wise. The SPCB or UTPCC shall also display the proceedings on its website for general information.Environmental Clearances Deputy commissioner. If the SPCB or UTPCC fails to hold the public hearing within the stipulated 45 (forty five) days. In the above exceptional circumstances. Persons present at the venue shall be granted the opportunity to seek information or clarification on the project form the applicant.4. The summary of the public hearing proceedings accurately reflecting all the views and concerns expressed shall be recorded by the representative of the SPCB or UTPCC and read over to be the audience at the end of the proceedings explaining the contents in the local/ vernacular language and the agreed minutes shall be signed by the District Magistrate/ District Collector/ Deputy Commissioner or his or her representative on the same day and forwarded to the SPCB/ UTPCC concerned.

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the regulatory authority shall request reconsideration by the Expert Appraisal Committee or State Level Expert Appraisal Committee concerned within forty five days of the receipt of the recommendations of the Expert Appraisal Committee or State Level Expert Appraisal Committee concerned while stating the reasons for the disagreement. as applicable. in turn. except as provided below. Validity of Environmental Clearance (EC) The “Validity of Environmental Clearance” is meant the period from which a prior environment clearance is granted by the regulatory authority. or completion of all construction operations in case of construction projects (item 8 of the Schedule). or decision by the regulatory authority concerned. same is considered as necessary by the Expert Appraisal Committee or State Level Expert Appraisal Committee concerned. or scoping. together with reasons for the same. unless any of these is sequentially dependent on such clearance either due to a requirement of law. the decision of the regulatory authority. the applicant may proceed as if the environment clearance sought for has been granted or denied by the regulatory authority in terms of the final recommendations of the Expert Appraisal Committee or State Level Expert Appraisal Committee concerned. and the final recommendations of the Expert Appraisal Committee or State Level Expert Appraisal Committee concerned shall be public documents. The appraisal of an application be shall be completed by the Expert Appraisal Committee or State Level Expert Appraisal Committee concerned within sixty days of the receipt of the final Environment Impact Assessment report and other documents or the receipt of Form 1 and Form 1A. The Expert Appraisal Committee or State Level Expert Appraisal Committee concerned. 190 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . Clearances from other bodies or authorities shall not be required prior to receipt of applications for prior environment clearance of projects or activities.Environmental Clearances Appraisal Committee concerned shall make categorical recommendations to the regulatory authority concerned either for grant of prior environmental clearance on stipulated terms and conditions. Grant or Rejection of Prior Environmental Clearance (EC) The regulatory authority shall consider the recommendations of the EAC or SEAC concerned and convey its decision to the applicant within forty five days of the receipt of the recommendations of the Expert Appraisal Committee or State Level Expert Appraisal Committee concerned or in other words within one hundred and five days of the receipt of the final Environment Impact Assessment Report. and cancellation of prior environmental clearance already granted. The appraisal of all projects or activities which are not required to undergo public consultation. to which the application for prior environmental clearance refers. In cases where it disagrees with the recommendations of the Expert Appraisal Committee or State Level Expert Appraisal Committee concerned. An intimation of this decision shall be simultaneously conveyed to the applicant. or for necessary technical reasons. On expiry of the period specified for decision by the regulatory authority under paragraph (i) and (ii) above. or screening. where public consultation is not necessary and the recommendations of the Expert Appraisal Committee or State Level Expert Appraisal Committee shall be placed before the competent authority for a final decision within the next fifteen days. or may be presumed by the applicant to have been granted under sub paragraph (iv) of paragraph 7 above. Deliberate concealment and / or submission of false or misleading information or data which is material to screening or scoping or appraisal or decision on the application shall make the application liable for rejection. and where Environment Impact Assessment is not required. as applicable. In the event that the decision of the regulatory authority is not communicated to the applicant within the period specified in subparagraphs (i) or (ii) above. The prior environmental clearance granted for a project or activity shall be valid for a period of ten years in the case of River Valley Projects [item 1(c) of the Schedule). or submit an Environment Impact Assessment report. The decision of the regulatory authority after considering the views of the Expert Appraisal Committee or State Level Expert Appraisal Committee concerned shall be final and conveyed to the applicant by the regulatory authority concerned within the next thirty days. within one hundred and five days of the receipt of the complete application with requisite documents. on such ground. and following the principles of natural justice. shall consider the observations of the regulatory authority and furnish its views on the same within a further period of sixty days. shall be decided by the regulatory authority. The regulatory authority shall normally accept the recommendations of the Expert Appraisal Committee or State Level Expert Appraisal Committee concerned. or rejection of the application for prior environmental clearance. shall be carried out on the basis of the prescribed application Form 1 and Form 1A as applicable. after giving a personal hearing to the applicant. to the start of production operations by the project or activity.

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Post Environmental Clearance Monitoring It shall be mandatory for the project management to submit half-yearly compliance reports in respect of the stipulated prior environmental clearance terms and conditions in hard and soft copies to the regulatory concerned. CRZ Clearance in coastal areas as per CRZ notification if the project area fall under CRZ -I. Wild Life Protection Act 1972 in notified wildlife areas. Consent for handling and disposal of Hazardous waste. Copies of the same shall be given to any person on application to the concerned regulatory authority. on 1th June and 1st December of each calendar year. Consent to operate (COO) under the Water and Air Act. NOC from ASI for any construction/operation within radius of 1km (or more) with respect to monuments depending of the activities. Most of these approvals can be applied on line as per software/websites created by respective authorities. equipment storage yards under Air and Water Act as the case may be including consent under noise rules from concerned State Pollution Control Board. Consent to establish (COE) under the Water and Air Act. for Construction projects or activities (item 8 of the Schedule). Flow Chart for procedure for Obtaining Environmental Clearance is shown in following flowcharts. In this regard the regulatory authority may also consult the Expert Appraisal Committee or State Level Exert Appraisal Committee as the case may be. All such compliance reports submitted by the project management shall be public documents. 9. in the case of Area Development projects and Townships [item 8(b)]. Consent for operating (Both COE & COO) hot mix plants. However. and Supplementary Form 1A. 6. stone. 5. III & IV. On Receipt of Prior Environmental Clearance Further Following Environment Related Clearances Shall be Required. crushes. Forest Clearance (It forest areas to be diverted for the project. 3. 2. This period of validity may be extended by the regulatory authority concerned by a maximum period of five years provided an application is made to the regulatory authority by the applicant within the validity period. the validity period shall be limited only to such activities as may be the responsibility of the applicant as a developer. local queries / mining worker camps including discharge from laborer camps. The latest such compliance report shall also be displayed on the web site of the concerned regulatory authority. NOC from Central Ground Water Board for drawing water in notified blocks. 1. 8. concrete batch mix plants. II. together with an updated Form 1. 4. including notified road side plantation) under the Forest Act 1980 and rules. 7. 192 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 .Environmental Clearances project life as estimated by Expert Appraisal Committee or State Level Expert Appraisal Committee subject to a maximum of thirty years for mining projects and five years in the case of all other projects and activities.

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But after 1972 stockholm ♦ MOEF Notification Dt. References Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) & Environment Management Plans (EMP) For Highway Projects The terms of reference (TOR) for projects requiring EIA studies are proposed by applicant in his application in form . some comprehensive legislative measures were initiated which brought under its umbrella infrastructure and highway projects also. 2006 and 1st Dec.I) and approved by MOEF or SEIAA as the case may be. some environment aspects were sacrificed. EIA prepared only by accredited authorities / consultants with National Accreditation Board for Education and Training under Quality Council of India shall be accepted. 14th Sept. ♦ Draft document of Policy. After independence main object of our country was connectivity and in this race. guidelines and legal requirement for highway ♦ EIA on Four laning of Km 163. These details and formats can be downloaded and application can be made either on line or on hard copies to competent authorities and approvals can be arranged in a fixed time frame. Section 1: Introduction Section 2: Project Description Section 3: Baseline Environment of the Project Corridor Section 4: Environment Impacts and Mitigation Measures Section 5: Environment Management Plans Section 6: Monitoring Plans Section 7: Conclusion All these sections are further divided into various sub-topics as detailed out in approved TOR. Recently MOEF has also issued instructions that to improve the quality of EIA studies.Environmental Clearances conclave which was attended by our late Prime Minister Mrs. 2009 under section 3 of EPA 1986.I (Annexure .40 to 180.00 of Banglore-SalemMudrai Section of NH-7 prepared by L&T-Chennai. 194 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . Conclusion Although some environment checks were prevalent even before independence. Indira Gandhi. ♦ Scheme for accreditation of EIA consultant organisation by National Accreditation Board for Education and Training issued by quality council of India issued in January 2010. Now detail checklists and details are available on website of MOEF and other law enforcement authorities. For highways projects usually information is divided in following main sections. If a systematic approach is planned it become easier to arrange approvals under Environment Acts and procedures.

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000 lives are lost on Indian roads every year. they should be appropriately sited. The earlier thinking that human factor is a major. As per some rough estimate conducted few years back. It has been found that though signs and markings are provided on these improved roads. with the rapid economic growth in the country. besides causing loss to the victims. perhaps the only factor. Traffic Signs The traffic signs and markings for promoting highway safety and efficiency have to be effective and should meet the following basis requirements objectively: ♦ Fulfill-specific needs as per the site situation. but they are still 196 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . more than 90. This realization has helped the developed countries to bring about considerable improvement in the safety on their road and they are able to build this aspect into constructing their road system as ‘forgiving’ as possible. the demand for better facilities and infrastructure has increased. it is essential that all the roads including those which are under improvement / upgradation are provided with a detailed system of traffic signs and pavement markings. The road system. Rough assessment suggests that road accidents cause financial loss to the country to an extent of 2% to 3% of GDP. ♦ command attention from all categories of road users. in India too. Introduction Road improvement in the country has been taken up on a large scale with the launching of National Highway Development Project (NHDP)/ National Highway Authority of India under its various phases and State Governments are having their own programmes for improvement of state roads. better safety at high speed to meet the enhanced aspirations as well as indulgence of the people for a safe and efficient movement. Now that the objective is to develop the National Highway System to a world class standard. their families and leaving behind a lingering agony to the society at large.Safety Audit Safety in Construction. ♦ convey a clear. far from being the appropriate system to meet the intended requirements of safe and efficient travel. ♦ command respect from road users and for this. It is being now recognized world over that the road system contributes significantly besides human errors and negligence. visible/ readable and uniform throughout. should be so designed and executed in such a manner that it takes into account the human failings. that cause accidents on roads. Operations and Maintenance of Highways – Basic Elements of Safety Audit R K Poddar. The road system is now getting new attention. In the recent past. HSE Management Consultant. therefore. Auditor & Trainer Premise On-road safety in India is amongst the poorest in the world. This thinking is fast changing. precise meaning in a simple form. Improved roads resulting from a better designed and execution would lead to increased speed.

3. therefore. say. Construction Zone In order to plan and provide appropriate traffic management and safety measures. be very clearly delineated to avoid intrusion of vehicles moving into the work ♦ placement should give adequate response time for a proper response. and ♦ placed such that they are not obscured by other objects or vegetation and no clustering has taken place. Advance Warning Sub-Zone: The advance warning sub-zone is meant to prepare the driver for an alert behavior and is an essential part of any traffic control system. Work Sub-Zone: This is the actual area where construction or maintenance activity is taking place and the main concern. ♦ conspicuous to attract attention of the drivers and should be legible from sufficiently far away to be read without diverting the line of sight through too great an angle. Transition Sub-Zone: The transition sub-zone is the area in which the traffic is steered and guided into and out of the diverted path around the work sub-zone. therefore. The guiding principles for safety measures shall include: ♦ Warning to the drivers unambiguously and sufficiently in advance of the situation on the highway. it is necessary to appreciate the concept of a construction zone. ♦ Providing devices to guide the drivers and their movements through construction zones/ lane closures/ traffic diversions etc. a construction zone comprises four sub zones as described hereunder: 1. A construction zone can be defined as an area of the Project Highway which involves the conflict of the right of use between the road users and authority responsible for the maintenance/ improvement of the Project Highway. is the safety of the workers at the site from the plying traffic. throughout the year and provide protection to NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 197 . The path of the traffic must. ♦ Providing clear demarcation for movement of vehicles. From traffic safety point of view. This is the most crucial sub-zone from safety point of view since most of the movements are turning movements. Safety Standards The objective of Safety Standards is to provide safe travel to the drivers of vehicles plying on the Project Highway at all time.Safety Audit the Project Workers when they are at work. 2. ♦ road markings should be clear and visible during the hours of darkness (luminous/ reflective) so that drivers can see them clearly in time to position themselves correctly.

Delineators. Delineators 3. so that the motorists are cautious and take the desired action. ♦ Protect construction such as false work for culverts and other exposed objects. 3. They include Safety Cones. Delineators are basically driving aids and should not be regarded as a substitute for warning signs or barriers for outof-control vehicles. ♦ Average Vehicular Traffic Density in peak and non-peak hours. which give notice of special obligations. safe and pleasant. Barricades 4. The variables are. An information signboard shall be erected to inform road users of the end of construction Zone. Three types of typical barricades generally used in road construction 198 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . and Post-mounted Reflectors etc. 4. Provide safe and clearly marked buffer and work zones. material storage area. Painted lines. ♦ Number and types of junctions in the road. 2. which may vary from project to project. 3. Cautionary / Warning Signs These signs are used to warn road users of the existence of certain hazardous conditions either on or adjacent to the roadway. Delineators are devices or treatment which outlines the roadway or portion thereof. The work sub-zones shall not be close to each other and the distance between the two work sub-zones shall be such that the flow of traffic can return to normal stream by permitting fast moving traffic to overtake slow moving vehicles. ♦ Provide protection to workers. Barricades are intended to provide containment without significant deflection or deformation under impact and to redirect errant vehicles along the barrier. ♦ Maximum width of lane required black symbol or message on white background. Mandatory / Regulatory Signs These signs impose legal restriction on traffic and violation of these signs is an offence. Guide Posts. Pylons 6. Portable barricades should be stable under adverse weather conditions and appear substantial but not so much as to cause excessive damage if a vehicle strikes. The traffic across these subzones is guided and taken with the help of various traffic control devices erected at the site 2. Tapes. These include all signs. Barricades can be used to: ♦ Prevent traffic from entering work areas. ♦ Availability of standard footpath and its location and dimensions. Road Signs. c. Road Signs 2. Provide adequate measures that control driver behaviour through construction zones Traffic Control Plan Traffic Control Plan for a specific project should be prepared and applying the following variables. Pavement markings 7. inform them about destination and distance. Traffic Control Devices Traffic control devices used to regulate the traffic in Road Construction Zones include: 1. prohibitions or restrictions with which the road users must comply. Flashing lights. Raised Pavement Markers. Barricades. Cautionary signs are triangular with red border and Traffic Management Planning 1. Provide safe and clearly marked lanes for guiding users.Safety Audit area. The length of work sub-zones will vary. They are usually rectangular in shape. Warn the road user clearly and sufficiently in advance. Drums. b. ♦ Separate two-way traffic. and provide other information that will make the road travel easier. 1. Regulatory signs are mostly circular in shape. identify points of geographical and historical interest. Informatory Signs These signs are used to guide road users along routes. Barricades can be permanent or portable. ♦ Change in the lane width if any and its location. They are used in or adjacent to the roadway to control the flow of traffic. 4. They are: a. The subzone is intended to inform the road users of the end of the construction zone. such as excavation. Road signs are classified in three major categories. Cones 5. These distances shall preferably be 2 km on urban sections and 5 to 10 km on rural sections of the highway. for construction during various activities. Termination Sub-Zone. Traffic Cylinders.

