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ISSN(Online) : 2320-9801

ISSN (Print) : 2320-9798

International Journal of Innovative Research in Computer and Communication Engineering


An ISO 3297: 2007 Certified Organization Vol.5, Special Issue 4, June 2017

2nd National Conference on Recent Advances in Engineering and Technology (NCRAET_2017)


Organized by
Dept. of ECE, Basavakalyan Engineering College, Basavakalyan-585327, Dist. Bidar, Karnataka, India

Design Specification for Efficient Solar Mobile


Charger
Jyoti. B, Chamundeshwari
th
8 SEM Student, Dept. of ECE, Basavakalyan Engineering College, Basavakalyan. Dist: Bidar, Karnataka, India
Asst. Professor, Dept. of ECE, Basavakalyan Engineering College, Basavakalyan. Dist: Bidar, Karnataka, India

ABSTRACT: It works on the principle that when light falls on the solar cell, electrons –holes pairs are created in the
n-type emitter and in the p-type base. The generated electrons (from the base) and holes (from the emitter) then diffuse
to the junction and are swept away by the electric field, thus producing. Certain modules are selected and worked out to
suitable specifications.The development of solar charger goes from the fundamental level like soldering lamination and
making the panel etc. The developed charger is planned for 6 Volts with ma capacity at bright sunlight and step down
to 5Volts using regulator.

I. INTRODUCTION

Solar energy is the energy produced directly by the sun and collected elsewhere, normally the Earth. The sun
creates its energy through a thermonuclear process. The process creates heat and electromagnetic radiation. Only a very
small fraction of the total radiation produced reaches the Earth. The radiation that does reaches the Earth is the indirect
source of nearly every type of energy used today. The radiation that does reach the Earth is the indirect source of nearly
every type of energy used today. The exceptions are geothermal energy, and nuclear fission and fusion. Even fossil
fuels owe their origins to the sun; they were once living plants and animals whose life was dependent upon the
sun.Much of the world's required energy can be supplied directly by solar power. More still can be provided indirectly.
The practicality of doing so will be examined, as well as the benefits and drawbacks. In addition, the uses solar energy
is currently applied to will be noted.
Though the years, technology has allowed the cellular phone to shrink not only the size of the ICs, but also the
batteries. However, as technology has advanced and made our phone smaller and easier to use we still have one of the
original problem that we must plug the phones into the walls in order to recharge the battery. Most people accept the
reality as there is no other option to this problem so they carry extra batteries with them. Every time it is not possible to
charge mobile batteries everywhere at any time so we design this mobile charger from which we can charge the mobile
battery anywhere at any time. In this project we are using the concept of energy harvesting by using solar energy for
battery charging purpose. By using this we can charge our mobile battery in remote areas where there is a problem of
electricity. Cost of this circuitry can be reduced to certain extend so that common man can easily purchase that and get
benefit from that.

II. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND

2.1 How are Solar Panels Made


Solar energy has long been grabbing attention of the scientists and researchers as true alternate solution to
fossil fuel energy. Noticing the enormous abundance of sunlight available to us as a blessing from our sun, it is not
unusual to wish to tap this energy which has been there since the beginning of time and use it drive our engines and
homes. However the solar energy even though it is available in abundance, the efforts to use this energy and transfer it
into a usable form and drives our day to day appliances has been in vain. That is why solar energy has not become our
prime source of our energy requirements. We are either relying on hydroelectric power which in turn causes
environmental disaster or we burn coal or use nuclear energy to generate electricity. The main reason why we are not
able to use the solar energy is our solar panels are not able to tap more than 20% of its energy. This results in huge

Copyright @ IJIRCCE www.ijircce.com 387


ISSN(Online) : 2320-9801
ISSN (Print) : 2320-9798

International Journal of Innovative Research in Computer and Communication Engineering


An ISO 3297: 2007 Certified Organization Vol.5, Special Issue 4, June 2017

2nd National Conference on Recent Advances in Engineering and Technology (NCRAET_2017)


Organized by
Dept. of ECE, Basavakalyan Engineering College, Basavakalyan-585327, Dist. Bidar, Karnataka, India

