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2
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XENOPHON-S ANABASIS. By Hamilton and Clark.
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Digitized by tlie Internet Arcliive
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http://www.arcliive.org/details/anabasisofxenophOOxenoiala
THE

ANABASIS OF XENOPHON;
WITH AH

INTERLINEAR TRANSLATION,

FOR THE USE OP SCHOOLS AND PRIVATE LEAENERS,

HAMILTONIAN SYSTEll,

1.8 lUPBOTSD BT

THOMAS CLARK,
IBIIOS 07 LATIK AHD INIEKLINEAa OLABSIOa.

PHILADELPHIA:
CHARLES DeSILVER & SONS,
PUBLISHERS.
Bntered, according to Act of CongreBS, in the year 1869, fcy

CHARLES DESILVEB>
tn the Clerk's OfEN tf tbe District Court of the United Stfttes 2br the Eastern
Oiftrict of PennsylvanliL

•tUOTTPED BT J. rAOUt.
Annex

PREFACE,

IianC
8 interlinear edition of the Anabasis of Xenoplion

Ibeen carefully translated bj the editor of the Latin

anJ Greek series of interlinear classics. His plan


is s anewhat peculiar, being intermediate between the
syst fms of Hamilton and Locke. The uncouth and
freq lently unintelligible sentences of Hamilton are
avoi led, while on the other hand the verbal and gram-
matical meanings are given with an accuracy fully

equal to his, if not surpassing it. By this plan


the sense of the text is also conveyed more pre-
cisely than is done either by the plan of Hamilton or
that of Locke — every idiomatic and grammatical diffi-

culty being completely overcome.

The work will be found of great service to the


student of the Greek language, as it removes many of

the difficulties so perplexing in its study.

The use of a few signs and characters, explained on


another page, has, in a measure, enabled the author to
accomplish what he has above set forth.

THOMAS CLARK.
EXPLANATIONS.

The
express the meaning of one Greek word

When two or more words, emploj'ed


.
union of two or more words by hyphens denotes, that they togethel

are-born.

rated by one or more words placed between tbeui, such interposition


;

to
as,

express a Greek word, are sepa-

.
is

denoted by a figure '


prefixed to the word next preceding that interposed,
and another figure '
placed before the next succeeding word ; as,

ovrcd SiaTi^elg

.
'having so 'disposed all.

An English word or sentence included within parentheses ( ) is an indi-


cation that such word or sentence is not expressed in Greek ; as

ased-to-come to him of-the (persons sent) from (the) king.

AVhen a word placed in parentheses is italicized, it shows that the word


above it is either superfluous or not to be expressed in English ; as,

nalSe.
he-desired {the) both (his) sons.

A dash directs the word

Where an italicized
above

6

.
it to be omitted in the translation ;

Cyrus.

word or sentence within parentheses is followed by


as,

another word or sentence, also in parentheses, but not in


forms the proper reading ;

When a word or sentence


as,

happened

is put in brackets
.
{behig-preecnt) (to-be-present).

[ ] it
italics,

serves as an explana-
the latter

tion, in the nature of a note ; but when the reading thus enclosed is to bo
a vertical placed at the

.
used instead of the literal translation, line ( |
) is

beginning of the reading that is to be changed; as,

I
might-have (themselves) [might be].

(iv)
TESTIMONIALS
AS TO

THE MERITS OF

%\t Inlcrlinear f ransktiou uf i\t (ilmm.

Testimony of celebrated men in favour of the interlineary system


of translations, as being best adapted for learning a lan-
guage.

Milton. — "We do amiss to spend seven or eight years merely


in scraping together as much Latin and Greek as might be
learned easily and delightfully in one year.
If, after some preparatory grounds of speech by their certain
forms got into memory, they were led to the praxis thereof in
Bome chosen short book lessoned tliorouglily to them, [that is, read
and translated to them], which would bring the whole language
quickly into their power. This I take to be the most natural
and most profitable way of learning languages.
[Children] should begin with the chief and necessary rules
of some good grammar, either that now used, or any better and ;

while this is doing, their speech is to be fashioned to a distinct


and clear pronunciation, as near as may be to the Italian, espe-
cially in the vowels. Next, to make them expert in the usefullest
points of grammar, some easy and delightful book should be
read to them.
[By this, Milton means that the teacher should read some
easy Latin book to his pupils, and translate and explain it re-

peatedly, until they understand such Latin book, and can them-
Belves translate it.]

(v)
VI TESTIMONIALS.

John Locke, author of the " Essay on the Human Under-


standing." — When I consider what ado is made about a little

Latin and Greek, how many years are spent in it, and Avhat a
noise and business it makes to no purpose, I can hardly forbear
thinking that the parents of children still live in fear of the

schoolmaster's rod, which they look on as the only instrument


of education ; as a language or two to be his whole businoss.
How else is it possible that a child should be chained to the oar,
seven, eight, or ten of the best years of his life, to get a lan-
guage or two, which, I think, might be had at a great deal
cheaper rate of pains and time, and be learned almost in playing.
[The first project of Locke] is to trouble the child with no
grammar at all, but to have Latin as English has been, without
the perplexity of rules, talked into him, for, if you will consider
it, Latin is no more unknown to a child, when he comes into the

world, than English and yet he learns English without a


;

master, rule, or grammar; and so might he Latin, too, as Tully


did, if he had somebody always to talk to him in this language.
And when we so often see a French woman teach an English
girl to speak and read French perfectly in a year or two, with-
out any rule of grammar, or anything else but prattling to her,
I cannot but wonder how gentlemen have overseen this way for
their sons. If, therefore, a man could be got, who, himself

speaking good Latin, would always be about your son, talk con-
stantly to him, and suffer him to speak and read nothing else,
this would be the true and genuine way, and that which I would
propose, not only as the easiest and best, wherein a child might,
without pains or chiding, get a language which others are wont
to be whipt for at school six or seven years together but also ;

as that wherein, at the same time, he might ha^his mind and


manners formed, and be instructed in all other parts of know-
ledge of things that fall under the senses, and require little

more than memory. But if such a man cannot be got who


speaks good Latin, the next best thing is to have him taught as
near this way as may be, which is by taking some easy and
pleasant book, such as iEsop's Fables, and writing the English
translation (made as literal as can be) in one line, and the Latin
words which answer each of them, just over it in another
These let him read every day, over and over again, till he per
fectly understands the Latin and then gc on to another Fable.
;
TESTIMONIALS. Vll

till he is also perfect in that, not omitting what he is already


perfect in, but sometimes reviewing that to keep it 'in his

memory.
The formation of the verb first, and afterwards the declen-
sions of the nouns and pronouns, perfectly learned by heart,
facilitate his acquaintance with the genius and manner of the
Latin tongue, which varies the signification of verbs and nouns,
not as the modern languages do, by particles prefixed, but by
changing the last syllable. More than this of grammar, I think,
he need not have, till he can read himself Sanctii Minerva,
As he advances in acquiring a knowledge of words, he must
advance, pari pasu, in obtaining a thorough and critical know-
ledge of grammar. When by this way of interlining Latin and
English one with another, he has got a moderate knowledge of
the Latin tongue, he may then be advanced a little farther, to
the reading of some other easy Latin book, such as Justin, or
Eutropius and, to make the reading and understanding of it
;

the less tedious and difficult to him, let him help himself with
the English translation. Nor let the objection, that he will then
know it only by rote, fright any one. This, when well consi-
dered, is not of any moment against, but plainly for, this way
of learning a language. For languages are only to be learned
by rote ; and a man who does not speak English and Latin per-
fectly by rote, so that having thought of the thing he would
speak of, gram-
his tongue, of course without thought of rule or
mar, ftills and idiom of that language,
into the proper expression
does not speak it well, nor is master of it. Languages were
made, not by rules of art, but by accident, and the common use _i3^
of the people and he that speaks them well has no other rule
;

but that, nor anything to trust to but his memory, and the habit
of speaking after the fashion learned from those that are allowed
to speak properly, which, in other words, is only to speak by
rote.
Sydney Smith. —
The Hamiltonian system, on the other hand,
1st. Teaches an unknown tongue by the closest interlinear trans-
lations, instead of leaving a boy to explore his way by the
lexicon or dictionary. 2d. It postpones the study of grammar
till a considerable progress has been made in the language, and

a great degree of practical grammar has been acquired. 3d. It


eubstitutes the cheerfulness and competition of the Lancasterian
Vlll TESTIMONIALS.

eystem for the dull solitude of the dictionary. By these means


a boy finds ho is making a progress, and learning something
from the very beginning. He is not overwhelmed vrith the first

appearance of insuperable difiSculties ; he receives some little

pay from the first moment of his apprenticeship, and is not


compelled to wait for remuneration till he is out of his time.
The student, having acquired the great art of understanding
~V- the sense of what is written in another tongue, may go into the
study of the language as deeply and as extensively as he pleases.
The old system aims at beginning with a depth and accuracy
which many men never will want, which disgusts many from
arriving even at moderate attainments, and is a less easy, and
not more certain road to a profound skill in a language, than if
attention to grammar had been deferred to a later period.
In fine, we are strongly persuaded that, the time being given,
this system will make better scholars ; and, the degree of
scholarship being given, a much shorter time will be needed.
If there is any truth in this, it will make Mr. Hamilton one of
the most useful men of his age for, if there is anything which
;

fills reflecting men with melancholy and regret, it is the waste


of mortal time, parental money, and puerile happiness, in the
present method of pursuing Latin and Greek.

Virgil, Horace, Cesar, Cicero, Ovid, Sallust, Juvenal, Livt,


Xenophon's Anabasis, Homer's Iliad, and the Gospel of St. John,
have already been published on the interlinear plan, and will be suc-
ceeded by the other Classics, as speedily as is consistent with accurate
preparation, and the importance of the undertaking.

Charles Desilver,
1229 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia.

SPECIAL AOENTS.
Claxton, Remskn & Haffelfinger, J. B. Lippincott & Co., Phila-
delphia; D. Appleton & Co., MASOif, Baker & Pratt, New York ;

Nichols <t Hall, Boston,• Robert Clarke & Co., Cincinnati; A. L.


Bancroft & Co., San Francisco; Jansen, McClurg & Co., Chicago; E.
H. CcsHiNCt Houston, Texas.
THE

ANABASIS OF XENOPHON,

BOOK I.

CHAPTER
'
76 ^ ',
Op Darius
. and
YiapvdariSog
Parysatis
I.

are-born

Ss
hvo
two sons,

(the) elder (indeed) Artaxerxes, (but) (the) younger

Ki'pog. Ss

,^
, and

.
Cyrus. After Darius was-sick, suspected (the)

end

-
[of-the) (his) life, he-desired {the) both (bis)

sons to-be-present (with him). The elder indeed

6
,^
ovv itapinv'
(tlierefore) happened |
(6ei')i(/-/)reeeni) (to be present); but he-sends-

Krpo?^ ano Trig


for Cyrus from the government, of-which 'ho (had) 'made

avrov x(u avrbv 6


him

commander

(the)
76
plain

(to his father)


.
satrap,

£ ^
TtavTcdV,
of-all

of-Castolus.

having-taken (with him)


and 'he (had) 'appointed

(the forces),


oaoi
as-many-as

Kupog ovv
Cyrus

Tissaphernes
muster

therefore

as (a)
him

.
also

in

goes-up

friend.

(9)
10 THE ANABASIS OF XENOPHON.

.
and he-went-up having

^''.
8 rpiaxoaiovg
also (with him) three-hundred

;^^ "
oTUdtaq
heavy-armed-men

^
tcav hk
of-the Greeks, (and) (the) cummander also of-them Xenias

^,
(the)

xatiatYi
Parrhasian.

After

was-eitablished

in
Darius

rrip
the
, died,

kingdom,
xai
and

Tissaphernes
Ajtaxcrxes

8ia-
ca-

lumniates
tov

'^
.
Cyrus

he-might-be-plotting against him.


Ttpog
to (iAe) (his)

— (
8?.,brother,

Artaxerxes) indeed
hk ^as-how-that

believes

-^ .,
.'thisj and
xai
also

[with the intention of putting


he-arrests

him

having-entreated-for-her-own-sake (pardon for)

(him) back to
triv
— (his)
to

government
Kvpov

death
Cyrus

;]
6
|

but
as-if

avrov,
him
{the)

6'
about-killing;

(his)

— But when he-departed,


^,
mother

sends

(
(after)

^, ' ^
having-been-in-danger

'he-shaU never 'be


xai
and disgraced,

hereafter (dependent) on
he-deliberates

— (his)

.
brother,

of-him.

',
but

Parysatis
if he-could

indeed
5ri
— the
he-would-reign

mother
/went-for
dvr'
instead

"
, 8
Cyrus, loving him more than the reigning

*^^>7.
Artaxerxes. AYhoever indeed
'
used-to-come to him

of-the (persons sent) from (t'le) king, |


'having so 'disposed
BOOK. i. — CHAPTER I. 11

navrou,.
nil,

nero
'seud

\.
(tlicm)
[having so disposed

.
'away-from-him (inclined)
all towards himself,]

to-be

^
'
7^
that

friends
he-used-to-

airuoi
to-hiraself

L-ore

barbarians
[
than Ho (the)

nap
with
, 'king. And

8
al.so

him, in-order-that not-only they-might-be


' he-took-care of-the

fit

.
to-wage-war but-also

to-him.

^
' .
concealing

TASoL
he-might-take

did-he-make the
rnv
But

the-king
^ |

he-collected

.
(this)

collection
.
might-have (themselves) [might be] well-disposed

as
the

most

the-most-unprepared.

(of troops).
Greek

khvvaTOy
he-could,

As-'many
^ force

oti
in-order that

''D.Se
Thus
ovi
therefore

garrisons 'at

,.
tolg
He-had in the cities, he-sent-instructions — to-each

orti
commander-of-them to-take Peloponnesian men as

(they could) and () inasmuch-ai

,
many-as best (soldiers),

Kat
Tissaphernes is-plotting-against the cities. —
noav To

^^
,. ^
For the Ionian cities were formerly (under the

government) of-Tissaphernes, (they) having-been-given (to him) by

'

'-
^j
(the) king, afterwards they-had-revoltcd to Cyrua \

^
all (of them) except Miletus.

forehand-perceived (Uiat certain persons) in


But

ev
Tissaphernes

Miletus
Ttpoaicr-
having-be-

are-plan-
12 . lb

THE ANABASIS OF

,
mvg ra avra ravra

. 7?
ning

Krpoj^, rovg
Cyrus,

[but others]

I
these

the
very-same (things)

indeed [some indeed] of-them

he-banished. —
^
But
|
to-have-revolted [to revolt]

Cyrus
he-kUled,

having-received
|
the

|
t/,

b'
but

{the

,
Jleeltuj)

-
he-besieged

.
(the exiles)

'>7MUetus
(and) having-collectcd

both
ocata
by
(an)

land and
army

by

.
xai rovg

^
sea, and he-endeavoured to-bring-back | {tlie kavhig-

{been)-driven-out) (the exiles). And again there-was this other

pretext

For sending
for-him

),
npbg
to
[

'
{of. the

(the)
/, to-collect) (for

king
assembling) (an)

he-requested (that) being ya)

So^rlvai
army.

brother of-him, those — cities (ought) to-have-been-gi\ en

,
01
to-himself

them,

3•
rather

and —
than

(his)
(that)

mother
Tissapherues

supported
(should)

,^ him
rule

(in)

this;

Trig
the
therefore (the)

plot
TCpog
against,
, king

himself,
'did not

but he-thought
indeed

he
'perceive

(Cyrus)

fighting

(the) (his)

of-them

being at war].
. '//
Kai

with-Tissaphernes

armies;

fighting

For —
*

6 Kvpog
[

[therefore he

Cyrus
Sajtavav
spends

therefore 'it-was
(his

not
means)

was not displeased with

remitted 'to (the)


^ upon

'hated

their

'king
rovg
the
^ ti'ibutcs
BOOK I.

arising
— CHAPTER

. from
tQV
I.

the
, cities,
13

>
which

?^
^'
Tissaphenies |
happened having [had].

'
But another

r9i
army

^, ^
was-collected for-him in

Chersonosus (in the)

?^
right-over-against Abydos, this (was)

'
rbv rpOTtov.
the

exile;

'
manner

6

(thereof.)

,^
Cyrus
Cleiirchus (a)

having- become-acquainted

avrov xai
Lacedajmonian

with-this

^iScdOLV avroj
was (an)

(man)

^.
,
not-only was struck-witli-admiration (for) him, but-also gives him

len-thousand

he-collected (an)

[by means thereof],


darics.

army

xai

|
But having-taken

from
rovrov tav

and making-irruptions from

^,
these

ix

(the)

oixovai
'
the

Chersonesus
gold

things

he-Avaged-war against (the) Thracians, — (who)

"' above (the)

-
dwell

r;7to^'•o^', xai
Hellespont, and he-was-of-serviee to-the Greeks; and

at

^
so-tbat the Hellespontian

;^7, ' towns willingly contri-

.-
buted (the necessary)

soldiers.

^.
|
things

'
to-him

This indeed again (was) thus


for
rnv
the nourishment of-tho

— (an) army

being -maintained secreted for-him [thus again an army was se-

6 6
jretly maintained for him]. Aristippus — the Thessaliau

I
being happened
^,
to-him (a) guest-friend [happened to be hie

3
14 THE ANABASIS OF XENOPHON.

, €
guest bound by the ties

oixol

^
of hospitality],, and being-pressed

tov ^,
by

^
thd

.
oijposite-faction at-home he-goes to — Cyrus, and

requests (of)

(for them
avrov

for)
him

three

, two-thousand

months, as
mercenaries,

thus | 'he
and

-
might 'have-Loen-
pay

superior

8 '
[so that he might be superior

^^
to]

-
the opposite-faction.

— But

thousand

avTov
Cyrus

xai
and
^iSoaiv
gives

pay
him

(for) six
, to (the

months,
number of )

and he-requests
four-

of-him" he-'would not first 'terminate (the strife) against

the

,.
with-him [Cyrus].

maintained
^
opposite-faction

secreted
|
Thus

iv '(.
8

for-him
before (that)

— again
to

(an)

[thus again an
he-should-consult

army

army was
-
being-

secretly

maintained for him]

8
— the Boeotian
in

|
Thessaly.

^ He-ordered

being (a) guest (of ) him [who was in the


Proxenus

ties

?.6

?'3
men
^,
of hospitality with him] (that)

^,
oTL
as-possible
|

to-come-to
having-taken [having collected] as-many

(him), as-if

,
he-were-wishin<'

to-lead-an-army

Pisidians being-pretending
against (the) Pisidians,

;^^ thing
in-as-much-as,

.
in-the province of-hin:.sclf

8
the

[for the Pisidians infested hi» territories]. He-ordered also SophsDnetaa


the

,, ^, '
''? Stymphalian
BOOK

and
I. — CHAPTER
Socrates
rov

^''
the
II.

Achaian,
15

these

?^
also being (his) guest-friends, (that)

oTt ^,
|
having-taken [having collected]

. .
as many men as-possible |
to-have-come [to come to him], as

he-was-about-waging-war against-Tissaphemes with the exiles

of-the Milesians.
,And
ovtol
they did so.

CHAPTER II.

' 8 ,^ '^
, After indeed it-seemed to-him already (time)

^—
|
to-go

up,

,
{the) (this)
[to

7•
march into the interior against his brother],

f jetcxt, that (he-winhing) (he was desirous)


he-made

to-expel

1€8

',
'
xai

^^
(the) Pisidians

there,
entirely

as-if against these


from the

(Pisidians), the
territory;


and he-coUecta

barbarian

and the Grecian army, and he-seuds-word not-only

K^fap;^G) hoov

§
to-Clearchus to-c»me (to him) |
taking whatever army

,
Yiv
there-was to-him [bringing

tippus,, (that)

•ix9L '' / all the forces he had] but-also

having-been-reconciled with
xai


'

'Apia-
Aria-

(those oppofed

tr> him) at-btme \(tohave-8ent) (to send) to himself (the)

b xai
army which he-had; and he-sent-word to-Xenias the
16

', ,^.
THE ANABASIS OF XENOPHON.

?.
rov
Arcadian, who had-been-commander-over the mercenaries in the

aiVa, -,
,
towns for-him, to-come taking [bringing] (all) the men,

^
|

rag
except as-many-as were to-guard

,', ^^
sufficient the citadels.

8 rovg ^^^
?^
He-called-for —
,
also — (those) besieging Miletus,

and he-exhorted

having-promised

fc-^' ^
the

to-them,
exiles

if
to serve-as-soldiers

'he-should successfully
with

'accomplish
him,

^
(the objects) for which he-took-the-field, ||not (^'«0 to-cease

nplv
before he-might-have-led
avrovg
them
^.
home [he would not cease before

'
01 Si '

he led them home]. — — 'They cheerfully Obeyed (him) ; for

they -believed

I
Ttapriaav
were-present
him;

etg
at [joined
and

him at]
.-
6*^$
having-taken

Sardis.
ra
— (their)

Xenias also
arms

Sri

came

rd)V
from the
,^-
towns,
to Sardis

onXiroug
(being) heavy-armcd-men to-the-number-of
ig
rovg
having-taken (with him) the (soldiers)

rrpa-
four-

Lovg'
thousand;

rag
armed-men

Si
Proxenus

7ivraoog vv^rag^ Xoavrog


ig
— to-the-number-of five-hundred and
8
— |
Ttapriv
was-present [came]

7tvraoovg
^Z^^
having

, 6?-
heavy-

a-thousand,

Si 6
also five-hundred light-armed,• Sophtenetus likewise, the

rvog
6tymphalian having
^iXiovg 07t7urag'
a-thousand heavy-armed-men Socrates

6 6
Also the
;^Achaian having about
7tvraoovg
five-hundred
oTikirag,
heavy-armed-men,
6
BOOK I. — CHAPTER
Se ^
,
II. 17

,
Pasion the Me<;arean also camo having

.
to-the-number-of three-hundred huavy-armed-men, and three-hundred

'
8 6
peltastue; both he was and (also) — Socrates

,
(among) — (those) scrving-in-the-army at Miletus.

,^.
These

Tissapherues

TT(V
indeed |

^
arrived-at

— having-observed
, '^to-him [joined him] at

these-things, andhaving-considered

[
Sardis.

.
than as-if against (the)

/,
the preparation to-be greater

Pisidians,

khvvaTo,
he-could,
he-set-out

having about

Sn, ^,
. to (the)

five-hundred
king

cavalry.
as-spcedily

Kat
And (the)
as

king — therefore, after he-heard from Tissaphernes

Kvpov
(of) the military-expedition of-Cyrus began-to-prepare-himself-against-it

Krpog 8, -
,,

to
motion
Cyrus

from
^'
,
having which I-have-said [as I said] put-himself-in-

Sardis ;
{aud) he-advances through
§ —
)/'$
Lydia

[ three

Svo
stations [three days' march],

^.
(being a distance of) twenty

and two parasangs, to

^'
the river Maander.

To
The breadth

bridge —
of- this

was-ovcr
(river was)

(it)
Svo
two

connected-together
plethra;

by-seven

Sid
.
[about 200 feet]

)^'($
; (\

boats.

Having-crossed-ov-r this river) he-advances through Phrygia


2*
^
18

, ,
,^
. ^^ ^ ^'^
one

Colossa,
etatifin
THE ANABASIS OF XENOPHON.

[one day's march] (being) eight

(an) inhabited
oxtcd

town,
parasangs,

wealthy
ffc,
to

and

,^.
inra oial
lu-ge. Here he-remained seven days; and

Menon the
6
Thcssalian
(
came (to him) having (a) thousand

^?
beavy-armedmen and five-hundred peltastie [targctiers],

Aividvag
(they being) Dolopians and ^nians and Olynthiai.s.