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Safety of the road users and the Project workmen at site is of paramount importance and obligatory for the Concessionaire throughout the said period. At night the passage shall be delineated with lamps or lanterns or any suitable light source. PVC and have retro reflectorised red and white bands. paved shoulders shall be used on the side on which work is not proposed. the channel for traffic shall be clearly marked with the aid of pavement markings or other similar device as directed by the Independent Consultant. 750 mm and 1000 mm high and 300 mm to 500 mm in diameter. Flagmen ♦ A qualified personnel at least average intelligence. ♦ The standard distance shall be maintained at 60 – 100 m but can be altered depending upon the approach speed and site conditions. b. HDPE.Safety Audit zones. Red Flag – Minimum size 600 X 600 mm (Polyester cloth advisable) securely fastened to a staff of length approx. 1 m STOP Sign Paddle – Shape Octagonal (Light in weight) Width 600 mm with rigid handle Background Color – Red. Using heavier weighted cones. and d. rubber.5 m wide) closure shall be allowed for a short duration depending on the extent on Emergency. Safety Measures During Concession Period ♦ During the Concession Period or extension thereof as per the Concession Agreement many activities are involved at different stages and at various periods in respect of construction. Using sand bag rings to provide increased stability. with recommended dimensions are given below. ♦ In Emergency arising on account of Force Majeure due to nature or administrative reasons special safety measures may be called for the traffic and/or the workmen at site to be taken by the Concessionaire. c. A flagman never leaves his post until properly relieved. Doubling the cones to provide added weight. He shall stop the traffic for a short while whenever required (e. be mentally 200 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . Letter Color – Black Border Color–Black. This can be avoided by a. These barricades can be used interchangeably and more suitable for repair. ♦ Standard Signals to be given by Flag men and they should undergo special task training program through safety department. Using cones with special weighted bases. ♦ At the points where traffic is to deviate from its normal path. since flagmen are responsible for public and workmen safety. 4.g. ♦ Flagman should be positioned in a place where he is clearly visible to approaching traffic and at a sufficient distance to enable the drivers to respond for his flagging instructions. Safety cones would be displaced or blown unless their bases are anchored or loaded with ballast. Type III Barricade This is a permanent type barricade and can be erected at the point of closure when a road section is closed to traffic for construction works. They may extend completely across a road way and its shoulders or from kerb to kerb with a small gate or movable section for the entry of construction workmen and vehicle. They are usually made of plastic. The typical specification are given below. operation and maintenance of the Project Highway. maintenance and other temporary works. Type I And Type II Barricade These barricades shall be used when traffic is redirected in a road. ♦ The following principles shall be kept in view in Emergency situations from safety considerations: ♦ Where part width of the existing carriageway is envisaged to be used for passage of two way traffic. Safety Cones. ♦ Flagmen should be equipped with yellow helmet with green reflective sticker fixed around and reflective jacket along with hand signaling devices such as flags and sign paddles. their stability can be improved through ballast. ♦ Flagmen need to maintain the flow of traffic continuous past a work zone at relatively reduced speeds by suitably regulating the traffic. Safety cones are 500 mm. As these barricades are susceptible to overturning in wind. alert and good in physical condition be selected. Letter Color – White SLOW Sign Paddle – Shape Octagonal (Light in weight) Width 600 mm with rigid handle Background Color – Yellow. for entry and exit of construction equipment in to work zone). A maximum of one lane (3. In urban areas this distance shall be taken as 20 m to 50 m.

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operation and maintenance safety. forming AASHTO Criteria in 1991. in 2003. etc. design stage and operation stage. It is a basic procedure in highway construction and management. 202 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . ♦ Detail design. Before 1980s.Safety Audit ♦ On the approach of any type of closure suitable regulatory/ warning signs as approved by the Independent Consultant shall be installed for guidance of road users. From 1985. Furthermore. From 1990. and ♦ Operation. Highway Safety Audit (HAS) Highway Safety Audit is a systemic evaluation process for highway construction. Any semblance/ replication of some earlier publication is purely inadvert. At least two signs shall be put up one lose to the carriageway where transition of carriageway begins and the other 120 m ahead. AASHTO published the updated version of this Guideline. preliminarily. In any case. could be found and corrected before traffic accident.” In 1997. Highway Safety Information System was established to accumulate traffic accident data. In 1967. speed limit and re-alignment. The signs shall be of approved design and of reflectory type as directed by Independent Consultant. namely: ♦ Feasibility study. Results were encouraging but the problem would be solved gradually and take a long time to avoid/ limit large losses of staff and properties. ♦ Trial operation. the author’s thanks are due to such publishers/ authors. the United Kingdom started to study and spread HAS technologies and regulated that HSA be carried out for all new expressway and motorway. Evaluation in operation stage shall be completed before inspection and approval of the project highway. the evaluation work shall be entrusted and coordinated by Project Legal Person. Around 1985. America started road safety study earlier. ♦ Preliminary design. extended and re-published in 1974. losses of staff and properties would be substantially reduced. If potential factors in highway facilities. it put forward Roadside Safety Analysis Program (RSAP) and Interactive Highway Safety Design Model (IHSDM). the study and application of HSA were carried out in Australia. study and design period of highway facilities. In countries which have conducted HSA. AASHTO published “Highway Design and Operation Practice Considering Highway Safety. Denmark and Netherlands. the evaluation stages are generally divided into five stages. Therefore. HSA shall be carried out by independent third party to realize objective and fair evaluation. Division of highway infrastructure phases and contents and depth of each phase in China are different from other countries and the study of HSA has just started. Audit Parameters of Road Safety ♦ Components of the Construction Zone ♦ Planning ♦ Sketches at cross-sections ♦ Alignment ♦ Roadside communities & Facilities ♦ Stretches at junction ♦ general ♦ additional checks for roundabouts ♦ additional checks for signalcontrolled junctions ♦ Special road users ♦ Road side hazards Refer: Sample List for Audit Component Disclaimer: The author does not claim the sole credit for the entire text of the article since concepts and context of the content are in the common knowledge domain and therefore have been quoted to substantiate a point. etc. theoretical study for HSA was started and important outcomes were achieved. New Zealand. there are three evaluation stages feasibility study stage. pushing the HSA from qualitative analysis to combination of qualitative analysis with quantitative analysis. which introduces concepts of highway operation safety and reduction of traffic accident into the feasibility study and design of highway project. such measures as warning signs. After 1992. were adopted by many countries in the world to reduce traffic accident during operation period. “Guideline for Road Safety Design and Operation. which would influence traffic safety. Concepts and approaches for HSA have evolved gradually under such background. Malaysia. Usually.” which was modified. ♦ The Concessionaire shall ensure that safety standards specified in this Schedule are strictly complied with in the event of any lane closure or diversion of traffic. Evaluations in feasibility study and design stages shall be completed before official approval for the project highway by relevant governmental departments. during planning.

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i. Effective pumping range varies from 90 to 400 meters horizontally. between 10 mm and 2. Depending on the equipment. materials uniformly and consistently batched and mixed thoroughly. Cases have been documented in which concrete has successfully been pumped horizontally upto 1400 meters and 430 meters vertically upward. This can be achieved by ensuring that the aggregate grading does not have a complete absence of material in two consecutive sieve sizes – for example. experience shows that water is relatively easily pushed through particles larger than about 600 microns in diameter and is substantially held by particles smaller than this.e. pressure is to be applied via the water. Uttaranchal Pumped Concrete Pumped concrete may be defined as concrete that is conveyed under pressure through either rigid pipe or flexible hose and discharged directly into the desired location. Materials Engineer. Kaushal Kishore. In the same way. pumping rates may vary from 8 to 130 m3 of concrete per hour. flexible hose and couplings etc. Pumping For the successful pumping of concrete through a pipeline. New record values continued to be reported. like conventional concrete mixes. Roorkee. properly graded uniform aggregates. the mixture of cement. water and very fine aggregate particles should not be blown through the voids in the coarse aggregate.Mix Design Mix Design for Pumped Concrete with. Pumping may be used for most all concrete construction. The method is suitable for normal weight concrete and with admixtures. The Tables and Figures included are worked out by the author from a wide range of materials available in the country.36 mm. requires good quality control. in effect. If. In effect any size of particle must act as a filter to prevent excessive movement of the next smaller size of material. A pumpable concrete. Basic Considerations Cement Content Concretes without admixtures and of high cement content. however. PPC. then it is important that the water is not blown through the solid constituents of the mix. If pressure is applied via the aggregate. (over about 460 kg/m 3) are liable to prove difficult to pump. because of high friction between the concrete and 204 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . it is essential that the pressure in the pipeline is transmitted through the concrete via the water in the mix and not via the aggregate. but is especially useful where space or access for construction equipment is limited. this ensures the pipeline is lubricated. the force required to move concrete under these conditions is several hundred times that required for a lubricated mix. Pumping equipment consists of pumps which are of three types: a) Piston type concrete pump b) Pneumatic type concrete pump c) Squeeze pressure type concrete pump Other accessories are rigid pipelines. it is highly likely that the aggregate particles will compact together and against the inside surface of the pipe to form a blockage. OPC. OPC + Flyash A simple method of concrete mix design for pumpable concrete based on an estimated weight of the concrete per unit volume is presented in the article. or 30 to 100 meters vertically.

of concrete. In the same way. and slump above 125 mm should be avoided. Fine aggregate of Zone II as per IS: 383-1970 is generally suitable for pumped concrete provided 15 to 30% sand should pass the 300 micron sieve and 5 to 10 percent should pass the 150 micron sieve. The mixing water requirements vary for different maximum sizes and type of aggregates. the amount depending upon ambient temperature. and is sometimes as high as 20 mm per 30 meter. For uncrushed (rounded) aggregates. the aggregate will segregate from the mortar and paste and may cause blocking in the pump lines. and then combined with coarse aggregates to get a typed grading as per Table 4. Aggregates The maximum size of crushed aggregate is limited to one-third of the smallest inside diameter of the hose or pipe based on simple geometry of cubical shape aggregates. If they are nominal single sized then 10 mm and 20 mm shall be combined in the ratio of 1:2 to get a 20 mm graded coarse aggregate. The shape of the coarse aggregate. However. there is no necessity to make any alteration to the mix design from that produced for the concrete of the initial lower slump. There is generally no loss of cohesion or excess bleeding even when the hydroxycarboxylic acid baset materials are used. water reducing admixtures are useful. length of line. The loss is greater for hose than for pipe. 20 mm and 40 mm aggregates shall be combined in the ratio of 1:1. again no change in mix design will be required. To save environmental pollution as far as NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 205 . The approximate quantity of water for a slump of 85 mm and 100 mm is given in Table 1.5:3 to get a 40 mm graded coarse aggregate. such mixes are also more difficult and costly to finish. the maximum size should be limited to 40% of the pipe or hose diameter.m. A concrete of less than 50 mm slump is impractical for pumping. In the addition to this type of admixtures at normal dosage levels. In practice. workability is reduced with the given quantity of water per cu. whether mix is kept agitated during haulage etc. The proportion of fine aggregate (sand) to be taken in the mix design is given in Table 3. although small alterations in plastic and hardened density will be apparent and should be used in any yield calculations. In high strength concrete due to lower water/cement ratio and high cement content.Mix Design the pipeline. it is difficult to get fine and coarse aggregates of a particular grading. Workability The workability of pumped concrete in general has an average slump of between 50 mm and 100 mm. A slump loss of 25 mm per 300 meters of conduit length is not unusual. Cement contents below 270 to 320 kg/m3 depending upon the proportion of the aggregate may also prove difficult to pump because of segregation within the pipe line. The crushed pieces have a larger surface area per unit volume as compared to uncrushed pieces and thus require relatively more mortar to coat the surface. Fine aggregate of grading as given in Table 2 is best for pumped concrete. truck-haulage distance. Uncrushed Aggregate (River Gravel) It has become a custom that almost in all the construction sites crushed aggregates are being used. Coarse aggregate of a very bad particle shape should be avoided. Difficulties with pump have often been experienced when too large a proportion of coarse aggregate is used in an attempt to achieve economy by reducing the amount of cement. If this class of product is used to decrease the water/cement ratio. A loss of slump during pumping is normal and should be taken into consideration when proportioning the concrete mixes. In such cases. In mixtures with high slump. In the absence of fine aggregate of required grading they should be blended with selected sands to produce desired grading. to obtain a higher workability for a given concrete mix. the lowest practical sand content should be established by actual trial mixes and performance runs. pressure used to move the concrete. The grading of coarse aggregate should be as per IS : 383-1970. 10 mm. although both shapes can be pumped satisfactorily. moisture content of aggregates at the time of mixing. whether crushed or uncrushed has an influence on the mix proportions.