investment cost but low return of investment. This makes the investment in solar energy unattractive and therefore is
becoming less and less popular. However researchers all round the world have been able to develop solar panels that
will tap this solar energy more efficiently. In order to understand how this is possible we need to understand how solar
panels are made. There are two basic types of solar panels, first is the crystalline solar panels made of crystalline silicon
and other is amorphous silicon panel which is made from amorphous silicon.
The amorphous silicon solar panels are made quite differently. The manufacturing process of amorphous
silicon panels involves depositing silicon alloys in various layers. The solar cells made by this process are far more
efficient and are capable of absorbing a wider range of solar spectrum. This type of panel manufacturing is now
becoming very popular and is fast growing into an industry. The material cost of such solar panel is also cheap. The
solar cells made from with this process have special ability to continue giving the same output even when the entire
array of cells has come under shade. This prevents the circuit from being breaking and thus maintains the same energy
output.
2.2 Solar Energy Compared to Other Alternative Energy Sources
We have to switch to clean an energy source, which is for sure after realizing the consequences of using the
fossil fuels and destroying the environment. The big question is how? Millions around the world depend on the vast
energy reserves available deep down the earth. The reserves are depleting and will dry out soon. On the other hand the
demand and the consumption rate are not going down. This is why we have to find out an energy source which will not
only be free of pollution and eco friendly but also be able to produce enough energy to power our needs? So the
question is whether there exist and energy source that can meet our needs or not. Let us discuss three alternative energy
solutions that are available and find out whether that can be the one or not. These changes in the temperature and
pressure occur due to the difference in the amounts of heat energy received by different areas from the sun depending
on the earth’s rotation. This energy in the form of wind can be converted into electrical or chemical energy, stored in
the batteries. The devices used to tap this wind energy are windmills, as the wind blows the rotational energy of
turbines is converted into electrical energy by generators. The process is clean, eco friendly and also renewable. One
wind mill can produce enough energy to power a house. However the electrical energy that is produced from the
turbines is not enough compared to the energy produced from the fossil fuels. The disadvantage is that it is costly and
not completely renewable; therefore a better way needs to be discovered to produce energy completely clean and eco
friendly. As the wind does not blow at a constant speed and there is no certainty about the wind direction and therefore
the output is not efficient as it should be. Also, the wind mills subjected to a severe damage when struck by heavy rains
and lightning storms can be subjected to heavy damage. The second is the biomass.
Biomass is a true renewable source of energy. This is because the substance used to produce energy is the
excretal waste and remains of plants and animals, also human waste. Basically any organic material can produce bio
energy. This therefore includes agricultural wastes, organic wastes, waste paper and waste from the food processing
industries. Since this type of waste keeps getting produced everyday and in tons, there is no chance that the biomass
energy such as bio fuel can get exhausted. The cons are similar to the wind power, very expensive therefore not enough
energy output. Apart from these constraints, a bi product is created nitrogen oxide which is not good for the atmosphere
if produced in large amounts.

III. PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL

The term "photovoltaic" comes from the Greek (photo) means "light", and "voltaic", means electric ,from the
name of the Italian physicist “VOLTA "after whom a unit of electro-motive force, the volt is named.The sun is a star
made up of hydrogen and helium gas and it radiates an enormous amount of energy every second. A photovoltaic cell is
an electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by photovoltaic effect.
Photovoltaics is the field of technology and research related to the practical application of photovoltaic cells
in producing electricity from light, though it is often used specifically to refer to the generation of electricity from
sunlight. Cells can be described as photovoltaic even when the light source is not necessarily sunlight (lamplight,
artificial light, etc.). In such cases the cell is sometimes used as a photodetector (for example infrared detectors,
detecting light or other electromagnetic radiation near the visible range, or measuring light intensity.

Copyright @ IJIRCCE www.ijircce.com 380


ISSN(Online) : 2320-9801
ISSN (Print) : 2320-9798

International Journal of Innovative Research in Computer and Communication Engineering


An ISO 3297: 2007 Certified Organization Vol.5, Special Issue 4, June 2017

2nd National Conference on Recent Advances in Engineering and Technology (NCRAET_2017)


Organized by
Dept. of ECE, Basavakalyan Engineering College, Basavakalyan-585327, Dist. Bidar, Karnataka, India

3.1 PRINCIPLE OF PV CELL


Solar cell works on the principle of photovoltaic effect. Sunlight is composed of photons, or "packets “of
energy. These photons contain various amounts of energy corresponding to the different wavelengths of light. When
photons strike a solar cell, they may be reflected or absorbed. When a photon is absorbed, the energy of the photon is
transferred to an electron in an atom of the cell (which is actually a semiconductor). With its new found energy, the
electron is able to escape from its normal position associated with that atom to become part of the current in an electric.
The operation of a photovoltaic (PV) cell requires 3 basic attributes:
 The absorption of light, generating either electron-hole pairs or excitons.
 The separation of charge carriers of opposite types.
 The separate extraction of those carriers to an external circuit.