'Evrqv^ev
Hence he-advances three stations [three days' march]

(making) twenty

<r% ^/',
parasangs to

8. Celainae (an) inhabited

town of-the Phrygians, large

' and wealthy.

*EvraiS<x
I

lace]
Here

and (a)
nv

large

^/,
^, ,
there-was (a) palace

park,
for-Cyrus, [here Cyrus

iTtTtov,
-full of-wild
,had a pa-

beasts,

which he used-to-hunt |
from horse, [on horseback], |
when

he-might- wish


^
and the
. horses.

8 rov
The

^
to-have-exercised [when he wished to exercise]

river Maeander

6
himself

flows

through (the) middle — of-the park; |


and the springs

avTov
of-it

the palace];
are

and
from the

also it-flows through


palace

8 "
;

the
[and its

city
?,
springs issue frrin

of-Cela;na).

8
There-is also — (a) fortified palace 'of (the) 'great
BOOK — CHAPTER

, ,'
I. II. 19

king [the kiug of Persia] in


iv ?.,Celaena?, (situated) at
rdig
the

iuto
iources of-the river Marejas, under the citadel;

8 j^el
this (river) also — flows through the city, and

rov MaiavSpov ro 8 tov


^.
empties into the Maiandcr; the breadth of-the

iartv ^.
^^
Mar^yas

Here
is

Apollo
twenty and

is-said
five

to-have-flayed
[
of-feet [feet].

Marsyas,

,
baving-conquered (him)

^ '
music,

at
and
]
contending

to-havc-hung-up the

Sid
ol

hip^a
skin
(they contending)

6
in

6
the
about

cave

ivhence the springs (rise); from this indeed the river

-^',

^
Mapai'ag. 'Errar^a
is-called

ex

^.?^
Marsyas.

'^ Hero Xerxes,

, when he-departed

^ ,^
from Greece having-been- defeated in-the battle, is-said

to-have- built also this — palace and the

citadel
^7^(.
of-Celasnae.
''^ Here
Ki'pog
Cyrus remained

thirty

exile

.
eight-hundred

'/
,,
came (to
days

him), having

Thracian
and

, ^^ Clearchus

a-thousand

targeticrs,
the

hcavy-armed-men,

and
Laceda;monian

two-hundred
and

,
Cretan

Syracusian
archers.

j
TCapnv
was -present
And also at-the-same-time

[arrived]
'^
having
Socrates

three-hundred
the
20 THE ANABASIS OF .; ',
. '^
omXitag, xai 6
beavy-armed-Dien, and Sopha-netus the Arcadian, having a-thoiisand

^ ^ ,
heavy-anncd-men.

enumeration

/',
xai
and
And

(had a)
^'^
review
here

rav
Cyrus

of-the
'/' Greeks
made

in
(an)

the

^.
park,

, i xai
xai
and they-were — all-together,

^
[indeed)

?.
ten-thousand and a-thousand heavy-anned-men, but about —

.
',^
,
(making)
^
two-thousand

Hence

Saxa
ten
pcltastae

he-advances

parasangs
[light-armed

Si'O
two

to
men and

stations

Pelta;,

/;
targetiers].

[two days' march],

(a) peopled

'^ ' 'Evrav^' '

city.

6
Here he-remained three days;

xai
in

^which (days)

Xenias

/^' ^ the Arcadian celebrated the Lycrean- rites, and instituted (a)

'^
contest;

2£6'
[public games]

xai 8
; the — prizes Avere

^.
gjlden

'^ ^? ^,
,
strigUs; and also Cyrus viewed the public-games.

88
7(,
Si'o
Hence he-marches-forth two stations, (making) twelve

parasangs to (the) market-place 'of (the) 'Ceramians, (an)

,;
inhabited

next-to the

Htati.<ns,
rri

Ttshiov
to (the^ plain
city,

Mysian

[daj-s'
(the)

%.
territory.

march], (making)

of-Caystrus, (an)
last

»^^^'
Hence

inhabited
thirty
?.
,
(on the road to Mysia)

he-advances

7to?uv.
city.
'^•'
(and)

three

parasa:igs,

Here
BOOK I — CHAPTER II. 21

/'
nhts xal

,^. roig
'

•le-remaiued five days; and pay ivas-due to-the

xai
soldiers (for) more than three months, and going

often

6
I

?^
to
rag
the

^' ^ gates [to his quarters] they-demanded (it).

But

them

.^^ '^ ,
of
^
— Cyrus
off],
xai
and
|

tpOTtov
the- nature
saying

r\v
he-vras manifestly
hopes

hri7jog

tov

[giving hopes]

Kvpov
distressed;

of-Cyrus not
|
paseed-the-time [put

for
riv
it-ivas
oh
not

to-pay

/,
he-having (wherewith so to do).

Here Epyaxa the Avife of-Syennesis the

king 'of (the) 'Cilicians

' \.
arrives, (on a visit) to

xai Soiyvai

^
'

Cj'rus ; and she-was-said to-have-given Cyrus much money.

' ^
Cyrus
ovv
— therefore
. Tore
then paid the army (their)

-
wages

for-four

guard

.^
Siovg' xai Ss
dians

Cilician
; and

(queen).
with
months.

also
her
The Cilician

it-was-said (that) Cyrus

Hence
Ss
^
(composed of) Cilicians

, ^,
(queen) also

— he-marches-forth two
Ss xai

xai
and

had-oonnexion with-the

Svo
had (a)

Aspen-

stations,

. ^-
(making) ten

town. Here
parasangs

riv
there-was,
to

by
Thymbrium,

the
oSov
(a)

xprivyj
road (side) (a) fountain
peopled

MiSov
whioh was-called (the fountain of) Midas, the king
ul

^,
THE ANABASIS OF XENOPHON.

-
.^
"^
of-Phrygia,

",,
^?
Satyr,

he-marchcs-forth

to TyrisBum (an)

,,
^'
at

haviag-mixed

Si'o
two
[
which,
'(5
Midas

it

stations

inhabited
,
. ^^
is-said

[the fountain] with-wine.

(making) ten

^
town.
to-have-captured

Here
Hence

parasangs,

he-remained
the

'
three days, and the CUician (queen) is-said to-have-reqiiested

avrri.

',
,
of-Cyrus |
to-have-shown [to show] |
(the) (his) army to-hcr.

Ovv

.
^^
'He therefore to-have-shown show it], makes


'ivilling |
[to (a)

^
review in the plains of-the Greeks and of-the

8 "/1>7^
barbarians. He-orders — the Greeks |
so

in battle,
,
to-have-been-arranged [so to be marshalled] as (was the) custom

^^ . and to-stand (in such order), but (that)


.
for-them

each

Ovv
were therefore
^-
(commander) was-to-arrange

'arranged
| the

in
of-himself [his

fours ;
.
own men],

[they were
|
'They-

drawn up

TO
the
,
,
four deep]

right,
; Meuon indeed

8
but Clearchus
8,
— and

| and
[
[the) (those)

the
with

of-him
him

.
[and his men]
had

' ^
TO ol
the left, the other commanders — the centre.

OVV
— —
Oi

Se
Cyrus therefore

und thej'-marchcd-past-him
first

drawn-up
reviewed the

in
/
troops
barbarians

and
BOOK I. — CHAPTER II. 23

« "^
in

'
., ', ,
7tapc?^avv(dv
ra^Eig,
companies, and

riding-bj'-them
'in (his)
sha
afterwards (he reviewed)

chariot, and the


rovg
the

Cilician (queen)
Greeks

' in

() covered-carriage. All — had brazen helmets, and

, ,
scarlet

,
L•a^apivac•
tunics, and greaves, and

— ho-had-ridden-past
the
aomSag
shields

- -( '^
burnished. After all,

-
having-stopped

having-sent
ro

Pigrcs
^^
(his) chariot

the
npo
in-front-of

interpreter
rr,g
the

Ttapd rovg
to
phalanx,

the
(and)

comman-

ders

— (their)
,
of-the

arms,
Greeks

and
he-commanded (them)

to-have-moved-forward [to
to-thrust-forward

move forward] the

7..
|

b?^.y]v 8e
entire phalanx. The (commanders) — announced

- these

,
'

(things) to-4,he soldiers and after

, ^.
it-was-sounded-with-the

trumpet,

And from this


putting-forward

npo'CovTcyv

' going-on

^ (their)

more-quickly with (a)


arms, they-advaneed.

>^^ shou^ |
(a)

running happened to-the soldiers

.
[the soldiers commenced run-

ning]


oi

the

(those)
of

(there was) (a)


Cilician

in
their-own-accord

great

the
(queen)

markets
fear

fled
to

to-others

from

fled
the

of-tho

the
,
tents.

/^^^,barbarians,

Persian-carriage,

haA-ing-left-bchind
And also

and

and

me
24

'
. " ^
/'
thiDgs-exposed-to-sale

ovv
THE ANABASIS OF

; but the

(-'
Greeks

[
went to
rac,

ihovoa
the

^>7
tents with laughter. the Cilician (queen) haviag-seen

TT^v ra^Lv »
.
triv

^.
, 8
the splendour and the discipline of-the army

^^

' 7^ ,
was-struck-with-admiration. (_Biit) Cyrus was-delightcd seeing the

fear (inspired) by the Greeks into the barbarians.

7(, , /
' .
Hence he-marchcs-forth three stations, (making) twenty

parasangs, to Iconium, (the) last town —


^'.

,
of-Phrygia.

Ilence

Ktations,

"^
Here

he-marches-forth through

(making)
.
.'
thirty

Siapnaoai
he-remained

Sid

parasangs.
three

Lycaonia

,—
^'
days.

He-permitted
five

-
the Greeks |
{lo-havc-i)tiindered) (to plunder) this

^
;^^,
country, as being hostile. Hence Cyrus

,
Fends-away

road into —
the Cilician

Cilicia;
(queen) by-the

,
and
|

hc-sent-with
quickest

her
[shortest]

.- (the)

,
soldiers, that Menon had, and (Menon) himself.

,
76
Cyrus

padocia

parasangs,
indeed with

four

to
the others

stations,

Dana (a)
marches-forth through

(making) twenty

peopled
Sia

and

,
Cap.

five

town
BOOK I. — CHAPTER II. 25

^. ^'^
'.^,
largo

days;
and

iv
wealthy.

during which (time) Cyrus


Here they-remained

,,
put-to-death (a)
Yiioayjv
three

Persian

avh^oL
[m<ni)

xal twa
{(tnd) a-certain

having-accused
Megapherues

other

(him)
(by name), (a)

Svvaaryjv
powerful-person of-the

|
to-conspire
royal

.
*
purple-wearer,

officers-high-in-command

to-him [of conspiring against

'Ej^Tfi'^ei'

,^, .
him]. Hence they-endcavoured to-throw-themsclves into

» •
8
but the entrance
riv
was (a)
68
road (only broad enough for a
Cilicia;

bp^ia, xai

,' ,
single) wagon-way, very steep, and impracticable 'for (an)

'army to-enter, if any-one opposed.


,And also

Syennesis was-said to-be on the heights, guarding

Triv hi 6

,
the entrance; for which (reason) he-remained (a) day on

« 8. ,
the

bri
that
, plain.

Syennesis
But on-tbe

might-bc
next-day (a)

having-left [had left] the


messenger came

heights,
saying

after

,^
|

, ,, ^ -
he-perceived that
on to
the array of-Menon

xai
r,v ,8
was already in

^
Cilicia, within the mountains, and because he-heard (that)

' .'
Tamos

-
Jsemonians

an
having galleys

xai Krpoi; aiTov,


and of-Cyrus
(namely)

himself, (and that) 'he


— (those) 'of (the)

(Tamos) 'was-sail-

^'
'Lace-

ing-round from Ionia into Cilicia. Cyrus — therefore


S
26 THE ANABASIS OF XENOPHON.

the

6

, ini
ascended {on)

rag
tents,

he-descended
the
-,
mountains,

ov oi

into
Ki?uxeg
where the Cilicians

(a)
ovSevbg

^
no-one

large
87..
?•, opposing,

kept-guard.

xai
and beautiful
^. and
el^e
be- saw

Ilcnce

phiin,

STUppvrov, xai
well-watered,

vines;

xai
'
xai
and

and
(ieiii</)-full

also it-bears

xai nvpovg xai xpi^ag.


Ttavrohancdv SevSpav

much
-,
of-all-kinds

«esamum,

"
,of-trees

xai
and
ana

panic,

'

and millet, and wheat, and barley. (A) mountain (chain)

xai v-^tj/.ov avtb

'.
'
strong (by nature and art) and liigh surrounds it

•>7 ig
on-all-sides from

— through
sea

Sid
to

rovrov rov
sea.


,
'^'^^.,^
Descending this plain he-proceeds

a^ovg, xai napa-


four days'-march, (making) five and twenty para-

^^^/, ' xai


sangs, to Tarsus (a) large and wealthy city

ag ?
Trig KLixag.
— of-Cilicia. Here -were the palaces

'vvvog rov "


8 Sta

g
of-Syennesis

middle
rrig
of-the
the

city
king

runs (a)
'of (the) 'Cilicians;

7Coag
river (the) name
and through

(of
(the)

which is)

Ki'Svog,
Cydnus,

ivouovvr8g
inhabiting

',vvvog
Syennesis
'
vpog
(the) breadth (of

rr,v

ravryjv
which

this
is)
Svo
two

city

place
^ 7t?J^pov.
plethra.

deserted

ini ra
(it)

op/7,
Oi

«
(Those)

-
together-with

for (a) fortified on the mountains, except

01
-
ovg ra— ?^'
(those) having shops;
xai
and also
oi
— (those)
oixovvre:,
dwelling
'^ ,
near
'
the
''
BOOK

sea
I.

'
— CHAPTER .
kv
at
,' . Soli and at
27

Issus.

Epyaxa also, the wile of-Sycnucsis arrived at Tarsua

five

.
,
^^-
days

of-the mountains,

hvo
two

perished.
compiinies

01

before

'of (the)

— (Some) indeed
xaTaxoTCrivaL
' '•Cyrus j

(namely, those which descend)

'army

said |
but in

(that while)
)
to

tov

the crossing-over

^
the
Ttshiov,
plain,

of-Menon

plundering

8
something to-have-becu-cut- to-pieces [that they had been cut to pieces

^,8
while plundering]

being-left-behind,

rpva
^'
ar>^y

to-have-pcrished ;
i>7to
by

nor

ovroi
these
xal ov
tQv

and not
the

rag
the
Cilicians

being-able

roads

ovv riaav ixarov


— therefore were
; but

to-find

after

,
?
ol

a-hundred heavy-armed-men.
To
the
(others) (that^

rest (of the)

wandering-about

onXirai.

'
But the

Sia tbv
at
ol

the
^,
rest (of Menon's

destruction —
command)

(of their)
after they-arrived,

fellow-soldiers

/^/ —
enraged

plundered

,
Trtv xai

. — —

,^
the city Tarsus, and the palaces in

Kipog Sl• ttw


it. Cyrus indeed after he-entered into the city,

iautov 6
sent-for — Syennesis (to come) to him; —
i5' Ttpo-rspov
but he-said |
never yet before-this to-have-come into hands

[that never yet before this had he put himself in the power of] any-person
28 THE ANABASIS OF XENOPHON.

8uperior-in-power (to)
iavTov,
himself,
^^
neither would-he then ]
Uvai
{to-go) (go)

',
.
,
Tt^lv
to-Cyrus, before

assurances (of safety).


7\
— (his) wife

After
'brought

8 ravra,

8 ' 7?
— these-things,
avrbv,
him

when
'to-it,
xai
and he-received

they -met

;^pri//aTa

^, ,
,
one-another, Syennesis (^indeed) gave Cyrus many things

rnv 8 Ki'pog

,
for (his) army, and Cyrus (gave) to-him gifts, which

Ttapa

, , ^'
are-accustomed- to-be-held as-valuable by (a) king (namely) (a)

}
horse

,
iTCTtov

bracelets,
having-a-golden-bridle, and

xai
and a-golden
xai

scimitar,
a-golden

xai
and
twisted-collar,

a-Persian
and

robe,

and

riv
if
.
Triv
and (be agreed that) the

(that they were) to-receive-back

Ttov
any-where they-meet-with-them.
country (was) not-hereafter

CHAPTER
the captured
to-be-plundered;

avSpaTtoSa^
slaves,

'^
III.

^'3
'
.
Here
Kipog xai
Cyrus and
ri
the army remained twenty

'
days; }
for the soldiers said not to-go

ri^?;
farther [for the soldiers refused to go any farther]. For alrealy

they-suspected |
to-go against (the) king ;
[that they were going

or
•gainst the king of Persia!: and tliftv-Riiiil fthat they) 'were no'>
— CHAPTER

-^
BOOK I. III. 29

uia^^rlvai inl rovra.


hired for this (purpose).
?^Clearchus
^
— first

tovg avtov

'
,
endeavoured-t()-compel |
the soldiers of-him [his soldiers]

to-go

xal
and
;

,
oi

, . ^'

(also) the
6
but
re
— (his

beasts-of-burden
men) began-to-pelt

| the of-him,
him (with stonef)

[belonging to him],

8 rare
after he-began to-advance. Clearchus indeed — then

To
narrowly escaped

6\
[ lest the to-have-beeu-stoned ;

^,
[stoning to death];

^,
at-length — , after he-knew that he-'would not 'bc-able

.
to-use-force, he-brought-together (a) meeting |
of-the soldiers

^
^
of-him [of his soldiers].

he-shed-tears (for a) long


And —
timej
at-first

hk
but
ol
— (ttey)
'^
standing (before them)

seeing-this

, .
fnra 8
wondered and were-silentj afterwards — he-spoke-to-them

^.
"
thus.

Men soldiers,

Ttapowrt
'do not 'wonder that
^-griev-

ausly 'bear the present (state of things. For

^^
|

Cyrus became (a) guest-friend to-me [for Cyras bound himself to

,
me by and

,
8
the ties of hospitality] he-honoured me, (an) exile

ix Trig TtaTpiSog,
from — (my) country, |
and the others, [and also in other

things], and (in pirticular) he-gave (me) ten-thousand darics]

3*
80 .
,' ^ ' ^ THE ANABASIS OF

— (my)
which

^
having-taken, 'did not 'put-by for-myself for

iSioVf xa^Y;Sv7ta^y;aa,

.
own-private (use), neither did-I-spend-it-iu-luxury, but I-spent-it

,, ,
for you. For first —
7?^'
I-made-war against the

^
xai ^^
Tfaracians, and together-with you I-took-vengeance (on them) for

'.ppovrsyov,

.
, ,
(they)

">7$
Greeks

I-went,
Greece,

desiring
expelling

dwelling-there.

taking
to-take-away

you
^^ —6
them

After
from the

,the

(with me), in-order-that


Krpog
Cyrus
Chersonesus,

land (of)

called-mo

if
the


^foiTo

cifv ^
of-which I-was-affected beneficially by
?'/!
he-might-need (my assistance) I-might-hclp

{ . ^^ him
him
'^^
| for

[in return for the


(those things)

bene-

^,
^ ^"
fits I hare received from him].

to-accompany

yj
(him), |
Since however

thc-necessity
hk

Sn

[.
(is)
you >Tish

to-me [I am constrained]

',
not

either (by) deserting you |


to-use the friendship of-Cyrus,

[to preserve the friendship of Cyrus],

Ttpog
false) to\vards him to-go
^'
with
.
or having- deceived (him

you, |
If
by being

indeed
Sri

7toir"ycd hixaia olSa ovx


I-shall-make just-things I-know not [whether indeed I shall act ojr

'/, ' ovv ., xai >


,^
rectly, I know not] I-shall- lold —
• therefore (to) you, and with

6.
you will-submit-to what — may he-necessary, | And no-oae
— CHAPTER

,-
BOOK I. III. Si

'shall
oi'TtoTf
never
,
'have-said, [and no one shall ever say], that 1

having-led
"/^Greeks among
rovg
the barbarians,
TtpoSovg
deserting

rav

.8 ^,
the

barians.
"EXXiyi-ag
Greeks

But
took-in-preferenco the

since you
rriv

'do not
friendship

'desire
^^
of-the

, to-obey
bar-

me nor to-foUow (me), I -' {with) you,


xai
and

av Tap

,
b ti hir^
will-submit-to what — may be-necessary. For I-considor

xai narpiSa xai xai


you to-be to-me (and) (my) country, and (my) friends and (my)

xai av Cm
felIu\r-soldiers,

to-be
and

honoured wherever
may indeed 'think (that) with

may
, 8
'be, but being destitute
you

^ (I am)

of-you,

av ''
,
may 'think (myself) not

(/^^
to-be competent either

^. '
— to-help

(a)

,.
friend,
oiV av
or — repel (an)

,
enemy. That therefore
ovv

,
xai
am-going, where also you may (be going), then hold-to

'

he-said
(this) opinion (that I am determined to go with you).

[thus did he speak] ;


8
and
ol
the soldiers,
I
These-things

| — as- well

?.,

^
of-thoso

,,6 ,^,
of-himself, [as well those of his own command], as
xai
the others,

that he-should-say (that bo was)

,
hearing these-things, not

^
to-marcli-forth

two-thousand (soldiers)
agaiust (the)

from
king,

8

they- applauded;

Xenias
xai
and
'

more than

Pasion,
^.
32

taking

camped

and also

'
6

THE ANABASIS OF XENOPHON.

(their)

distressed

^
with
arms

^^
find

Clearchus.

rovroig,
at-these-things,

ov
— (their)

,
Ki'pog
Cyrus
baggage

sent-for

/13^
^
— being-perplexed
rov

8
-
en-

Clo•

archus ; who however would not — go,

^
unknown however (to)

,
^
the soldiers, sending (a) messenger to-him, he-told (him)

8
to-be-of-good-courage |
as these-things being-arranged in the

' ^
'

required-manner ; [as those

(he requested Cyrus)


affairs

to-send
would be

(and again) request


?^
satisfactorily arranged] ; also

him
'

^
(to come to him) ; but he (after being sent for again) said (that he

would) not

Se

om

soldiers
Uvai.
go.

,
,
After

of-himself,
hk

[his soldiers]
this

and
assembling


|

(those)
the

,,
having-joined

other

"Ai^^peg
(soldiers to
him,

be present), he-spoke
and the

Sri
8.
^
thus
desirous

(to

otl
them.)
of-the


Kt'pou
of-Cyrus
Men soldiers,

hold (themselves)
(it is)

so
indeed

'
to
,
evident

us,
that the (affairs)
|

as

Ttpog
our (affairs do) to him ; [the affairs of Cyras are in the

lame relation to us, that ours are to him] : for neither (are) we now

oi
I
(the/ soldiers of-him [his soldiers] at-least after we-'do no|
^
.
,
'follow

"On
BOOK

him,
I.