In the modern screening and washing plant in the production of uncrushed (gravel/shingle) aggregate from the river bed they are not crushed. hence do not present a dust problem. shape and other physical properties. uncrushed (gravel/shingle) aggregates produces in these plant arrive at site in a moist condition. Air quality due to pollution should be monitored monthly. Crusher & Air Pollution Problem When the rocks and river bed boulders are crushed. National Part. If a crushing plant is not properly designed and operate without any efficient prevention system this “fugitive” dust may generate air pollution. density. Note: 1. The air quality levels should be determined by sampling and brought down within specified ambient air quality standards through use of various mitigation measures. Therefore. Further aggregates are washed to remove silt and clay like materials. An inventory of sources of dust emissions usually begins with the first crusher and continues with the conveyor transfer points to and including the succeeding crushers. The suspension of a particle in the air follows a certain trajectory depending on its size.Mix Design possible in ordinary construction works uncrushed aggregates (River Gravel) including river sand should be used. Here the aggregate is more finely grounded. As the process continues. In air turbulence the dry crusher dust has long trajectories or suspension time and settling distance to the ground. A rule of thumb is to pump 25 206 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . such as giving preference in using uncrushed (gravel/shingle) natural aggregate in the general civil engineering construction work in place of crushed aggregate obtained from crusher. Production of crushed aggregates from crushers poses air and noise pollution problems. and dust emission become greater. Tourist Resorts. National Manuments etc. Attempts to spray the c r u s h e d aggregate as it is being dumped have had very limited effectiveness. SPm : Suspended particle matters SO2 : Sulpher dioxide CO : Carbon Mono oxide NOx : Nitrogen Oxide 2. Sanctuaries. Whereas the crushed aggregate leave crushing plant very dry and create considerable dust when handled. During crushing of aggregate particles less than 100 micron remains suspended in the air. 4. dust emission are again prevalent from sources at conveyor transfer points and the final screens. 3. thus no dust is formed. Category ‘C’ sensitive areas are: Hill Stations. Pumping Before the pumping of concrete is started. dry surfaces are exposed and air borne dust can be created. The ambient air quality standards as recommended by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) India are given in the following table. To prevent dust in handling it is not possible to wet each load of crushed aggregate thoroughly before it is dumped from the delivery truck. modern pollution free equipment and advance construction technology. The concentrations for the above pollutants shall be 95% of the time within the limits prescribed. the conduit should be primed by pumping a batch of mortar through the line to lubricate it.

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it should not be interrupted (if at all possible) as concrete standing idle in the line is liable to cause a plug. it is desirable to provide an air release valve at the middle of the top bend to prevent vacuum or air buildup. and then speed up to normal pumping speed. Lines from the pump to the placing area should be laid out with a minimum of bends. Dump concrete into the pump-loading chamber. Of greater importance is to always ensure some concrete in the pump receiving hopper at all times during operation. or when working on the pump. using smaller amounts for smaller sizes of hose or pipe. it is desirable to have a valve near the pump to prevent the reverse flow of concrete during the fitting of clean up equipment. When pumping upward. Testing for Pumpability: There is no recognized laboratory apparatus or precise piece of equipment available to test the pumpability of a mix in the laboratory. thus assuring a continuous supply of concrete. When pumping downward 15 m or more. Once pumping has started. should be checked at site under field conditions. Illustration example on Concrete Mix Design. Field Practices: The pump should be as near the placing area as practicable and the entire surrounding area must have adequate bearing strength to support the concrete delivery trucks. For large placing areas. which makes necessary the careful dispatching and spacing of ready-mix truck. 208 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . pump at slow speed until concrete comes out at the end of the discharge hose.Mix Design litres of mortar for each 15 meter length of 100 mm diameter hose. alternate lines should be installed for rapid connection when required. The pumpability of the mix therefore.

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238-239 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . 183 67 13 95 217 103 Gatefold 105 101 23 135 29 37 143 55 113 109 34 91 203 167 65 MT* MT* MT* MT* 253 237 89 151 253 17 Bamonite CICO Ironite Kunal Chemicals MYK .11 L&T Case 131 Macons 19 MEC 201 M.W. Chemicals Asian Laboratories 235 212 *MARKETRENDS SECTION SEE PAGE NO. Work Liebherr Manitowoc Saren Heavy Lift TIL Zoomlion Heavy Ind.R. Pumps & Gears Premium Energy H & K Rolling Mill Engineers Jindal Aluminium Iron.Kolkata IQPC. Formwork Systems Fastening Systems Asons Builders & Contractors L&T ECC Computer Software Midas Exhibition & Seminar bC India .Mumbai IMME . Repair & Rehabilitation Savcore Building Materials Ashapura Volclay Dextra Relience Industries Pipes & Fittings Kitec The Supreme Industries Crushing & Screening Marsman Nawa Engg. Work 217 Lasco 223 Liugong 27 Lonking 10. Comansa ECEL J. 73 Sicoma 78 Soilmec 149 Speedcraft 141 Sree Engineering 125 Telcon 71 Terex Vectra 2nd Cover Unipave Universal Unisteel Volvo India Walia International Wirtgen India Zoomlion Heavy Ind.ADVERTISERS’ INDEX SEPTEMBER 2010 Equipment & Machinery ACE 179. Auctioneer Ritchie Bros.Schomburg STP Limited S. Ltd Namdhari Engineers Ramaas Enterprises Topall Saini Concrete Sys.K.B.Laticrete MYK . Vibrators 240 Normet 115 Powercurber 87 Putzmeister 31 Qunfeng . Glass & Aluminium Equipment Spare Parts Suyash Tools Timken Form Work & Scaffolding Cosmos Maruti Steel Fab Navnirman British Scaffolding Continental Scafffab Scaff India J.Enterprises Vardh. Techny Chemy Bunty Builders P. Steel.Middle East Surface Transport-Mumbai World of Concrete . 147 191 139 IBC 231 133 23 MT* MT* MT* MT* MT* 181.USA Constru .Bangalore ConExpo-Con/Agg . Jeetmull Jaichandlall P.China Build Arch . 193 ECEL 95 Greaves 63 Gujarat Apollo 129 Hunan Sunward . Ajax 165 Allen Buildwell 175 Allen Pavers 81 Apollo Infra 35 Aquaries Technologies IFC. 181.Mumbai bauma . Engg.C. 15 Jamshedji 199 Jaypee 159 Jayem 83 J.man Chemicals 213 187 209 127 51 49 207 171 53 MT* MT* MT* 169 46-47 39 225 43 45 93 119 07 33 21 61 210 161 155 Cranes ACE Anupam Ind.K. Eqp. Ltd. 121 Ashok 240 BHS Sonthofen 41 Bull 195 Capious Road Tech 123 Changling 08.B. 107 JCB India OBC J. 183 153 Akona Engg.K.USA 163 245 221 243 249 251 189 229 227 233 Surveying & Testing Accro Tech Continental Scintific Syndicate HEICO Janak Sokkia India Pvt.China 25 Hyundai Const.09 Colombia Pakona 59 Conmat 75 Cosmos 145 Dominant Group 111 Esquire-Cmac 173. Propel Proman Puzzolana Sandvik Terex Finlay Safety Equipments Liberty Shoes Udyogi Plastic Cement Grasim Industries Ltd.Mumbai China Sourcing Fair.China 12 Revathi Equipment 85 Right Vision 247 Sana Industries 255 Schwing Stetter 69 Shanghai Engg.

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Target strength for all A. as PPC is being manufactured in minimum of 43 Grade of strength.4 found to be 44 – 53%. Wm = Mixing water required in kg/m3 Cm = Cement required. The weight of aggregates are also adjusted accordingly. W/C ratio = 0. This is lower than specified maximum W/ C ration value of 0. it is found that Retarder Superplasticizer at a dosages of 18 gm/kg of cement water may be reduced 25% without loss of workability Then water = 200 – (200 x 0. assume from Fig. ignoring entrapped air value as NIL will lead the calculation of higher value of density. For Mix A and B free W/C ratio with crushed aggregate and given strength for target strength of 48.00) – 150 (2. Other data: The Mixes are to be designed on the basis of saturated and surface dry aggregates.4 b) Free water for 100 mm slump from Table 1 for 20 mm maximum size of aggregate. Um = 10 x Ga (100 – A) + Cm (1 – Ga/Gc) – Wm (Ga – 1) = 10 x 2. in absence assume 3. Assume entrapped air 1% for 40 mm maximum size of aggregate.65 x 5 = 48. 10 and 20 mm crushed aggregate grading are single sized as per IS: 383-1970.00 for PPC (Fly ash based) A = Air content.75 -1) Density = 2477 kg/m3 e) aggregates = 2477 – 375 – 150 = 1952 kg/m3 f) Fine aggregate = From Table 3 for zone-I Fine aggregate and 20 mm maximum size of aggregate. 2.45 Take curves C and D for PPC. SSD Gc = Specific gravity of cement.65 x S 40 + 1. percent. 1.5% for 20 mm maximum size of aggregate and 2. Um = Wight of fresh concrete kg/m3 Ga = Weighted average specific gravity of combined fine and coarse aggregate bulk. kg/m3 Note:. B and C mixes fck = fck + 1. 10 & 20 mm aggregates are as given in Table. If it carries surface moisture this is to be deducted from the mixing water and if it is dry add in mixing water the quantity of water required for absorption. Curve A and B for OPC 33 Grade Curve C and D for OPC 43 Grade Curve E and F for OPC 53 Grade 1 2 x 190 + x 220 3 3 = 200 kg/m3 From trials. 1 Curve D found to be 0.Mix Design Test Data for Materials 1.3 n/mm2 at 28 days from Fig. 1 curve D found to be 0. Properties of aggregates 3. Therefore. There are always entrapped air in concrete. At the time of concreting. The mix be altered with the actual obtained density of the mix. Fine aggregate is of zone-I of IS:383-1970.15 for OPC and 3.3 n/mm 2 from Fig.4 = 375 kg/m3 d) Formula for calculation of fresh concrete weight in kg/m3 UM 10 x Ga (100 – A) + CM(1 – Ga/Gc) – WM (Ga – 1) Where.45 = 878 kg/m3 Coarse aggregate = 1952 – 878 = 1074 kg/m3 10 and 20 mm aggregate are single sized as per IS: 383-1970.25) = 150 kg/m3 c) PPC = 150/0.75 (100 – 1. but cement conforming to IS Codes.5) + 375(12.3 n/mm2 at 28 days age 4. The grading of fine aggregate.5% for 10mm maximum size of aggregate. 2.75/3. Let they be combined in the ratio of 1:2 214 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . 5. For consideration of grading of Table 4 let it be 45% Fine aggregate = 1952 x 0. Design of Mixa with PPC a) Free W/C ratio for the target strength of 48. 5.40. 1 and Fig.The exact density may be obtained by filling and fully compacting constant volume suitable metal container from the trial batches of calculated design mixes. moisture content of site aggregates are to be determined. Note: In absence of cement strength. Determine actual value.

For getting early strength and in cold climate the W/C ratio of PPC shall also be required to be reduced.13 = 424 kg Note:1.4 = 375 kg/m3 c)Density: 10 x 2. For exact W/C ratio the water in admixture should also be taken into account. Addition of Flyash reduces 5% of water demand.75 – 1) Mix. The W/C ratio of PPC and OPC is taken the same assuming that the strength properties of both are the same. of concrete on the basis of saturated and surface dry aggregates: Water = 150 kg/m3 PPC = 375 kg/m3 Fine Aggregate (sand) = 878 kg/m3 10 mm Aggregate = 371 kg/m3 20 mm Aggregate = 703 kg/m3 Retarder Super Plasticizer = 6.Mix Design Figure 1: Relation between free water / cement ratio and concrete compressive strength for different cement strength using crushed aggregate Figure 2: Relation between free water / cement ratio and concrete compressive strength for different cement strength using uncrushed aggregate 10 mm aggregate = 358 kg/m3 20 mm aggregate = 716 kg/m3 With the consideration of grading of Table 5 let Fine aggregate. 10 and 20 mm aggregate combine in the ratio of 45%.45 = 887 kg/m3 10 mm Aggregate = 1970 x 0. Specific gravity of Retarder Superplasticizer = 1.36 = 709 kg/m3 e) Thus for M-40 Grade of concrete with OPC per cu. C with OPC + Flyash With the given set of materials increase in cementitious materials = 13% Total cementitious materials = 375 x 1.15 2. Thus. 19% and 36% and check with the required grading of Table. which will increase the cement content. Fine aggregate = 878 kg/m3 10 mm = 1952 x 0. NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 215 .15) – 150 (2.625 kg/m3 Mix-B with OPC a) Water = 200 – (200 x 0. If it is found that the PPC is giving the low strength then W/C ratio of PPC have to be reduced.75 kg/ m3 = 2495 kg/m3 d) Total Aggregates = 2495 – 150 – 375 = 1970 kg/m3 Fine Aggregate = 1970 x 0. 5.19 = 374 kg/m3 20 mm Aggregate = 1970 x 0.m. Note:1.19 = 371 kg/m3 20 mm = 1952 x 0. 2.5) + 375 (1 – 2.25) = 150 kg/m3 b) OPC = 150/0.75 (100 – 1.75/3. Water = 150 kg/m3 OPC = 375 kg/m3 Fine Aggregate (sand) = 887 kg/m3 10 mm Aggregate = 374 kg/m3 20 mm Aggregate = 709 kg/m3 Retarder Super Plasticizer = 5.36 = 703 kg/m3 g) Thus for M-40 Grade of concrete quantity of materials per cu.m of concrete on the basis of saturated and surface dry aggregates.