Fig: Solar panel Diagram

IV. FRAME WORK OF SOLAR MOBILE CHARGER

4.1 Proposed Work


Fig 4.1.shows block diagram & overview of the Seminar. There are three main input sources like AC input,
input from solar panel and last one is storage battery. Here we are using PIC microcontroller 16F877A. There is a LCD
display which shows all information related to battery. A buck converter was chosen because of its simplicity,
efficiency and low heat Dissipation .The PIC microcontroller controls the buck converter through the use of hardware
PWM Module and an external current sense resistor. The hardware PWM and current sense resistor feedback are
significant in providing an accurate and repeatable charge methodology

Copyright @ IJIRCCE www.ijircce.com 381


ISSN(Online) : 2320-9801
ISSN (Print) : 2320-9798

International Journal of Innovative Research in Computer and Communication Engineering


An ISO 3297: 2007 Certified Organization Vol.5, Special Issue 4, June 2017

2nd National Conference on Recent Advances in Engineering and Technology (NCRAET_2017)


Organized by
Dept. of ECE, Basavakalyan Engineering College, Basavakalyan-585327, Dist. Bidar, Karnataka, India

Fig 4.1: Block diagram


4.2 Source selection

Fig: Source Selection

Source selection is the main part of this Seminar. There are three main input sources like input from solar
panel, input from AC and last one is input from storage battery. In above figure diode D5 and diode D8 are act as
protection diode. Diode D1, D2, D3 and D4 are act as bridge rectifier and used for the rectification of AC input voltage.

4.3 Voltage Regulator


Here in both 7809 and 7805 capacitors are used for to remove the ripples and act as filter capacitor.( To
remove AC components) . ICs regulator is mainly used in the circuit to maintain the exact voltage which is followed by
the power supply. A regulator is mainly employed with the capacitor connected in parallel to the input terminal and the
output terminal of the IC regulator. For the checking of gigantic alterations in the input as well as in the output filter,
capacitors are used. While the bypass capacitors are used to check the small period spikes on the input and output level.
Bypass capacitors are mainly of small values that are used to bypass the small period pulses straightly into the Earth.

4.4 PIC Microcontroller 16F877A


Here we are using PIC 16F877A.Battery type is selected by switch, PIC tells charging chip which battery has
been selected. The PIC microcontroller controls the buck converter through the use of hardware PWM Module and an

Copyright @ IJIRCCE www.ijircce.com 382


ISSN(Online) : 2320-9801
ISSN (Print) : 2320-9798

International Journal of Innovative Research in Computer and Communication Engineering


An ISO 3297: 2007 Certified Organization Vol.5, Special Issue 4, June 2017

2nd National Conference on Recent Advances in Engineering and Technology (NCRAET_2017)


Organized by
Dept. of ECE, Basavakalyan Engineering College, Basavakalyan-585327, Dist. Bidar, Karnataka, India

external current sense resistor. The hardware PWM and current sense resistor feedback are significant in providing an
accurate and repeatable charge methodology.

Fig 4.4: Pin out diagram of PIC 16F877A


4.5 Filter
The filter circuit is an optional and intended to provide additional ripple suppression at the buck Converter
output stage. The output of buck converter is applied to filter and the output of filter is applied to charge discharge
control circuit.

V. OVERVOLTAGE PROTECTION WITH AUTO CUT-OFF

Fig 5.1: Overvoltage protection with auto cut-off block diagram

Over voltage protection circuit includes charge discharge control unit, battery, and PIC microcontroller for the
battery status sense. The PIC performs battery voltage readings during the rest period of the charge cycle, this status
information reading is used to protect the battery from overcharging. By using over voltage protection circuit we can
protect our battery from over charge. Charge discharge control circuit contains two-way Switch. It gets active when
voltage exceeds above threshold voltage level. By using this unit we can apply proper battery voltage to our cell phone
battery.

Copyright @ IJIRCCE www.ijircce.com 383


ISSN(Online) : 2320-9801
ISSN (Print) : 2320-9798

International Journal of Innovative Research in Computer and Communication Engineering


An ISO 3297: 2007 Certified Organization Vol.5, Special Issue 4, June 2017

2nd National Conference on Recent Advances in Engineering and Technology (NCRAET_2017)


Organized by
Dept. of ECE, Basavakalyan Engineering College, Basavakalyan-585327, Dist. Bidar, Karnataka, India

VI. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

The photons attacking the solar cells are absorbed by any semiconducting material such as silicon.The energy of the
absorbed photon is transferred to the electron. This energy knocks off the electrons from the atoms.The electrons thus
convert solar energy into electrical energy.The output from the solar panels is now sent to a voltage regulator
IC7805.The voltage regulator ensures that final output voltage doesn’t exceed 5V.Thus a constant voltage is supplied
& the mobile gets charged.

