Abstract – In this paper a novel algorithm for image modelbased methods, edgebased technique,
segmentation has been proposed based on active regionbased methods, watershed technique and
contour model and level set. In this we use the signed active contour methods.
pressure force function using local information of the
image to be segmented. First the level set function is II.ACTIVE CONTOUR MODEL
selectively penalised to be binary n then a Gaussian
kernel is applied for smoothing. Thus, this model can We have used the active contour model in oyr paper
work with heterogeneous images. In addition, by for the segmentation process. In this technique the
taking the advantages of Geodesic active contour user suggest an initial contour. This framework
(GAC) and ChanVese (CV) model, the method could attempts to minimize an energy associated to the
deal with objects even with discrete blur boundaries current contour as a sum of an internal and external
and gives exact results in detecting object boundaries. energy:
One of its other advantages over CV method is that
the cost of re initialisation is also reduced in this
method as we do not need reinitialisation of the level ∫ ¿+ E ext (2)
set function. Experimental results demonstrate that E Snake= E¿
the proposed model is effective in segmenting
biomedical images and the images with blur and weak
The external energy is supposed to be minimal
edges.
when the snake is at the object boundary position.
Keywords: Image Segmentation, Active Contours, The internal energy is supposed to be minimal
Snakes, Level Sets, GAC, CV method. when the snake has a shape which is supposed to be
relevant considering the shape of the sought object
I.INTRODUCTION [1][2].
The basic purpose of segmentation is to identify
and isolate the region of interest from the given Different ACM approaches
image. Image segmentation is used to locate
boundaries and objects in image [1] [3][13]. In Snakes
other words we can say that it is the process of Geometric active contours
assigning a label to every pixel in an image such
that pixels with the same label share certain visual Geodesic active contours
characteristics. The problem of image segmentation
A Snakes
can be formulated as follows.
Given image I = {pi}, a complete segmentation Snakes model was introduced by Michael Kass,
problem is to determine connected subset Ri = (Ri Andrew Witkin and Demetri Terzopoulos in 1988
∈ I), such that [1], for interactive interpretation of images, in
which userimposed constraint forces guide the
i ≠ j(1) snake near features of the interesting image. They
stated that a snake is an energyminimizing spline
¿ i Ri =I , Ri ∩ R j=φ ¿ guided by external constraint forces and influenced
Segmentation is based on homogeneity of the by image forces that pull it toward features such as
image characteristics such as intensity, colour, lines and edges. Snakes are greatly used in
texture, or the combination of all these information applications like object tracking, shape recognition,
[14]. segmentation, edge detection, stereo matching. A
There are number of different approaches in image simple elastic snake is thus defined by
segmentation such as: histogrambased method,
a set of n points
an internal elastic energy term
g(l) constitutes an (inverse) edge indicator. For
an external edge based energy term example,
The snakes model try to segment the image based 1
g ( l )= (8)
on the following energy:
√∇ l +∈
2
{ ( ( )) (16)
MunfordShah problem. This model utilizes the 1 2 z
H ε ( z )= 1+ arctan
homogeneity information of the object as a term in 2 π ε
the energy function unlike the GAC model which
relies on the image gradient. In this method the
image is considered to be including two regions i.e
c1 and c2 inside and outside the curve C
δε (z )= ( 1π . ε +ε z ), z ∈ R
2 2
respectively. For a given model Ω, the CV model IV. HYBRID MODEL
is formulated by minimizing the following energy
functional: In our hybrid model first of all we calculate the
❑ ❑ SPF (Signed Pressure Force) function. Its value
2 2 always lies in the range [1,1]. It is used to control
ECV =λ 1 ∫ I ( x ) −c 1 d + λ 2 ∫ I ( x ) −c 2 dx the motion of the contour by modulating the sign of
¿(C) out (C)
the pressure force, so that the contour shrinks when
(12) outside and expands when it is inside the region of
interest.
where c1 and c2 are the average intensities inside
and outside the contour, respectively. With the level c 1 +c 2
set method we assume I ( x )−
2
spf ( I ( x )) = , x∈Ω
C={ x ∈ Ω :φ ( x )=0 } ,

max ( I ( x )−
c 1+ c 2
2
)
inside ( C )={ x ∈Ω :φ ( x )> 0 } ,
(17)
outside ( C )= { x ∈Ω :φ ( x ) <0 } , where c1 and c2 are defined in Eq.(13) and (14),
respectively.