The properties of the fine normal weight aggregates (sand) play a more prominent role in the proportioning of pumpable mixes than do those of the coarse aggregates. 2 1 Wf + Wc 3 3 Where.” The Indian Concrete Journal. References: ♦ IS : 383-1970 Specifications for coarse and fine aggregates from natural sources for concrete (second revision) BIS.The above combined obtained grading is for PPC and OPC mixes. April. quality control. (Third revision). 12-15 December. batching. 1988. Note:. Sands having a fineness modulus between 2. ♦ Kishore Kaushal. and is suitable for pumped concrete. 21-31. 1986. BIS. University of Roorkee. Therefore. This is also within the permissible limits of recommended grading for pumped concrete. Although the ingredients of mixes placed by pump are the same as those placed by other methods. Zone-II sand as per IS: 383-1970 meets these requirements. the free-water content is estimated by the expression.” The Indian Concrete Journal. New Delhi ♦ IS: 9103-1999 Specification for admixtures for concrete (first revision) BIS. 296-305. equipment and the services of personnel with knowledge and experience are essential for successful pumped concrete. For OPC + Flyash Mix fine aggregate is about 43%. 1988. 25-26. New Delhi ♦ Kishore Kaushal.Mix Design ♦ IS: 8112-1989 Specifications for 43 Grade ordinary portland cement (first revision) BIS. New Delhi ♦ IS: 3812 (Part-I) 2003 Specification for pulverized fuel ash: Part-I for use as pozzolana in cement. 3. 2740 and ICI Bulletin December. absorption and bulking. ♦ Kishore Kaushal. Singapore. mixing. 1988. PPC reduces 5% water demand. and. August. New Delhi ♦ IS: 456-2000 Code of practice for plain and reinforced concrete (fourth revision). there should be no compromise in quality. 1988. BIS. If this is found by trial then take reduce water for calculation.When coarse and fine aggregate of different types are used. PP.4 and 3. “Concrete Mix Design. “Concrete Mix Design. 93-97. 103-104 ♦ Kishore Kaushal. but is especially useful where space or access for construction equipment is limited. February. ♦ Kishore Kaushal. Specific gravity. Note:. the proportions worked out with the help of these Tables and Figures will have quite near approach to the mix design problems in the field. New Delhi ♦ IS: 2386 (Part-III) 1963 method of test for aggregate for concrete. ♦ Kishore Kaushal.0 are generally satisfactory provided that the percentage passing the 300 and 150 micron sieves meet the previously stated requirements.” Proceeding of 13 th Conference on our World in Concrete and Structures. “Design of Concrete Mixes with High-Strength Ordinary Portland Cement. Civil Engineering Department. 1989.” A manual published for Structural Engineering Studies. 1978. For pumped concrete. 10 mm 20% and 20 mm is 37%. “Concrete Mix Design Based on Flexural Strength for Air-Entrained Concrete. New Delhi 216 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . New Delhi. “Method of Concrete Mix Design Based on Flexural Strength. Conclusion Pumped concrete may be used for most/all concrete construction.” Proceeding of the International Conference on Road and Road Transport Problems ICORT. pp. pp. pp.” Indian Concrete Institute Bulletin September. BIS. “Mix Design Based on Flexural Strength of AirEntrained Concrete. A high level of quality control for assurance of uniformity must be maintained. New Delhi ♦ IS: 1489-Part-I 1991 Specifications for portland pozzolana cement (Part-I) Flyash based. voids. pp. Wc= Free-water content appropriate to type of coarse aggregate. Wf = Free-water content appropriate to type of fine aggregate. The author has worked out the Tables and Figures for materials available in the country by numerous trials. A simple method of concrete mix design with normal weight aggregates and with admixtures for pumped concrete is described in the article. density. cement mortar and concrete (second revision) BIS.

“Concrete Mix Design. 11. pp. 1995. ♦ Kishore Kaushal. pp. pp.” Journal of the National Building Organization. pp.Mix Design ♦ Kishore Kaushal. April. April-June 1997. Proceeding Volume pp. “Mix Design for Pumped Concrete.” New Building Materials & Construction.” Bulletin of Indian Concrete Institute No.com NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 217 . 2006. Vol. “Concrete Mix Design Containing Chemical Admixtures. Vol. pp. pp. pp.” Civil Engineering and Construction Review. 1-12. No. 49. 1989. ♦ Kishore Kaushal.” Indian Construction. 31-37 ♦ Kishore Kaushal. 1995. “Concrete Mix Design Simplified. A Manual Published by M/S Roffe Construction Chemicals Pvt. 44-50. No.” VIII All India Builders Convention 29-31. April. Ltd. 19. July-September. 19-23. ♦ Kishore Kaushal. Mumbai. “Concrete Mix Design with Fly Ash & Superplasticizer. “High-Strength Concrete. pp. “Mix Design of Polymer-Modified Mortars and Concrete. January. 1991. “Concrete Mix Design for Road Bridges. Subscribe NBM&CW and Get free access to Tender Notices Sourced from 25 National Daily Newspapers and 250 government and Private Company's Website. 51.” INDIAN HIGHWAYS. 59. ♦ Kishore Kaushal. AprilJune. organized by Builders Association of India. 54-56 ♦ Kishore Kaushal.” CE & CR October.” Journal of Central Board of Irrigation and Power. pp. November. 1995. 56. pp. 213-260. January. 25-30. “Concrete Mix Design”. 1996. “High-Strength Concrete. pp. “Mix Design for Pumped Concrete. 29-31 ♦ Kishore Kaushal. 1990. 1-36 ♦ Kishore Kaushal. 81-92 ♦ Kishore Kaushal. pp. 1992. 1996.. 1991. “A Concrete Design.nbmcw. 57-61. March. “Concrete Mix Design with Fly Ash. January. 16-17 ♦ Kishore Kaushal.” Indian Architect and Builder. Hyderabad. August.2.” ICI Bulletin No. 29-30 ♦ Kishore Kaushal.” Indian Concrete Institute Bulletin No. ♦ Kishore Kaushal. Absolutely Free on our Website: www.

This may be levied as some percentage of the property tax. The following are some of the specific objectives in carrying out an economic evaluation: 1. A very large gap exists between the budgetary allocation of financial resources and actual requirements of funds for development and maintenance of infrastructure system in India. Chandigarh. et al. While traffic on highways has been growing at a rapid pace. Pardeep Kumar Gupta.) R.. ♦ The tax collected should be used exclusively for the development of urban road works only. To achieve goals within the required time frame.K. improving environment and creating wealth and prosperity. a bridge etc. dams. The adequacy of infrastructure will help in achieving the country’s success in expanding trade. Economic Evaluation: Economic analysis is a convenient procedure to select only those schemes that result in the greatest benefits from the resources available. M. (2000). has now been opened to private sector participation because of the huge requirements of funds which are beyond the reach of government. Since infrastructure is the most important element of any development strategy for accelerating the economic growth of a country. Civil Engineering Department. where investments are recouped through collection of toll charges. private financing of infrastructure has to be encouraged in a large way. The following innovative methodologies for mobolising the finance for urban roads on the basis of NHDP finance programme as a role model have been suggested by Hulji Pravin R. Student (Ex).ROB Development of Techno-economic Evaluation Methodology for Proposed BoT based Highway Railway-Over-Bridge Project A Case Study Prof. Punjab Engineering College. this infrastructure sector has been opened to private sector investment. is available for small sections like providing a by-pass. etc. generally. Dr. power stations. Former Professor & Head. The importance of a sound road network for the economic growth of any nation has been realized. Khitoliya. bridges. it has not been possible for the government to provide matching funds due to competing demand from other priority sectors. The experience. Introduction Infrastructure development including highways.(Dr. ♦ The bonds for urban road developments should have tax exemptions and other attractions as offered by infrastructure bonds offered by the leading financial institutions It is suggested that the State Government should establish a separate body to monitor the developmental aspects of the urban road projects of all the cities coming under their jurisdictions. Whether the plan under consideration is worth investment at all. reducing poverty. which was the sole monopoly of the government. Ambitious plans for phased development of National Highways and Expressways have been drawn up for India. Ashish Sharma. 218 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . Assistant Professor. The shrinking funds in the public sector have necessitated the need for attracting private funds. Toll based financing and commercialization of highways and bridges through BOT and BOOT formats have acquired significance.E.

ROB

2. To rank schemes competing for scarce resources in order of priority. 3. To compare mutually exclusive schemes and select the most economic. 4. To assist in phasing the program over a time period depending upon the availability of resources. Costs and Benefits of Highway Projects: The basic principle behind any method of economic evaluation is to measure the costs of the project, determine the benefits likely to accrue and compare the two. Cost: The costs can be considered broadly under the following categories: 1. Capital cost of initial construction, which includes the cost of land and ancillary costs. 2. Costs of delays to vehicles during the period of construction. 3. Maintenance costs. Benefits: Highway projects are intended to bring benefits to the road users by providing cheaper, more efficient, quicker and safer travel. An evaluation of benefits is, therefore, of prime concern in any economic analysis. Benefits usually represent the difference between the cost of operating on a new facility and the cost of operating on an existing facility. Thus, in order to determine the benefits, it is necessary to determine the cost of operation. Vehicle Operating Cost (VOC): Vehicle Operating Cost, i.e. the cost of operating the vehicle per unit length of a highway facility, is a significant factor affecting the Road User Cost. It is very important to evaluate the VOC accurately in order to assess the Road User Cost in the economic analysis of a highway facility. In the present study, only variable cost has been considered for the economic analysis. Variable cost amounts to nearly 95 per cent of the VOC. In variable cost also, the fuel component is the most predominant and amounts to more than 90% of the total variable cost.

An idea of relative proportions of the components of the variable cost for different vehicle types may be had from the following table. Market values of the various components as on March’ 2004 have been considered for estimating these values. The values given in Table-1 may be used for the computation of VOC for different categories of vehicles. Travel Time Cost: The value of travel time savings or the Travel Time Cost is also a very important component of the road user cost. Since travel time is quite precious, it is highly relevant in economic analysis of highway projects. Many highway plans result in time saving. For example, the replacement of rail-road level-crossing with an over bridge will result in free movement of the road traffic without getting hindered when the level-crossing gate is closed. This results in saving in time to the highway user. Widening of narrow single-lane roads to two lane, improvements in geometrics, etc. also result in time saving for the road users. For the purpose of economic analysis of highway projects, the value of travel time savings has to be quantified into monetary terms. Classes of Road Users Enjoying Travel Time Savings: Travel Time Savings are enjoyed by different classes of road users and can be broadly grouped under the following heads: 1. Passengers 2. Transport operators and owners 3. Freight consigners Passengers: Passengers using different modes of transport such as cars, two-wheelers, buses, etc. are benefited the most due to reduction in travel time. For example, any highway improvement scheme, which speeds up traffic, is likely to reduce the travel time of

occupants of cars, buses, twowheelers, etc. Transport Operators and Owners: Transport operators and owners (bus operators, truck operators, taxi operators) are direct beneficiaries of travel time savings with improved highway facilities. Bus and truck operators can run the vehicles at higher speeds resulting in a greater utilization of vehicles. The daily utilization of vehicles is directly related to the average speed of the vehicles in addition to other factors. The overall cost of operation would come down when vehicles operate on improved facilities. Freight consigners: In the movement of freight, travel time is of considerable importance. The goods to be transported may be perishable or non-perishable. In the case of perishable commodities, such as milk, fruits and vegetables, time is the essence of commerce. For freight consigners, speedier transportation means lesser inventory costs.

Economic Concept of Evaluation of Travel Time Savings
Willingness to Pay: There are two distinct concepts in the economic evaluation of travel time savings. The basis of the first approach is “willingness to pay” as a value of time. The assumption is that time spent in traveling has an opportunity cost. Willingness to pay for travel depends upon the individual and the situation. For example, an individual with a high income may

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be willing to pay for travel by air whereas a person with a lower income may prefer to travel the same distance by train. Thus, the air traveller attaches greater importance to savings in travel time than the rail traveller. An individual who attaches more importance to travel time with an assured seat and comfort would travel in a chartered bus than in public transport bus. Time as a Commodity: The second concept of value of time is that time has utility just as any other commodity and hence a cost. This concept lends itself admirably well for evaluation of time savings enjoyed by transport operators and freight consigners. The time saved in journeys can be put to fruitful use by a greater turn-round of the vehicle utilization. While time is undoubtedly an ‘economic commodity’ because people certainly place some cash value on their own time, but there is no market for time as such. Time and services are complementary economic commodities because these cannot be bought or sold separately. As such, their respective prices cannot be separately evaluated. Wage Rate Approach: In the present study, the wage rate concept has been used for monetary evaluation of passengers’ travel time. Wage Rate concept is the most common, and at the same time elementary and simplistic, approach for the purpose. In this concept, the average wage rate of the traveller is determined and it is treated as the value of individual’s time. Since the wage rates of different categories of passengers will be varying, it is necessary to categorize the passengers into distinct groups and determine the average wage rate for each of them. The following categories seem to be distinct: ♦ Two-wheeler passengers ♦ Car passengers

♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦

Bus passengers Bus drivers Bus conductors Truck drivers Truck cleaner/helpers

Railway Over Bridge Project at KuraliPunjab
A case study has been undertaken for studying the technical and economic aspects of a proposed BOT bridge project. A Railway Over Bridge (ROB) proposed to be implemented on BOT basis has been chosen for case study. The proposed ROB project is located on NH-21 (Ambala-Manali Highway) at Kurali in Ropar District of Punjab. A typical view of the level rail-road crossing of the present study is as shown in Fig-1. Scope of the Project: The project envisages construction and maintenance (up to the end of the concession period) of the facility from RD 23.500 to 27.504 as detailed below: 1. Railway Over Bridge (length 994 m) with Footpaths and Central Verge (width 13.50 m/ Preferable 17.50 m or more) at level crossing No. 32-B, at Kurali on Sirhind-Nangal Dam Section of Northern Railway, crossing Chandigarh-Ropar Road (NH-21) Km 26.428 including approach spans on stilts with pre-stressed

concrete girder super structure from RD 26.113 to 26.418 and 26.438 to 26.788 and solid fill approach from RD 25.970 to 26.113 and 26.788 to 26.964 as per design (Two intermediate lanes wide ROB instead of 4lane ROB has been proposed due to constraints of land width available at site). 2. Diversion/Service roads (length 4034 m) 3.25 m wide on both sides of road/proposed ROB for free flow of traffic from RD 23.500 to 27.534 including extra width available under cantilever portion and other places as per site. 3. Toll Plaza (length 420 m) with suitable additional lanes, traffic safety measures, drainage, etc. including flares from RD 26.964 to 27.084 and 27.234 to 27.384 for free flow of traffic. 4. Four laning from RD 23.500 to 25.970 and 27.384 to 27.504 (length 2590 m) having 7.5 m carriageway on both sides of 0.61 m wide median barrier, 0.5 m wide verge having steel railing separating service road from main carriageway, 1.0 m wide footpath at the edge of the service road as per linear plan. 5. Camber correction, longitudinal profile correction, and strengthening of existing road from RD 23.500 to 25.970 and 27.384 to 27.504 (length 3010 m). 6. Improvement of junction with Morinda-Siswan Road at RD

Figure 1: Traffic jam at railway crossing Kurali-Punjab-india

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ROB

25.400 and junctions with all other roads/streets off-taking from NH-21 from RD 23.500 to 27.504. 7. Providing street light arrangements @ 30 m c/c on both sides of Road/ROB including suitable arrangements at toll plaza and ROB complete as per site requirement (length 4004 m). 8. Under ground drainage on both sides including its disposal at a suitable place as per site requirement (length approx. 10000 m). 9. Re-construction of Culverts. 10. Retro-Reflective sign boards (cautionary / mandatory / informatory) overhead as well as along Road/ROB as per guidelines of IRC/MOST for smooth and efficient flow of traffic. 11. The scope of work shall include all investigations and surveys, design, improvement, maintenance of all items from Sr. No. 1 to 10, fulfillment of environmental requirements as per the guidelines of the concerned authorities, arrangements for collection of fee and for necessary free flow of traffic. Scope shall also include traffic management during construction as per GoI specification and guidelines on the subjects. 12. All other works connected with the work as well as maintenance of the facility for the concession period and collection of fee till the recovery of the Project cost and handing over the facility to the Government in proper condition. 13. All ancillary works or temporary works necessary to execute the above.