'nor
— CHAPTER
(is) he
.
now

^^
^^
"*
33

paymaster

,
io-us. That however he-thinks (himself) injured by

,
as

^?
I-will

-^
/"
I-know;

being-ashamed,

,
having-deceiA'ed
ovx
not

,
and

2^^

avrov
him
so-that

have-gone, [go],

on
because

Ttavra,
in-all
he

indeed (what

avvoiha
I-am-conscious

(this),
sending-for

xoll
and

im^
is) the

£^
to-myself

8
indeed
(me)

greatest,

(of)

then-also

having-feared, lest, having-seizcd me | he-may -have-inflicted [he may

Six -,
inflict] punishment, (for the things)

,^,^
self) to-have-been-injured
vn
by
. |

me.
of-which [in which] he-thinks (him-

Ovv
Therefore (this)
8
seems to-mo

to-be no time for-us


^^, to-sleep,
ovh'
nor to-neglect our

.
selves

ix

6
but

, ,
to-deliberate

KaX
b,
— what
ti
is-necessary

, to-do

,
(from these [next]. And as (long) indeed (as) we-remain here,

enut
it-seems to-me to-be necessary-to-be-considered, how 'we (may) 'remain

>.£, ,^
now

^
the-most-securely, if also (it) seems (best) to-depart, how

xai
we-may-depart the-most-safely, and how we-shall-have the

?
'

necessaries- of-life; for without these (necessaries) |


(there is) nc

advantage neither [either] (to the) commander nor [or] (to the;

^.
| |

private-soldier [the commander and private soldier are alike ineflScient].


34

'
But the
6 dvr.p
man (is)

to -whom 'he may


THE ANABASIS OF XENOPHON

indeed (a)

Ji
'be (a)
,
7.
friend

friend,
8
but (a)
^
,
,
worthy

^
77
of-much

most-bitter
(estimaiion)

enemy,

^
7to?Juog' hk
to-whom 'he may 'be (an) enemy; he-has — alsc (a) I'oroo

xai xai hvtiznv


both foot and cavalry, also (a) naval (one), which 'we

Ttavteg
all alike

^ 'see and also

^'^
know;
'

and (this is

ovSe

.
not strange] for we-seem to-me | to-sit [to be encamped] not-indeed

Ttoppo
far-from
avTov'
him;

.
wherefore (it is) time to-say
b
what
Tt
— any-one

,,
knows

tov

thought
Upon
roiro
this

of-their-own-accord,
to-be

(of afiFairs)
b'
then (several)

and
|
better.

aviatawo,

?^

rose
Saying

(to speak),

(ai<0Hi)-saying [intending to say]

(others) indeed
hk ?.
this

o\
— (some)

ordered
he-finished,

what
-
indeed

they-

wt
by

him [Clearchus] pointing-out what might-be the

.
^
difEculty

^
Trig
without the consent of-Cyrus both to-remain and to-go.

bn
And one namely (of those instructed) pretending

',
earnestly-to-desire

,
to-proceed

said, (that)
as

other

,
speedily-as-possible

commanders
to

— |

^
to-have-been-choscn
Greece,

[were to be chosen]

'willing
as

to-lead-them-back;
speedily-as-possible,

(that)
8
also
if

the
Clearchus

,^ 'is

necessaries-of-life
not
, ^,,
^,
aro-to-bc-bought,

army,

I'that tbcy),
£3^ going
BOOK

6'
for
I.

there-was
— CHAPTER
— (a) market

and-also (the) baggage-is-to-be-packed-up;

to-Cyrus, to-ask-for
III.

in

ships,
the

'

in-order-that
35

barbarian

'
and

, 8 SiSa

^-^ ,
thcy-may-sct-sail; if however he-'do not 'give these, to-ask

Kvpov 8
Cyrus

;^.
countries.
"
(for a) Icadei•,

Ss
who

'8
will-lead (them) through the

If hoAvcver he-'does not-even give (a)


friendly

leader (they are)

rr,v

,
'
to-form-themselves-in-order-of-battle as-speedily-as-possible, and

^6
also I
to-havc-scut hereafter preoccupying • the heights, [and also

to send men to take possession of the heights in advance], so-that neither

Ki'pog
Cyrus nor
ol
the Cilicians | 'may
]
not having-seized-upon

'have-occupied, [may not have anticipated us, in taking possession of these

^
heights],

property

this
of-whom [the Cilicians]

'
having-taken-them-away-from-them.

(manner) he-spoke; but


hk
we-have

after
many-men

rovrov
Thus

this
and

indeed
much

hr[
— (in)

Clearchus

Bjjoke

'Let
^
toaovtov.
just^so-muoh.

no-one of-you 'say that —



|
ctpatiq-
I ^am) about-lead-

yrsiovra
ing-the-army

will accept the ofice


(in) this

of
tr(v
the

commander];
command

for
(thereof);

I-perceive many-things,
, [that I
36 THE ANABASIS OF

8l tt Tovto ov TtOLYiraov ' 3'


on-account-of which

Bay) that I-shall-obey


this

in-as
'must not

much-as
'bc-done

bvvarbv,
bj'-me;

possible,
but

the
^
(let

man,
him

whom 'you may


^^, 'choose, that you-may-see, that also
6 I-know-how

;^3 ,
tu-be-commanded,

av'^YUTtidv.
|
and eveu-thus
Ttg

}
as-much-as

^
(any) other

£
of-men

'£>7
arose

advising
(to
[as well as

speak) pointing-out

to-ask
any other man].


,, —
(for)
the

ships,
After

simplicity.

as-if
this


Cyrus
another

(of him)

'«-^-^

not 'hereafter

turn], also

loader

(in) —
S'
|
be-making the

showing

Ttapa
from

npa^LV.

'
(his) undertaking.
how

this
^^
fleet

(very person)

Kal
And

hihci,
8
also
return,

if
^
[order the fleet to ro-

foolish (a thing) it-would-be to-ask-for (a)

whom we-are- frustrating

we-shall-confido in the

leader,

xai
also
whom

'order
Cyrus

the
may

heights
give, what hinders

|
to-prcoccupy
(that) Cyrus

\ 'maj

for-us ?

[to be preoccupied for us]

to-embark

'] on (board) the


? For

, vessels,
I

which
indeed shall-be-reluctant

a 8
he-rcight-give
^^

us,

lest he-should-submerge

'themselves;

')7,
should indeed
us (together) with-'these

'be-afraid
^^ to-follow

the
/,' galleya

guide

whom he-may-give, lest he-might-lead us (to a place) whence it-'wil)


. ';
not
'
departing.
'be

Cyrus
BOOK

possible
re

^
I.

(being) unwilling,
?•
,^ ^
— CHAPTER
to-escape; |
III.

I-vould-wish

depart
'
— —
to-have-concealed
37

avTov
him

'
[I would

..
rather, if departing against the will of Cyrus, depart

6 ov

,
without his knowledge] ; which is not possible. But I

^
say (that)

It-seems (that)
,
'^ ?.( '«^^
these

men,
(things) indeed

who
are

(are)
absurdities;

fit,
8
but to-me

having-gone

'
<

(purpose)
Cyrus

he-wished
with

;^'/73
Clearchus

to-use
' to-ask

us;
xoi
and
him

if
(for)

indeed the
what

^ ,
undertaking bo

^,
before
'

'employed
similar


(to that)

foreign-troops, and
oicptep
in-which-kind

(that) we
'he
xai
also

(should)

^ ' xal

,
follow (him), and (that we might) not be worse (than)

,
the

, ^
(those)

^, former,

(then that we)


I

went up with him] ; but


before

xal
and

request
Ss
if
going-up

the undertaking

more-difficult,

either (that)
and
with-himj

may-seem

having-persuaded (us)
[who before

greater (than)

more-dangerous,

to lead

(with him), or having-been-persuaded (by us) (he would allow u;)

^
us

to-depart

liccompiinying

1
to

him
(a)

,
friendly

'as) friends,
(country);

'we also may


for

'accompany
thus also

(him)
^
38

'
zealous
THE ANABASIS OF XENOPHON.

(in his cause),


xai
and leaving (him) 'we may 'leave-hiii,

^
safely;

Tt
what (he)
'

(that)

may
Sev^o

^
here

say

?^'^
* .
| they-havc-announced [they report]

to these (things);
' 7\.
and we

having-heard

^^
(it)

, to-deliberate

[It-secmed-good (respecting) these-things,

dvSpag
upon these

[these propositions were ap-


(things).

-
proved],

;^, who ^^^


and having-choscn

' men they-send (them) with

^^ Cle-

archus, asked

tri
(good) to-the

^ 88 ^'
'

ar

aTte^rpiVaTo, oTt oxovel


answered,
.
army
Cyrus

that
|
(respecting) the

[the questions agreed

he-hears (that)
"^ (things)

on by the army].

Abrocomas
were-seeming

(a)

'>2,
Who

mar

inimical (to him) is on the river

-
Eujihrates,

3 ^ ^^ ^
^
being-distant twelve days'-march; he-said (that) therefore he-

rovrov ^
desires to-go against this (Abrocomas); and- if

^
— he-were

,'
rriv
there he-said (that) he-longed to-have-inflicted — punishment

on-him but

ravra.

7.
these-things.

announce

,
'

indeed there-was
rtv
if

Se
he-retreat,

01
The

(them) to-the

lutOT^ia
suspicion
deputies

^
'
we

oTl
that
there

having-heard

soldiers;
will-deliberate

Se
but

^.
8


he-is-leading (them) against (the)
about

ravra
— these-thinga
(to thcin)

king, but however it-seemed (to them best) to-acconipany (mn).


Tliey-iisk-for-mcire
Ss

BOOK

^ I.

wages;
— CHAPTER
6
— —
IV^

Cyrus
' 89

promised

bc'uGSLV

Ttporepov.
before, (that
^
to-give-licreafter to-all tbe-half-morc (than that)

avrl
in-place-of (a) daric
ov
which they-had-receivcd

rpia
three halt'-darics

,.8 , ^
is)

rov tQ '
8 oti
the month — 'to (each) 'soldier; but that he-might-be-leading

ivtav^a
(them) against (the) king, no-one heard, not-even tbero,

(ut least) indeed in — public.

, "'^
CHAPTER
^,Svo
IV.

Sixa

^^
Hexcu (Cyrus) proceeds two days'-march (making) ten

rbv
parasangs, Psarus, the breadth

^
to the river

OV Yiv rpia 73.

,
of-which

rynuuus,
was

days'-march (making),
three

the
live
plethra.

breadth of-which
ov
parasangs

(is a)
Thence

^
^-
araSiov.
stadium.
to
he-proceeds

the
one

river

Thence

ho-proceeds

sangs to

tYi
hvo
two

',
Issus,
days'-march (making)

the-last

,' town
fifteen


, para-

in-Cilicia,

^.
(situated) on the

'3•
sea (coast), peopled, large x*
ana'

wealthy.

at
the
rpiaxoi>ra
thirty
Hero

And
they-remained three

five ships from


/, days ;

Peloponnesus
and
^ ^.'
40 ,
THE ANABASIS OF XENOPIION.

Ttapriaav
j
were-present (for) Cyrus,
', [arrived at Cyrus's camp],
xcu
and (Ibe)
vav•
ad-

sn avraig
iniral over them (was) Pythagoras (the) Lacedicmouian.

nyeito
But Tamos (an) Egyptian conducted them from EyhesiiJ

,' ^'
having (with him)

',
Cyrus,

to-Tissaphcrnes,

Kal 6
five

with-which he-(had)-bcsieged

xai
and
and twenty

he-fought-with
other

Miletus

Cyrus

napnv
ships (beloi ging to?

when

against
it-was friendly

avrov.
him.

And

,
also Cheirisophos the Lacedaemonian vas-present on (board)

,
the

heavy -armed
ships, having-been-sent-for

of-whom
by
',
Cyrus, he-having seven-hundred

'.

"
(soldiers), he-was-commandcr for Cyrua.

}( '.
^^
At hi rnv

'^ ,
The — ships moored opposite the tent

'
of-Cyrus.

,
ol
Here also the Greek mercenaries, (who were) with

Abrocomas,

four-hundred

?£.
,'
desertiiig-him

heavy-armed-men,
went

and
to Cyrus,

^
(in

accompanicd-the-expedition
number)

against (the)

,
march, (making)
king.

five
Hence

parasangs
he-proceeds

to (the)
' gates
one days'-

[passes]

xai ,. '

hi'o
two

rJ7$
,of-Cilicia

walls,
xai
and

"
and

(of )

the —
of-Syria.

'otemal

xai
These

(one) —
— were

(that) before

— Cilicia, Sjenncsis and (a) guard of-Ciliciani


BOOK — CHAPTER

.
I. IV. 41

^:
had
'

(charge) ;
Se to ,
but the external (one),
ro Ttpo
— (that) before —
tnq '/, Syria,

iT^iyero
it-was-said (that a) guard 'of (the) 'king's (soldiers) guarded-it

$
Ala
I
Through

Carsus
(the)

(by)
middle

ro
name
Se
— of-these [between these two walls] (a)

,
flows, (the) breadth (being a)
. Ttorauog
river

plethruin.

But

three

for

to
the-whole

the
oraSiOL

Yi

the
stadia;

7(8
-, ^
passage

' xai

sea,
middle

riv
was
7tap^Lv
(space between)

and to-have-passed by-force was

narrow,

above
xai
and the

S'
also
the

walls
riv

were
^walls

ov
not
were

(possible);

reaching

impassable

TtiTpaf he
rocks;

(of) the
and

.' ^ (the) passes (had)

walls. (It
stood-by

".
was) on-account-of
(at)

this

^
each

Trig

TtapoSov
passage

he-might-land

xai
(that) Cyrus

heavy-armed-men within
sent-for

'^
the

and without the


raic.
fleet,

,^ so-that

passes,

,
and (who) having-forccd (a passage) might-pass-through the ene-

my,

Tti'/latj
passes
»f

which
they-'might (yet)

6
— Cyrus

.,'guard
ini

thought would-be-done,

'
the


"^
- Syrian

Abro.

comas

'did

being
ovx
not

4*
in
having

'do

Cilicia
'
\
(a) great

this,

having-retired
but
army.

iTt^i
after

from
But

he-heard (of)

Phoenicia
Abrocomas

Cyru»

ne-departed
42 THE ANABASIS OF XENOPIION.

to (the) king having

./
as it-was-said ;
thirty

ten-tliousands [three hundred thousand)

.
Hence

march, (making)

town on
(Cyrus)

five

the

Hri '
,
/
proceeds

parasangs,

sea
military.

Sia
through

(c^ast)
to
Syria

MvpiavSpov,
one

Myriandrus,

peopled

. ,
3- days'-

(a)

by

Phoenicians. It-was also (a) mart (for that district of the country,

68 ^.
)

xai
and many

he-remained seven

>7^,
' ,'
sliips-of-burden

days;
arrived

and (here)
there.

Xenias,
6
^'^•

the Arcadian
Hero

, ,
6 M^yapErg,

, ^,
commander, and Pasion the Megarian, having-cmbarked

in (a) vessel, and liaving-placed-on-board — (their) effects

^
of-the-greatest (value), they-sailed-away, as indeed to-the

thoy-thought having-been-made-jealous-of-their-honour [the most thought,


most

^—
^' ,
otl
that they were influenced by jealousy] because Cyrus allowed

Clearchus to-haA'e |
the soldiers of-them, [their soldiers],

(namely) — (those) deserting to Clearchus, af

.
"
|

departing back to — Greece [when they intended ti

ov
return t< Greece] and not (march) against (thi;) king. |
After

i^' n(^av
— they-were invisible [after their disappearance] (a) runioui
— CHAPTER
^
wont-through (the armj")
BOOK I.

that
'^
Cyrus might-follow
IV.

them
43

'with (the)

Tpr/.pEGL' xai ol avrovg


'g;ilkys,•

?^7;(p^yivaL
bo-iakcn

?.
pitied
and

as

(them)
— (some) indeed

if
bvrag
being

.' prayed

So?uovg,
perfidious

they-should-be-captured.
(men),
(that)

oi

they

(others)

Af
But

'.
(might)

'
indeed

Cyrus

(' '
h;iving-callcd-together the

-^, -
rovg
commanders said; Xenias and

, ,
I'asion ha-e-left us; but 'let-them at-least 'be

oTt oi'Te

^,
wcll indeed '.issured, that they-'have neither 'fled-

away

,
. 8 ',
(elandestinely),

have-they-cscaped,

TO
for
for

I-have
oiSa
I-know where they-are-going,

galleys | in-order-to have-seized


nor

the ship of-thcm [to capture their ship]. But, by

ovS'
gods not even-I them; nor

,
the will-follow (shall)

,
any-one

- say,

67^6
that I,

S'
(mc), make-use (of their services), but
as-long-as indeed

after
any-one might

he-may-wish
stay-ivith

to-

^
despoil
,
leave (me) having-seized

(them of their)
them


both

;^p7i/waTa.
goods.
ill 'treat

But
(them) and

let-them-go,

I tlie^'-having-known

towards us than

;»;>7
[they being conscious]

we towards

j^uj^'at^ag
them.
oTt
that they-are

Although 'I
worse

indeed

guarded
'have both (the) children and wives of-them
44 THE ANABASIS OF XENOPHON.

at Tralles but they-'shall not-even 'be-deprived

%
rovrav, aTwXriy^ovTa

of-these, but

^.
they-shall-receive (them) on-account-of (their)

^
Ttept

good-conduct towards

tavra
these; [thus did he speak]
iiie

;
formerly.

Si ol
and the
", Greeks,
And

if
|
'he indeed 'said

any (one) in-fine

nv
was disinclined towards the ascent [expedition] hearing

^.
TYiv
the noble-conduct of-Cyrus,

xai
and
Krpou,

with-greater-alacrity-of-mind.

ravra
accompanied

, .'
(him) with-great-pleasuro
TiSiov

'^ After these (things) Cyrus proceeds four

,
daj's'-march

, ,
river

if
(making)

Chalus, (it)
twenty

ovra
being

xai
to
the
parasangs

breadth 'cf (»)

^-.^,
ivrl
to

3T?i3pou,
rhv

'plethrum,
the

and full of-large and tame ii&li, which the

^
Si'pot
Syrians

to-injure

villages

^^
to Parysatis]
considered (to be)

(neither them)

in

^^
which they-encaniped

having-been-given (her)
ovSe
nor

-^
'
gods,

.
Tag
the

|
xai
and

were

|
^.
'did

for (her)
ovx
not 'permit (any one)

pigeons.

of-Parysatls
At
The

[belonged

girdle [for pin-money]


Se

Thenco he-proceeds five days'-march, (making) thirty

rov

)7
piirasiingt)

Dardes the
to |

breadth
the springs

of-which
[sources] of-the

(is that) 'of (a)


73'.
river

'plctlirum.
^ , ^,,
',^
Here
"haav
were
BOOK

having-ruled-over [the ruler] of-Syria,


I.

rd
the
— CHAPTER
'^,palaces

xai
and (a)
IV.

of-Belesys

park,
>
|

very
45

the

'
..
large

produce.
xai
and beautiful,

But Cjtus
having

'cut it
all, how-much-so-ever(tbi) seasons

^-'down
xai
and burned

the

^
teen
-^
,
palaces.

Thence he-proceeds

parasangs,
three

to the
days'- march (making)

/^"
river
-
Euphrates
fif-

^
ovra TO xai
(it) being (there) the

aiVo^i 4<
breadth of-four stadia; and (there

was a) city there Thapsacus

xai ^. ^^
by-name (which) was-inhabited,

,
(and which was) large and wealthy. There

'
xai
they-rcmained five days; and Cyrus having-sent-for

',^ ^£ ^.
the commanders of-the Greeks, said that the

road might-hereafter-be to
^'' Babylon against (the) great

xai

,
king;

to-the

'
and he-requests

soldiers,
xai
and
them

to-persuade

xxa^
to-tell

(them)
these

to- jllow
(things)

(him)

,?
,
ol
And who having-made [having called] (an) assembly (of the soldiers)

'.
j

ol
communicated these (things to them). But the soldiers

werc-angry with-tho commanders, and t«ld 'hem


46 THE ANABASIS OF .
(that)

conceal

ovx
'having
TtdXat
already-before

(them from the soldiers); and

Uvai, [
eiSovTag

Ttg
'known

-;^ ') ravra


thesc-tbings,

thcy-said (that they


(that they)

^
not go, unless some-one should-give money

-
to-thum

6d(JL
I
as

gone-up with
also (had

' been given) to-the

Cyrus, [in like manner as


former

had been given


(soldiers) having-

to the soldiers,

who had

Ki'pol',
of-Cyrus,
formerly accompanied Cyrus]

and this not going

. ,
Ttapoc
to

to
rov
the father

battle,
?^

but

7?
the

reported
father (merely) sending-for

these (things)
'*
Cyrus,

to-Cyrus;
The
6'
and who
6
commanders

promised

to-give

TViidGL
they-arrived at
five

^^,
minse

Babylon,
oi'-silver

and —
^
" 77
to-each

(their)
av^pi,

entire
man, when

pay

until

in
. ^.
'he should

Icnia.
To
The
'place

most indeed
the

bri

Greeks

of-the
'?^
back-again

Greek

(force) 'was thus

But
,,, ^ '
Mcnon,
'persuaded (to accompany him).

nplv
before | to-be [it is]
Sri?Mv
evident what the
o\
other

soldiers

» will-do, whether they-will-iollow Cyrus

ri

jr not,

from-the
ov,

,
cv?J?^
"
assembled

others,
|

and
the

spoke
army

|
^.
of-himself [his army]

these (things) [thus].


%"p^$
apart

Men
— CHAPTER
far
f

^ ,^ 7t£iG^yir8
BOOK I.

uoi,
yon-migbt-be-perstiaded by-me, you-will-be-honoured
IV.

vno Kvpov
by Cyrus
47

'^, ,.
7t?Jov
aiorc (tban) tbo otber soldiers (and this) 'having neithei

' •incurrod-danger, nor haviug-laboured. What tbercfuit•

.7
do-1-request (of you)

^ J
to- have- done?
:

[to do] ? Cyrus

^'
now »vants

-
,
the Greeks to-accompany (him) against (the) king;

therefore say (that) you to-behoe [that it behoves you]

»
|

hiaGylvaL
to-bave-crossed the river Euphrates, before | to-be [it is]

^, b Ti

^^
oi

manifest

'.
what the other Greeks

^,
will-answer

^ ,
^
Cyrus. For if indeed they-should-dctermine-by-ballot to-follow,

dp^arreg

^,
(then) you will-appeai; to-be (the) cause, |
having-begun

xcu
of-the

crossing-over,

as

the)
, '
being

favour,
[as having

^'
most-prompt,

and will-repay
first

Ki^'pog
Cyrus

(it); |
'
but
'
crossed over the river],

perceive (and acknowledge

he-knows (how
and

to
to-you

do this)

if even-also any other (does); [but he

'
knows how

^, to reward a favour,

as well as

t'we)

again]

faithful
;
hk
but
any other man]

all-together

,
you,

;^/;
he- will-use
indeed

as
;

alone
but

| depart

(and employ)
^
if the

to
others should-ballot-against-it,

the-contrary; [return back

being-persuaded (and as being)

both in garrisons
'

- most-

and
^,
48

for captaincies,
THE ANABASIS OF XENOPIION.

xal
and-also I-know
oiSa on
that

^ 6•^.
H3
7.
friends
'
of-i^yru»

you-will-obtain whatever else 'you

^, ^^
may 'require. (The soldiers'

npiv ^.
bnving-heard

' ^ ^,
before (that)
rovg
the
ravra,
these (things), were-persuaded,

others answered.
xai
and crossed-ovcr

But when

Cj'rus perceived (them) having-crossed-over (the river), 'he not-only

74^

'
'of
,
flG^Y],

, Menon)
xai
Vos-pleused, but-also having-sent

Ss
said,
'//
I indeed
Glus to-

men,
the

,^
now

xai
army

praise

you but it-shall-be-a-care to-me how &lsu you

,
I

'
might-praise

.
me, [but I will take care, that you also shall praise me],

'
or

being
uo-longer

now indeed

to-have-been-fortunate

7]/ . ,
think

in

;
me

great
Cyrus.