VII. FEATURES

Versatile & effective solar concentrate or numerous available heat sources


 Charges standard capacity nickel metal hydride cell(NIMH) in 4-8 hrs
 Output constant rate of charging current
 Intelligent battery charging
 Some models of cell phones have built in solar charger and are commercially available for GSM cell phone
models
 Solar phone charger comes in different shapes

VIII. APPLICATIONS

 For low-power portable electronics, like calculators or small fans, a photovoltaic array may be a
reasonable energy source rather than a battery.
 In other situations, such as solar battery chargers, watches, and flashlights, the photovoltaic array is used
to generate electricity.
 Solar chargers can charge lead acid or Ni-Cd battery bank up to 48 V and hundreds of ampere-hours (up to
400 Ah) capacity.
 Most portable chargers can obtain energy from the sun only. Portable knob's are also sold. Some,
including the Kinesis K3, can work either way. Examples of solar chargers in popular use include:
 Small portable models designed to charge a range of different mobile phones, cell phones, iPods or other
portable audio equipment.
 Fold out models designed to sit on the dashboard of an automobile and plug into the cigar lighter, to keep
the battery topped up whilst not in use.
 Torches often combined with a secondary means of charging, such as a kinetic charging system.

IX. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

ADVANTAGES

o Solar energy is a renewable energy sources. We get solar energy directly from resources i.e. from sun. The
solar charger power source comes from the solar energy which is an reliable alternative.

Copyright @ IJIRCCE www.ijircce.com 384


ISSN(Online) : 2320-9801
ISSN (Print) : 2320-9798

International Journal of Innovative Research in Computer and Communication Engineering


An ISO 3297: 2007 Certified Organization Vol.5, Special Issue 4, June 2017

2nd National Conference on Recent Advances in Engineering and Technology (NCRAET_2017)


Organized by
Dept. of ECE, Basavakalyan Engineering College, Basavakalyan-585327, Dist. Bidar, Karnataka, India

o Solar energy comes in free of charge. The energy from the sun is free. The source of energy is practically free
because we get sunlight directly from sun.
o Solar cells panel on the solar charger does not require much maintenance. As, the solar cells panel is very
reliable as it can last longer than other Source of energy.

DISADVANTAGES

 Solar charger needs light to work.

 The efficiency of the photo-voltaic panels has increased greatly over the last decade or so, reaching the point
where they do not need direct sunlight to work but will now create a satisfactory current even under overcast
conditions.

 Charging a device by solar charger is much slower than the main charger.

X. LIMITATIONS

o Quite expensive: One of the most important drawbacks is its price compared to the ordinary mobile phone
chargers, it is quite expensive as it utilizes solar energy captivators.
o Charging time large: Another significant drawback is the time frame required by the chargers to charge mobile
phones. It can take six to eight hours to charge mobile phones compared to the other.

XI. CONCLUSION

To make sure we have plenty of energy in the future, it's up to all of us to use energy wisely. We must all
conserve energy and use it efficiently. It's also up to those who will create the new energy technologies of the future.
All energy sources have an impact on the environment. Concerns about the greenhouse effect and global warming,
air pollution, and energy security have led to increasing interest and more development in renewable energy sources
such as solar, wind,geothermal, wave power and hydrogen In solar mobile charger ripples will not be there as we use
DC power directly to charge the mobile. Battery life is more as high voltages are not developed. Versatility of Solar
mobile charger is high. Life of the battery will be high as we use solar mobile charger. Adaptability is high.
Renewable energy is not a new concept,neverthless at an exponential growing population, the development and
improvement of them are essential

XII. FUTURE SCOPE

Solar energy can only be harnessed when it is daytime and sunny. To overcome this, solar panels can be
coupled with back-up battery which can store the excess power generated during the day and use it to provide energy to
system in the absence of sunlight. The Lead-acid battery used in the design is large in size and heavy in weight which
makes the device non-portable. Hence a battery of pocket size and optimal weight may be designed to make the device
portable . The large size of the solar panel makes the device bulky and non-portable. The solar panel should be
fabricated to cover the entire device, which can effectively reduce the size of the entire device.

REFERENCES

[1]KalyaniU.chafle,B.M.Faruk,R.S.Shrivas,N.S.Sawarkar Research scholar,Department of Electronics and telecommunication Engg,Jawahaharlal


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Copyright @ IJIRCCE www.ijircce.com 385


ISSN(Online) : 2320-9801
ISSN (Print) : 2320-9798

International Journal of Innovative Research in Computer and Communication Engineering


An ISO 3297: 2007 Certified Organization Vol.5, Special Issue 4, June 2017

2nd National Conference on Recent Advances in Engineering and Technology (NCRAET_2017)


Organized by
Dept. of ECE, Basavakalyan Engineering College, Basavakalyan-585327, Dist. Bidar, Karnataka, India

[4] An Energy -aware survey on Mobile-phone chargers,P.8.Bonner,J.(2012),portable solar panel charging station,p.31.
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