Other Important Details of the Project
Project Cost: The project cost includes the cost of construction, commissioning and maintenance

during concession period. It also includes the cost of the arrangements to be made for collection of fee, interest on expenditure to be incurred by the entrepreneur, the cost of renewal of wearing surface in the entire length of the project including approaches and of painting the bridge structure before the end of the concession period. The project cost also includes entrepreneur’s profit and interest thereon. The project cost worked out by the entrepreneur is Rs.4714.02 Lacs. Cost of Construction: The cost of construction of the project is Rs.188.1millions (1881 lacs) Location of the Project: The proposed ROB would be constructed at level crossing No. 32-B, at Kurali on Sirhind-Nangal Dam Section of Northern Railway, crossing Chandigarh-Ropar Road (NH-21) Km 26.428. Entrepreneur: The entrepreneur for the project is the joint venture group of two companies: M/s. Pearl Buildwell Infrastructures Ltd. (PBIL) and M/s. Tantia Construction Ltd., Delhi. Construction Program: The construction work is to be carried out in accordance with the MOSTRailway specifications as per standards specified in the Concession Agreement and as per the directions of MOST/GoP and the Railways. Rationale for the Proposed Project: The following are the

important details associated with the project 1. The entire vehicular traffic coming from Delhi-AmbalaChandigarh side and proceeding towards Ropar, Anandpur Sahib, Una and hill stations of Himachal Pradesh such as Kullu, Manali, Rohtang, Dharamshala, Kangra and viceversa passes through the existing railway crossing at Kurali. NH-21 has also got strategic significance as it provides an alternate route to Jammu and Kashmir via Leh. During tourist season, the traffic flow is still higher owing to tourist centres of Kullu, Manali, Dharamshala, etc. 2. The absence of ROB on this crossing results in delay, frequent traffic jams and wastage of fuel whenever the trains pass through the crossing. It is reported that the railway crossing is closed for road traffic about 28-30 times every 24 hours. There are 16 scheduled trains passing through the crossing besides shunting and special trains. The haphazard movement of vehicles after the opening of crossing also results in frequent accidents. 3. A large number of government as well as private buses ply on this road. With the growing automobile industry, the traffic is expected to increase further on this route. 4. During the season for apples/ potatoes (July-Nov/Aug-Oct), traffic intensity of trucks and LCVs between H.P. and Chandigarh/ Delhi increases. 5. There is no alternate route connecting Chandigarh and Ropar. Traffic Volume Characteristics: The following are the traffic characteristics on the said route 1. The traffic on NH-21 is quite heavy, as it is the shortest link between Chandigarh-Kiratpur and further to Anandpur Sahib, Una and to H.P. The intensity of traffic

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while planning highway projects and the same applies to the proposed project. Funeral Vans. 3.5 per cent p. 2. The construction of ROB is essential on this railway crossing as the existing railway crossing results in congestion and obstruction to the flow of traffic. has been derived using the following formula: A = P (1-r)n Eq. Ambulances. Fire Fighting Vehicles. 4. 3. Traffic Assessment: The projected traffic data for the proposed ROB project as shown in Table-2. When the same vehicle has to cross the bridge more than once in a day. Defence Vehicles.a. Exemption of Toll Charges: The following type of vehicles would be exempted from payment of toll tax: 1. 6. Police Vehicles. of PCUs per day for design P = No. the vehicle owner can have a monthly pass on the payment of charges equal to 30 single rates. Post and Telegraph Department Vehicles. Vehicles with VIP Symbols. Central and State Government Vehicles on Duty. which may be taken as 7.ROB increases during tourist season as also during the harvest season. Questionnaire Survey: In order to assess the public opinion regarding the provision of the ROB. and 8. The above categories of vehicles have been excluded from the assessment of traffic made by the government as well as in the sample survey conducted by the entrepreneur. 7.a. n =Number of years between last census and the year of consideration Toll Charges: The entrepreneur can charge toll fee as per the rates prescribed in the schedule to the Detailed Notice Inviting Tender (DNIT) are as shown in Table 3.5 per cent p. 2. the users have the option to pay one and half times the above rates while crossing the bridge in the first trip itself and if the vehicle has to use the bridge continuously and quite frequently for entire month or even beyond that for much longer period. of vehicles at the last count r =Actual rate of increase. a survey NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 223 .1 Where A = No. 5. The Ministry of Road Transport and Highways has projected a growth rate of traffic @ 7. .

994 km (equal to length of proposed ROB) Travel Time Cost For the computation of Travel Time Cost. willingness to pay toll tax for using the ROB. Other Oils iii./km) J = Cost of Spare Parts+ Maintenance+ Depreciation per km (Rs. but only 60 per cent expressed willingness to pay toll tax for using the ROB. has been computed taking into account all the abovementioned components. it was observed that 76 per cent of the road users agreed about the construction of the ROB at the railway crossing./km) K = Congestion Factor Length = 0. The factors considered for the assessment of Vehicle Travel Cost in the present case are: 1. From the survey. most of the road users agreed that they would be able to save time by using the ROB. as shown in Table-5. and 2. Maintenance Cost 6. Lubricants i. two main components are considered. Car. 76 per cent of the road users e x p r e s s e d dissatisfaction towards the present road condition. ./km) I = Total Cost of Tyres per km (Rs. When the traffic exceeds the design service volume. Congestion Factors have been taken into account for computation of VOC for each vehicle type. which are: 1. Time Value of Commodity in Transit Wage Rate concept is considered for the computation of Passenger Time Value. Vehicle Operating Cost (VOC). Toll rates can be fixed on the basis of the savings in Vehicle Travel Cost. To account for this. a stoppage of 15 minutes occurs every time the crossing is closed for the passage of train. A stretch of 0. Fuel (Petrol/Diesel) 2. Market values of the various components as on March’ 2004 have been considered. Truck and Multi-Axle Vehicle (MAV). The saving in the travel cost is then assessed for different modes of transportation. A sample of 50 vehicles was surveyed. Passenger Time Value. Travel Time Cost (TTC) V e h i c l e Operating Cost: The following components are considered for the computation of Vehicle Operating Cost: 1. Tyre 4. Most of the road users had faced traffic jam at the railway crossing. Depreciation The Vehicle Operating Cost for Two-Wheeler. Engine Oil ii. Vehicle Travel Cost: In the present case of the proposed ROB./ km) D = Cost of Lubricants per km (Rs. Vehicle Travel Cost (VTC) has been computed to assess the cost incurred by the vehicle owners while travelling along the existing route with the railway crossing and along the ROB without railway crossing. the vehicles are subjected to congestion effect resulting in higher VOC as compared to steady state conditions.994 km (equal to the length of proposed ROB) has been considered for estimating the VOC along the existing route as well as the proposed ROB. Grease 3.ROB was conducted at the site of the proposed ROB. VOC = (C+D+I+J) x Length x K Eq. Views of the road users were sought about the requirement of ROB at the railway crossing. The wage 224 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . and 2. The format of the Questionnaire Survey and the cumulative response is as shown in Table-4. On an average. Bus. traffic and road conditions at the site.2 VOC = Vehicle Operating Cost C = Cost of Fuel per km (Rs. Spare Parts 5. etc. However.

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5 × x (Truck) 100 Car = 1 × 100 = 14.94 Lacs 2434 rate values (for an 8 hour working day) assumed for the users of different vehicle types are as shown in the Table -7.11 Percent weightage for each vehicle type: x3 = 21. time value of commodity in transit has also been considered for the computation of TTC. .5 ×100 = 21. 4714. etc.3 Savings in VTC per trip = VTC per trip along existing road . . A value of Rs.a.7 × x (MAV) Eq.3% 7 Eq.02 = Rs. The calculated values of Travel Time Cost per trip along the existing road as well as the proposed ROB for each vehicle type are as given in Table-9 below.0.a. weight. .VTC per trip along proposed ROB Computation of Toll Fee The toll fee per trip for each category of vehicle can be evaluated either on the basis of savings in Vehicle Travel Cost or on the basis of willingness of the road users to pay the toll fee. . .10 Eq. Commodities in transit could be perishable or non-perishable. The total VTC per trip along the existing road as well as the proposed ROB for each vehicle type is as calculated below.17/min) is taken as the average value for time value of commodity in transit. A method has been devised for computation of toll fee per trip for each vehicle type based on the weightage given to some vehicle characteristics such as length. Cost of project per day = 4714. Weightage is awarded to all these parameters on a 10-point scale for each vehicle type.12 100 Putting these values in Eq.4 2 Bus = × 100 = 28.02 Lacs Concession Period = 8 years 8 months (including 2 years construction period) Therefore. 6.10/ hour (Rs. x2 = 28.7% 7 Eq.7 Total Cost of Project = Total Cost of Construction + Interest p.) + Maintenance Cost + Cost of management and overheads + Cost of renewal of road surface and special repairs at the end of the concession period + Profit of Entrepreneur = Rs. . The values adopted for occupancy of each vehicle type for estimation of Passenger Time Value are as in Table-8: In case of trucks and MAVs. . Therefore. The average values of vehicle parameters are as given in Table11 below. .6 MAV = 2. Now.5 226 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 .6 × x (Bus) 100 (Car) Eq. the period for which toll can be collected = 6 years 8 months (~2434 Days) Therefore. (@ 18% p. Truck = 1. The average occupancy values may be taken as in Table-8.6% 7 35. average occupancy.ROB in the VTC per trip along the proposed ROB have also been computed as shown in Table-10. The savings The toll fee per trip for each vehicle type may be assumed as: Car = x1 Bus = x2 Truck = x3 MAV = x4 The total revenue collected per day must be equal to per day cost of project so that the total estimated cost of the project is recovered in the stipulated concession period. saving in travel time.8 x4 = Eq. The weightage awarded to each vehicle characteristic on a 10-point scale are as in Table -12. 5335x1 + 2613x2 + 6269x3 + 65x4 = 1. the toll fee per trip for each vehicle type would be calculated by dividing x in proportion to the weightages awarded to each vehicle type.5% 7 Eq.5 × 100 = 35.94x105 Eq . width.1.9 Eq. VTC = VOC + TTC Eq.8 Let x = Total toll collected by single trip of each vehicle type. .

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17 228 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . in Rs.02 ×10 5 = 2213. Total toll collection period (in days) = 4714.581 (Car) x2 = 19. etc. Certain formulae have been devised to calculate the toll fees and other parameters like toll collection period.13x105 Total cost of project = Rs 4714. . Manual calculation of toll rates as worked out in the previous section requires a lot of time and effort and is also subject to inaccurate calculations due to human error. T = (5335x10) + (2613x20) + (6269x15) + (65x25) = Rs. ♦ Total toll collection period. ♦ Toll fee per trip for each vehicle type.405 (Truck) x4 = 23.15 Eq.162 (Bus) x3 = 14.ROB Eq. The calculated values are as given below: x1 = 9. It requires some information as input and calculates the toll fees for various categories of vehicles. 2.14 Eq. The total annual revenue (for year 2004) collected through toll fees is as below: in Table 6. user friendly and easy to use.33 (~67). months and days) = 6 years 24 days Hence. The system is very interactive. The Microsoft Excel Based Calculator. on the other hand. . . in Rs. Excel Based Calculator has been developed using the Microsoft Excel 2000 (Version 9. in PCU Car = 5335 × 365 ×10 = 19472750 Bus = 2613 × 365 × 20 = 19074900 Truck = 6269 × 365 × 15 = 34322775 The revised toll collection period for the toll fee values given Microsoft Excel Based Calculator for Computation of Toll Fee A small but very useful Microsoft Excel Based Calculator has been developed in the present work to facilitate fast and accurate computation of toll rates for any proposed highway bridge project.13 ×10 5 (~2214 days) Total toll collection period (in years. The values of toll fees per trip for different types of vehicles can be computed by putting the value of in equations 9 through 12. requires much less time and effort. . The Microsoft The system provides results as below: ♦ Total toll collection period. ♦ Total toll collected by single trip of each vehicle type. the value of works out to be 67. The toll fees may be as given in Table -14 below.16 Eq. and is very accurate. The input required by the system is as below: ♦ Total cost of project (including profit of Entrepreneur). in Rs.13 From the above equation. in days ♦ Cost of project per day.13 can be calculated as below: Total revenue collected per day. the total toll collection period could be reduced from the earlier decided period of 6 years 8 months to 6 years 24 days.16 2.919 (MAV) The above values may be rounded off to exact values for toll fees for the purpose of practicality of payment of toll fee. . in years/months ♦ Traffic data for various categories of vehicles.0.02x105 Therefore. thereby facilitating early transfer of the ROB to the ownership of government. in Rs.2720) utility. Formulae used in Microsoft Excel Based Calculator The formulae used in the Microsoft Excel Based Calculator for various calculations in the computation of toll fees have been listed as below: ♦ Total weightages awarded to different vehicle types Cell G3: Car = Sum(B3 : F 3) Cell G4: Bus = Sum(B 4 : F 4) Cell G5: Cell G6: Eq.