[prayed for his success]

5
hopes

;
The

Si
and
| wished

xai
also
soldiers

him

he-was-said

to-hare-sent

, ^' .
in-a-magnificent-manner presents to-Menon. And,

Ttomaag
having-done

^
all

-
.
was-wetted
TO
the


?-
these

other

(of those)

higher

o\
^
(things),

army

-<
(than)
he-crossed-over (the river);

crossing

the
followed

breasts

?^,
the
him.

otl
by
he
and
xal
also

And

river

the

river. But the Thapsaceni said that tlii«


BOOK r. — CHAPTER V. 49

(the)

|if
'
not [except]
,then,
Ttanore
never at-auy-time

tore
but
'
, might-be

(always) in-boats;
passable

'
which
6-
on-foot

Abro-

comas goiug-beforo 'had then

^ that Cyrus

.
'burnt,

^.
,
'might not 'cross-over (the river). (This) then seemed to-be

- (a)

' ^^
,
divine (interposition), and (that) the river manifestly re-

^?
ceded

,,
he-advances through

fifty
for-Cyrus

Sid

^. '^ (^

as

parasangs,
Syria
about-reigning.

and
nine days'-march, (making)

they-came
Hence

Ttpog
to

, . . ^^
the river Araxes. Here there-were many

villages
//-full of-corn and wine. Here they-remained

three days, and provisioned (the army).

CHAPTER V.

Tor
the

'/,
^3^'
Thknck

-
,.
river
he-marches

Euphrates
Sid
through

on

(the)
^,
6'/'$, ^-»

right,
Arabia,

(making)
having

five

desert

thirty
stations,

and five
[five days' march through the

parasangs. But
desert],

in
' (and;

thii

— district-of-couutrv the
yn
ground was indeed (a)
-,
plain, entirely

5
50

level

Si
as

Tt
(the)
, ?
ANABASIS OF XEWuPHON.

?^
sea, and
^ 7?.,
?^
full

ri
^^,
of-wunnwood,

if

ivriv,
indeed

was-on-it,
also

all
any

were
/*
other (kind) of-undervvood or

^-
(as) odoriferous as
of-reed

perfumed

' ovSev SevSpov Ai

^
ivriv.

,
but no tree was-thereon.

iv
But (here there were) various

^
TiT^laroi 6vol. Si
wild-animals, the-most (numerous) indeed (were) wild asses, also

'
7toX?joi orpov^oL ol Si xax
many

xcd
and
86 | sparrows

antelopes
the

were-thereon
largo

;
Si
and
[ostriches]

ol
the
; and

horsemen
also bustard

sometimes

iSiiuxov
pursued these —
;.
wild-animals. '
And indeed the wild-assee

Siaxoi, 7tpoSpav
when any-one might-pursue (them), having-run-before (some distance)

aaraaojv
stood-still;

/TtTtwr' xal
for

7ta?uv
they-ran much (more)

ol mnoi
quickly

.- (than) the

horses;

they-did
'.and

the-same
again

(thing);
when

and
the

it-
riv
was
horses

ov
not (possible)
might-approach

to-take

(them) I
if not [unless]
ol
the horsemen
Sav
stationed-at-intervals

SOiSvoL
ehould-hunt (them), (also)

iTtTtoig.
"horses.

TtapanTJ.uia
like

But
8^
no-one
And the

the

took
succeeding

?,
flesh

(an)
'of

stags'
rav

Xrpov^ov:

ostrich;
(those)

(flesh),

j
Si
but

and
Si
.
(one another) 'with (fresh)

"ciiught

ol
moreteiider

— (those)
\

was

of- the

iTtnicdv Sia^avTsg ;^'


horsemen huving-pursued [and those horsemen that pursued them] quicklj
BOOK I. — CHAPTER V. 51

desisted

men]
,
iTtavovTo'

fleeing

6
|

raig.
for it-withdrew-itself much

(away from them), in-runuing (using)

,
[for it outstripped the

— —
horso

(its)

.
Ttoai,
feet, and — (its) wings raising (these), as

But

.
using (a) sail. it-is (possible) to-take the

^,
bustards,

nUTovrai
thcj-fly

;^
(a)
if

^any-one

short
should-'stort

(distance)
(them) *up

like-as
^,
'^oiXV'
quickly;

:
partridges,
for

and

speedily tire. But the flesh of-them was

Y^hiG-ra.
very- delicious.

-
Marchiug

,
^. ^^ ,
hs.

hia
through
rav'Tyjg
this
Trig
— %$
country they-

'
come to the river Mascas, the breadth

'
(of which is a) pleturum. Here there-was (a) large

deserted
itokig,
city,
^
but (the) name
avtri
(of

^
was) Corsotej

.
(to-i't) it

' ">7
and this (city) was-flowed-round by the Mascas 'in (a)

xvxTuxi. ^3•'

,
'circle [the river Mascas flowed round about this city]. Here

xal

^
Uiey-remained three days and provisioned (ihe army),

'^'
, ,
,
Thence

desert

parasangs,
'he (Cyrus)

stations

having
'proceeds

(or days'

the
|

march)

river
three
xal hixa
and

(making)

Euphrates
ten [thirteen

on
ninety

<tlie)
52 THE ANABASIS OF XENOPHON.

^,
right,


VTto
^ xai
and

Etationj

7j.uov'
be-anires

7(o7J?A
many

r,v
at (the)

of-the

ov
Tlv?joLg.
Gates.

beasts-of-barden
In

oihe
/^
rovroiz
these

j<erished

ovhtv
of hanger;

{other) (kind of]


hevhYOv,
for

tree,
there-was

a/S/A
bat
no

the
grass

OJiaxJa
entire
%^
nor

country
any

wa£

'^ftk'h' ol hk
bare (being destitute of regetation); the — inhabiting [the

67^
|

^. , ',
inhabitants of this desert district] quarrying and fafbioning

grinding npper-etones [millstoDes] near the rirer, carried

^-
(tfaem) to

in-retnm

TO ,; Babylon

com

xal
xat
and

lived (thereon).

nv ov
eohl

— Also
(them), and

com
xau

TtpiouT^ou
^ bnying-

failed

ttie anny, and it-was not (possible) to-bny

-(any)

d
if

banan
not [nnless] in

(forees)
',
of-Cyms,

barley-meal (being sold for)


the Lydian

Trtv
the

four
^ ^^
market

capithe

aiy'/juiv.
siglL
among the

of- wheat- floor

The
h

?)
bar

r,

or

gigluj

7.?.
hvvaToi
is-worth

if
and the

Oi-v
^ ^^ ^
seren

capithe

ol
Attic

contained
67)\
oboli

hio
two
xal
and

Attic
(a) half-^jbolus

chcenicer
'

I
Therefore the soldiers continued eating fle;-

' ' !^, }


[therefore the soldiers lired entirely on flesh].

rf-Ui Me — day»*- marches, which be-nrged-on (so as


There-were also (soim

to make then
, ?.
ndjO/
irery

n
long,
BOOK I. — CHAPTER
wheuerer he-might-wish

r&jp,
|
V.

Siare^Jaai
to-finish-the-road
53

[to ar-

8
rive]

'' either at water, or at forage. And indeed

' ,
^
7tr-?.ov
once-when [ narrow-place and mud having-appeared difficolW

raig
uf-passage for-tbe wagons, [a narrow and mnddy road appeared,

6

,
which was of difficult passage for wagons], Cyrus stood

, ^
" . ,-
with

bim,
roig
the

xcu
and
most-distinguished and

ordered

rov
xai

Glus
xai
and
most-wealthy

Pigres,
Ttfpi
about

(that)

baving-taken (a part) of-tho barbarian army, to-extri-

rag ' iSoxovv


cate the wagons. But when they-seemed to-bim

'$
to-do

. -- (this)
?.,
most-distinguished Persians

7(£vaaL
tardily,

Tlipaag

tag
as-if

about

•3
in -anger

him |
he-ordered
rovg

together-to-baTe-acce-

6n
the

leratcd [to hasten] the wagons. There then was to-be-

3at Tt rilg

^'.
'^
seen some

having-tbrown-off
portion (of )

rovg
— (their) purple
good-order (and discipline).

xavbvg, oTtov
cloaks, where
For

each

*•
happened having-been-standing [happened to hare stood]

TO,
themselves, [they rushed], as-if
$
any-one might
^^, run
|
they-seni•

[on a race]

,
[

nspi
for

fj^oiTsg
haA'lng
vixirg,
victory,

also (on)
and

' down

those
(a)

rovg

very steep

rich
bill,

tunici^
64 THE ANABASIS OF XENOPHON.

^^, ^ evioL
and — variegated trowsers,

', '^^ and also some (liaA'iLg)

^ ^ ^,
chains

Ttepi
about

with

Tag

rovtoig

^^$
these
about

(their) |
hands ;

(ornaments)
— (their)

[wrists]

into
;

rov
the
necks,

directly also
8

mud
,
and bracelets

having-leaped

thcy-brought-out

rig
the

av .
vagons lifted-up quicker

^
than {even-thus) any-one

^
might have-thought. And (on) the whole | Cyrus was evident

ansrhdv ndaav

^
oSov

,^
rrtv
hastening all the road, [Cyrus was evidently hastening

xal 01) SiarpiSov, oTtov


the march], and not delaying, unless where he-halted

^
on-account-of provisions or of-some other necessary

darrov

^-
^thing), thinking (that) by-hoAV-much the-more-speedily he-might-go

,
by-so-mueh

(the) king,
the-more-unpreparcd

and by-how-much
(he might come)

the -mure-tardily (he might march)


to-fight


.
by-so-much

'for (the)
the-more (numerous)

'king.

tov vovv
|
And
' "hv
army

also it-was to-perceive


is-to-be-collected

to-the direct-

ing the mind [and it might readily be perceived by any one

directing his attention to it] |


the empire 'of (the) 'king (as) being

strong

^ % indeed [that the empire of the king was indeed strong]

fthe) 'multitude (and extent of ) territory and (the number)


'^'^
'from

of- men,
— CHAPTER
^
^^
but
^ ' ^
, ^, weak
BOOK

by-the
1.

lengths of-the
V.

roads
xcu
and |
55

>
in-the

',
made
.
to-havc-separated [in the dispersion] (of)

rov
— war (against

,
rag

it)

by
(its) forces,

quick
if

(movements).
any-one

,
But beyond
rov
the river Euphrates,

,
through (the opposite)

.

(ac)

Charmande.
desert

opulent
statiuus

and

From
large
[marches through the desert]

this (city) the


ol
city, and

soldiers
(its)
there-was

name (was)

'
brought

ra

7?^
the

they-filled

they-had (as)

xaX
,^
necessaries-of-life

with [

covering
crossing-over on-temporary -rafts (made) thus;

light grass [hay] (the)

(for their t«nts),


skins,

then they-united-together
which

, ,
(the edges) and | 'dreiy (them) 'together [sewed them] so-that the

'
rovrov
water (could) not (io)-touch the hay; on these

xal
they-crossed-over, and procured the necessaries, not-only

olvov
wine

ne
, 'palm-tree,
made

xal airov
but-also corn
of
rrig
the

of-pannicj
fruit

for
trig

this
from

wu

xai
^
most-plentiful

And

rcdv

in

here

(those)


the
%.
(this) country.

soldiers

of-Clearchus
r
not-only —
having-been-disputing-aboui
of-Menon

but-also
^
56 THE ANABASIS OF XENOPHON.

;^
.^
Ti,
soiuething,

of-Menon

6
|
6
— Clearchus

dSixeiv
to-do-wrong [to
| having-judged [judging] the

be in the wrong] inflicted


'
rhv
(soldier)

blows (on him)


tov

but

' 6
who having-goue |
to the army
iavtov
of-himself [to the

'
army,

soldiers
to which he belonged]

having-henrd
told

(this)
[what had befallen him]

'were vehemently
-
j but the

'irri-

TtaLvav,
tated,

same
xal
and

day

Ttorauov, xai
?^, ^
enraged

Clearchus,

and here
^
-^ , ,
— (at)

having-gone
?^;^.
Clearchus.

to
T-r(v
the
And
tri
the

crossing

,
of-the river, having-inspected the market,

he-rides-away |
to
,
the tent 6f-himself [to his own tent]

^
Sia
through the army of-Menon, |
with (a) few

»,
aiVov hk Ki'pog
(followers, namely)

oi'TG) ,, ' (i/te) (those) about him;


'
but Cyrus

hk
'had

not-yet 'come, but still proceeded

,
(on his march); but some-one

of-the

8
he-saw —
soldiers

' 6,
Clearchus
of-Menon (yiho was) splitting

riding-through (the camp), throws (at him)


wood, aa

' TYi xai

,
..
'with — (his) 'axe; and this (soldier) indeed missed

him,
'
but another (throws) 'with (a) 'stone and-also
?^ another,

7?>, /rig
then many, (a) shout (a*, the same time) having-occurred.

But
6
— (Clearchus) takes-refuge |
in the
(^^ army of-himself.
BOOK — CHAPTER V. 57

^
I.

,
'
eig
[in his own camp], and immediately calls [his men] to

Ttt
— arms; and he-ordered the — heavy-armed-raen

' ,'

|

^>-
of-liim [his heavy-armed men] |
to-have-remained [to remain] having

Tag rag
placed

-,
ot
that
— (their)

having-taken [taking]

Yiaav
were
aariSag
shields

with-him
iv
in
the
against

the
rd

,,

Thracians
(their)

army
xai
and
knees;

the
8
but

horsemen,

more
he

^
than

,'
forty

they

avrbv,
himself,

OL
^'
and
(in number), but the

Thracians, proceeded-out against the (troops) of-Menon,


hk ol

were-struck (with astonishment, as was) also

(so that they) run


most

to
Toe

rovtav

.
Tci
'
of-these (were)

arms.
^^
so

-
(that)

Menon

But

. —

,
also (some) stood hesitating (about) the af-

fair (not knowing what to make of

^,
it).


— But Proxenus, |
for he-happened approaching

^ - last

(in order),

rciv
[who brought up the

,( rear], and (a) division

ovv
of-the heavy-

^
armed-men following him, leading therefore (his soldiers)

immediately

^-
|
into the

,
middle of-both [into the

-
space bo

tween both] stood (under)

;^;
archus not to-do
Tot

. these
arms, and

(things).
required

But
6
of —

— (Clearchae;
Cle •
,
58

was-irritated,

?^va^rivai,
been-stoned,

avtov
THE ANABASIS OF XENOPHON.

brt
because
avrov
he

(that he, Proxenus,) 'should mildly

?^8 re— avrov


8,
baving-wanted

Ttpacdg
little

'mention ]
To
the

i^iaraa^ai
^
xara•
to-have-

suffering

of-him

.
[bis ill treatment] he-ordered him (then) to-stand-out

ix

and


rov
from the

xal '^ middle.

inquired-into

javelins in
ro
the

rag

'
But
Krpog xal
Cyrus

affair;

(his)
^^, hands,
b'
also at

— (then) 'he immediately


and
rovru

^this

cvv roig
with —
^,
came-up,

'took

(those)

TCapovGL marcuv, ro

,
present of — (bis) faithful-attendants, came

;^
hastening to the

, . '
midst (of them),

xal
xal
and

oi
speaks
8.thus.

"?^;
0-Clearcbus

na^ovreg,
xal
and

,
Proxenus, and (you) the other Greeks who are-present,

lore ovx b rt Tap


you-know not what you-are-doing. For if you-shall-join-in

^^ '8
TLva
any battle with-one-another,

not-only will-instantly-be-cut-off

ov
in
|
think

this
[be assured]

(the) (very)
^^,
(that)

day, but-also
I

,
you not long after me ; [ for our-affaira

ovroi
having badly [for if our affairs go ill] all these

barbarians,

than)
ovg
that

— (those barbarians)
you-see

ovTidv
|
will-be

being [who are]


more-hostile

napa
with (the)
. to-ut

king.


f
Clearchus

himself; [recovered self-possession]


hearing

;
xai
and
these

both
(things) |
became

(parties)
- having-
in
— CHAPTER
ceased (from strife) placed
^ BOOK I.

— (their) arms
VI.

xara
in ('Jieir approvriftto)
59

pliice.

CHAPTER VI.

'
?) .
UpoLOvrcdj'
PiiocKKDiXG

appeared;
b
the
thence

track
(the) footsteps

'
indeed was-conjectured to-be

OvroL
and dung of-horsea

about (that)

xai

? ,.
,"
of-two-thousand horses. These going-before burned both (the)

xal 'Opovrrjg
fodder and any-thing

,
else, if (it) was useful. Orontes

,^
,
indeed, (a) Persian man not-only being-related

ra
by-birth 'to (the)

,'

',
'king, but-also (as respects) warlike-afiFairs being-considered

among

^^
the most-distinguished 'of (the) 'Persians, plots-against

', xai
Cyrus,

^
but

'>7
^^. and

'
(with

had-become-reconciled.

he-would-give him
whom) he-'had

,This
formerly

(person)

a-thousand horsemen, that having-lain-in-ambush


said

8'been-at-war,

-
to-Cyrus, if

av
'he would either
ri

ri
'destroy the

, ,
horsemen burning-down-every-

xai

,
thing-before-them, or might-take many of-them alive, |
and

would-hinder (them) going-against of-the to-burn, [and would hinder

xai
them from going and burning everything], and |
would-make, [and would
. THE ANABASIS OF

. '
^
sause],

'would
that

never
aiToi'g
they

^vvaa^aL
'be able
iSovrag
having-seen the
to

to-have-tuld
army
Kioou
of-Cyru•

^ ,
|
[to tell] (it) 'to (the)

'king. But to — Cyrus hearing these (thingg)

eiVat-
it-seemed to-be advantageous, [but Cyrus hearing these propositions

approved of them as being advantageous], and

' he-ordered

' him

. ,
to-tulie

manders.
(a)


part

'
But
(of the troops) from

'>7,
Orontes, having-thought
each

the
of-the com-

horsemen

, ^
to-be

king,

that 'he might


ready for-him,

that he-would-come

hvvYiTai
'be-able
writes

having

(to obtain); [that


(a) letter

the-most

he would come to
to

horsemen

him with
(the)

the greatest number of horsemen he could obtain] ; but he-requested

^^
(him)

to-receivo
I
to-bave-told the

him
.^
horsemen

,
as (a)
of-him

friend.
[to toll his

And
ivriv
there was [were]
horsemen]

.
|

iv
in the letter

but-also of-fidelity (to him).

avhpi,
8
not-only

^. reminiscences

He-gave
3)7^
8
this

6
of-formcr

the
friendships

letter

'to (a) 'faithful man, as he-thought ; but — (he) taking ( the letter)

/' '. —
6
gave

arrests
(it) to-Cyrus.

", But

Orontes,
Cyrus

and
having-read

he-convokes | in
,
it

iho
— CHAPTER
,^
tent
tavTov
BOOK

of-himself [in his


I.

^
own tent] the
VI.

tnra
seven most-distinguished
61

^^ ' ,
rav avtov xal
Of (the) 'Persians — about him; and he-ordered (he

commanders

<)
and
^. -
to-have-placed
of-the

[to place^
GreeliS

these
to-bring-up heavy-armcd-men,

— (in) arms around

.
j

[the tent of-him

^^
[his tent]. And — (they) did

these (things) bringing about three-thousand heavy-armed-men.

?,
^ ^
And

who

the-most

, '
he-came-out
xai
also

at-least
^ he-called

seemed

'honoured

he-related
xai
both
within

to-himsclf

rolg
to —
of-the

(his)
Clearchus

and

'.
friends
tolq
the

Greeks.

^
(as)

the
others

'
counsellor,

But

xpiOiV
trial
'to-be

after

'.
of-Orontes,

secrecy
how

(enjoined),
it-was

";
(conducted);

He-said — (that)
for there-was

Cyrus
no

began

Toi 8 '

the subject

I-have-invited
thus;

you
8 ,
{0-men) (my) friends,

rovrovi
that
- de-

liberating with you I-will-do. respecting this Orontes

hixaiov xal
I
that whatever

^. just is [that which is just] both before gods

^-
xal Ttpog 6

and

TtaTrip
father
before

gave
men.

this
For

(man) to-be
first

obedient
.
indeed

to-me.
'
my

But
,,
62

when having-been-ordered, as

brother, this
^
THE ANABASIS OF XENOPHON.

(Orontes)
'he himself
,
'said,

made-war-against
by

me
tov
{the)

(he)
my

having

^ .
Triv
the citadel in Sardis, and I making-war-against

avrbv knoiYiGa bo^ai


bim I
made (it so) [carried it on so] that (it) seemed (best)

tovra tov
to-this (person) to-have-put-an-end (to) the war against

,
me, and I-took (his) right-hand
xai
and gave (him mine in

-,
friendship). After these he-said, Orontes is-there

Tt ;
'
,
what any [any thing in which] I-havo- wronged you ? He-answered

^'
,
I

oTfc oil. 6
that (there-is) not. But — Cyrus again inquired; (did you)

not-then afterwards, as you yourself confess, having-gone-over

to

set
(the) Mysians,

ill

;
being-injured

(against)
rnv

(in)

my
no

,.
territory,
(manner)

|
by

what any-thing
me,

ti

[in whatever] you-could? — Orontes said (that he did).

6
(Did you) not-then said — Cyrus | when again you-knew

Triv
the strength of-yourself,

^ [when y ou were aware of the 1 ittle strength

^—
yai possessed against me],

^,,
of-Diana,

jcat,
^ you-said
coming

(that it)
to

not-only
the

repented
altar

,you,

but-nlso, having-persuaded me, 'you again 'gave m•


— CHAPTER
,"
pledges (of good faith), and
BOOK

xcu
I.

received (the same) from

ravra
VI.

', me?

ovv,
63

And



, Orontes

Cyrus, I
confessed

having-been-injured by

To rpirov
these

vn . (things).

me,
(In) what then,

[hast thou been injured


said

by
'

me], (that) now (for) the third (time) you-have-been manifestly

; 'Opovrov on
plotting-against me?

. But — Orontes

,'
saying, that

' '^^ ,^,


having-been-injured (in) nothing (he did

ovv
so). — Cyrus asked

.
him; You-conl'ess therefore to-have-been unjust towards

', Tap 6
me ? (I confess it) for certainly (there is a) necessity, said —
,''
Orontes.

"Av
After

ovv

' ;
tovro 6
this — Cyrus again

tQ

, asked;

,
Would 'you yet then 'become hostile to-my brother,

but friendly and faithful to-me? — And he-answered,

,'
otL
that

seem-so,
ovh'

.
neither

aoi
if

to-you
I-should-become

at-least
.- never.
(so),

On
»,
Cyrus, would-it yet-ever

this
sti

Cyrus

said

certainly
'—
./
'done
(to those) present. —
such-things and he-acknowledges the-same.
(This)
avrip
man indeed 'has

As
Ana

of-you

(your)
,"(present)

opinion,

'
'do you

b Tt
whatever
/;^
Clearcnus

.
seems (right) to-you.
first

And
'declii

Clearchui
J•

«poke thus; I advise (that) — this man


64

TtoiELG^aL ixTtoScdv
be-put

uo-loiiger
out-of-the-way as

^
'be-necessary
^,
THE ANABASIS OF XENOPHON.

';^,
quickly

to-guard-against

,
(as possible),

this
that 'it-miy

(person;,

ehou

^
f/
but (that) there-may-be leisure to-us, |
concerning the to-bo

rovTov

'
this-one [so far as relates to this

. ^^. man]
Ttoieiv
to-do good (to) those

,
TY}

these
opinion
willing

(things),
xcli
also
(to be)

KrpoD
Cyrus
the

,
friends.

others

ordering
And he-said (that)

concurred.