By minimizing Eq.(6), we get the values for c 1 and
c2 as: The significance of Eq. (17) can be explained as
❑ follows. Refer to Figure 1, we assume that the
intensities inside and outside the object are
∫ I ( x ) . H ( φ ) dx homogeneous. It is intuitive that
c 1 ( φ )= Ω ❑ ,( 13) Min ( I ( x ) ) ≤ c 1 , c 2 ≤ Max(I ( x)) and the
∫ H ( φ ) dx equal signs cannot be obtained simultaneously
Ω wherever the contour is. Hence, there is
c 1 +c 2 The main procedures of the proposed algorithm are
Min ( I ( x ) ) < < Max ( I ( x ) ) , x ∈ Ω summarized as follows:
2
1.Initialize the level set function / as
(18)
{
−ρ x ∈ Ω0−∂Ω 0
φ ( x ,t =0 )= 0 x ∈∂ Ω0 (21)
ρ x ∈Ω−Ω0
∂φ
=spf ( I ( x )) . α ∇ φ , x ∈Ω(20)
∂t
[7] Chunming Li, Chiu Yen Kao, John C. Gore and Zhaohua
Ding “Minimization of region scalable fitting energy for
image segmentation”, IEEE Transaction on image
processing, VOL.17, NO.10, October 2008.
[8] ThiThao Tran, VanTruong Pham, YunJen Chiu, and
KuoKai Shyu “Active Contour with Selective Local or
Global Segmentation for Intensity Inhomogeneous Image”,
Computer Science and Information Technology (ICCSIT),
(d) (e) 2010 3rd IEEE International Conference.
[9] Kaihua Zhang, Lei Zhang, Huihui Song and Wengang
Zhou, “Active contour with selective local or global
Fig 2.Segmentation results on a natural image, (a)
segmentation: A new formulation and level set method.”,
original image (b) & (c) results by the reference Image and vision computing,2010.
model after 200 and 500 iterations respectively, (d) [10] Muhammad Hameed Siddiqi, Sungyoung Lee, YoungKoo
& (e) results from the hybrid model after 100 and Lee “Object Segmentation by Comparison of Active
Contour Snake and Level Set in Biomedical Applications”,
200 iterations. 2011 IEEE International Conference on Bioinformatics
and Biomedicine.
[11] Arie Nakhmani and Allen Tannenbaum “SelfCrossing
Detection and Location for Parametric Active Contours”,
IEEE Transactions on Image Processing,VOL. 21, NO. 7,
July 2012.
[12]Satoshi Urata, Hiroshi Yasukawa “Improvement of contour
extraction precision of active contour model with
structuring elements”, Acoustics, Speech and Signal
(a) (b) (c) Processing (ICASSP), 2012 IEEE International
Conference.
[13] F.Samopa, A. Asano.,"Hybrid Image Thresholding Method
Figure 3.(a) original biomedical image (b) & using Edge Detection", IJCSNS International Journal of
(c)segmentation results by the reference model and Computer Science and Network Security, Vol.9 No.4,
the hybrid model after 400 iterations. PP.292299, April 2009.
[14] Gonzalez and Woods, "Digital image processing", 2nd
Edition, prentice hall, 2002.
VI. CONCLUSION [15] Shuqian He, Jiangqun Ni, Lihua Wu, Hongjian Wei ,
In this paper a hybrid region based model is Sixuan Zhao.," Image threshold segmentation method with
proposed with selective local and global image 2D histogram based on multiresolution analysis",
segmentation. By taking the advantage of the GAC Computer Science & Education, ICCSE, 2528 July 2009,
PP.753 – 757, Nanning, China
and CV model, this method can effectively detect
and segment the regions with weak or blur edges. [16]Gang Liu, Robert M. Haralick, "Assignment Problem in
Edge Detection Performance Evaluation," cvpr, vol. 1,
The model is able to change the topology as the pp.1026, 2000 IEEE Computer Society Conference on
evolution flow of model is derived using level set Computer Vision and PatternRecognition(CVPR'00) –
method. Experiments are performed on both the Volume1, 2000.
natural as well as biomedical images.
VI. REFERENCES
[1] Michael Kass, Andrew Witkin, and Demetri Terzopoulos
“Snakes: Active contour models”, International journal of
computer vision, 1988.
[2] Chenyang Xu and Jerry L. Prince “Snakes, Shapes, and
Gradient Vector Flow”,IEEE Transaction on Image
Processing,VOL. 7, NO. 3, MARCH 1998
[3] Tony F. Chan and Luminita A. Vese, “Active Contour
Without Edges”, IEEE Transaction on image processing,
VOL.10, NO.2, 2001
[4] Johan Lie, Marius Lysaker and Xue Cheng Tai “ A binary
level set model and some applications to mumford shah
image segmentation”, IEEE Transaction on image
processing, VOL. 15, NO.5, May 2004.
[5] Chunming Li, Chenyang Xu, Changfeng Gui, and Martin
D. Fox “Level Set EvolutionWithout Reinitialization: A
New Variational Formulation”, Computer vision and
pattern recognition, IEEE Computer Society Conference,
2005.
[6] Haiyun Li, Xiang Chen “A algorithm of medical image
segmentation based on active contour model”, 2007
IEEE/ICME International Conference on Complex
Medical Engineering, Capital Medical University School
of Biomedical Engineering, Beijing China.
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