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30 Cell C52: Eq. ♦ 80% of the people surveyed agreed that there must be a bridge at the crossing. Govt. C.28 ♦ Toll fee per trip for each vehicle type (Rs. crossing Chandigarh-Ropar Road (NH-21) km 26.P. ♦ There is a need to develop a suitable techno-economic evaluation methodology that can be applied to large number of similar projects or to evaluate various alternatives within a specific project. .21 G3 ♦ Per cent weightage for each vehicle type Cell C10: Car = Cell C11: Bus = B10 × 100 B14 Eq. The Microsoft Excel Based Calculator helped in fast and accurate computation of toll fees.V. Only 24 per cent of the public surveyed preferred using an alternate route rather than using the ROB. Conclusions ♦ The techno-economic evaluation of a proposed BOT facility is essential for the assessment of technical as well as economic feasibility of the project. V. Design. . . . for truck Rs 14 and for multi-axle vehicle (MAV) as Rs 24. .24 B11 ×100 B14 Cell C12: Truck = Cell C13: B12 ×100 B14 MAV = B13 ×100 B14 Eq. 32-B.H. C10 Car = × G 47 100 Figure 2: Sample Sheet of Microsoft Excel Based Calculator 230 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . ♦ With assumed parameters and computation methodology the Rounded off toll collection amount for car comes out to be Rs 10. College.22 Eq. . A sample sheet of the Microsoft Excel Based Calculator for calculation of toll fees per trip for each vehicle type is as shown in Fig-2. .20 Sample Run of Microsoft Excel Based Calculator for ROB Project A sample run of the Microsoft Excel Based Calculator has been conducted for the present case study of proposed Railway Over Bridge at Kurali. Aurangabad. R.) Cell G47: E 31 B 45 Eq.19 Eq. 88 per cent people were of the opinion that they would be able to save time by using the ROB but only 60 per cent were ready to pay toll tax for using the facility.25 ♦ Total toll collection period (in Days) CellE29: (D21×12 + E 21) × 30.) Cell C50: Eq. Nakadi.D.Mulangi. .Karjinni and O.42 Eq. at Kurali on Sirhind-Nangal Dam Section of Northern Railway. . total toll collection period. The inputs as required by the system (total cost of project. ♦ The suitability of the study is limited to the extent that all projected users will be using the facility and that there is no alternative free route or less costly route available to the proposed users. . .32 100 Eq.26 ♦ Cost of project per day (Rs. . for bus Rs 19. .18 Eq.29 Cell C51: Bus = Eq.) Cell E31: G18 E 29 Eq. Construction and operation of Highways” Department of Civil Engg.23 Eq. .428.ROB ♦ Ratio of weightages for each vehicle type Cell H3: Cell H4: Bus = G4 G3 G5 G3 Cell C53: MAV = C13 × G 47 Eq.27 ♦ Total toll collected by single trip of each vehicle type (Rs. Engg. and traffic volume data) were entered and the results were obtained in the form of toll fee per trip for each vehicle type. The estimation of vehicle operating cost and saving in travel time due to provision of a new facility must be undertaken carefully so that the toll fees for each vehicle type and toll collection period can be fixed accordingly.Bhatia (2002): “Innovative methodologies for mobilization of finance for Road Projects” National seminar on Financing.31 Truck = C12 × G 47 100 C11 × G 47 100 References ♦ Concession Agreement for Construction of Road-over-Bridge at Level Crossing No.. . ♦ Hulji Pravin R. Cell H5: Truck = Cell H6: MAV = G6 Eq.

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In the 1960s. under occasional. Japan. Committee 215 of the American Concrete Institute published a report in 1974 that included an extensive list of references. or pedestrians. Generally.Flyovers Fatigue in Concrete Concerns Security & Stability of Flyovers Photo 1: Dr C. designed under static load criteria offer a much less resistance to many concentrated loads than. Reports of fatigue failures in these primary elements are. be attributed to fatigue where repeated shear and torsional forces are applied. conventionally termed as “fatigue. Basically. This Paper deals with important parameters of fatigue. in part. pinpointing some of inadequacies and probable rehabilitation measures. in congested urban areas when display cracks in riding surface. it is recognized as a cracking developed under repetitive loads that are less than the static load capacity. Fatigue & Material Properties Unlike other materials. loading and Codal provisions illustration of a bridge and or flyover affected by fatigue are suitably dealt with. research has shown that the static load criteria under which most existing concrete structures have been designed have virtually precluded the possibility of fatigue failure in the primary load-carrying elements of the main members. witness falling of chunks of concrete the phenomena creates panic in users. Flim = fatigue limit in MPa Introduction In flyovers. most existing concrete structures.S. Busy flyovers. concrete is subjected to the effects of fatigue. Many countries have recognized the importance of this effect and included design provisions for fatigue in their codes. Concern about fatigue in concrete. In flyovers and allied structures when loading. for a very large number of cycles. Former Chief Engineer & Joint Secretary (P. permanent internal structural (micro-cracking) change in a material subjected to a fluctuating stresses/ strains. Fatigue and failure of concrete is a rare phenomenon. concrete undergoes stress concentration. concrete undergoes phenomena of fatigue. Fatigue is also regarded and experienced as a cause of cracking and failure in concrete pavements. is on increase in important concrete structures such as flyovers.D) Senior Consultant Mumbai. More recent work has been directed to specialized 232 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . to repeated fixed point loads. A study of such phenomena in concrete in a bridge in arid zone and flyover.” Substantial research and laboratory studies indicate. It is not a usual mode of failure of concrete structures. nonexistent. on available data is illustrated here. a recent laboratory study in Japan has indicated that the fatigue resistance of bridge deck slabs to moving concentrated loads is much less than to repeated fixedpoint loads. in the form of repeated cycles.W.Suryawanshi. even if the maximum stress is less than the static strength of a similar specimen. exhibits excessive cracking and may eventually lead to failure after a sufficient number of load repetitions. Notations – fc = compressive strength of concrete in MPa. occurs for a large number. This suggests that the progressive failure of slabs may. Fortunately. Such members under– go a process of progressive. in coastal region constructed in recent past. over loadings where full design load gets repeated. Also. Fatigue in a structural member occurs when permanent internal changes in the material viz internal micro cracking gets symptomized on surface initially in the form of visible cracks and later concrete turns brittle leading to failure of concrete. apparently. Research on fatigue dates back to early 1900s. Most of it dealt with fatigue of plain concrete. and the United States. strength of component materials under cyclic. very extensive programmes on the fatigue of reinforcing elements were carried out in Europe.

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On condition that adequate moisture is present.80 Micro-cracking is stable fcu. hence the bend of the curve. The release of the load will be as shown in Fig.55fcu. with a hysteresis loop and a residual deflection. highamplitude fatigue loading. the energy represented by the area of the loop being dissipated into heat.8 fcu – 1. Final rupture Figure 2: Typical stress strain curves for is similar to rupture caused by repeated loadings in compression a load monotonically increased stress which it can support. The approximate proportion 0. Figure-1 shows the typical stress-strain curve of a test piece under compressive stress increased monotonically to rupture. The curve may be designated with following zones. as by material elsewhere under a steady load. strain or again where the load is Zone C: unstable Under macroresponsive to strain. mechanical properties of structural materials under dynamic loading. with extend and lead to rupture with present knowledge. 4-2. These macro-cracks easily accounted for and. is not to be either the repetition or the maintenance of the load. cracks will seal up as in zones A and B. strain (an extensible test rig) or dynamic (an impact)-as soon as the concrete reaches the maximum Photo 2: 234 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . usually considered in the range of 1001000 cycles. Strains increase with repetition of load. A distinction is made between high-cycle. Phenomena of Fatigue In general. it is interesting to recall basis of stress-strain relation. The proceedings of a colloquium held in 1982 by the International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering contain a substantial number of current and relevant papers. micro-cracks get of stress with very large strains formed as the load increases. This behavior is not macro-cracks. Zone D: post-rupture stress with a load possessing sufficient energy-potential (piled-up weights). strains. Zone B: unstable micro cracking. it is not cracking : stress 0. The distinction depends on whether the repeated loading causes a failure at less than or more than an arbitrary number of cycles. however. under a single application of load but increases with repeated applications until the micro-cracks link together to form macro-cracks which in turn progress in extent until rupture ensues. The propagation of micro cracks under loads within this range is stable and the concrete can support an Figure 1: Typical stress-strain curve for unlimited number of concrete in compression applications of such loads.Flyovers applications. stress 0. the strain is after the release of the load or controlled. cracks both in a hyperstatic structure or by a micro and macro will tend to seal testing machine applying a constant up by the reestablishment of rate of strain. Behavior of Concrete Under Loads In a simple explanation for fatigue. it and is accompanied by large collapses. Successive load cycles tend to a stable residual deflection with a hysteresis loop. it is not brittle. get improved with increasing rate of load application. A fatigue loading is a sequence of load repetitions. known as microcracking. the crystalline bonds will be reestablished when the load is released or maintained steadily. or where the load is crystalline bonds accompanied by more properly seen as an imposed some increase in strength. The material is disaggregated and its apparent volume increases.55 fcu – 0. Where. After the release of the load (but not under steady load). stress 0+0. As in zone A. The rupture is mostly by sliding between un-hydrated cement particles and is accompanied by reduction in volume.0 fcu – unknown for the concrete to Under a single application of load continue to support a reducing value in this zone. as much as three or four times the which then link together to form strain at fcu. low amplitude and low cycle. Zone A: stable micro-cracking.55 is not sensitive to the value of fcu Strain is partly elastic and partly caused by non-reversible rupture of crystalline bonds. In respect of concrete's dynamic ultimate strength in compression may be much greater than the static strength.

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Under steady. The cracking load is small and well defined. Repeated loading causes increased deflection and crack widths. resulting in a larger departure from linearity in the behavior of the beam. The non-linearity of the concrete behavior causes the neutral axis to rise. its ability to support large compressive strains is greatly increased. The cracking point is little lower than the rupture load. the steel strains are large and the neutral axis rises rapidly to near the upper surface and the full strength of the steel cannot be utilized. The difference is that. Since the steel has been given an initial extension. Deflections are large. Release of the ‘load leaves an appreciable residual deflection. but it will be assumed that such proportions have been avoided. Photo 3: relied upon but its existence in special circumstances is well accredited. the zone of unstable microcracking. Sufficient repetition of load in the upper half of this zone will cause cracking. deflection curve of a prestressed concrete If the compressive flange is beam A Cracking Load B Rupture Load transversely reinforced with closed stirrups or links. behavior is similar to that of reinforced concrete. but the beam is probably able to support large number of repetitions.energy load is perhaps as good a summary of what we know as any. the behavior of the beam will differ profoundly according to the value chosen for this initial tension. The importance of this zone lies in the large area beneath the deflection curve and. There then exists an extra variable at the control of the designer . Brittle failures similar to those in reinforced concrete can occur with extreme proportions of steel.Flyovers reinforced concrete ideal for highenergy loads (earthquake. however. Release of the load leaves a large residual deflection. in the large energy at rupture. At one extreme. the repetition or maintenance of the load will lead to collapse. in consequence. Figure -3 shows the range of behavior. In respect of reinforced concrete members the behavior of concrete is similar upto zone A.The ability of the beam to support large deflections but with decreasing load is primarily caused by the large non-elastic strain of the steel prior to rupture but the Figure 3: Effect of initial steel tension on loadconcrete makes a contribution. With intermediate values of initial tension in the steel (that shown represents a typical design according to current practice whereby the tension in the steel after relaxation is approximately 0. Zone C: non-elastic behavior of tile cracked section terminating in rupture The stress in the steel exceeds the elastic limit and the stress in the concrete enters zone C.The steel behaves elastically and the concrete is generally within zone A of material behavior (stable micro-cracking) but overlapping into zone B (unstable micro-cracking) at the upper end. explosion) of rare occurrence. This renders 236 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . At the other extreme. less strain is needed for it to reach its ultimate tensile strength but here the steel is at its maximum. Pre-stressed Concrete Given a concrete section and a cross-sectional area of high-tensile steel at a defined location in the section. energy of which a small fraction only is resilient but nearly all of which Figure 4: Typical load-deflection curve of a prestressed concrete beam is dissipated. the ultimate strength of a pre-stressed concrete beam has been determined subject only to such variations as are described below.the initial tension in the steel. where the steel has not been tensioned.6 fcu the cracking load will be much lower. Zone D: Post-rupture load behavior . the steel is stressed to near its elastic limit. thereafter it worth noticing. since the steel is of high tensile strength. long-maintained loads but less good under repeated and high. the ultimate load slightly lower than that with maximum initial tension. Zone B: quasi-elastic behavior of the cracked section .

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238 .

239 .

240 .