(it), all
in-this

After

even the

^^
relations

(by) the
(ofOrontes)

girdle | as-to
^*
rising-up

death ;
[in
took —
token of his being condemned
Orontes

,^, ,-,,
to death]

'.
him
;

(out).
8
but

'
then

But when

nsed-to-bow-down (before him),

(before him) althougn


(those)

(those)

knowing,

,
6
to-whom it-was-commanded,

saw

and

otl
then
him

that he-might-be-led
(also)
who

to
led

formerly

they-bowed-down

death.

And then he-was-led to-the tent of-Artapatas, the

',
^5^
most-faithful (and trusted) of-the |
sceptre-bearers [ushers] of-Cyrus,

8
'
after

^^
this no-one

3•')7,
ever

ovhi
saw

8 Orontes, neither

8(
living

nas-said [nor
nor

. :uld
having died, |

anyone of his own knowledge say] how


nor

^'
any-one having-knowu

he died
— CHAPTER
*
land others
BOOK

conjectured
I.

.
otherwise [some
VH.

c<

^
njectured tbis, and
65

.
others that].

'.
But no tomb
avrov
of-him 'was ever

^ . 'Ei'TfrS-ez^
Hence
CHAPTER
Std
he-proceeds through the
VII.

Ba6vc^va
Babylonian (province)

^ ,
, ^^ ,
three

the
/'
days'-march (making) twelve

third day's-march
88
Cyrus
parasangs.

makes,

xai
'
And

about (the) middle


on

of-night, a-review of-the Greeks and of-the Barbarians,

^'
'^
iv
on the plain for he-thought (that the) king would-arrive

on the

^,
offering-battle;

Tof)
of-the
morning

right
'
xai
and

wing,
coming


and
^
^ .
am
with

he-ordered

Menon
the

;;^'
Clearchus
army

,
(and)

to-take-command

Thessalian of-the

hk
left; buthe-himself drew-up-in-order-of-battle |the of-himself

[his own troops]. But after the review | at-the-same-time

//[,

.
with-the coming day, [at dawn of day], deserters comint'

,
Ttapa Krpoj
from great king informed Cyrus

,
(the)

about (the state) of-the army 'of (the) 'king. — Cyrua,

6*
:
66

^,
h.aviiig-assembled
THE ANABASIS OF

rovg

§?<^
the generals
XENOPilOJi.

xcu
and
? captains of-tht

. Greeks,

TtOLOLTo rr,v , consulted (with them) not-only,


re,
how 'he migh

^
['make the battle, [conduct the engagement], but-also ht

*0 "/^

,
ToiaSe . avSpsg,
encouraging thus exhorted (them). Grecian men.

ovx
not (for) being-in-want of-barbariau men (that)

^
(it is)

I-Iead you (with me as) auxiliaries, but thinking

you to-be moreefBcient and better (than) many

/^^,
npo?^.a6ov.

' '^ ^
'tiike-you-with
^
{or a great multitude of )

(me).
barbarians,

(See)
Ovv

,
then
'I

that
Sia Toiyro
for this

you-will-be
(reason alone)

men

worthy of-the

r^
which I

oTi
that

(that)
av
would

which
.
£?
I-have,
liberty

'esteem

'prefer

xai
and
^


you

other
^.
which you-have-acquired

'fortunate.

liberty

(things)
Tap
For

before
and

,
'you well 'know,

numerous
for

all

(and greater).

what (kind of )

8. , ('
But

contest
xai
also in-order-that 'you (may)

you-come,

Tap
|I having-known
^-
'know

[I knowing
to

well] will-inform you.

77.
For

^'
the multitude (is) indeed

- large^

and

'^
QAve-sustained
,
they-c(jme-on 'with (a)

this, and
'great

(as respects)
shout;

Toi
the
'
but should

other
you-

(things)
hoKCi
l-seem to^myself
^ ^^
ovrag
BOOK

to-be-ashamed
I. — CHAPTER

iv
(that)


VII.

you-will-know what
rovg

^''
67

the

,
men j
beiug [oorn] in (this) country (are of use) to-us

(as soldiers). But you being


avh^v,
men (of courage),
\
and

haviug-become

proai-hlng engagement),
bold

I
,
8^
(and

indeed
spirited), (so as to

will-make
conquer in the ap-

(the) (those) of-you

desiring

^
Tolg
— (by those) at-home
olxoL
to-go

'

;
8
but I-think
|

^
home to-have-departed

to-'make
[to-return]

many
envied

'hereafter

I
to-have-taken-for-y ourselves [to prefer] the (things to be obtained)

Ttap

^^
with

'
me

Then
before —
Gaulites
(those that

(a)
^',
maybe

Samian exile,
oixoi.
obtained) at-home.

but
8
(a)

marbg

'
faithful

Cyrus,

hid
(adherent of)

some

to
, say,
Cyrus being-present

on
that
viw
now you-promise
said; and

many

tov
yet,

(things)

Ttpo-
on-account-of ]
the to-be [being] in such (a state) of — - ap-

xLvhvvov
danger;
ti
happen
,
-
proaching but should any-thing well, [but

as ov
should success attend you], they-say |
(that) you 'would not 'have-

vria^ai
remembered [that you would not hereafter remember your promises]

.
;

' ''
— some (also say that) neither if you-remember and also may-ivish

^^^
will-you-be-able —
anoSovvai
to-give what you-promise. — Cyrua
68 THE ANABASIS OF XENOPHON.

,
bearing

y\ .^[
ravra

,
this
8?.'
said j
'' But there-is' to-us,

my
aripeg
men,

^
I
the empire the paternal, [the empire, that belonged tn father],

(whicb)

men
indeed (extends)

ov
l^^XP^
so-far

hvvavrai
Ttpbg
to (tbe)

8
south

, where

'
'are not 'able to-dwell by-reason-of heat,

he
and so-far

hk
to

ol
(the) north
ov
where (they cannot live)

-
.
Sid
for

'.
cold; but the friends of — my brother govern -as-

Ttavra rd
satraps all (the countries situated) — in (the) middle of-these

(northern and southern limits). But


TiV
if we-conquer it-becomes
8 us

to-make — our
/' friends masters of-those

", 88
(countries).

Tt
So-that

not any-thing which I-might-give


te
I-'have not
ov

to-each
'feared

,

, this,

'of (my)
lest I-have

friends,

OV

om
should it-bappen

, ,
well, [should we be successful],

.
but lest I-have

.
not (friends) enough, to-whom I-might-give. But 'I-wiU

xai
also 'give to-each of-you Greeks (a) golden

crowii.

they
But the (Greeks present) hearing

were not-only much 'more (encouraged and) 'prompt-for-action,


^,
.
raira,
these (things),

but-also thej'-reported (what they had heard) to-the others (of the

At OL Ttap -'V, xai


Greeke)^ And not-only the commanders about iv but-also some
of-the

eiSevaL ti
other
',
BOOK

Greeks
I. — CHAPTER
entered
VII.

(his tent)

^[.
69

desiring

'
to-know

But

'sent

what (reward) shall-be

(he) baving-satisfied

(thoai) 'away. And


^
to-them,

T/iv
the

, ^, all
if

minds

whoever
they-should-conquer.

aTtavruv,
ofall,

conversed

(with him)

but

'Ev ^
rra'^aL ^
' ?£
to-place-himself
.
exhorted

behind
him, not to-fight

(the line of battle)


(personally),

of-themselves,

— — —
At

" this time Clearchus

'
inquired-of Cyrus

^ ^;
Ttij^
some-how thus; Do-you-think then

brother

^,
if

<5

.
indeed
will-fight?

he-is (the) son


(to-yon),

Nri
Yes, by- Jupiter,

of-L*arius

,^
and
,
Cyrus, (that)

said
6

rov
— (your)

Cyrus,

Parysatis,

'
and my brother, I 'shall not 'take (possession of

ravr
these (dominions) without-a-fight.

'Ei'Trar^a Sn
There indeed (of those) (in) — under-arms

8
(the)

dpiS-/Liog
number

four-hundred
,
',
was of-the

heavy-armed-men,

8
Greeks

and two-thousand and


^^/
ten-thousand

- and

,
five-

8 /36*
hundred

8
targetiers, and (the number) of-the barbarians

^) ^.
Krpou
with Cyrus (was) |
ten ten-thousands, [one hundred thousand], and

ebout — twenty scythe-bearing cnariots. And (the number)


70 THE ANABASIS OF XENOPHON.

7.
,
oi-the

.
enemy

ten-thousands, [1,200,000],
was-said

^
and
to-be

two-hundred
| a-hundred

7/; and

,
twenty

scythe-bearing

chariots.

of-whom
As
And

Artagerses

Ttpo
there-were

' six-thousand

had-the-eommand ;

. ovroL
?,?.
other

these (horsemen)
borseiutn,

were

drawn-up before (the) king himself. But 'of (the)

'army of-the king there-were

^, four (being)

,,
(their

*
,
Arbaces.
,
commanders

,
names were)
xai
and

(having under his command)

. Ae
But
generals

Abrocomas,

of-these
|
thirty
and

Tissaphernes,

there-were-present
leaders,

ten-thousands,

in

«^
the
each

[300,000],

Gobruas,

baf^le

nine-hundred ten-thousands, [90,()0], and a-hundred and

fifty scythe-bearing chariots j for Abrocoiuas

.
marching

days.
from

And
Phoenicia

ol
— (those)
?^
arrived-after

having-deserted
the battle

from
five

the

enemy (that were) with (the) great king

,
'
Ttpo

?.
announced these (things) to Cyrus before the battle;

,
and, after the battle, — (those that) thereafter

were-taken-prisoners reported the-same (things).


8
BOOK

•$
I. — CHAPTER VII.

^
, 71

" And thence Cyrus proceeds one daj's'-murch,


rtavri

-
' ^
^makin<i) three parasangs, with-all the army,

jiat
borh the Greek and the barbarian, drawn-up-iu-

order-of-battle for he-thought (that the) king would-offer-battle

^ ,
;

(on)
TavTyj
that — (same)
,( day;
'

for about (the) middle (of ) the

/?3,
days'-march there-was (found) a-diteh dug

^ deep, the

.
78 ,,
breadth indeed (was)

fathoms.

plain


M>7^/'a$.
of-Media.
to
And the

twelve

'^
five

ditch

Here
fathoms,

parasaugs,

Sn
— are

'
8
and

was-extended

the
the

just-to

canals
depth

avoi
up

(the)
hia
through
three

the

walls

flowing

from

TO ^, the river Tigris and there-are four

8
(of them),

the

' — breadth (of each is) of-the-size-of-a-plethrum, and very

^',

. , ,
deep,

leave

'are
^
and

and they-discharge-their- water

(between)
corn-carrying

(thrown) 'over (them).


each
into

"
vessels

the

There-was

^^
^;!^, 8
a-parasang,


sail

Euphrates,

(a) narrow
on
'
aiVatg'

and

bridges
them;

Sia-
they-

'
also

passage

Ttapd
along

,
Ihe
the

trench
Euphrates,

about the
between

breadth of-twenty
.
the

feet.
river

'>7
and

This
.
,-^
7a the anabasis of

^ ^.
defence,
tviv
— trench

after
(the) great

he-heard-of
7.€ king

Cyrus

Srj
makes

marcbing-againet
for (a*

(him). This — passage indeed not-only Cyrus but-also

v\

the

;.
army

^
7>73,
went-through, and (so) became

ovx ovv
within
rvj^
the

^
trench. (The) king indeed 'did not therefore 'otfer-battle

-?
on-that

xal
and

-)^
Tip

of-men
Tmkpq.,
day, but

retreating
7(o}J?A
many tracks

were
.
xal
both

-
of-horses

visible.

There

cian
, 6^ Cyrus

soothsayer,
xa?Jaag
having-called

gave
avrC
him
Silanus

three-thousand
rov
the

8, Ambra-

,6 ^
darics,

oTt rii an
because previously on-the eleventh (day) from that —
on

,
day (while) sacrificing, he-said to-him that (the) king

ov 6'

,
'would not 'fight (for) ten days; Cyrus then

said,

'fight

^,
he-'will

in
ovx
not

these
then

'
^.
thereafter

col
— days;
'fight,

but
'
if

^ if
>7-
you-speak-
ov
he-'will not

the-truth, I-promise

6, 8 you ten talents. Tliis

TO

^.

elapsed.

OVX
gold

?.
'he then

ro
'
After indeed, at
'paid,

r9i
the
,^,
when

trench,
the

(the)
ten
ri/t^epa
diiy;i

king

did not 'prevent the army of-Cyrus to-go-through (it),


BOOK I. — CHAPTER VIII. 73

rod

'^
the
'
eSo^e
ae-seemed both

(design)
to-C^Tus

to-tight;
and to-the

so-that on-the
tri
others

wrepaia
following
to-have-given-up

(day)
Ki;pog
Cyrus

proceeded (on his

,'^ march) more


^?^•/;.
negligently. But

,.
TYl rphvi r - march not-only
on-the third (daj) he-made the being-seated

rod xai avrov


in — (his) chariot, but-also having before him

iv Se
few

'
(men, drawn up)
3 -
in order ; but the greater (part of

the army) for-him

observing any order], and


procecded-on

xai
many
|
having-been-put-in-disorder, [without

of-the arms for-the


- sol-

ini xai
diers were-carried on wagons and beasts-of-burden.

vat
Kat
And it-was

6
8
now
CHAPTER
i
not-only about
^^ VIII.

full
^^^,
-
market (time),

mt-also the station was

nvLxa
near where he-was-about

,to-ter-

iinate (the day's march) when

i Pataguas

^ (a) Persian man,

,
'' tcictCw
of-the faithful (adherents) about Cyrus appears

riding

xai
and

xai
^
immediately
at full-speed

he-called-out
,^,
— (\vith his)

to-all,

xai
whom
horse
IhpovvTL'
sweating;

otl
he-met,

bcth ! in-barbarian fin Persian] and in-Greek, that (the»


74

king

prepared
. ,
THE ANABASIS OF XENOPHON.

approaches

as for
with (a)

battle.
large

'^Then
^
indeed
army,

-
tliere-

was

'^
all

on

ano
from
77.
great

rov
the
iSoxovv
thought

them

, ,^-
confusion

in-disorder;

chariot,
"

^
put-ou
"
for

(that) 'he (the king) 'would


the


?.
,
^,?^'/;
Greeks

aiVt;fa
suddenly

Cyrus not-only, having-leaped-dowu

(his) breast-plate, but-also


and
hs
also

'fall

mounting

in —
,
^,
ini

(his)
on
rov

hands,
(his)
htnov
horse

re

he-took

7'/!?.?.
(and) not-only did-he-order

^'^
(his)

all
javelins

the

-^.
%^.

^
xai
rest to-arm-themselves, but-also each-one |
to-placc-himself

? },
in the rank of-himself [to station himself in his own rank].

*Er^a hvi
There indeed (in their proper stations) thcy-placed-theuiselves with

7( ^,
great haste, Clearchus indeed having the
6^ right

of-the (right) wing near the river Euphrates, but

'
Proxeuus having (his station next to him) and the others

Tovrov. xai
after this (in order). But Mcnon and — (his)

'E?>.?.yjVLxod.
had the left wing of-the Gn;ek

?,-
'
(armj^.

guniao
But of-the

'
about
? barbarian (force) horsemen namely (the) Paphla-

^-thousand stood near


;^• Clearchu»
^ BOOK I. — CHAPTER VIII. 75

^,
xal to h> 5e^ic5'
aud the Greek peltastic (force) on the right,

he iv 6
but

Kvpov,
of-
on

Cyrus,
the

xai
but-also
left

TO
the
? (was) not-only

other barbarian
Ariaus

(force);
the lieutenant

Cyrus also
he

xal
and (the) horsemen Avith him about six-hundred (were in the

-,
centre),
avToi
they

armour-for-the-thighs, and

he
indeed

xal
having-been-armed with-breastplates

all with-helmets,

"
except
Kvpov
xal
and

Cyrus;

Cyrus indeed stiitioned-himself in the battle having

'\1'' he

'.
(his) head bare; and (it is) also said (that)

rovg havhvvvv iv
the other Persians expose-themselves in

, — battle


— (those)
with-bare heads.

Kvpov,
Also all the

-
horses, (namely)

.
with Cyrus, had both defensive-annour-on-their-

Ttihia 7tpopvha' h ol xal

?^
foreheads and defensive-armour-for-the-breast; and the horsemen also

had

xal
but-also
Kal
And
Grecian

-
it-was

ovTtiu
nut-yet
Yihri
now

were
swords.

Te
not-only (the)

the enemy
middle

', 'of (the)

visible;
, 'day,

he
but

when

(a) white
,
it-was

cloud,

^^^
hel^ri
early-afternoon

he
but 'in
ov
no
a-dust

'much
^ appeared,

time

TtehiQ
like-as

after.

something like blackness (appeared) on the plain f on


76 ANABASIS OF . ^^
.
ixa7J:.
much [much extended]. But when they-becainc

•, nearer,

xai
and

at
he

And
^

;
spears
;^
thereupon

there-were
and
something

the

horsemen

?<^,
(like)

ranks

— (having)
brass

became

^ i^leamed-forth,

whitc-cors'jlets
and

visible.

on

'
the

to-command
left of- the

these;
enemy,

next

^ ^ '6
then (to)
Tissaphernes

these
was-said

(were the)

with

to-be
'
wicker-shield-bcarers;

avv
wooden

..
Egyptians
next also (to these were)

shields reaching-to-the-feet;

;
'
and (next followed)

'
'

ovtol
6'

other
heavy-armed-men

ovtol
and these were-said

horsemen (next)

other bowmen.

^,
All — these

^ (marched together)

^^
7^ ^.
according-to (their) nation, each — nation marched-on

in (an) oblong full of-men [in solid column]. And

avTCdv
before them (were) chariots leaving (a) consider.able (space)

an

'
>7?^',
bctween one-another,

6


^ hri
(these) indeed

,
werc-called
SpsTtavyj-
scythe -

.
ihariots; they-had the scythes extended from

^^
the

the
axles in

seats-of-the-drivers
(an)

7.
oblique

looking
(direction), and (others) undci

yyjv

,
towards (the) ground soar

to-cut-through whatever they-might-meet. And the | desigi•


BOOK I. — CHAPTER VHI. 77

Yiv xal Siaxo^Ovrav


(of them) was that hereafter-driving-into, and cutting-through into

the rauks of-the


?^. Greeks. [The design of these chariots

^0
was

,
the
to drive into,

iiowever

)7
said

Greeks
^-
and cut through the ranks of the Greeks.] What

ore
when
;;(
having-called

to-sustain
"the
(the men)

shout of-the

Cyrus

he-exhorted

bar-

,
barians,

'snout,

,, but
^^^
in-this he-was-deceived;

'in (as much)


, for

'silence,

. ,
they-approached not 'with

as (it was)
(a)

possible,

' .
xai xal
a«d quietly, in (an) even (step) and slowly. And at

this

, (time)

xal

,
Cyrus, riding-by

,
himself vith Pigres,

, ^'
the interpreter, and three or four others, he-called-out


;^^
to-Clearchus to-lead — (his) army against the

6tl
centre of-the enemy, that (the) king might-be there;

-
xav
and-if, said-he,

\. —
;^ ,
we-conquer (in) this (quarter)


all has-been-done

^
,
for-us. But Clearchus seeing (that) middle dense-body

xal
(of soldiers), and hearing from-Cyrus (of the) king being

beyond the
>7^5 Grecian left, for (the) king

Ttepiyjv
excelled so-much
^,
in-multitude, |
so-that having the middle

y}v
pf-himself [so that, stationed in the centre of his army,] he-was (eyeni

7*
^.
f^

£Vi,)iiiuov
beyond tise-l•^-*
THE ANABASIS

rov Kvgov,
— -('8,
01"

?.'
hut

^
'
ho««ver
6
— Cleurchiu

'did

tho

^,
Bides,
, not
ii^e?>.ev

river,

but
'wish

— to-Cyrus
,.
to-dniw-off

fearing lest

he-replied,
the

?)^ ^-
right

I
on
wing

he-might-be-surrounded on-both-

that it-would-be-a-can
care
':
from

to him that it-may-have (itself) well [that he would take cars.

that everything should terminate wollj.

Kat iv rovTG}
And during this — time the — barbarian

?, 6 '>7-
army

cian (army)
L
advanced

still remaining
steadily

in the

. , -
(and equally), and the

same (place),
Gre-

was-formed-

, ^ ,
in-order-of-battle

Kupog
Cyrus

army,

.
•Te
7? from

riding-past
— (those)

ov
not
still

very

surveyed (the armies) looking-at

^^ 8
76?^7
coming- up.

near to-this
Kat 6
And

(his)


each-side,

7'-
not-only towards the enemy but-also (towards) (his)

friends.

ajto ', But Xcnophon (an) Athenian seeing him

from

-,
the

" Grecian

\
(line), having-ridden-up as-if tohave

met

6
who
^'
— •
(him), asked

having-stopped
if

(his horse)
^
he-may-'have any-thing

said, and-also
'to-order

ordc;ed (h'm)

ndcfiv, xal
to-tell all, that both the sacrifices and the victims (were)
— CHAPTER
Aoka. ^, ^Saying
BOOK


I.

he-heard
VIII. 79

",
favourable. this (a) noise goir.g

c^ia xat 6
through the ranks, and he-iuquired what the noise

>7.
niight-be.

7;^6

^^
^
And Xenophon said,
oTt
that

. the
Gvv^
watch-word
- 'is

,
;>7
now 'passing (through the ranks) for-the-second-time. And

(mho) (Cyrus) wondered what-person


7?<2£, gives-out (the vord), and
\

57 Tt TO -.

'
he-asked what the watch-word might-be.

. And he-replied,

,
OTL
that

.
(it

having-heard
was) Jupiter (the) preserver

;,
(it), said,

7tv
>7
but
xal
and victory.

not-only 'receive

^^'
(it)
— And

xal
hk

but-also let-it-be
Cyrus

And

-
^
so. having-said this he-rode-away to | to-the

;^ •
xal
place of-himself; [to his own

>7
station in the line;] and the-two ar-

mies

four

xal
,were-apart

yjpxovro
stadia, when
an
from

the
^^
one-another not-more-than

Greeks not-only sang-the-pa3an

77^.
three
"
or

^ ?, ^-
but-also began to-go against the enemy. But

^
Tt
as (they) were-proceeding some (part) of-tbe phalanx fluctu-

^^ TO 7?^7 yjp^aro

^,
ated (from the rest) the (part) left-behind began

to-run
8'
with-speed;
xal
and (they) all together made-a-noise

like-as thej'-shout to —
'?, Mars,
xal
and also ali

^.
ran. And some say, that 'they
xal khov7tr,aav
also 'sounded
80

•—
. , THE ANABASIS OF XENOPHON.

'with (their) 'shields against the

Ttpiv
spears, causing

^,
.
fear to-the horses. But before (that) (an) arrow

reaches (them), the barbarians


8?.,give-waj', and

^ ^, ,^ .
flee.

followed with
Kai
And
6
also

(all their)
£>"rai;3a
there

might,
indeed
ol
the
'^'?.'

>->7
and calling-out to-one-another
Greeks

not

the
,
to-run

chariots,
with -speed,

void
^^,
but

of-drivers,

7(?^
to-follow

,
were-born
in


order.

(some) indeed
But

6 -^,
through (the ranks) of-the enemy themselves, but (others)

6 '^'. ot,

also through

^, (the ranks) of-the Greeks. But (they),

,
.

when they-could see (them coming) |


they-stood-apart [they opened their

'
ranks] ; but there-was some-one-person

^'
(who) also was-caught,

as

thty-said
in

however
(a)

^
^ race-course, he-having-been-struck-with-fear; and

(that) neither 'did this-person 'suffer |


ovHv
nothing;

?.• ^ ^
''
[in any thing] ; |
neither 'did no-one other indeed [nor did any one

else]

^
TavTYi
this
of-the

}

. Greeks

^^.
battle,
|

except
suffer

on
nothing

the
[suffer

left,
any thing] in

some-one

was said to-have-been -shot-with-an-arrow.

But Cyrus seeing the


"^^^ Greeks conquering and
8
pursuing
ro
BOOK

the (part of the


I.

^
— CHAPTER
,^
xaS
army) opposed-to
VUl.

them, bping-pleaeea,
81

xal

'
and

about
avrov,
him,
being-saluted

''
now as

nor (yet) was-'he thus 'led-away


^ ^, king by — (th}se)

to-pursue (the enemy),

, ryjv

.
bui, keeping drawn-up-in-close-order the band of-the

(5[
?<. '
otl
six-nundred horsemen with himself, he-carefully-watched what

(the; king would-do; for 'he


xal
well
8
'knew
avrov
{himj

oTL

^^
,)
that he-kept the-centre of-the Persian army.

Kat Se ol
And also all the commanders of-the barbarians

occupying the centre of-their (command) led (them thus

^,
' xal
into action) thinking thus also to-be — the-most-secure


if I
ri
the strength of-them [their strength] should-be
€3, on-either-side,

,
and,

army
if they-should-want

may
^^ . perceive
to-order any-thing, (that) the

And

$
in-half (the) time.

even-indeed (the) king having then (the) centre ot-the

army of-him

. ^8
[of his army] was nevertheless beyond the)

Se

^
left wing — of-Cyrus, AVhen indeed no-one

fought

(those of his
ix
from the

own
,
opposite (part) (either) against-himself (nor) (or)

troops) drawn-up before him,


82 THE ANABASIS OF XENOPHON.

^
be-commenced-wheeling-round

-^
Then
Syj
indeed
Ki'pog
Cyrus,
^
?^fearing
as for-the-purpose-of

lest
^
?. '
having-got
xvx?u^aiv,
surrounding

in-tlie-rear

iie-might-cut-to-pieees the Grecian (forces), moves-on against

(him); and having- charged with the six-hundred

/.
(horsemen with

him),

xal
and
conquers

turns
'

into
(those)

flight
drawn-up

the
^, Ttpo
before (the)

six-thousand
king,

(horsemen

)
guarding the king),
xai
and he (Cyrus) is-said to-have-killed

TYi
I

the

«' 6
xal
also
,
with-the

^.
OL
the
%^^
hand

commander

sis-hundred
of-himself

of-them.
[with

(horsemen)
But
his own hand]

as

Kvpov,
the

of-Cyrus,
rout

^
.-
Artagerscs

occurred,

are-dispersed

?.^- ' ,
.
'

having-rushed-on |
to the pursuing ;
[in pursuit] ; except (a) very

6?JyoL
few, (that) vere-left about him, (and who were)

?<}
nearly-all

^
ol

Gvv ,,
(those

'
who) are-ca!led

xa^opq ?.
table-companions.

^ king
xal
and
*.
Being

the

^
therefore with these, he-sees (the)

,
xal
dense-body-guard around him, and immediately he-'did not

•restrain-himself, but

avTov
aiaa;
xal
and
saying,

strikes

^
I-see

at

, , the


ar^pa,

(his)
man, he-rushed

breast,

-/;
in
on

and

\founds (him) through the breast-plate, as Ctesiaa the


— CHAPTER
phj'sician

TO . ^,
says,
UOOK .

and (moreover) he-himself


VIII.

^ says
^ 83

(that) he-heiilcd

the wound. But some-one, (whUe he was) striking (at the king)

hits

'

eye

and
^^?. ^
',
Cyrus
'
him

and
violently

there

xai
'with (a) 'javelin

(then were) both (the)

ol

7^
under

^
the

king

fighting, and (those likewise) about

{^ '

them (were fighting), for

^^
each (of their own chiefs)

(in battle)
,'
how-many indeed

Ctesias
— (of those) about (the)

tells (us);

8
|
for
king

he-was about

'
' died

him;

^^,
[for

,
he attended the king's person]; and not-only Cyrus himself

,
died,

(of those)

,,
Artapates,

bearing
about
xai
but-also

,6
the

servants,
him,

;6/;
eight,

7,
most-faithful
ol
the most-distinguished

lay

is-said,
(dead) on

to-him

after
in


.
'
(persons)

him.

(of his)

he-saw

But

sceptre-

Cyrus

fallen, (that)

. having-leaped

Kat ol
from

— (some) indeed
— (his) horse

?^ And

,^
to-have-thrown (himself ) on-him. say (that)

(the)

aiTor
him
king

,
(lying) on-CjTus,
ordered

ol

8
but
some one

(others say,
|
to-have-killed

that)
[to kill]

having-drawn

rbv
(his) scimitar, he-killed himself; for
84 THE ANABASIS OF .,
he-had

•,
bracelets,
(a) golden-one;

xal , 8
and

and (such) other (ornaments),


also he-wore (a)

as
chain,

the most-distinguished
dnJ

.
'

, 'of (the) 'Persians (are accustomed to wear) ; for he-had-bcen-honoured

vno 6l xai
by Cyrus not-only for (his) good-wUl-and-affection, but-also (for his)

very-great-fidelity.

CHAPTER IX.

, -•
re

;he

ap;^eiv,
lO-rcign,
Thus

,6?
not-only 'of
ovv

(all) 'the

elder,

as
,.
now indeed

Persians

princely,

is-agreed-to
died

itapa
by
existing
Cyrus,

xal
but-also

all
(a)

since
man

the-most-worthy

— |•
being

Cyrus

(those)

appearing to-have-been

matcly acguainted with Cyrus]. For

xal
indeed
,
in (the) experience of-Cyrus

first, being
[those inti-

yet (a)

,
Ttatg,
boy, when he-was-educated both with — (bis) brother

xal
and

of-all
with the

. other

in-all-things.
boys, he-was-thought

For all
(to be)

the
the-best

sons

of-Persians

hvpaig
gates 'of (the)

,' eminent-in-rank,

'king;
are-educated

[in the royal palace] ;


^ |

there
at

one
the

maj
'^
leam

,
BOOK

indeed
I.

much
— CHAPTER
(of the)
TX.

-^
wisdom-of-temperance-and-
85

6.
8'

^
ovr'
modesty, but (possible) neither nor

,^
it-is to-hear to-see

' ol
any-thing base. But the boys both see — (those)

honoured

xal

^
by (the)

^^ king and

'
hear (thereof),

^^
and (in like manner of ) others being-disgraced j so-that straightway

^.
being (yet)

to-bc-governed.

^^
boys

'Er'S^a
There
they-learu

Cyrus


, not-only to-go\-crn

indeed seemed first


but-also

(of all)

,^
to-be the-most-modest (of his) equals-in-agc, (and) not-only

to-obey the elders but-also much-more (readily than)

'
^'
— (those) more-inferior (to) him (in rank) ; and next-then

. -
he-was-most-fond-of-horses, and (was able)

horses (in the) best (manner).


;^>73
'
to-use

And
(or

they-discerned
manage)

''
the

him

,.
to-bo also the-most-desirous-in-learning, and most-diligem and-indefa-

^
Tov
tigable (in) the operations for — var, [in warlike exercisesj,

not-only (those) of-archery but-also (those) of-throwing-the-dart.

^
indeed it-beoame — (his)
^'^age, he-was both
^, ^

most fond-of-hunting,
When

and


. even

wUd-bearts.
4
most-fond-of-danger-and-adventure (in enconnters) against

And once he-'did not 'fear (a) she-bear


66

(when)
,^^
tack and conflict]
THE ANABASIS OF XENOPHON.

attacking (him),

be-was-dragged
|
but falling-together [but in the

from
rod
— (his)

,
, horse,
air-

, ,
and

scars
indeed he-suifered

of-which be-liad
the [he receiA-ed some wounds]

visible (on his body),


8
but
and, tho

at-last

^-
he-killed (the bear),

7^•
and indeed he-made

(him) to-be-considered-very-happy by-many.


the (person)

?.?.
first

,
coniing-to-assist

satrap
When
8
indeed he-was-sent-down

of-Lydia
Te
and also
by

tyjg

^^
/
of-the

7.^
(his)

Great
fatlier

Phrygia
(as)

, ^ ^
and

5,
Cappadocia,
h
and likewise

^po^aL
appointed

^
commander

,
of-all, to-whom it-appertains to-be-asscmblcd in (the) plain

of-Castolus, first indeed he-showed himself | thai

TtoiolTo
he-'made 'himself very-much, [that he held of the great

^
(it) for it

{
est importance to himself], if be-made-a-treaty — (with any one), and

if he-made-an-agreement — (with any one), and if — (to any one)

'^vh^aL ^. j^ap
he-promised

ovv
therefore indeed tho
auy-thiug,

at
cities
to-deccive (in) nothing.

entrusting-themselves to-him,
' And

confided

' *

.in him) as-also (in like manner did private) — men confido

and
\
any-one became
7?., Cyrus
(in him); if hostile,
BOOK I. — CHAPTEK IX. 87

^ ^.
'aaving-made-a-treaty (with him) he-was-confident (that) 'ho would (hare to)

rag

'.
suflur nothing contrary to-the

€, treaty. Therefore when

'
ho-warfed-war (agains^

^^ .
voluntarily chose Cyrus
Tissaphernes,

avrl
before
all

Tissaphernes
the

except (the)
towns

^
Milesians;

'wish

'he
xal
also
^
but

to-abandon

'showed
ovroL
they

|

feared

(those)

^/,
'by (his) 'deeds,
avrov

fleeing
him,

and
on
because he-'did not

[the exiles].

?., said,
ovx

For

ori
that

'he

friend
av ov
would not

,
to-them,

he
ever
npoolro

ovS'
nor
'desert

if
(them),

ert
when

.
once

indeed they-should-become yet


he-became (a)

less

number), and should-suifer (a) yet worse (condition than they

'^
(iu

,
Kat
were in). And if any-one should-do him any-thing good

or bad,
- he
indeed evident (that he was)
it-ivtvs striving

/,
wish

,
to-conquer (in these respects);

of-him, that he-desired


and
6
also

to-live
some

so-long
,
uscd-to-mention (a)

(a) time,

until

acting

^
Kat
And

tocommit
'he,

^—
requiting

well and

thei'efore truly
hyj

ivl
to-him (the) one (only)
(them),

the-most
'might-excel

(those acting)

avhpl
man
(of

at-least
men)


.
both

*
^
ill

in ,

our
(those)

to him).

desired

(timo)

88 THE ANABASIS OF XENOPHON.

xcd
— (their)
^^-
property,
xai
— (their) towns, |
and the bodies

of-thein [and their persons].

\
.
Oi! hri av eltiol ovSe
Kor indeed —
can any-one say — this, that he-let the

dSixoiig xaraye?Mv, ?.'


evildoers and unjust deride (his authority), but

'
yjv

^
most-unsparingly

it-wa's

^
often
of-all

^,
to-sce,
(men) he-punished (transgressors).

[and there were often to be seen],


|
And

|
on

'^
oSovg,
the trodden roads [on the frequented roads] men


78, xal

xai
deprived of-feet, (or) of-hands, — (or)

^
of-eyes;

^ ,.
(possible) 'for both

aSixovvti,
'wrong,
xai
so-that

Greek

to-travel
in the

8,
xai
and
dominion

/?^,
barbarian,

fearlessly, withersoever
of- Cyrus

'doing

Ttg
one
^,
'^
it-was

nothing

wished,

^
Ti
(and) having (with him) whatever he-might-proeeed-with (that suited

bis convenience).

he-honoured very-much
It-has-been-acknowledged

rovg
[
— (those)
^ good
— indeed

for
7?^.
(that)

war

(
[those having a disposition for, and skilled in, military affairs]. And

indeed |
(a)

^war

against (the) Pi.«idians


was

xai
and

5$
to-him

<7'
Mysians;
first

Tag
xai

%,
[his first

oiv
^nd therefore
war was]

himself

leading-an-army into these — places, (those) whom


he-sa\y
i^s?j)vrag
willing
BOOK

^^ .
I. — CHAPTER
to-encounter-danger (in his service)
IX.

-
tovrovc
89

the-?aiiiu

()
.
^
he-made rulers 'of (the) 'places which he-subjugated,

(5e xai Sapoig


and moreover 'he

8,
also 'honoured (them) with-rewards in-another (man

rovg
ner). So (that) indeed ]
the good [brave men] appear

8 rovg xaxovg

^^
{^o be) thc-most-fortunat«, but (that) the

SovXovg
bad

rovTav.
[cowards]

^^^.^,
were-considered-worthy (only) to-be (the) slaves of-these (brave

men). Therefore
-
there-was (a) great abundance to-him

oTtov rig
[Cyrus] of-those willing to-encounter-danger, when any-one

oloiro
might-think (that) Cyrus would-perceive (him).

In-truth

apparent
— as-regards

to-him (as)
SixaioavvYjv,
justice,

desiring
^,if
rig
any-one might-become

to-show (this vir-

tue in himself), above


Ttavrog
all, he-caused


78
to-make
Tovrovg
such

-
(persons) richer (than) (those) seeking-gain

^.
ix rod aSixov. Kai }^ ovv
by —
8^ , injustice.

(things) were-administered
And

hixaudg
therefore

justly
— not-only

xal
many

for-him, but-also he-had-rhe-use-of


other

(a)

xal
also

[camo
real

to

8*
generals

him from other


xai
and
army,

captains

countries]
(and one worthy of the naaie).

ov
not
|
sailed

on-account
.
Ttpog
to
For

him

of-money,
90

'
but after

(and serve) Cyrus


they-knew
^/
, &^ ^
THE ANABASIS OF XENOPJION.

(it)

well,
to-bo

|
than the
more-profitable

gain lor (a)


to-oliey

•.
mouth

^-
[than their monthly wages]. But indeed if any-ouo at-least, he

,
8
(to go)
.
having-commanded any-thing, should-have-assisted-to-do

to-no-one (acting thus) did-'he

unrewarded.
over

Therefore
'permit

Srj
truly
-—
|
(his)
(it)

the-best servants and-


well

alacrity

.
officers

to-Cyrus

, ,
Ei
If

also

-
justice,

'
of-every

he-saw any-one (being)


work

[consistent with justice],

;^,
(or undertaking)

[the best talents for all aifairs were at the

(a)
8
and
,
skilful
were-said

command

manager

improving-tho-land, not-only
| from
to-bo

of Cyrus].

Of

'"
ohovQ

'
(the) 'country,

produce (therefrom) 'he would

such a person),

— (men) laboured
which he-governed, but-also

but
av

always (rather)

^,
checrfullj•,
never

and
making

'take-away

he-added

acquired (property)
,
(an)

any-thing (from

more;
increased-

so-that

confidently,

xal

^
from-Cyrus
av
and moreover what any-one had-acquired

,•
|
for he-was-manifestly not
ov ^,the-least

envying
did-he-conceal

[for he manifestly
(it)

did not envy]

was-enucavouring

•^ (those

to-use
who) openly

(or put into circulation)


acquire-riches,

the
- but

wealtt•
,.
Tidv
ol-thoso

de-might-make,
^ ,
BOOK

' ' ,
concealing

and knew
I. — CHAPTER
(it).

(them
As-'many

as) being
IX.

friends 'as —
well-disposed (to him-
91

indeed

Eolf),

d Tt
[in
xai
and

whatever
^,
might-judge (them)

wishing
to-be

he-might-happen
fit

6?
to-accomplish,
co-operators,

[in

.
whate'er he might happen to wish

by

to-cherish

xai
all

(such friends,
Sy;
to-have-been certainly
to accomplish],

and attach them to


he-is-acknowledged

the-best (and most skilful)

himself). For

also (for) this

6^
same (reason) on-accoUnt

-
of-which he-himself

, '
^
.

thought (that) he-needed friends (namely) that he-might-have co-ope-

xai
rators,

'to —
?^.
and ho-himself endeavoured

(his) -friends (in) whatever


to-be

that
the-best assistant

he-might-perceive

each-one (\vas) desiring (to efiect).

And indeed I-think [

76
(that) 'ho at-least being one man [that he

ha '
of any one

> ^ man at least] 'recei•ed

8
the-most presents, (and this)

for

? many (reasons) but these (presents) he-distributed 'to —

,
j

very-much
^
/,
(his) 'friends (excelling) certainly this -respect)

.
(in

all (men), looking to the manners of-each,

and (to that) of which he-saw each- one the-most needed


92. THE ANABASIS OF XENOPHON.

Kal
And

, '
jforthe

war,

TtFpl
about
body


or

these
as-if
,
whatever (present) any-one

for (use in personal)

(presents) they-afErmed fthat)


,
might-send (him as a;)

of-him, [for his person], either as-if

,-^
yj

ornament,

he-said,
for

|
ornament

ort
that
(use in)

and

indeed

the

[that his
body of-himself

?
could

own person could not bo adorned]


not
hvvaito
be-able

TiaGL
with-all
,
to-have-been-adorned

these (presents),

but he-might-think (that) friends (havinff-'beex) handsomely 'adorned

avSpi. Kal
(to be) the-groatest ornament 'to (a) 'man. |
And indeed tho

^
^
,
to-surpass [the surpassing] the

he should greatly surpass]

,
nothing wonderful,

since
(his)
great

at-least

^^
'?
[greatly]

friends (in)

he-was also
Ttoiovvra
[and indeed that

doing good

the-most-able
(is)

,.
TO
I
but the to-be-superior [but that he should excel] — (his) frienda

— in-kind-attention, and |
the

^
to-be-eager [his eagerness]

to-gratify

more
(and oblige),

admirable. For
these,

Cyrus
7?
to-me-at-least,

often
seem to-be

sent

^^
half-empty jars
olvov,
of-wine, whene'er he-might-receive (ar.y) -ery

riSvv, ?., on Sr;


sweet (and fine-flavoured), saying, that never-j'et truly 'for (a) 'long

nhiovL
time uid-he meet with-finer-flavoured wine (than) this;
BOOK I. — CHAPTER IX. 93

om'

Tovtov
this
-^/
therefore he-sent

-^ to-day
this

' () , . cvv
with
aol,
to-you,

oig
xal bdtai
and he-requests of-you

those-whom you-loA'e
exTtidv
to-drink

most.

Often

xal
Ss
indeed he-sent

aptov, xal
| half-eaten

, geese [parts of geese],

and

^ halves of-loaves, and other such (things),

5
ordering

^
'

^
the bearer to-say (when he presented them) ; Cyrus

.' ^ ,
was-delightedwith-these; therefore

^Otwv
. ovv

6
he-wishes
xal
also you to-taste

of-these

6'

^
and

, he
(same). Whenever indeed fodder

was-ablo to-procure-it

xal hia
was


very

Sia
through the
scarce,

to-have

6
[by having] many servants and through (his) care,

gending-it-about (among) — (his) friends


?^
he-ordered (them;

.
to-throw this — fodder to-the horses carrying

//
|

,
the bodies of-them [carrying their persons], so-that (the horses)

?

^, ^ ^
'may not

b-
indeed

might-be-about
'carry the friends

at-any-time he-might procceed (anywhere), and

^^^,
to-see (him),
of-himself

calling-to

b«-heldearnest-conversation-with-them, that he-might-show (those) wlioni


hungering.


xal

(liis)
many
If

friends

^. "^, ^

(t'lat)
^
he-h,>noured.

no-one
So-that I-at-Ieast

either 'of (the)


from (that) which

'Greeks or
S)v
I-hear

'of (the)
/36''barbarian»
judge
94

'^ .
-, ^
to-have-been-loved

(is a) proof
THE ANABASIS OF XENOPHON.

by

of-tbis-same
more (persons).

(thing), no-one
And also

indeed
. thia

deserted

to

7»(7
8
attempted
(the)

-better than a)
king

'
slave

and

from

truly
',
(of the king)

>7
Cyrus,

;
7t?^yjv
except

this (Orontes) speedily


'';^!'
^
be-boing (as a subject no

Oroutes

found
(who)

him,

^7. ',
(it);

ov

37",
whom he-thought to-be

than to-himself;
^
but
moTOv

many
faithful
ol
to-himself,

deserted
more-friendly

from (the)
to-Cyrus

king

to Cyrus, after they-became hostile to-one-another,

,
xal ovTOL ol
and these indeed — (persons) the-most beloved

VTi
by

.,
Ttapa
under

37
.^ him

Cyrus,

Ttapa
(the king),


thinking

to-obtain
(that)

more- worthy
being brave

honour (and reward)


(men)

' '^
.
than from (the) ' king. And also — (that) happening

3
,
to-him at the

oTl

end

aiVog

yjv
'of (his) life (is a)

thvvaTo
great

. ^,^
proof, that he was brave, and could

rightly judge — (those) faithful (to him), and ivell-disposed,

xal Tap
and steadfast. For he dying, all

{, ^
OL nap'
— (his) friends and table-companions with him died

'

lighting over Cyrus, except Ariscus; this (person'


BOOK I. — CHAPTER X. 95

indeed

the
, | sliitiuncd

left, commanding
happened

the
' [happened

cavalry ;
to be stationed]

'
but when he-learned
'^
§m
on

(of)

TO Tidv
Cyrus

the entire
having-fallen

army
ov .
hc-lled

which he-commanded.
having also (with him)

CHAPTEK X.

«53 There
Syj

.
indeed the head

, of-Cyrus is-cul^off,

'^ '
and-also the

with

camp
',
71

him,
8^
right

[on the
hand.

pursuing

camp
But (the)

falls

of Cyrus] ;
xal
king,

and indeed
| on the


and — (those)
Cyreao

(those soldiers)

^'
with Ariicus no-longer stand but flee

^.
through

station,
the camp

whence they-had-started
of-them

(last) ; |
[their

'
camp]

i?JyovTo
and there-were-said to-be
to the

6
Ttapaaa^j/at 66.
four

four parasangs distant].


parasangs

But
?.
of-the

(the) king
road [and which was said to be

and
ol
— (those) with

,him

?'
many,
not-only

but-also
plunder

he-takes

Kvpov

the
other

Phociean
(things,

,
which were)

(woman), the

soncubiue of-Cyrus, and (who) was-said to-be, —


9 THE ANABASIS OF

?.;.
. ^,
wise and

?.'^
beautiful. But the youoger (concubine) the


?. Milesian

^
(woman), haring-been-taken by (those) about (the) king

escapes |
naked [in her under garments] to (those of)
- the

,
*¥j7JJiviov^ ol otOjcl
Greeks, who having arms happened (to be stationed) among

'
xai
the

they-kUled

,
oi
— (some)
ovx
baggage-train ;

xai
also
7to?.?Mvg
many

of-themselves
^
and having-been-drawn-up-against

indeed of

xai
diedj
— (those)

,
at-least
;
indeed
(the Persians)

plundering,

they-'did
Si
but

xai

,
not 'flee, but also saved this (woman), and

other

xal
both

^'3
(things),

property
whatever

xai
and

7^
^,
were

men,
.
within (the lines)

all
of-them,

were-saved.

^
There

^
not-only (the) king,
xai
but-also

,^ the
°E?J?.v
Greeks

,
a>Xr^jsiV
were-distant from-one-another about thirty stadia, the

(Greeks)

as
indeed

conquering
, pursuing

.7^
all,
'

but the (Persians)

'
^'
(those opposed) against themselves,

plundering,

"^^.
as

,
'ijSri
now But when indeed

,
conquering all. the Greeks

'^, o-Tt

perceived,

-
might-be among
that (the)

— (their)
king with

baggage-train,
(his)

8
and (the)
?^ army

king

av '^^.^
ft^-ihn-(ither-h.ind heard from-Tissaphemes, that the Greeks
BOOK

might-be-conquering the (army) opposed


I.