In zone C. on an indefinite number of times without causing structural damage. In zone B. and N is the number or cycles to failure. when no range is specified. If f is EL for completely reversed stresses ‘s’ the steady unit stress and fs the ultimate tensile stress. the fracture looks brittle. so too is the fatigue limit-indeed. stresses vary between limits fixed by the designer as being capable of being supported indefinitely. followed by a short period of more rapid growth leading to fracture. Although the concrete is ductile. During most of this stage. the EL is intended for a cycle in which the stress is varied between tension and compression stresses of equal value. In designing for fatigue. especially since this redistribution is reversible and residual deflections on release of the load remain small. micro-cracking occurs in the concrete or cracking is growing in a steel element. the cracking load is a high proportion of the static rupture load. where S is plotted linearly as a dependent variable and life is plotted as an independent variable on a log scale. than alternating stress = fs = f (1 – sn) fu Where ‘n’ lies between 1 – 2 depending upon mechanical properties of material.Flyovers What is the significance of these differences of behavior? Note first the significance of the cracking load in pre-stressed concrete. Fatigue life is considered to occur in three stages: initiation of cracking. which is the maximum unit stress that can be repeated. deflection at rupture is small as is the energy to cause rupture. behavior tends towards the brittle. the cracking grows slowly. residual deflections on release of the load are larger but still much smaller than those in curve II. there is little difference in the value of the force in the steel. In the propagation stage. thus increasing the moment arm. The inflection in the curve of deflection is of value in redistributing the load in redundant structures. propagation of cracking. Generally. Dissipated energy is significant but a large part of the energy absorbed is restored resiliently until rupture is near. until loads appreciably exceed the cracking load. diagrams). Fatigue Strength of Component Materials When the phenomena of fatigue alone. or (Wohler. residual deflections on release of the load are larger but still small. In concrete. a steady or mean stress and an NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 241 . Fig-4. Where S is a characteristic stress of the loading cycle. is critically examined it will indicate . Endurance Limit (EL) Concrete. the mean of the data can often be represented by a straight regression line. Fatigue’ data on concrete or reinforcing steels have commonly been shown in semi-log plots. residual deflections on release of the load are small: as we have seen repetition of the load in this zone will not produce failure. From the foregoing fatigue can be simply defined as The weakness or breakdown of material subjected to stress especially a repeated series of stresses Fatigue Limit – Tensile Strength of Material Fatigue Ratio or endurance ratio Fatigue limit = ———————————— Tensile strength of material alternating stress.Test data on the fatigue strength of concrete or reinforcing steels are usually presented in the form of S-N. In curve I (maximum initial tension in steel). The beam in this zone can support steady loads indefinitely but repeated loads can cause failure. The area under the curve after loading is large but this energy is not dissipated but for the most part stored resiliently and the beam is still quasi-elastic. has a well defined yield point and has a known endurance limit. a crack forms at a point of high stress concentration. sometime is defined as the maximum value of alternating stress that can be superimposed on the steady stress on indefinitely large number of times without causing fracture. through a definite range. on repletion of stress the crack slowly spreads under. For a different range if ‘f’ is EL. On the other hand. and fracture. As a result. Steady loads in this zone will cause failure as will repeat loads. (often either the stress range or a function of the maximum and minimum stress). This is the extreme of resistance to repeated loads. there is no danger of failure under repeated loads. In zone A. ‘fy’ the yield point and ‘r’ ratio of minimum stress to the maximum than fmax = 2f —————————— (1 – r) + (f / fy) (1 + r) The range of stress may be resolved in two components. the member raptures without measurable yielding. The EL. From zero load to cracking load. the increased bending moment being supported by a displacement of the centre’ of thrust in the concrete. it is doubtful whether any known structural material can withstand indefinite repetitions of so large a proportion of its static rupture load. recognition must be given to the variability that is inherent in the Premature Failure Syndrome (PFS) Under continuous repetitions of loading. In this form.

the frequency is 5Hz 242 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . With this assumption. The mean regression line of a set or fatigue test data is shown in Fig. a between fmax fmin and log N. Confidence intervals are also commonly shown on fatigue test data. s. instead begins to increase at a Cyclic Compression stress level as low as approximately 50% of the compressive strength. Nr. varying from the same which the volume began to minimum to different maximum. For the data shown in Fig-5. p at the lower dashed line is 5%. increase was related to a may generally be presented by a noticeable increase in microstraight line. concrete in compression based Under cyclic compressive on linearity of the relationship loading of concrete specimens. after which the strain increases at an increasing rate until failure occurs. The increase in strain between 10 and about 80% is slow and uniform. maximum strain in the first cycle. for example. More important to the a review of available data. particularly with fatigue data on steel. These changes are related to the growth of the microin which a value of β based on cracking. there is no apparent Repetitive loading appeared to have endurance limit below which the a significant effect on the growth of concrete will sustain an unlimited micro-cracking. Fatigue data on concrete have been represented in this manner. as illustrated in Fig-5. to utilize a lower tolerance limit on the data. However. This dashed line is located 1. f. it is never known if the SN curve of the population actually lies within the confidence interval. 95% of the test results are expected to exceed. Furthermore. as illustrated by fatigue of concrete in compression the data obtained by Holmen and has been included in the Tentative shown in Fig . for example at the 95% level. it appears that the strain consists of two components.Flyovers phenomenon. The assumption of a normal distribution of the fatigue lives about the mean is usually acceptable. These intervals. permanent changes than 107 cycles. although it fatigue of plain concrete may be should be noted that very little data considered to be a process of are available for loading greater progressive. each under a in micro-cracking of the aggregate constant amplitude loading with the paste interface. Fatigue The initial deviation from linearity of Numerous investigators have found the relationship between stress and that the fatigue life of a common decrease in volume is noticed to group of concrete specimens tested be related to a significant increase in compression. while the stress at stress. of the data below the mean. the lower tolerance limit. It is more common and more useful for design. it is Figure 5: Variability in fatigue life of concrete in composition observed that the volume of the Expressions for estimating the strain concrete ceases to decrease. at a 95% confidence level. and have been developed. deformation that occurs during In design equation for the repeated loading. This confidence level is dependent on the number of test results in the sample. This limit is about twice the standard error of estimate or N below the mean.064 was given. recommendations for the limit state A rapid increase in strain design of concrete structures by the occurs between and about 10% of the total life. one related to the microcracking and the other which is time development and related Figure 6: Variation in measured strain: ∈0 is the to creep deformation. Plain Concrete When concrete is subjected to increasing compressive load. indicate the range in which 95% of the means or the population represented by the’ data are expected to be included.96 times the standard deviation. cracking through the matrix. it may be stated that the probability of failure.6. the number of repetitions. A tolerance limit associates a confidence level with a probability of survival. As a result. can be number of investigators have expressed: observed a decrease in the 1 – (fmax f’c measured value of pulse velocity log N = ——————— and an increase in acoustic β(1-(fmin/fmax)) emissions.5. equal to designer is the increase in 0. Further more. occurring within the concrete matrix An expression for the fatigue of under repetitive loading.

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9 kf’c – fmin) (1-log N) 15 Where k is the coefficient taken equal to 0. Halsbos.. D. along with a cross-section through the beam showing the location of the six 7/16 in (11 mm) diameter seven-wire 270 000 psi (1860 MPa) grade strand. ASCE. 1970) 890 psi (6. These beams may not exhibit significant distress before failure occurs. increasing the fatigue strength at 107 cycles. Nfi equals the number of cycles that will cause failure at that stress level i. C. 244 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . In tests conducted on beams with nonpre-stressed reinforcement. log N = 1. A. In laboratory tests on concrete specimens subjected to varying flexural stresses.5 MPa) or 7. the beam was subjected to 2 million cycles of a normal design loading with induced moments in the center of the span ranging between 19 Figure 7: Deflection of a prestressed beam under and 45% of the flexural capacity static and cyclic loading (Reproduced from of the specimens. M. However..000 cycles of this increased above design loading before the test was stopped because of extensive fatigue damage. Next. loading. curing conditions. fatigue failure occurred is shown in Fig. fibers of the beam ranged between J. L.169 + 5.Flyovers Japan society of Civil Engineers. the stress in the bottom ‘Fatigue tests of prestressed concrete I-beams’. splitting or flexural tension is about the same as for compression. The beam sustained 570.227 – 0. Cyclic Tension A number of investigations have shown that the fatigue strength of concrete under loadings producing axial. In practice. computed on the basic of an un-cracked section. as directly given by the previous expressions for fatigue strength. Fatigue failures of these beams occur suddenly. Four of these fractures were at locations other than at the major cracks.14MPa) compression and 440 psi (3. At the maximum load. water/cement ratio. there is general agreement that these factors affect fatigue strength in a proportionate manner to the static strength of the concrete. Div.0 MPa) tension. which was sufficient to fully develop flexural cracking and also cause significant inclined cracking in both shear spans. This equation was reported to have been based on the fatigue life to a probability of failure of about 5%. fatigue fractures of reinforcing bars were induced in bridges in the AASHTO road test during special testing after the completion of the vehicular traffic tests. expressed as fmax/fc by about 10%. the fatigue strength of mortar is also comparable to concrete when expressed as a function of compressive strength.85 to consider the difference in concrete strength measured using standard cylinders and the in-place strength.65 “f’c MPa. the pre-stressing strand was exposed and a total of 21 wire fractures were found in the three lower level strands. This beam was subjected to an initial loading of approximately 80% of the ultimate flexural capacity of the specimen. J.7. because of the high bond between the steel and concrete. unless there is sufficient redundancy in the overall structural system to permit redistribution of the loading.031R R Cyclic Flexural Fatigue Effect of Material Properties Numerous investigator have studied the effect of such factors as cement content.8 “f’c psi (0. rest periods were beneficial. 96 pp 2443-2464. age at loading. with little Sign of distress. No damage was observed. Commonly used Miner’s hypothesis to determine the accumulation of fatigue damage under varying stresses can be expressed as: k Σ Ni = 1 Nfi Where Ni equals the number of constant amplitude cycles at stress level i. and equals the number of stress levels. Multiple reinforcing elements have generally been used in the tests on beams containing pre-stressed steel. amount of entrained air and type of aggregate. As on the load-deflection of inclined cracking will. Under this Hanson. torsion and bond distress in the form of the development are in many a cases quite closely of a very wide crack and increasing related. the development deflections. Cyclic Shear Torsion and Fatigue failure of these beams have Bond Fatigue occurred only after significant signs of The effect of shear. The tensile stress was approximately equal to 5.2 “f’c psi (0. a single reinforcing element has commonly been used. Vol. Very few tests have been conducted on beams with multiple nonpre-stressed reinforcing elements. The range of the cyclic loading was subsequently increased to between 19 and 50% of the flexural capacity. Except for the latter factor. in the absence curve for a pre-tensioned pre-stressed of adequate shear reinforcement lead concrete I-beam in which a flexural to increased stress in the flexural steel.000 cycles of the above design loading. and Vanhorn. Cyclic loading from compression to tension has been reported to cause more damage than zero-to-tension loadings. The first indication of increased deflection corresponding to fatigue damage was evident at 455. the nominal tensile stress in the bottom fibers was 660 psi (4.44 “f’c MPa). Struct. For example. structural concrete members are normally subjected to randomly varying loads with periods of rest. as follows: fmax – fmin = (0. Compressive strength of the concrete was 7120 psi (49 MPa) at the time of test. Furthermore. After the test was conducted. Low amplitude cyclic loading interspersed in higher amplitude loading also has a beneficial effect.

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This check is made by computing minimum and maximum stress levels under the anticipated cyclic loading at any potentially critical location and comparing the stress variation to the fatigue strength of the material. The shear fatigue strength of these members may be estimated by reducing portion of the contribution which is dependent on the tension in the concrete to one-half of the usual value. iii) Indian Roads Congress Special Publication 37 Provision about rating of bridges are outlined along with procedure to be adopted in evaluating the strength of existing bridges. of course. The number of cycles will be related to the tensile fatigue strength of the concrete. these procedures become quite complicated for prestressed beams subjected to cyclic loading that induces cracking. failures occurred due to fatigue of the concrete rather than the steel. Vrd is the applied design variable shear force. This. The examination of fatigue limit state for reinforced concrete columns may generally be omitted. and that the torsional stiffness is reduced. Vpd is the applied design permanent shear force.5 Vcd)S σwrk = Awd(sin α+ cos α)(Vrd/Vmd) σwrp = σwrk (Vpd/Vrd) Where Vmd is the design maximum shear force. In torsion. ii) Indian Roads Congress Publication 21 A standard specification and code of practice for Road bridge Section-III deals with along aspects does not contain any provision for evaluation of fatigue.15 (Vmd – 0. Designers should recognise that inclined cracking will occur at lower stress under cyclic loading than under static loading. Unintended or unrecognized structural interactions may induce torsion in slabs and beams. the question will be whether or not the concrete member is on the threshold of fatigue distress. Aids have been developed for the analysis of these members. is generally regarded as the limit state in a beam without web reinforcement. For design. but contain provision. Miner’s hypothesis. Two areas are of particular importance for bond fatigue . where the resistance is dependent on the tensile strength of the concrete. some method of accumulating the effect of the different load levels must be included. the bond strength for 1 million cycles will be about 60% of the static strength. A recent investigation confirmed that the fatigue properties of plain and prestressed concrete under torsion were about the same as those of concrete under compression or flexure. Hence it will be mainly important to project the numbers of cycles of maximum repeated loading which the member may conceivably resist during its design life. as in shear. It has been observed that the shear fatigue strength of non-prestressed beams without web reinforcement was approximately 60% of their static shear strength. d is the effective depth and α is the angle between shear reinforcement and the longitudinal axis of the member. a check of a member for fatigue can become quite complicated when. Fatigue limit states for reinforced concrete slabs may generally be examined only for tensile reinforcement. Under cyclic loading the torsion may cause cracking that will subsequently contribute to the deterioration of the member. On the other hand slip of reinforcement in an adequately reinforced member may induce a shear failure particularly in prestressed beams. Aw is the area of shear reinforcement within a distance s.Flyovers which may affect the bond strength. Codal Provisions a) Indian Standards i) Plain and Reinforced concrete code of practice IS-456. Most building codes governing the design of concrete structures subjected to in shear reinforcement can be calculated as follows: 1. load patterns are required to obtain maximum or minimum stress levels at a selected location. While simple in concept. the shear fatigue strength should probably not be taken greater than one-half of the static design shear strength. leads to the conclusion that in the absence of cracks in the anchorage zone. is frequently used for both the concrete and steel components of the member. in many cases. Bond Research review on bond fatigue. Fatigue is a serviceability condition that must be checked in the design process if the member is subjected to cyclic loading. If there is variability in the cyclic loading. different Torsion Information on the torsional fatigue resistance of concrete members is limited. Indian Standards – 246 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . These members are often referred to as partially pre-stressed.railroad ties and pre-stressed beams with ‘blanketed’ strands. These torsional forces may be surprisingly large in uncracked members. A satisfactory estimate of the stress levels in both the steel and the concrete can usually be made using the ordinary principles of flexural mechanics. Fractures of stirrup reinforcement have been reported in fatigue tests on both nonprestressed and prestressed beams. for example. Pre-stressing contributes to the shear strength of a beam without web reinforcement by imposing a compressive stress in regions where inclined cracks may originate. However. However. Provision of exposure conditions for concretes from durability point of view. When cracking occurs. it was found that the primary stresses are redistributed to the bars after cracking. However. Fatigue limit states for reinforced concrete beams may generally be examined only for longitudinal tensile reinforcement and shear reinforcement. A number of investigations of the shear fatigue behavior of both nonprestressed and pre-stressed beams have been reported. Design Parameters and Codal Provisions Structural concrete members are normally proportioned to carry factored service loads. the bond fatigue strength will be strongly dependent on shear effects. Vcd is the design ultimate shear force resisted by concrete. Non-prestressed beams without web reinforcement will therefore have lower shear fatigue strength than prestressed beams. as expressed in Eqn-2-5.