,
— CHAPTER
xa3•'

^, to-them,
X.

ocai
and
97

pursuing,

oLovaL
they-advance

the)

?^
[collects

Ciearchus

6?.,
king
to

together his forces],

having-called
'
— (a distance)

, ,
indeed not-only

xai
forward,

but-ulso

Proxenus,
collects
^3-

there

draws-them-up- in-line; but

for

,
he-was
.
Sr;
truly

(those) of-himself,
(then

the-nearest,

6

consulted

all
(with him),

should-go [about-helping
^.
if they-should-send

[to relieve] ()
some

the
(of the troops), or

camp.
"

^,
69!
During

evidently approaching,
this (time)

as
^ ^.
xal
also (the)

it-secmcd
king

from-behind. And
yjv
was again

indeed thu

Greeks

xal 66
having-faced-about prepared-themselves,

', as-if (the king)

6 6

^
were-advancingand-also receiving (him) in-that (direction); but the

ovx

, ,7^• ?
king indeed 'did not lead (his troops) in-that (direction),

8
but (by the way) in-which he-had-passcd beyond — (their) left

,
wing,

(him)

.
to
,
(those)
xai
by-the-same (way) also

both

the

with
— (those) in

Greeks,

him.
xai

Tap

,
the

xai
and

For
he-led-back (his forces),

6

battle,

Tissaphernes,

Tissaphernes

6?
taking-with

having-deserted

xai
and

'did
ovx

not

'flee in the first encounter, but charged against

9
98

the

he
^, Greek

8iE?Mvv(uv
THE ANABASIS OF XENOPHON.

targetiers

''
along the

ovhiva.
river;

^^
,
but charging-through (the ranks) 'he indeed 'killed no-one

]
'

^
ol
but the Greeks standing-apart (and making a passage) struck

*
xai

^ -
(them with their swords) and threw (their javelins) at-thcm;

, '^ . ,
Episthenes

xai
8
— (the)
""

Amphipolite commanded the tar-

,
getiers,

^
mander).

,
[theworst],
'
and

But
6

was-said

Tissaphernes

was-forced-to-depart,
to-be (a)

ovv,
therefore,

indeed he-'docs not


prudent (and able com-

ovx
as having |

'return
less

^, ,
again,

Greeks,
6
but having-arrived

there
at

he-meets-with
the

(the)
camp

king,

. xai

and
of-tbe

hri

,
(then) having-drawn-up-their-forces they-marched together back (again).

'
But
yjaav
>Then they-were opposite

,
the left wing of-the

^ ^ ol ^?<.
Greeks, the Greeks feared, |
lest they-might-lcad

TO ?f£pag xai
against — (that) wing [lest they would attack that wing] and

'
, ^'
^
surrounding (them) on-both-sides they-might-'cut

them

wing

. 'off;

and
xai
and it-seemed (best) to-them

to-place

^
the

(the time) in-which indeed (that) they-wcre-planning(thisma'jaiuvre).


river
^.
to-fold-back

in flc-'
the
xal
and
Syj
now-indecd

• ^^
(the)
BOOK

kiug
I. — CHAPTER X.

having-changed (his line)


99

into

^^/^,
.
To avro
the same

-
form

to

(that) he-placed (it) fronting the

^
phalanx, |
just-as (at) first he-might-have-come light-

,
ing

Greeks

^
[just as

up-in-order-of-battle,

much

av ol ()
18 saw

more-eagerly
he came at

(them)

3•
again
first

being
to ofler

not-only

singing-the-pacan

(and spirited) than

ovx ^,
-
battle].

rd

near

^.
But

xal
and-also

they-advanced

before.
-
as

drawn-
the

yet

'
But

again the barbarians not

^
'did 'receive (their attack), but

ro

^, .
they-fled from a-greater (distance from them) ]
than (they did)

' S' ol
i^^X^^

,^
before; but — (the Greeks) pursued (them) to a-certain

' fi'Tai)^ oi
but there the Greeks For

,,
village; halted.

there-was (a) hill above the village,


'
upon which — (those)

about (the) king, stood-faced-about, (there-were) indeed

rCdv ,
.
no-longer (any) foot-soldiers (there), but the

with-the cavalry, |
"

so-that thcy-'did not


^ 6
hill

'know
was-filled

the (thing

that) was-doing [so that they knew not what the infantry mighl

Kat bpav to
be doir-r]. And they-said (that) thcy-saw the royaJ
100 THE ANABASIS OF XENOPHON.

tiva avarstausvov irti


standard a-certain goldeu eagle elevated on

^7try].

^\
(a) shield.

ol °?.?.'/;
When indeed also the Greeks proceeded thither,

ol
the horsemen indeed also
Syj xai
leave the
?., ov
hill,
-
not however aa

collectcd-in-a-body,

different directions],

\n7t2(siv
horsemen ;
.

but
Se
|

'

at-last
but

and the

xai
also
hill 'was (gradually)

all
.
others in-other-direction, [but dispersed in

«^/ ^
'thinned

departed.
of-the

^
ovv ovx
Clearchus therefore 'did not 'march on (to) the

?,
,
wxo
hill,

A.VXLOV
Lycius
but

the
having-halted |under [at the foot of]

Syracusian
xai
and
?another on
it

the
he-sends

hill,

xai
and

,,
he-orders (them) having-viewed

. the (things)

6
on the

hill to-report what is (there). And —


• Lycius

yjTuaCE
rode-on

word

ort
that
(to the hill)

they-flee
xai
and
iSciv

to
.
seeing (the state of affairs)

the-utmost-of-their-ability.
brings

And

' '?
^v
nearly

^.
when
' ^^
these (things) |
were [happened] (the)

"^^- ;. sun also

xai
set

placing

^ And


indeed they-were-surprised
(their)
.
there

arms

otl
that
the Greeks

rested;

Cyrus
xai
halted,

and at-the-same-time

no-wliere appeared
and

awa
— CHAPTER
8;
BOOK I. X. 101

Oli^'' avtov.
nor 'did (any) other

^, one 'come from-him. For

^ ^ . ,,
TiSeciaj' ov
they-knew not (that)

yj
either

'4'[^£'^
to-go-away
avrov
he

pursuing

.
was-dead,

(the enemy)
]
but they-supposed (him^

or to-have-pushed-on-bcfore


avrol
about-to-seize some (post). And they deliberated

^^
ayoivto £i^rai»3a

,
if

'
train,
^remaining

or
7]
return
there they-should-bring

to
ro
the
thither

camp;
the

'
baggage-

it-seemed

-
avroig xai

^.
to-them therefore (best) to-returnj and they-arrived at

Tag
the

end
tents

indeed
- ' ^.
about

of-this
supper-time.

— day.
Such

But
was
to
the

they

',
vovol

,,
find not-only the most of — (their) other things

Tt yj
plundered (or destroyed), but-also whatever food or drink

£6 Yiv /wa^ag
there may-be; and the wagons full-of wheat-flour and

,
OLVov^
which Cyrus provided, that if ever

88
vehement want

^, should-seize the

avtai
camp,

a;wa^at
he-might-distribute

'

(them) to-the

^, Greeks, these

xal
wagons were

four-hundred

ol Gvv
— (those) with (the)
^. ".
as they-said, and these then

Tuiv
of-tlie
^- Greeks
king

yjaav
were
^'
plundered.

supperless;
So-that the

8
but also they- were
m'>st

yjaav


102

avapujroL'
without-dinner;

halted
THE ANABASIS OF XENOPHON.

for

for
Syj
indeed

dinner
Ttpiv
before

(the)
8
?^ .
the

king
army

appeared-

.
Thus

oight
ovv
therefore indeed
hieyhavro
did-thej-pase that
tyjv
BOOK . — CHAPTER 1. lOii

BOOK II.

^' CHAPTER I.

^^
,
,
.
IIow

for-Cyius,

Artascrxes,

xal
and how —
when

7\

(a) battle
ovv
therefore

xal
and
^
,?3
to
the

he-led-an-army

what

took-place,
Grecian

against

was-done

xal
and how

in

Cyrus
(force)

,
(his)
was-collected

brother

^,
the upward-march,

died,

xal

-^,
and how

went-to-rest,
the
^E?^.'v
Greeks

|
thinking
having-come

Vixav
to-conquer —
to

,,
ro arpar07t£^v
the

all,
camp

[believing that

they were completely victorious],

6^-
has-been-indicated in the
^. xal
and

preceding
(that) Cyrus

discourse (or book).


lived, (all this)

Bui

?3 ^, rii ol
I
at-the-same-time with-tho day [at dawn of day] the generals

? "^
,
any-one-else

. , ,,
having-come-together were-surprised,

signifying what
Tt
that Cyrus 'had neither

is-necessary to-do,
'sent

nor

did-'he himself

having-packed-up

|,to-march in
'^
the
^
'appear.

a
what they-had,

forward [to
It-seemed

xal
therefore (best)

and having-armed-thcmselves,

advance] until they-formed-a-junction


to-thcm
104 THE ANABASIS OF XEXtPHON.

. 8 ,
^'
,
with-Cyrus. But now being iii-motion, at-the-same-time with-lhe-

rising sun,
?^
came Procles
6
the governor-of Teuthraniu

having-descended from

. Damaratus the Lacedajmonian,

otl
and

Glus

^. 6
the (son of) Tamos. These informed (them) that Cyrus

/ifr

the
?
indeed was-dead,

other

,and

/^6*
(that)

barbarians,
Ariaeus

at

,
^ ^ having-fled

the station
was, with

whence

tHey-started on-the

'wait-for
rii

',
day-before,

them
xai
and

that-same
he-said,


, day, if
-
that 'he might indeed

they-

might-intend

next
to-come,

ini 'hdvlag,
(day) for
hk

Ionia,
^5
(for) he-said (he was about) to-depart on-the

whence
?3.
he-had-come.

other
'^
Oi
The

/. ;^$ ",
generals

°?^ Greelis
hearing

hearing
these (things),
xai
and

(them from the generals)

^'
the

bore-it

?., grievously. But Clearclius spoke thus Would

/^
then

2.,
, ,^
announce
indeed (that) Cj^rus

to-Aria;us,

xai
lived;

that
8
but

we
since he-has-died,

are-victorious not-only (over

king, and as you-see,

,
no-one any-longer

. ^^^^
the) 'offers

-,, xai ?.^


^^
us 'battle, but-also if

have-marched against
you-'had not

(the) king.
'come to-us,

AVe-promise
'we would

^
also
,
Ariiuus, if
BOOK

e?J^yi
he-come
II. — CHAPTER
iv^aSe,
here, (that

?^.
we
I.

are ready)
xol^lCsiv
105

to-place

/liin on the throne,

^^
the royal

.
(throne) j for

^
ocal
— (those) conquering in-battle also (to them) |
is the to-rulo

5'
/,
[it belongs to rule]. Saying these (things) he-sends-away the

^'
'
messengers, and with them Cheirisophus the Lacedaemonian

Mewji^a ^
and

, Menon the Thessalian; for indeed Mcnon

.. ,
aiVog
himself

of-Ariajus (bound
desired

by the
(to go);

ties
for

of hospitality).
he- was (a) iriend

01
— (These) then
'
and guest

departed,

hk

, ^
but Clearchus waited (for them). But
To
the army

suppliod-itself with-food as-well-as they-were-able from

beasts-of-burden, slaughtering

^

, ,
(their) oxen and
— (their)

asses;
'

^
and advancing (a) little from the army, (to) where

,
\

'
the battle took-place

ovglv , they-got wood (for fuel), not-only

ol
from-tho

,
arrows,

compelled

to-tlirow-away,

shields the
being

— -

xat
and
(those)

the

wooden-ones
many

,.
(in number), which

desertuig from (the)

wicker-shields (of the Persians), and

the Egyptian.
the

xal

And
Greeks,

king

the

also

many targets and ivagons emptied (of their contents) were


,
106

lo-be-carried-ofFj
THE ANABASIS OF XENOPHON.

using

^ all
,
which, (for)

,.
cooking meat

ija^icrv
ihcy-cat

Kat
And
(enough

Yiv
it- was
for)

Yihiq
now
that

not-only about |

^-^
day.

i'uU
, market,

[about the middle of the forenoon], but- also there-arrived

king and Tissaphernes


, heralds, the —
from (the)

others

,
|

\ ^^^

,
6 aiVoii'
barbarian [being barbarian] but there-was one of-thcm (a) Greek

Phalinus

Tissaphernes,
(by name),

]
who

and (who)
| happened

^^
holding (him)
'
being [happened to be]

honourably ; [and was


with

.
highly esteemed by him]

skilled

^,
(in)
;

the (things) not-only

(in those relative to) fighting-with-heavy-arms.

xat
— for he-pretended

relative-to

But
tactics

these
to-be

but-also

(heralds)

, ?^
approaching, and calling-to the generals

>7^^,

, ^
of-thc

the
^, Greeks,

Greeks, |
since
said, that (the)

conquering
king

he-happens,
commanded

[since he had

,

^
'king,
(their)

Ihey-can
,
gained the victory], and

arms,

[to the

any-thing
(and)
had-slain

going

palace of the king],

^3. good
|

(or favourable).
to

^
Cyrus, (that) having- delivered-up

3
the gates

to-obtain-for-themselves

Thus —
'of (the)

Mid
if

oi
the
- , BOOK II. — CHAPTER
Se
I.

"^
107

,
heralds 'of (the^ 'king 'speak; but the Greeks indeed

^
heard (them) heavily (with concern), but Clearchus only

iiTte
spoke

not-only

)
so-much,

TiapaSi^ovaL
to-give-up

men

what

you-hold

'.
(their)

generals
',
(to be)
^
ov
that it-was not (the part) of

arms'; but,

'reply

most-proper
— (those)
indeed said-he, 'do

but-also
to-these
conquering

you

(men)

the-best;

'
and

,
will-come directly. For some-one of-the attendants

called

.
^ ^ ^,
(that just)
him, that

had- been- taken-out; for


ISoi
he-might-see

he-happened

',
the (entrails of a) victim

(to be) sacrificing.

^ '^
"Ei'^a Sy; 6
Then indeed Cleaner — the Arcadian, being the-oldest,

yj
answered that 'they would sooner than (that)

,^
'die

8 6
they-would-deliver-up — arms; but Proxenus Theban

,
(their) the '

''
Baid, But I, Phalinus, wonder, whether (the)

king

as gifts
Sia
asks

. (for)

through friendship.
— (our)

Tap
For
arms

if indeed
as conquering

as
^,
^'
conquering,
or

;,
why

take

(them),
8
does-it-become

(them)

let-him-eay,
?
8
but
him

what
if
to-ask (for them)

having-persuaded

will-be (]ei'"t)
xai
and

(us) he-desires

to-tho
,
not

, coming

to-taka

BoldierS;
108

'xaY'iuidvrai
THE ANABASIS OF

3.
. Tlpog rav-ta
if

Phaliaus
, 2£
they-should-gratify

said, (The)
him

king
(in) this.

considers
To

(himself) to-be-the-con-
this

-
xav, ' ',
;
queror, since

who
he-has-slain

disputes
Cyrus;

the
^',
for

goverument (with him)


who is-there

?
against-hlm,

|
Se
and
xai
also

considers you to-be to-himself [he moreover considers you as

%
,
belonging

of-himsclf,
to him

,^
as captives] |
having (you) in

[having you in the interior of his kingdom],

xai
iv rij
the middle

xal
and
country

vithin

)
/
impassable

-^
rivers, and being-able to-lead against

^ ^^
'
you (such a) multitude of-men (and) so-great (that) if

he-should-allow-it to-you neither would you-be-able

, to-kill (them).

^il , ,,
After

Phalinus,
this-one

now, as
Theoponipus (the)

you
, ^ see,
Athenian

there-is nothing
spoke,

else

good

-.
(or of value) to-us, |
if not [unless] (our)

, arms

^.,
xai Ovv
and Therefore indeed having

'^
courage. (our) arms,

xai ^'^
,
we-are-of-the-opinion (that) 'we could also 'make-use

-'^
— (of our)

^
hk
courage, but giving-up — these, (would be) to-deprivo

-
(us)

(that)
xai
also —
we-will-give-up
(of. our)

to-you
bodies.

the sole
Ovv
Therefore 'do

(advantageous)
^
not 'suppose

good
— CHAPTER

^
BOOK II. I. 109

ovra
existing

^
for-us; but
gvv
with these

.
,
(in our hands) 'we also

6

,' ^ ,
'may-fight for the good-things oi'-j'ourselves. But

Phalinus hearing those (things) smiled, and said:

But
,
indeed, young-man, you-seem (to be like to a) philosopher,

,
and

you-speak not without-grace ; |
know

^
however (you) being

.
out-of-your-senses, [be assured that you are out of your senses], if

:u-supposo (that)

(to)

some
the

apprehcnsi\'e
,
power

others

said,

'of (the)
your

'king.
valour

(of the generals) having-become-somewhat-timid-and-

as also

, they-had-been

-, is-to-be-superior

But they-reported

faithful
(that)

to-Cyrus,

so 'they might 'become | worthy of-much 'to (the) king

'
[of great service to the king]

,
if he-desired

;^p>7cr3afc
to-become (their)

,
friend and afterwards he-might-wish to-employ (them) for-any

'
.
to-march

,
other (purpose), (or if ) afterwards (he were) against

I'gyptj 'they would 'assist-in-reducing-it for-him. During

£;^ , and
^now

.
thi« (time) Clearchus came, inquired if

fhey-had-returned-an-answer. But Phalinus having-taken-up (the dis-

course) said
^. ?.,
Clearchus, these say .
(one thing), othere

10
110

(say)

'
* other
THE ANABASIS OF XENOPHON.

(things);
8
but 'do you

, ,
. 'tell
, us,
ri
what you-say.

But
6
— 'he [Clearchus]
,
'said

xai * I, Phalinus, am-glad

., ^^
^I-have-seen you, and also I-think all the others (are so)

^E?^.^v, ^,
for

being
'
not-only are

so-many
you

(in
(a)

number),
Greek,

as
but-also

you
we

see;
(ourselves are)^

being then

iv
in such circumstances, 'we (would) 'consult
,
with-you,

(about)
Tt
what

(from the king).

,
it-is-proper

Ovv,
Therefore,
to-do

by
,
concerning (that) which you-announce

(the) gods, 'do you


-7^.
'con.

',,
|

suit

the-most-honourable and
,
with-us [give us your advice] what

thc-bcst,
xai
seems to-you

and which to-you will-bring


to-be

' ^
,

honour in the time to-come, (when) it-is-related,

on
that Phalinus when, having-becn-sent from (the) king,

'^^ napahovvaL

%?^ ^?£?.
commanding the Greeks to-give-up (their) arms,

! , .?.
(For)
?,
counselled

03 ,—
you-know

?J<J^L
,
them

that what
consulting

'j'ou may
(with him) so-and-so.

'have-advised

<5 K?Japo
toSe.

(of a)

necessity is-to-be-reported in — Greece. — — Clearchns

ai'Tor,
craftily- urged these (things), also desiring (that) he,

— coming-as-envoy
napa
from (the)
7., .6?. king, should-counsel
(them) tot

fIsv
might-be
' 6.
TtapaSovvat

more
to-givc-up
BOOK

fuU-of-good-hopes. But
II.


— CHAPTER
(their)
,arms,

Phalinus
I.

oTtag oi
that
"
^^
the

|
Ill

Greeks

having-turned

said:
' ' , if
napa
[having evaded this appeal] contrary to-the opinion

^ ^, indeed of —
So^av

ten-thousand
of-him [Clearchue]

hopes there-is

,' ^
any one (remaining) to-you to-save (yourselves)

napaSiSovaL
fighting-against

,
(the) king, counsel (you) not to-give-up

8 rot

^
(your) arms; if indeed there-is not-one hope (for you)

of-safety opposing (the) king, I-advise you

^^.
to-save-yourselves

'
K?Japo
|
in-what-way possible [in the only

'
way you can]. But

£,
Clearchus

>7
really 'do

announce

8
you
to

'say

this,
these

these

on
that
(things)

(things);
said

8
^,
but

think,
for
But

our

if
indeed

(part)

indeed

it-niay-become (us) to-become friends

a^iot , 'to (the) king j


(that) 'we would

,
,^
'be-worthy of-more to-be friends, [that we would be more raluable

7tapahv
*
friends), having

h 8
— (our) arms, than 'giving (them) 'ujt

to-another; but if

,
it-behoves (us) to-make-war, (it) would (be) better^

.
to-make-war

to-unother. But
having

6

^,Phalinus
— (our)

said,
arms, than

These
'giving

(things) —
(them) 'up

8
certainly
112 3 ANABASIS OF XENOPIION.

'

we-will-announce;

, but also (the) king commanded (as)

-
to-say to-3'ou thus,
on
that — (toj'ou) remaining hero

here-would-bo (a)

[retreating] (there
anov^aL,
truce,

would be)

Ttfpt
.
,
(but)

war.
advancing

TtOTepa
Kal
And
6
and

ovv
therefore
xai
also |
going-away

tell (us

xai
and
your answer) respecting this, whether you->vill-remain

cnovSai, nap'
there-is (a) truce,

. or (whether) I-shall-announce from you

that

Baid:
vrar

*
being

Announce
[that there

xai
also
is war].

therefore
But

respecting
,Clearehus

this,

. ; . -
oTt
that

'king
'it

[that
xal
also

we
'seems

are of the
,,
to-us, the-same as (it does) likewise 'to (the)

same opinion and determination with the king],

Tt

"
.
archus
,
What therefore
ovv
are

replied
these?

'

If
said —
6
Phalinus.

indeed we-remain (here), (a)


— Cle-

truce,

,
(if

;^
again
)

'8
we-retreat

asked:
6 xal
and also (if) ive-advance

"

Shall-I-announce (a)
war.

truce
But

yj
or
6
— (Phalinus)
Avar?
;


, ..
But

Tl
Clearchus

remaining, but

b
answered

retreating
"
the-same

or advancing
again;
'

(a)

war.
truce

But

«rhat — (he) might-do he-'did not 'signify.


BOOK II. — CHAPTER II. 118

CIIAPTEE II.

PiiAHNUs —
^ ,
indeed departed, as-also — (those) with
. hiin.

'.
IJuc
OL
— (thosc.l

Clieirisophus,•
Ttapa
from

,
'
6
but
Ariacus

Menon
yjxov,
were-come, (namely)

remained there with


Procles

^ and

Arisous;
'

^
and

many
ovroL
these

Persians
reported, that

superior
'Apiaiog
Ariaius

(to)
, himself,

'
said

^
(that) there-are

who 'would not

'endure him reigning; but if you- wish

'
to-depart-with

.
night;
6
but
(him) he-requests (you) to-come

if
,
(you do) not, he-says (that)

,;^;
Yihiq
now

he
tyjg

(is)

'
(this)

to-depart

early-in-the-morning.

Xpyj ' ,
And
6
— Clearchus said: But

.
it-is-necessary to-do so; as you-say, if indeed

8 ,
^
'

we-might-come (to Arineus);

/^ but if not, do whatever

'you

did-he-say
av
may 'think

to-those
(to be)

. ,
the-most

8,
\vhat he-would-do.

^
advantageous.

But after
But neither
ovds

these

(things), (the) sun now setting,

^ baving-assembled

8'
the

^Q ,
generals

men,
10*
and captains he-spoke

tu-me sacrificing-and-inspecting-the-entrails (for


(in) this-manner:

sign re.
114 THE ANABASIS OF XENOPtiON.