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6. Note: This paper is being published in two parts. taking into account the dynamic effects.4 b) Foreign Codes European Codes Several European countries have codes containing fatigue design provisions. a thin overlay is required to be designed by in-elastic method. frep/Yfat = Vfcm/1. it is necessary to check the cumulative effect of the repetitions at different stress levels. however.7 Bars of small diameter are to be preferred The spacing between bars should not exceed 10Ø for the longitudinal reinforcement 5Ø for the transverse reinforcement In general. The random nature of the load repetitions is not taken into consideration. 248 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . Only in special cases.2 for pre-stressing tendons.2 prescribes ultimate limit state to be used for evaluation. fsk may be reduced by the following coefficients: Curvature: (1-1. Such empirical design is covered in Section 7.2 presents serviceability limit states where in it requires (Cl. the following values can be adopted for fcm (σmin= 0) Smooth bars 250 MPa Prestressing tendons (without bond due to deformed shape) 200 MPa Prestressing tendons (with bond due to deformed shape) 150 MPa High bonds bars 150 MPa In the absence of test results. if the thin RCC overlay provided is seen to be inadequate to give protection to the existing deck slab.2. preferably on the basis of test results. 0. 2.2. From the satisfactory performance of these repaired and rehabilitated deck slabs one may infer that in such rehabilitation job. This.4 Butt welding: 0.6.7 fyk (or f0. the following lower limits are accepted (σmin = 0) for fcm2 0. corresponding either to a ómin quasi-permanent action or to a frequent action repeated 2-10th times at its minimum value. as the case may be. In order to minimize over stressing of the box girders under global action. need to be confirmed by checking. Fatigue Strength of the Steel Reinforcement For the steel the characteristic strength is the 10% fractile and for the anchorage devices the 50% fractile.15 For concrete.5) and limits the concrete to follow law of elasticity as long as the stress in concrete does not exceed 1/3 of its characteristic strength. Amongst various requirements includes elastic deformation and creep of concrete (6. states limit states and at cl. the losses of prestress etc.6 for the stresses in the concrete and for bond stresses in high bond bars. The condition to be checked is frep/dfar Δ6 = 6 max –5 min < f rep denoting the strength under repeated load effects. Special Considerations The task is to take into account all the stress concentrations which are liable to affect fatigue behavior but which are beyond the usual objectives of stress checks.25 and applied to the mean value i. 2. the effects of creep. According to the notes (which accompany Appendix f).2k) for reinforcing steel σmin = 0. CEB-FIP Model Code For Concrete Structures 1978 General Fatigue failure of a material is failure due to frequent repetition of stresses lower than its strength under static loading.e. end anchorages etc. Recommends serviceability limit state for evaluation of fatigue.5Ør).4 for the bond stresses in smooth found bars.4 of Ontario Highway Bridge Design Code. using the Palmgren-Miner rule for example. Concern for superstructure vibration in the form of deflection limit. It should be noted however that the cracking moment can be reduced as a result of fatigue in tension of the concrete.Part Ist is published in August issue and Part IInd will be published in the September'10 issue. the following numerical values are introduced: For steel. deducted from tests in which σmax is repeated 2-10th times and where: σmax = 0. The reduction of the fatigue strength owing to curvature. speaking those designs are beyond the limitations imposed in the Ontario Code. and for the anchorage devices Yfat is taken equal to 1.2. welding. All these overlay designs though taken up referring to Ontario Code. but outside the boundaries or the limits indicated in the code can also perform. should be taken into account in the calculations. the performance of the similar strengthening carried out earlier. related to the expected life term of the structure.25 In the absence of test results or practical experience.85 f0. The stresses that are comparable with the fatigue strength should be determined by means of elastic methods.25 or fsm/1. In the absence of test results. Yfat is applied to the characteristic value and is taken at 1. 14.3 & 6.Flyovers Code of Practice – Plain and Reinforced Concrete is 456:2000 contains design requirements of R C Members. These stresses are defined as follows: σmax corresponding to a frequent action repeated 2-10th times at its maximum value. The following provisions are included in Appendix f of the 1978 CEB-FIP Model code for concrete structures.2). In the unlikely event.e. Deals with various aspects of design. Normally.6. thus a stringent and comprehensive requirement to elaborate fatigue. the provisions represent a simplified approach of practical character which is appropriate for most conventional structures. Continuous scam welding: 0. frep/dfat = fα/1.15 i. where r denotes the radius of curvature Spot welding: 0. Ontario Highway Bridge Design Code This is a code of practice for Design of Highway Bridges. with appropriate limitations and a defined load spectrum. checking tendons for fatigue in fully pre-stressed elements is not necessary. design following methodology of Ontario Code.At cl. Fatigue Strength of the Concrete The fatigue strength is defined as the 50% fractile deducted from test results. mechanical connections. additional steel girders can be placed below the deck.

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He further said that technology has changed the need of the consumer. Construction industry is expected to grow at a rate of 26% annually. Shri Ashish Wig. Principal Architect and Visiting Faculty. emphasised that by providing substantial employment and growth impetus through backward and forward linkages. Technology should not be governed by the advancement in knowledge but it should be identified as a means to satisfy the needs of the consumer. Infrastructure Committee. as `1 invested in this sector gives an increase of `0. Welcoming the participants. School of Planning & Architecture. The objective behind organising this Seminar is to give exposure to the domestic construction industry about some of the latest technologies so that it can lead to greater labor productivity and help in reducing A time and cost overruns which plague the sector.Event Report Seminar on New Technologies for Construction Industry Industry seminar on ‘New Technologies for Construction Industry’ was recently organised by PHD Chamber at PHD House. The poor state of technology adopted by the construction sector adversely affects its performance and upgradation of technology is required both in the manufacturing of construction materials and in construction activities. Addressing the participants. Suresh Goyal in his address. the construction industry also contributes immensely to the socio-economic development of the nation and healthy growth of the economy. PHD Chamber in his opening remarks mentioned that investment in infrastructure development is crucial for India’s sustained economic growth. Dr. the cost conscious user currently needs a product with longer life. and Shri Anuj Mehta. Director General. DG MAP. VSM. in his welcome address said that construction industry is the second largest employer in the country after agriculture and provides employment to about 40 million people. Dr. He also mentioned that in today’s world. will not be able to achieve high economic growth without development of adequate and efficient physical infrastructure and hence construction industry plays a vital role in this regard and has to gear itself to meet the challenges. Shri R P Indoria. He also mentioned that our economy which is expected to grow at a rate of more than 9-10% per annum in the coming years. Sunil Bose. The inaugural session of the seminar was addressed by Maj Gen B B Sharma. Infrastructure Committee. Shri Ashok Kajaria. apart from being cost-effective. He also emphasised that MNCs that have set up bases in India should also work on skill development. There is an urgent need to encourage mechanisation to build up the sector’s capacity to deliver the critical infrastructure needed for economic development. President. Head Flexible Pavement Division. products and technologies being used by the construction industry need to take into consideration the global environmental concerns and should also be energy-efficient. There is an urgent need to utilise world-class technologies in the Indian construction sector which also suit Indian conditions. New Delhi. PHD Chamber. Maj Gen B B Sharma said that investment in construction sector has increased from 5. Indian Roads Congress. PHD Chamber. Central Road Research Institute. Chairman. The biggest challenge in construction is to integrate amongst the different disciplines and the computer is the biggest tool to 250 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . Considerable strengthening of the domestic construction industry is needed urgently and it is necessary to identify the major issues affecting the efficiency of the sector and take corrective action.80 in GDP. Secretary General.4% to 11% of GDP from the year 1970-71 to present. Co-chairman. New Delhi.

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Around 95 participants attended the seminar. Sunil Bose. In the Technical Session that followed the Inaugural Session. (Group Company of Manitowoc Cranes India). Macmillan Insulations India Pvt Ltd. The company not just offers wide range of self erecting. Demonstrating its product Company’s Country Head Arun Bishnoi. Dr. He said world class infrastructure is being created in India but it does not suit the Indian culture and climate. Texsa India Ltd. Indian Road Congress. explained that it is an all terrain. share and add to their knowledge in the field of new materials. Displaying screen demonstration of Potain Tower Cranes. Kajaria Ceramics Ltd. equipment and technologies and apply the same while designing and planning their projects. which are owned by Manitowoc. 252 NBM&CW SEPTEMBER 2010 . The seminar brings together a large number of construction companies and professionals under one roof to interact..Event Report integrate amongst them. Ltd. said that technology is both a boon and a bane. The ACE has all India Sales and Service network operating at all major Indian cities. construction codes / guidelines / standards are the main barriers in the growth of the construction industry and can be removed by disseminating information through seminars / workshops etc. reliability for years whether they are manufactured in Europe or in Asia. He said that some of the new technologies which are being used are Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) for traffic control. Ltd. Another equipment major ACE also made presentation of its MTC 2418. Window Magic India.00. soil stabilisation through chemical / polymers / enzymes. while hardware and software are important. Its Optima technology maximizes hoist and swing performance. With the quantum jump in road construction activity. Gujjar. Shri Ashish Wig chaired the Concluding Session and thanked the speakers and the participants. vibrators and job site lighting systems. The advantages of Potain Tower Cranes include. composite pavement for road construction. its inbuilt generator driven by the prime mover’s engine makes the tower crane totally independent of any outside electric sources. Secretary General.000 crores annually on road development and the other State sponsored investment will be more than `1. maintenance. Central Road Research Institute highlighted the recent technologies in India. presentations were made by Shri Prashant Gujjar. In addition. In the construction industry. planning. GMP Technical Solutions Pvt. Latest technologies should not be just adopted but need to be used appropriately in tune with the culture of our country and to suit the weather of the country. use of paint sludge. HSIL Ltd etc have also made presentation of their products. electrically powered for quiet. bases designed for minimal jobsite disruption. He said some of the new technologies which are being used include use of RFCC catalyst. Head Flexible Pavement Division. Potain India Pvt. Its articulated chassis and hydraulic steering system enables a very short turning radius and easy positioning. Principal Architect and Visiting Faculty. It only uses a part of the power and the generator can be used to supply other electrical equipment like mixers. it is selferecting and self-folding tower crane and its operations can easily be affected in a few minutes by a single operator through a remote control pod. It facilitates the operator to position himself in such a way that he can see both picking as well as dumping points for precise load positioning. Ltd. operations and financing of road construction as existing methods are time consuming and cost intensive and not up to the global standards. Intertouch Building Products. use of warm asphalt. top slewing and special application cranes with outstanding versatility and performance but also supports its products with a reputed dealer network committed to serve the aspirations and needs of its customers. impressive capacities at radius compared to traditional lifting equipment. explained that the cranes. sulphur extended asphalt and recycling techniques.. self-propelled mobile tower crane with a road speed of 25km per hour as its entirely different lock enables it to get out of tough spots quickly. He expressed his concern over the fact that lack of awareness and lack of availability of the design. use of waste plastic for stone matrix asphalt and porous asphalt. In addition. Mr. Regional Sales Manager. mobile self-erecting cranes offer efficient on site relocation. and use of crumb rubber for modification of bitumen. green operation. there is need for innovations in road construction technology including in the field of design. developing skillware is crucial. Star Link Communication Pvt. Shri Anuj Mehta. construction. warm mix technology for construction of environment friendly flexible pavement and asphalt rheology technique to judge quality of binder.000 crores. He also mentioned that urban growth should not be calculated in terms of big or multiple buildings but it should be measured if the constructed infrastructure responds to the context they are being made for. SPA. Moreover. Shri R P Indoria. waste plastic.. have been designed for the long-term offering.. said that the Government of India spends about `58.

Coming Events

01. China Sourcing Fair 2010

09. ZAK Glass Technology International 2010

Dates & Venue: 8-10 September 2010 Bombay Exhibition Dates & Venue: 3 - 5 December 2010, Pragati Maidan, New Delhi, India Centre, Goregaon, Mumbai, India Contact: Mr. Prasanna, Asst. Manager - Operations, ZAK Email: visit@chinasourcingfair.com Trade Fairs & Exhibitions Pvt. Ltd., ZAK Towers, 49, Website: www.chinasourcingfair.com Veerabadran Street Nungambakkam, Chennai 02. Tunnels and Underground Construction 2010 Tel: +91-44-42959595, Fax: +91-44-2820 2728 Date & Venue: 13-16 September 2010, The LaliT, Mobile: +91-97899-90908 New Delhi, India E-mail: prasanna@zakgroup.com, Website: www.zakglasstech.com Contact: Jaisimha Das, General Manager, IQPC India (P) Ltd 10. COMMEX 2010 Tel: +91-80-43224131 Email: Jai.Das@iqpc.com Date & Venue: 9-12 December 2010, Hitex Exhibition Centre, Hyderabad, India 03. EQ Resistance Design and Const. Practices Contact: Nikhil Behl (Executive Director) Date & Venue : 21 - 24 September 2010, Roorkee Mob: +91-9892256022, Tel: +91 22 28398000 Contact : Er. Ajay Chaurasia, Er. Sanjeew Kr. Singh (Course Email: mktg2@mtnl.net.in, Website: www.confairs.com Coordinators) Structural Engineering Division CBRI, Roorkee. Tel: +91-1332-283410 / 283247 Fax: +91-1332-272589 - 272272 Mob: +91-9897209050 / 9412074787 Email : ajayapc@yahoo.com / sksingh_cbri@yahoo.co.in

11. World of Concrete 2011
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254

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