.
Bpecting)

'become
ihuv
]
to-go [marching] against (the)

(favourable).
Kai
And

^ king

with-good-reason tlierefore
hpa
the victims 'did not

tlicy-wcre
ovx

ov'
not

river

,'
(so) ; for as

Tigris
I

is
now learn

^^ ^
in (the) middle (between)
6
the

us
navigable

and

(the)

without
king,

boats;
^
but
ov
which 'we would not

ovx
we
av ov

have
.
ov
not
'be-ablo

boats.

avrov
to-cross

— Certainly
'
6
(for us) at-least (it is) not possible to-remain here; for

kuLTYihia ovx
the necessaries-of-life |
are not to-have ;
[are not to be procured]

^ UvaL Txapa
but to-go to

. the friends of-Cyrus the sacrifices vere

^
Ttavv
altogether favourable

^ /
to-us.
Ovv
Therefore thus it-is-necessary (for usj

.
^^^
to-act;

After

to-go-to-rest
having-retired

place
he

pack-up-j-our-baggage ;
to-sup

indeed the-signal-may-bo-given with (the)

(the baggage)

^
'

on
(on) whatever any-one

after

the
',
6

horn

the

beasts-of-burden
as

second
has.

(if)

Se

\
(signal) ; but

f.nl TptTQ,
on the third (signal), follow — (your) leader,

rod
having indeed the beasts-of-burden next the

.
river,

01
but the heavy-armed-men on-the-outside. The generals and

eaptains having-heard these (things)


?^^
departed, and
BOOK II. — CHAPTER . 115

ETtoLovv . Kat To 6
did su. And (for) the

^,
rest (of the time) — (Clearchns)

indeed

^7,
yjpz^i
commauded,

and —
having-chosen (him actually as their commander),

OTt
oi
(the others) obeyed,

but
^
(they) not

perceiving

that (he) alone

^, thought (and had the mental qualifications) such-as

. '
8
became
rov

iuexperieuced.

'^
— (a)

|
commander,

(The) number
ol
the other (commanders) indeed

8
— of-the
bhov,
road,
'

[the computation
were

,
TV
of the distaiKcj \>l..vli they-came from Ephesus — (in) Ionia

?
,
to-the (place)

day's-march (making)

hundred [535]

thousand
of-the

parasangs,
five

and ten-thousand [16,050]


battle,

xai
and
(was)

(or)

^.
three

thirty

fifty

stadia;
and

and

and

(the distance)
-
-
ninety

five-

six-

from

,^, ,^.^
8
— (the place) of-the

sixty and
battle

three-hundred [360]
to
^'' Babylon

stadia.
was-said to-be

the
, Thence,

the Thnician

horsemen
when

deserted


it-became

(those)
to

^^
with
dark,

(the) king,

him
Miltocythes

having not-only

to-the-number-of

xai

.
forty,

t'oot-Boldiers. But
but-also about

K?Japo
Clearchus
three-hundred

lead-the-way
of-the

for-the
Thracian

res
116

according

'

^,
und
OL
— (they)
]

,, THE ANABASIS OF XENOPIION.

to-the tbings-which-had-been-directerl, [in the prescribed order],

followed, and arrived at

-
the
^ first

,
station,

of-himself (were), about


to (where)

^ mid
Ariasus,

night;
and

'

and
the
crpanav

(when they arrived)


army


^^
"
naving-becn-placed in order (of battle) (under) arms, the

generals and
'.' captains of-the

'^-
'^..
Greeks

,, went-together

, ^'
to Aria;us; and not-only the Greeks but-also Ariseus,

OL
and the principal-men of — (those) with hira took-an-oath, not

\
to-betray one-another, but to-be-hereafter allies the

barbarians
^
indeed swore-in-addition also
-'^
to-lcad-thc-way

' ',
«5()).
vvithout-treachery.

,
(in sacrificing) (a)
',
And

bull,
thej'-swore

and
,
^,
these

wolf,
,^
(things),

and boar,
killing

and

ram,

dipping
^receiving the blood) in

(a)
^,
sword, and the
(a) shield,

barbarians
.' ol
the

(a)

lanc(!,
Greeks

(into the

blood).

6

AVhen indeed

Clearchus said

"
(these)

Come
hiq,
then,
,'
pledges-of-fidelity

, Aria?us,
had-*aken-place

since-then

7^
-
the

opinion
same route

(or plan)
is

you-have respecting
to-you and

the
to-us,

march
tell-us

.
what

wnether
(shall)
,
we-return,
BOOK II.

(by the same route)


— CHAPTER
vjvTtsp
which
II.

"^
we-came
117

yj
or

^
Soxelg
do-you-think to-have-thought-of (or devised) any other belter

oSov; S'
road ? — (He) — replied : Returning — (by the way) whi?h
?.^.
' imo

^^
we-came,

famine;

provisions;
for
'we would

'

for
8
there-is
'be

neither (during)
entirely

to-us now

the
'destroyed

ovSiv
no

^,
nearest
(supply) of
by


(or last)

^
^-^^.,
seventeen days'-march coming hither, |
we-having

to-take nothing from


TYJg
the
;^.
country [we could procure nothing

' h>^a,

-
Yiv
fiom the country]. But any-thing (that) was there, we

vvv
passing- through consumed-it. But now we

S'
think to-go



^. (a) longer (way), but 'we-shall

^
not 'want provisions. But it-is-to-be-marched
|

to-us [we must make the march] (on) the days'-marehes

-
first

the-longest that 'we can


8^.
'possibly-make-them, in-order thai

',
we-may-be-removed

^
my;
yap
for
yjv
if
the-farthest from-the

once we-be-distant
royal

(a)
68 5i'o
journey of-two

-
ar-

three

hvvTtTai
'be-able
daj's,

t«-overtake
(the)

.king

us.
'would

For
| no-mere

indeed 'with ^a)


not

' [not]

small
118 THE ANABASIS OF XENOPHON.

^. '
GTpaT6V[m,tL
unny

having (a) large


he-'will not

force
ov ?.;
he-'will not
'dare

ov ^ ^^to-pursue

'be-able
(us). Bui

to-march

^.
fast-enough;

.
'

necessaries-of-life.
6
and

", ,
xai
also

I-at-least,
'will probably 'experience-want

said-he, hold
^- this
rdv
of-(lie


opinion.

, But
avrCYi
this
[

>7/
plan-of-campaign was

- , cquivalent-to
^
-
nothing

,
Yj anoh^avai Si
else, than to-stealing-away or to-fleeing-opeulj'-away, but — fortune

conducted-the-army more-honourably.
?^. For when it-became
,^, day,

6,
they-marched-forth, having the sun on

Svvovtl '
the-right,

^ ^^'
expecting to-arrive at-the-saine-time 'with (the) 'setting sun

'

at (some) vUlage of-the Babylonian territory ; and (as respect?)

^'^.
this they-'were

] 6 indeed

about the-fore-part-of-the-afternoon they-thought


not 'deceived.

(that)
And

they-saw (the)
yet

enemy's

^(who) happened
cavalry;

,
'
, -,, ,)

not
'

being
and not-only

[who were not]


— (those) of-the

in the
^?^?.'
Greeks

ranks,

^
ran to the ranks, but-also AriaDus,
(/
(for he-bnppeiied

" SiOTi

6*
'to be)

eoming-down
proceeding

did-'put-on
in (a) \vagon, because he-had been-wouuded.)

(his) 'corselet, and-also


xal
— (those)
aiw
with
BOOK — CHAPTER 119

. -
II. II.

him (did the same).

^, , During (the time) in-which — they-werc-arm-

^
^ ,
OL rjxov
iiig-tnemselves the camo

.
scouts sent-out-before, saying,

oTt
chat
eluLv
they-were

might-be- pasturing.
not

Kai
And
horsemen,

all
^ but

immediately
,'
beasts-of-burden (that)

knew, that

(the)

really
xai
also
king

smoke
was-encamped

appeared
some-where

in (the) villages

ovx
near;

not
. xai
and

far

(distiint). But Clcarchus indeed 'did not 'lead (his forces)

against the

were

57^ |/•
xai
Loth
enemy

ov
fatigued
'
yap l8L
for he-knew

xai
and
'8 ,
(that) the

fasting;
8
and
xai
also
soldiers

it- was

now late; |
not however [yet however] he-'did not 'decline

,
(from his route),

to-flee, but
taking-care

^,
(that) 'he-might not

leading (the army) in-a-direct-line, (and) having


, Soxoiy;

-^
'seem

,
^
^
(or leading) (himself the foremost (or advance) he-encamped

,
)

,
at-the-time-of

villages,
the setting

from which was-taken-away

xai
sun,

luto
by
in

and
the

the

.
nearest

royal

troops even the wood-work from the houses.

Ovv

^
'I'liciefore

however in
indeed

Tivi
some
,
ol
the

order,
first

8
but
(or advance)

— (those) following
encamped

coming-up
.,
^
120 THE ANAUASrS OF

in-the-dark quartered-themselves as 'they severally 'cbancei

xal inoiovv

?,
''to find quarters), and they-made much

77^
noise railing

5
.o-one-another,

ix
from the

til
on-the
.,
so-that indeed the
ol ^^
-that

encampments.

following-day;
'
even

nearest

for
rovg
the

of-the

And
rovro
enemy

enemy

this

neither any-longer
m
became
xal
even
heard

'did
(it);

fled

hyj^Mv

^
apparent

no

.
|

6, ^
.
beasts-of-burden 'appear, [did any beasts of burden appear], or

,
camp, or smoke

,'
any-wliere near.

8(
And

.
as it-seemed, even (the) king was-alarmed at-the approach

8^?
of-the

by-\vhat he-did

, ,
(Grecian) army.

on-the following-day.
And

lIowe\'er
this


was-manifest

^/-
Tai;r>fc
this-same

night

xal % .
advancing, (a) panic

and
fell also on-the Greeks

-
^ ,
and there-was tumult noise like as (suddenj

fear falling-on (one) (causes) to-be. But Cle-

archus (ordered) Tolmides (the)


'^, Eleian,
ov
whom he-happened
|

Txap
having [whom he happened to have]

, with himself, (and who waa)

the-bost

he-ordered
, >7^^
>7herald

to-proclaim,
of — (those)

he-'having
then (existing),

(first)
this-one

Ordered
, (then)

silen(io,
on
that

,
OL
the generals
BOOK

-^
rov
,^
. — CHAPTER

publicly-aunounce,

give-information (respecting) the (one) having-let-loose the


III.

(that he}

ass
121

who might

among

.,
ra
the

of-silver.
arms,
ore

.
that

AVhen indeed
Ss

on
; ^,,
he-wuuld-reccivo (as)

this
reward

was-proclaimed,
(a)

ol
the
talen

arpa
sol-

,
6
dicrs

OL
knew, that — (their)

gCool.
fear was groundless,

^ and


?.
(that) the

Clearclius
generals (wore)

ordered
safe.

the
But

'>7^$ ^^
at-tlie-timc-of day-break

Greeks to-place-themsclves

ra^iv
— (under) arms in (the) order in-which they-had (themselves) when

71
the battle
.
was.

CHAPTER III

^ ^-, on ?'
8
But what already 'wrote,

^.
that (the) king vas-ahrmed

^'
at-the approacli (of the Greeks) Avas evident by-this (that follows).

tri /[((/
For indeed on-the preceding

,
day sending (to the

^
Greeks)

hc-(irdered

nt-ti)c-same-timo
(them)
napahihovaL ra

'with
to-give-up

.^,
(the)
— (their)

'rising

'
arms,

sun
^
but afterwards

he-sent

^
;f>;pu^ag enei
heralds about (a) truce. But — (those heralds), when

they-went to the _
outposts, inquired-for the
-
com.
11
,,,
.
122

manders.

reported-this,

Tag
THE ANABASIS OF XENOPHON.

When
Se
indeed the

Clearcbus,
ol ?. guards

happening

7< then
(at the Dutposts,

to-be-inspecting

the

',
When
heralds


-^
the troops-drawu-up-in-order, told

to-remain

he-had-arranged

beautifully to-be-seen
ro
the
the

till 'he

army
guards

might

(sides), (the)
?.
so-as

?.?.
to-requesi

'be-at-leisurc.

to-

phalans
have

",
(itself) on-all

hk •8 a07i?MV

»)? ,
(being) in-close- order, but not-one of-the unarmed (men)

appeared

8
he-himself

xai
and

to-be (there), he-called-for

7^?^^

the-handsomest

xal
advanced

of-the
having —
soldiers
the

the
.7.,
messengers,

best-armed

of-himself (there about

?
and

bim),

TaiVa.
same

'>7
^
and

he-demanded what

diej-came
(thing).

(as)
.
he-told

men
When
the

they-wished.
hk
indeed

respecting
other

^v
he-was near

— (They) indeed
(a)
^,
commanders

truce,
6
the

7^,replied,

(and)
(to do the)

messengers

that

who

ixavoi
would-be competent (and empowered) not-only to-announce —
"E7J,
(any communication)

xa)
3ut-also

But
5
— (those)

— (he, Clearchus,)
' ?<.
Ttapa
from
from (the)

the

replied
?^?^
'
king

Greeks
to-the

'to (the)

Announce
?..
Greeks,

'king.

thcrelore
— CHAPTER
',
to-iiim

ecnv , ^
(the king), that
BOOK II.

first

ovSe
Sel
III.

,•'
there-is-need 'of (a) 'batfle,

6
123

for

the.•* Is no breakfast (for us), nor (is there any one) who will-be-

fff/V

y .,
darlrg (enough) to-speak

not having-provided (them)


about (a)

breakfast.
truce

The
rolg
to-the

messengers
'',(,
• Greeks,

hear-

ing these (things) departed,

^ and soon camo

,* ,
oti
(back); and to- whom [Clearchus] it-was manifest that (the) king

yjv nov yi
was some-whero near, or some (persons) else, to-whom

on

"
^, ,
it-was-commanded to-transact

that (the things) they-reported seemed


these (affairs);

'to (the) 'king


they-said indeed

reasonable,
he

and

OTtovSal , ^
they-came (back) having guides,

,
,
who, if (the)

^,
truce should-take-place, would-conduct them to-wherothey-would-hare

76.
the necessaries-of-life.

a-truce-would-bc-made (only)

8
But

for-those
'he


^^
(Clearchus; "inquired,

men going-tc
if

and

also 'for (all) 'the


.
returning-from (the king), or

others.
yj
(if

But
)


^^
(tl'ey)
,
there-would-be (a)

said
truce

for-all,

.,
until

'king.
the (things)

When
Ttap
from

indeed they-said
you

;,these

.
may be-communicated

(things),
to (the)

having-dis

missed these (messengers), — Clearchus consulted initl•


124 ANABASIS OF XENOPIION.

his oEBcers).

TtOLEla^aL

ini -^,
And
',
was-to-bc-made speedily, and
iSoxEL

^
it-seemed (to them)

to-go not-only

7.6.
(that)

^'
at
rag
the

(thiir)
"
cnovSa^
trucb

leisure


after

hh
But
^^
the neccssaries-of-life, but-also to-take

Clearchus said :
'

| It-seems
[them as reauired].

indeed also-to-me
ravra
the-same

ov

?,
[I am of the same opinion] ; I-'will not however immediately indeed

'
^
Siarpi^lo ol
'announce (our determination), but will-delay until the

messengers might be-apprehensive (that) it-'might not


• 'seem

anovSag'
(proper) to-us

however certainly
,
to-have-made-for-ourselves

'think,
, the
the

same
truce *I

73,
said-he, (that) fear

rolg r^pog orpanaraig.


will-be-present,

When
8 ^
indeed he-thought
even

(it)

to-be
to-our-own

the-proper-time
7>^
soldiers.

he-aunounced

?^
(to the

^
messengers)
oTL
that

(them) to-conduct (them) immediately

ol
^ ^.
GTtEvSoLro,
he-would-make-the-truce,

npog
to

' ^,
and

the-provisions.
requested

And the (messengers then) indeed led-the-way; Clearchus

indeed however p'oceeded

,
about-making the — truce,

^.
' -^
but having the

brought-up-the-rear.
army

And
in order (of battle), and he-himself

thej'-rnet-with

^^
ditclics
aiVoc

and

fanals (so) full of-water as not to-be-able


hiaeaivFiv
to-cross

ings

be
end
xal
also
ix
out-of

. ^
rovg
of —
BOOK

(them) without

^ , the
avsv
II. — CHAPTER
bridges;

palm-trees which

(those) thej'-cut-down.
'
;but

had

Kai
And
III.

inoiovvto
they-made

li^aC^a
here
125

-
cross-

fallen-down,

^v
was

(an opportunity) to-observe Clearchus how he-exercised-command,

Sopv, 8
having indeed in — (his) left band the spear, but

8^ |537 xal

,, ^
\ — (hb) right (hand a) truncheon and if any-one

^^^/^

7^.
hoxoiYi
might-seem to-him of — (those) appointed to tbis (work)

to- loiter, selecting — (a) fit (person) 'he

av xal
would 'beat (him), and at-the-same-time he leaping

into the mud took-part (in the work); so-that

shame was to-all — not to-emulate (him in

expediting the work).

years (of age) were-appointed


Kal
And
OL
— (those)
— by
.?. -
being

him (for this


thirty

work)

8,
ing
8
after indeed also
xal
the older persons)

(the work), even the

K7Japo
xal ol 7.
^ ,
older-men
saw Clearchus hasten-

took-part

(in it). But — Clearchus hastened (the work) much more^


inspecting

^' ^
of- water;

11*
the

for it-
yjv
was
ditches

ov
to-be

not (the) season


not always

proper
so

^
to-water
fuU

'he
126 THE ANABASIS OF XENOPHON.

'
TteSiov
ground

TO
the
vSop
water

^
but

STtl
on
vTtOTtrsve
suspected

TO nehiov
the plain
(that the)

by-rcason-of
,
'
king

this,
had-sent-ou*

^Sy}
that already

.
many diflSculties might-appear
tolg
to-the Greeks

,^
in the

^"^
march.

7topvvoL•
And proceeding they-arrived at (the) villages, from-which

OL inirri•

,
,
the guides signified (to them) to-take the provi-

8. much

,
sions. There-was-in (these villages) indeed corn, and

'^
.
wine

them.
of-date-palms,

But the
and (an) acid-wine

avrai

8
same dates
cooked

of-tho

^
from

palms,

such-as

are-put-hy
,
87 ^ ,
indeed are

for-the
|
to-see [to be seen] in

servants, but
at


(those)
Greece

put-away

for-the

^.
, masters were choice-ones, admirable

-
for —

^their)

differed

some
beauty

nothing

(of these)

^v xai
^,.and

ri^v

from-amber.

they-'put
size,

And
and

)^>7^.
(them) 'up for-sweetmeats.
— (their)

drying
appearance


And

'^
(they) were also pleasant indeed with drink, but causing-headache

Here

brainb
also

of-the
the

,palm-tree,
soldiers

[the
first eat

cabbage of the palm-tree], and


j
the
BOOK . — CHAPTER ill. 127

01
tlie multitude
3^(
were-astonished not-only — 'at (its)
^
'appearance but-alsu

triv ^^'• Kat vjv

^

l,t-the peculiarity

?.. 'of (its) sweetness. And

6
this

^
also was

^ , .
exceedingly (apt at) causing-headache. But the palm-tree whence

6 ^

the cabbage may-bave-been-taken, withered entirely.

'
xai

,
Here they-remained three days ; and Tissaphemes

>
came
Ttapa
from (the) great king,
xai 6
and the brother

, ?3.
of-the

Persians,
wife

and
'of (the)

many
'king,

slaves
xai
and

attended.
(also) three

,
After indeed the
other

generals

Tissaphemes

/, ^i7^Xr^v ,?
of-the

spoke
Greeks

first
Sl
went-to-meet

through (an) interpreter


*
,
them,

thus


,
xai ^^
Grecian men, dwell neighbouring Greece,

,
and when I-saiv you having-fallen into many

^^
xai df/>7;^aj^a,
evils, and inextricably-great (difficulties), [ I-made-it-for-myself

>7^
a-piece-of-good-luck [I considered it a most fortunate affair for mej

.
if I-'were in-any-manner 'able to-entreat (and obtain)

Ttapa hovvai
from (the) king

\
to-have-given me (permission) to-save

you

l(that)
(and restore you)

"it would
ovx
not
to

'have
;^ —
(itself)
Greece,

ungrateful
For I-think

to-me [that there


128 THE ANABASIS OF XEXOPIION.

will

.
be no want of gratitude towards me] either
ovre Ttpog
from
•,
^, you, oi

,-

^
/rom all Greece. And knowing these (things)

i-madc-my-requcst 'to (the)


?^, 'king,
?.(
saying to-hiui, that

av
might
Sixaicdg ,me,
re

7^
'he justly 'gratify (as) that not-only first

aiVcj Ki3po;^
'announced to-him (that) Cyrus was-marehing-against (him),

xai -yv

^,
but-also I-came at-the-samc-time Avith-the message having

assistance (in auxiliary troops), and

"^^^
alone of — (those)

, having-

but

king
^,
been-drawn-up against

charged

in —
the

your-own
,
Greeks

(through their ranks), and


xai
'did

camp,
not

joined

'^,
^
'flee,

(the)

whither (the)

xai
king


came after he-had-killed Cyrus,

8 and

I-piirsued (those) barbarians with

,
Cyrus with these,

(namely) these

. now present with us, who are

^^ ,
the-most faithful to-him.
Kat
And indeed 'he [the king]

?. 'promised

^.3 ^^
hk
me to-deliberate about these (affairs), and commanded

mc having-gone to-ask you by-reason of-That you-took-the-field

,
in
against

moderately,
him.

that
And

it-may-be
I-counsel

easier
you

,
for-me,
to-reply

if
6 5^3
I-am-able
BOOK

to-effect
II. —CHAPTER

Tt
til.

any-thing good (or advantageous) for-you


129

Ttap'
ivith

, At
avTov.
bim.

this
ol
the
°?.?.
Greeks withdrawing
• delibe-

' ^
'
K?Japxog 6'

?^
rated,

?.'
and

'. We
'gave (their) 'answer; Clearchus indeed

spoke

* (for them) : neither assembled-together for-the-purpose-of

'
,
hereafter-iiiakiug-war 'against (the) 'king nor did-ve-set-out

?.,
inl
against (the) king, but Cyrus invented many

^,
? 77,
pretexts, and as you well know, that not-only

,^ ^^.
us

Deing

rat
^
he-might-take

^ ^ ^
thither.

in
you

danger
",^
Now
unprepared,

however

we-were-made-to-be-ashamed

TtpoSoinuL
when
but-also

we-saw

both (before) gods


lead

him

^
men
and

'^ to-have-betrayed him, we-allowing (him)

,.
the former time |
to-do

^,
well 'to [to confer faTonrs

^
hk
on] 'us ourselves. Since indeed Cjtus is-dead, 'we

; pij,

,
neither 'contend 'with (the) 'king for-the kingdom,

is-there (any thing) on-account-of which 'we might 'desire

to-do

trould
^?,
harm

we-wish
(to)
rrjv
the country

to-kill
,
'of (the)

him,
'king,

h'
but
ovS'
noi

we would
^ ^
130 THE ANABASIS OF XENOPHON.

dixaSe, tig - '


^
'proceed

'those

the

xal
however

gods
homeward,

ahixovvra
'injuring

to-avenge

doing
if

good
'
an j'- one 'would not

(us) we-wil-endeavour

(ourselves on);

ri^a$,
if

rovrov
'mo